Department of
Facilities Management
Brown University
Box 1941
295 Lloyd Ave.
Providence, RI 02912

Facility Emergency:
Tel: (401) 863-7800

Service Request:
Tel: (401) 863-7800

Main Office:
Tel: (401) 863-7850
Fax: (401) 863-7885

LEED ® Facts
Center for the Creative Arts
Providence, RI
LEED for New Construction, v2.2

Certified 2012

GOLD 45*
Sustainable Sites 12/14
Water Efficiency 2/5
Energy & Atmosphere 10/17
Materials & Resources 4/13
Indoor Environment Quality 12/15
Innovation & Design 5/5
* Out of possible 69

Sustainable Sites (SS)
21 of 26 points attempted

Choosing and developing a building’s site can significantly impact the surrounding environment. For example, building on a previously developed site in an urban environment conserves greenfields, which are previously undeveloped sites, and can prevent further encroachment on natural habitats or agricultural fields. Locating a building in an urban area may also reduce the likelihood of occupants using cars to travel to and from the site as well as the need for further vehicular infrastructure. The Sustainable Sites credit category promotes sustainable building practices that target the building landscape, hardscape, and exterior building issues.

SSc1 - Site Selection (1/1)

SSc2 - Development Density & Community Connectivity (1/1)

SSc3 - Brownfield Redevelopment (1/1)

SSc4.1 - Alternative Transportation, Public Transportation Access (1/1)

SSc4.3 - Alternative Transportation, Low-Emitting & Fuel-Efficient Vehicles (1/1)

SSc4.4 - Alternative Transportation, Parking Capacity (1/1)

SSc5.1 - Site Development, Protect or Restore Habitat (1/1)

SSc5.2 - Site Development, Maximize Open Space (1/1)

SSc6.1 - Storm water Design, Quantity Control (1/1)

SSc6.2 - Storm water Design, Quality Control (1/1)

SSc7.1 - Heat Island Effect, Non-Roof (1/1)

SSc7.2 - Heat Island Effect, Roof (1/1)

Not Attempted: SSc4.2 - Alternative Transportation, Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms; SSc8 - Light Pollution Reduction

Prerequisite 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention: Construction can produce an unhealthy work environment for construction workers and building occupants and cause environmental damage that takes years to remedy. All projects need to reduce pollution from construction activities by implementing a soil erosion and sedimentation control plan. The Granoff Center complied with this requirement and created a plan according to the requirements of the 2003 Environmental Protection Agency Construction General Plan to manage sedimentation, erosion, and the generation of dust and particulate matter.

Credit 1 - Site Selection: This is a previously developed site.

Credit 2 - Development Density & Community Connectivity: The Granoff Center is on a previously developed site and is within a half mile of ten basic community services, including a convenience store, bank, and restaurant, and two residential neighborhoods. Redevelopment of urban areas limits urban sprawl and thereby reduces vehicular transportation and its impacts, such as air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. It also helps revitalize and sustain community life. The blue shaded areas represent residential neighborhoods while the circled numbers show the locations of the ten basic community services that the design team chose in order to fulfill Credit 2. As shown, the community services are within ½ mile radius of the building.

Credit 3 - Brownfield Redevelopment: The Creative Arts Center is located on a previously remediated Brownfield site.

Credit 4.1 - Alternative Transportation, Public Transportation Access: Four Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (RIPTA) bus lines are within a quarter mile walking distance from the Granoff Center. Additionally, the building is located within a quarter mile of stops served by the SafeRide Shuttle, the Brown Med/DownCity Express, and the RISD Shuttle, all of which building occupants can use free of charge. Easy access to public transportation encourages building occupants to utilize public mass-transit, thus avoiding pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and land development impacts associated with individual automobile use. Some of the public transportation options available within a quarter mile of the building are shown above. The red dot marks the location of the main entrance to the building, while the blue dot indicates the location of a RISD Shuttle stop, the yellow circle is a Brown Shuttle stop, and the green circle denotes the location of a RIPTA bus stop.

Credit 4.3 - Alternative Transportation, Low-Emitting & Fuel-Efficient Vehicles: There are fourteen ZipCars present on campus, seven each in the Brown Athletic Parking (OMAC Lot) and in the Power Street garage. Two of the cars are Toyota Prius ZipCars, which are hybrids. The Creative Arts Center was the first building to seek LEED certification on Brown University’s campus that will be using the ZipCars in the Athletic Parking lot and the Power Street garage. One of the ZipCars (a Toyota Prius) fulfills the requirement to serve the 12 full time equivalent employee/staff drivers.

Credit 4.4 - Alternative Transportation, Parking Capacity: Preferred parking has been designated for preferential use by Low-Emitting and Fuel-Efficient vehicles. The spaces are designated as such with special signage designed specifically for this project.

Credit 5.1 - Site Development, Protect or Restore Habitat: In order to achieve this point, 20% of the site area (including building footprint) is to be restored with native and adapted vegetation. The Creative Arts Center achieved this point by providing 10,850 sf of native vegetation and vegetated roof area rather than the minimum 8,358 sf required. Restoring native vegetation to a building site provides a habitat for fauna and can help maintain the site’s ecological integrity. It also contributes to the plan for stormwater management (See Credit 6).

Credit 5.2 - Site Development,
Maximize Open Space:
When vegetation is replaced with dry, impermeable, dark cement it loses its ability to absorb water and reflect thermal radiation. This increases the average temperature of developed land to a point significantly higher than its rural surroundings, creating a heat island, which disrupts weather patterns and creates health issues. Furthermore, replacing earth with impermeable pavement increases storm runoff and therefore erosion of city surfaces. This point is given for providing vegetated open space adjacent to the building equal to at least 25 percent of the building footprint, thereby mitigating the issue of cement described above. This was easy for the design team to earn since the project site area is 35,810 sf and the vegetated open space provided by the project is 30,618 sf, resulting in 85.5 percent of vegetated open space. Vegetated open space in an urban environment can promote biodiversity by providing a habitat for flora and fauna, increase on-site stormwater infiltration, and reduce contributions to the urban heat island effect (See Credits 6 and 7).

Credit 6.1 - Storm water Design, Quantity Control: To achieve this credit, the project team had to design a stormwater management plan to reduce the volume of stormwater by at least 25% for a 2-year 24-hour storm. Stormwater carries contaminants and sediments to local waterways and requires significant municipal infrastructure. Impervious surfaces, including hardscapes like parking lots and sidewalks, produce more runoff than natural surfaces that need to be effectively managed. High runoff rates during heavy storms can overwhelm municipal water systems and cause flooding and erosion. The new building and layout of the surrounding landscape decreased the imperviousness of the existing site by 46%. All stormwater captured on the project site is directed to one of three different on-site drainage systems. It is either collected in a closed drainage system and allowed to recharge groundwater, discharged slowly into the municipal storm drains, or passed through a biofilter. The green roof also helps reduce peak stormwater runoff rates because the water infiltrates the growing media and is discharged more slowly off the roof. In total, the stormwater management plan reduces the peak rate by 41% for the 24-hour storm, and the total water volume by 28% to meet LEED’s requirements.

Credit 6.2 - Storm water Design, Quality Control:
The stormwater management plan will treat 90% of the average annual rainfall and will remove at least 80% of Total Suspended Solids (TSS), fulfilling the requirements of this credit. The three drainage systems (See Credit 6.1) improve stormwater quality before the runoff leaves the site. Stormwater from the sidewalk and plaza is passed through a biofilter while stormwater runoff from the amphitheatre, roof, and southeastern portion of the site will pass through a Stormceptor® water quality unit. The biofilter and Stormceptor® water quality unit are designed to remove 90% of TSS from stormwater runoff. Water that does not pass through one of these units will be drained through an infiltration trench. The Granoff Center also has a green roof, so the plants remove any pollutants from the roof runoff.

Credit 7.1 - Heat Island Effect, Non-Roof: Dark, nonreflective surfaces absorb heat, raising the surrounding temperature and increasing a building’s cooling load, an occurrence called the heat island effect. The heat island effect is more significant in cities than in rural or suburban areas. A total of 59% of hardscapes are either shaded or have a solar reflectance index (SRI) of 29 to reduce overheating, thus exceeding LEED’s requirement. Trees and other landscape features shade a total of 2,831 square feet (36% of hardscapes), and 1,819 square feet (23% of hardscapes) has an SRI of 29. SRI indicates the ability of a material to reject heat from the sun.

Credit 7.2 - Heat Island Effect,
To earn this credit, at least 50% of the Granoff Center’s roof had to be vegetated. Green roofs help reduce the heat island effect. A total of 56% of the roof area consists of plants that cool air through evapotranspiration and replace conventional roofing materials that absorb heat. Shown is the green roof of the Granoff Center soon after installation. Although it takes a couple of years for the plants to fully take root and grow, the growing media immediately slows down runoff from the roof and reduces the peak stormwater runoff rate. Additionally, the roof without the plants at full size still has greater heat reflecting properties than a dark roof. A vegetated roof has several layers: the vegetation, a wire grid to prevent damage from wind, a growing medium (soil), filter fabric, drainage and water storage, insulation, a roof barrier, a roof membrane, and the roof structure. The green roof also helps slow down peak stormwater runoff rates.


Facilities Project Manager:  Reed Bergwall
Facilities Engineer:  John Faunce King
Design Architect:  Diller Scofidio Renfro
Civil Engineer:  Nitsch Engineer
MEP Engineer:  Altieri Sebor Wieber
Landscape:  Todd Rader and Amy Crews
Commissioning:  RDK Engineers
Contractor:  Shawmut Design and Construction
Sustainability Consultant/LEED Administrator:  Atelier Ten