spacer title-a Functional Morphology and Biomechanics Laboratory
Video Library
Current Lab Members
Brainerd, E.L.
Camp, A.L.
Dial, T.R.
Harper, C.J.
Moritz, S.
Stover, K.K.

Former Lab Members
Azizi, E.
Bennett, W.O.
Dawson, M.M.
Druzisky, K.A.
Gidmark, N.J.
Hoogendyk, T.A.
Horton, J.M.
Kley, N.J.
Landberg, T.
Levine, R.P.
Mailhot, J.
Monroy, J.A.
Nowroozi, B.N.
O'Reilly, J.C.
Simons, R.S.
Slutz, S.S.
Summers, A.P.
Ward, A.B.


You may use this page to access publications from the Brainerd lab. Use the check boxes next to each author name to add or remove a particular author's publications to or from the publications list below. The list is sorted in reverse-chronological order and by author name.



Nowroozi, B., and Brainerd, E. L. (2012). Regional variation in the mechanical properties of the vertebral column during lateral bending in Morone saxatilis. J. R. Soc. Interface doi:10.1098/rsif.2012.0153.

Gidmark, N. J., Staab, K. L., Hernendez, L. P., and Brainerd, E. L. In Press. Flexibility in starting posture drives flexibility in kinematic behavior of the kinethmoid-mediated premaxillary protrusion mechanism in a cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio. Journal of Experimental Biology.

Cundall, D., Brainerd, E. L., Constantino, J., Deufel, A., Grapski, D., Kley, N. J. (2012). Drinking in snakes: resolving a biomechanical puzzle. Journal of Experimental Zoology 317, 152-172.

Nowroozi, B., Harper, C. J., De Kegel, B., Adriaens, D., and Brainerd, E. L. (2012). Regional variation in morphology of vertebral centra and intervertebral joints in striped bass, Morone saxatilis. Journal of Morphology 273, 441-452.

Camp, A. L., Ryer, C. H., Laurel, B., and Seals, K. (2011). Effect of nursery habitat on density-dependent habitat selection in juvenile flatfish. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 404, 15-20.

Dawson, M. M., Metzger, K. A., Baier, D. B. and Brainerd, E. L. (2011). Kinematics of the quadrate bone during feeding in Mallard ducks. Journal of Experimental Biology 214, 2036-2046.

Gidmark, N. J., Strother, J. A., Horton, J. M., Summers, A. P. and Brainerd, E. L. (2011). Locomotory transition from water to sand and its effects on undulatory kinematics in sand lances (Ammodytidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 214, 657-664.

Laulicht, B., Gidmark, N. J., Tripathi, A., and Mathiowitz, E. (2011). Localized drug delivery from magnetic pills. PNAS 108(6), 2252-2257.

Miranda, D. L., Schwartz, J. B., Loomis, A. C., Brainerd, E. L., Fleming, B. C., and Crisco, J. J. (2011). Static and Dynamic Error of a Biplanar Videoradiography System Using Marker-Based and Markerless Tracking Techniques. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 133(12):121002, 1-8.

Brainerd, E. L., Baier, D. B., Gatesy, S. M., Hedrick, T. L., Metzger, K. A., Gilbert, S. L. and Crisco, J. J. (2010). X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM): precision, accuracy and applications in comparative biomechanics research. Journal of Experimental Zoology 313A, 262-279.

Miranda, D. L., Brainerd, E. L., Fleming, B. C. and Crisco, J. J. (2010). Accuracy and precision of 3-D skeletal motion capture technology. Transactions of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society. Paper 334.

Simons, A. M., and Gidmark, N. J. (2010). Systematics and Phylogentic Relationships of Cypriniformes. In Gonorynchiformes and Ostariophysan Relationships: A Comprehensive Review, (ed. T. Grande), Scientific Publishers Press.

Stover, K. K., and Williams, S. H. (2010). Intraspecific scaling of chewing cycle duration in three species of domestic ungulates. Journal of Experimental Biology 214, 104-122.

Williams, S. H., Sidote, J. and Stover, K. K. (2010). Occlusal Development and Masseter Activity in Alpacas (Lama pacos). Anat Rec 293, 126-134.

Williams, S. H., Stover, K. K., Davis, J. S., and Montuelle S. J. (2010). Mandibular corpus bone strains during mastication in goats (Capra hircus): A comparison of ingestive and rumination chewing. Archives of Oral Biology 56(10), 960-971.

Camp, A. L., Konow, N., and Sanford, C. P. J. (2009). Functional morphology and biomechanics of the tongue-bite apparatus in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Journal of Anatomy 214, 717-728.

Landberg, T., Mailhot, J. D. and Brainerd, E. L. (2009). Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a semi-aquatic turtle, Trachemys scripta. Journal of Experimental Zoology 311A, 551-562.

Nowroozi, B., Strother, J. A., Horton, J. M., Summers, A. P. and Brainerd, E. L. (2009). Whole-body lift and ground effect during pectoral fin locomotion in the northern spearnose poacher (Agonopsis vulsa). Zoology 112(5), 393-402.

Azizi, E. Brainerd, E. L. and Roberts T. J. (2008). Variable gearing in pennate muscles. PNAS 105A, 1745-1750.

Keefe, D. M., O'Brien, T. M., Baier, D. B., Gatesy, S. M., Brainerd, E. L., and Laidlaw, D. H. (2008). Exploratory Visualization of Animal Kinematics Using Instantaneous Helical Axes. Computer Graphics Forum 27(3), 863-870.

Konow, N., Camp, A. L., and Sanford, C. P. J. (2008). Congruence between muscle activity and kinematics in a convergently derived prey-processing behavior. Integrative and Comparative Biology 48, 246-260.

Miranda, D. L., Rainbow, M. J., Brainerd, E. L., and Fleming, B. C. (2008). Tracking 3D kinematics of healthy and ACL-transected goat knee joints in vivo: a preliminary study. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 170-171.

Azizi, E. and Brainerd, E. L. (2007). Architectural gear ratio and muscle fiber strain homogeneity in segmented musculature. Journal of Experimental Zoology 307A, 145-155.

Ward, A. B. and Brainerd, E. L. (2007). Evolution of axial patterning in elongate fishes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 90, 97-116.

Brainerd, E. L. and Owerkowicz, T. (2006). Functional morphology and evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 154, 73-78.

Brainerd, E. L. and Hale, M. E. (2006). In vivo and functional imaging in developmental physiology. In Comparative Developmental Physiology, (eds. S. Warburton and W. Burggren), pp. 21-40. Oxford University Press. Full-text available.

Brainerd, E. L. and Ferry-Graham, L. A. (2006). Biomechanics of respiratory pumps. In Fish Biomechanics, (eds. R. Shadwick and G. V. Lauder), pp. 1-28. Academic Press. Full-text available.

Dial, K. P., Randall, R. J., and Dial, T. R. (2006). What use is half a wing in the ecology and evolution of birds? BioScience 56, 437-445.

Brainerd, E. L. and Azizi, E. (2005). Muscle fiber angle, segment bulging and architectural gear ratio in segmented musculature. Journal of Experimental Biology 208, 3249-3261.

Azizi, E. and Horton, J. M. (2004). Patterns of axial and appendicular movements during aquatic walking in the salamander Siren lacertina. Zoology 107, 111-120.

Jackson, K. Kley, N. J. and Brainerd, E. L. (2004). How snakes eat snakes: the biomechanical challenges of ophiophagy for the California kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula californiae (Serpentes: Colubridae). Zoology 107, 191-200.

Levine, R. P. Monroy, J. A. and Brainerd, E. L. (2004). Contribution of eye retraction to swallowing performance in the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Journal of Experimental Biology 207, 1361-1368.

Ultsch, G. R. Brainerd, E. L. and Jackson, D. C. (2004). Lung collapse in aquatic reptiles and amphibians during long-term diving. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, part A 139, 111-115. Full-text available (PDF,272KB).

Ward, A. B. and Azizi, E. (2004). Convergent evolution of the head retraction escape response in elongate fishes and amphibians. Zoology 107, 205-217. Full-text available (PDF,700KB).

Landberg, T. Mailhot, J. and Brainerd, E. L. (2003). Lung ventilation during treadmill locomotion in a terrestrial turtle, Terrapene carolina. Journal of Experimental Biology 206, 3391-3404. Full-text available (PDF,500KB).

Azizi, E. Gillis, G. B. and Brainerd, E. L. (2002). Morphology and mechanics of myosepta in a swimming salamander (Siren lacertina). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 133, 967-978. Full-text available (PDF,1.4MB).

Azizi, E. and Landberg, T. (2002). Effects of metamorphosis on the aquatic escape response of the two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata). J. Exp. Biol. 205, 841-849. Full-text available (PDF,172KB).

Brainerd, E. L. (2002). Physiology: Respiration. In Encyclopedia of Paleontology, (ed. R. Singer), pp. 1019-1021. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn.

Kley, N. J. and Brainerd, E. L. (2002). Post-cranial prey transport mechanisms in the black pinesnake, Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi: an x-ray videographic study. Zoology 105, 153-164. Full-text available (PDF,403KB).

McHenry, M. J. Azizi, E. and Strother, J. A. (2002). The hydrodynamics of locomotion at intermediate Reynolds numbers: undulatory swimming in ascidian larvae (Botrylloides sp.). Journal of Experimental Biology 206, 327-343. Full-text available (PDF,741KB).

Ward, A. B. Weigl, P. D. and Conroy, R. M. (2002). Functional Morphology of Raptor Hindlimbs: Implications for Resource Partitioning. The Auk 119, 1052-1063. Full-text available (PDF,256KB).

Bennett, W. O. Simons, R. S. and Brainerd, E. L. (2001). Twisting and bending: the functional role of salamander lateral hypaxial musculature during locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 204, 1979-1989. Full-text available (PDF,740KB).

Brainerd, E. L. (2001). News and Views: Caught in the Crossflow. Nature 412, 387-388. Full-text available (PDF,316KB).

Brainerd, E. L. Slutz, S. S. Hall, E. K. and Phillis, R. W. (2001). Patterns of genome size evolution in tetraodontiform fishes. Evolution 55, 2363-2368. Full-text available (PDF,80KB).

Druzisky, K. A. and Brainerd, E. L. (2001). Buccal oscillation and lung ventilation in a semi-aquatic turtle, Platysternon megacephalum. Zoology 104, 143-152. Full-text available (PDF,308KB).

Federle, W. Brainerd, E. L. McMahon, T. A. and Hölldobler, B. (2001). Biomechanics of the movable pretarsal adhesive organ in ants and bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, 6215-6220. Full-text available (PDF,1MB).

Kley, N. J. (2001). Prey transport mechanisms in blindsnakes and the evolution of unilateral feeding systems in snakes. American Zoologist 41, 1321-1337. Full-text available (PDF,947KB).

Owerkowicz, T. Brainerd, E. L. and Carrier, D. R. (2001). Electromyographic pattern of the gular pump in monitor lizards. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 156, 237-248.

Summers, A. P. and Ferry-Graham, L. A. (2001). Ventilatory modes and mechanics of the hedgehog skate (Leucoraja erinacea): testing the continuous flow model. Journal of Experimental Biology 204, 1577-1587.

Young, B. Jaggers, J. Nejman, N. and Kley, N. J. (2001). Buccal expansion during hissing in the puff adder, Bitis arietans. Copeia 2000, 270-273. Full-text available (PDF,55KB).

Brainerd, E. L. and Simons, R. S. (2000). Morphology and function of the lateral hypaxial musculature in salamanders. Amer. Zool. 40, 77-86. Full-text available (PDF,132KB).

Kley, N. J. (2000). Review of: Maine Amphibians and Reptiles, edited by M.L. Hunter Jr. A.J.K. Calhoun, and M. McCollough. Herpetological Review 31, 270-271. Full-text available (PDF,533KB).

O'Reilly, J. C. Summers, A. P. and Ritter, D. A. (2000). The evolution of the functional role of trunk muscles during locomotion in adult amphibians. American Zoologist 40, 123-135.

Simons, R. S. Bennett, W. O. and Brainerd, E. L. (2000). Mechanics of lung ventilation in a post-metamorphic salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. J. Exp. Biol. 203, 1081-1092. Full-text available (PDF,332KB).

Summers, A. P. (2000). Stiffening the stingray skeleton - an investigation of durophagy in myliobatid stingrays (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea, Myliobatidae). Journal of Morphology 243, 113-126.

Bennett, W. O. Summers, A. P. and Brainerd, E. L. (1999). Confirmation of the passive exhalation hypothesis in a terrestrial caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus. Copeia 1999, 206-209. Full-text available (PDF,554KB).

Brainerd, E. L. (1999). News and Views: Lickety Split. Nature 401 756-758.

Brainerd, E. L. (1999). New perspectives on the evolution of lung ventilation mechanisms in vertebrates. Experimental Biology Online 4, 11-28. Full-text available (PDF,760KB).

Kley, N. J. and Brainerd, E. L. (1999). Feeding by mandibular raking in a snake. Nature 402, 369-370. Full-text available (PDF,200KB).

Leonard, J. B. K. Summers, A. P. and Koob, T. J. (1999). Routine and standard metabolic rate of embryonic little skate (Raja erinacea): the cost of active pumping. Journal of Experimental Zoology 283, 13-18.

Liem, K. F. and Summers, A. P. (1999). Gross anatomy and functional morphology of the muscles. In The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes, (ed. W. Hamlett). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Owerkowicz, T. Farmer, C. Hicks, J. W. and Brainerd, E. L. (1999). Contribution of gular pumping to lung ventilation in monitor lizards. Science 284, 1661-1663. Full-text available (PDF,196KB).

Simons, R. S. and Brainerd, E. L. (1999). Morphological variation of hypaxial musculature in salamanders. J. Morphol. 241, 153-164. Full-text available (PDF,220KB).

Brainerd, E. L. (1998). Mechanics of lung ventilation in a larval salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2891-2901. Full-text available (PDF,300KB).

Brainerd, E. L. and Monroy, J. A. (1998). Mechanics of lung ventilation in a large aquatic salamander, Siren lacertina. J. Exp. Biol. 201, 673-682. Full-text available (PDF,180KB).

Brainerd, E. L. and Patek, S. N. (1998). Vertebral column morphology, C-start curvature, and the evolution of mechanical defenses in tetraodontiform fishes. Copeia 1998, 971-984. Full-text available (PDF,2.1MB).

Colson, D. J. Patek, S. N. Brainerd, E. L. and Lewis, S. M. (1998). Sound production during feeding in Hippocampus seahorses. Env. Biol. Fish. 51, 221-229. Full-text available (PDF,108KB).

Summers, A. P. Darouian, K. F. Richmond, A. M. and Brainerd, E. L. (1998). Kinematics of terrestrial and aquatic feeding in Terrapene carolina, with implications for the evolution of feeding in cryptodire turtles (REPTILIA: TESTUDINES). J. Exp. Zool. 281, 280-287.

Summers, A. P. Koob, T. J. and Brainerd, E. L. (1998). Stingray jaws strut their stuff. Nature 395, 971-984. Full-text available (PDF,396KB).

Ward, A. B. and Horn, C. N. (1998). A status survey of Dirca palustris L. (leatherwood, Thymelaeaceae) in South Carolina. Castanea 63, 165-173. Full-text available (PDF,1.1MB).

Brainerd, E. L. (1997). News and Views: Efficient fish not faint-hearted. Nature 389, 229-230. Full-text available (PDF,148KB).

Brainerd, E. L. Page, B. N. and Fish, F. E. (1997). Opercular jetting during fast-starts by flatfishes. J. Exp. Biol. 200, 1179-1188. Full-text available (PDF,248KB).

Summers, A. P. and O'Reilly, J. C. (1997). A comparative study of locomotion in the caecilians Dermophis mexicanus and Typhlonectes natans (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 121, 65-76.

Wainwright, P. C. Turingan, R. and Brainerd, E. L. (1995). Functional morphology of pufferfish inflation: mechanism of the buccal pump. Copeia 1995, 614-625. Full-text available (PDF,1.8MB).

Brainerd, E. L. (1994). Pufferfish inflation: functional morphology of postcranial structures in Diodon holocanthus (Tetraodontiformes). J. of Morphol. 220, 243-261. Full-text available (PDF,3.5MB).

Brainerd, E. L. (1994). The evolution of lung-gill bimodal breathing and the homology of vertebrate respiratory pumps. Amer. Zool. 34, 289-299. Full-text available (PDF, 1.1MB).

Brainerd, E. L. (1994). Mechanical design of polypterid fish integument for energy storage during recoil aspiration. J. Zool. Lond. 232, 7-19. Full-text available (PDF, 5.9MB).

Brainerd, E. L. Ditelberg, J. S. and Bramble, D. M. (1993). Lung ventilation in salamanders and the evolution of vertebrate air-breathing mechanisms. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 49, 163-183. Full-text available (PDF, 1MB).

Norton, S. F. and Brainerd, E. L. (1993). Convergence in the feeding mechanics of ecomorphologically similar species in the Centrachidae and Cichlidae. J. Exp. Bio. 176, 11-29. Full-text available (PDF, 228KB).

Brainerd, E. L. Liem, K. F. and Samper, C. T. (1989). Air ventilation by recoil aspiration in polypterid fishes. Science 246, 1593-1595. Full-text available (PDF, 464KB).

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Functional Morphology & Biomechanics Laboratory
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