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Paris, : 1843. col. map. 53 x 96 cm. Hand-colored engraved map.
This 1843 plan of Paris illustrates the city's layout by arrondissement
before the annexation of the Parisian communes. In an attempt to improve
the economic conditions of the Parisian suburbs, Napoléon III
presented the decree for the annexation of 11 Parisian communes on January
1, 1860. The addition eventually resulted in a major increase in population
(4,000,000) that demanded a geographical adjustment: Paris would no
longer be comprised of 12 but rather 20 arrondissements.
Ah! Qu'on est fier d'être français quand on regarde la colonne.
Hand-colored engraving by Caroline Naudet-Fecit. [Paris,
chez l'auteur, 1816]. Hand-colored engraving. 55 x 36.5 cm.
" Boulevard des Italiens "
Paris and the Parisians in 1835. London : R. Bentley,
1836. Vol. 2. Drawing and etching by A. Hervieu, dated 1835.
Located in the second and ninth arrondissements, the Boulevard
des Italiens was originally established in 1685, but it wasn't until
1783 that the boulevard was given its present name, inspired by the
neighboring Théâtre des Italiens. As was the case for most
of the major Parisian roadways, the boulevard des Italiens did not have
any sidewalks until 1830, thereby impacting the development of outdoor
social activities. The enormous growth in Parisian cafés, for
example, is what brought the boulevard des Italiens its fame: home to
the city's most popular gathering places, the boulevard provided a place
for the upper classes to mingle and stroll.
Paris : Firmin-Didot, 1875-1882. Vol. 2, chapitre IV, pl. III. Colored
lithograph by Sabatier ; drawing by F. Hoffbauer.
The Marché des Innocents was opened in 1788 in the place of
what used to be Paris's largest cemetery, the Cimetière des Innocents.
This market, located in the first arrondissement, served as a central
location for Parisians to purchase various herbs and vegetables. The
sellers' stands were protected by brightly colored parasols, each four
to five meters in diameter. In addition to the hundreds of vendors,
the market also housed the occasional café and was at one time
a place where homeless Parisians could go in the winter for a bowl of
" Abattoir at Montmartre "
Paris and its environs, displayed in a series of two hundred
picturesque views, from original drawings. London: Jennings and Chaplin,
62, Cheapside; [Finsbury], J. Haddon, Printer, Castle Street, Finsbury,
1831. Drawing by A. Pugin; engraving by H. Wallace. Top of p. 2.
In 1810, in an attempt to appease the complaints of many
Parisians, Napoléon I ordered that five slaughtering houses,
or "abattoirs," be built just outside of Paris: three on the
right bank, and two on the left. These areas were to be the only designated
locations where butchers were allowed to slaughter cattle. The abattoir
of Montmartre, shown here, was located between the rues Rochechouart,
de la Tour d'Auvergne, and des Martyrs, and measured 1074 feet by 384
"Quartier de Grenelle"
[Paris : Imp. D'Aubert & cie, undated]. Colored plate by Bouchol.
It was not until the end of the 19th century that most Parisians had
sufficient drinking water flowing directly into their homes. Because
water from nearby rivers and streams was undrinkable, citizens relied
on the many wells that were built throughout the capital city. In the
1830s, a number of new artesian wells were created in Paris, particularly
in the neighborhood of Grenelle. Construction on one of the most famous
Grenelle wells began in 1833, but encountered technical difficulties
and was not completed until 1841. Scientists and city planners alike
paid particular attention to the temperature of the water at the various
wells, which was generally warm. Wells continued to serve as adequate
sources for drinking water throughout the 1800s, and by 1875 there were
an estimated 30,000 wells in Paris.
" Le flâneur "
Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 3, p. 65. Colored wood engraving by
Louis, drawing by Nicolas Toussaint Charlet.
Known as the "personnification toute française," the
flâneur was a figure that reigned in Paris of the 19th century.
A keen examiner of anything that passed him by, the flâneur was
also the embodiment of a Parisian philosophy, one that relied on deep
reflection and analysis as well as observational skills
Désagrément d'être joli garçon
A Paris chez bance, rue St. Denis, près celle aux
Ours, no. 175. [1803 ?] Hand-colored engraving. 24.5 x 30.5 cm. (L'élégance
parisienne, no. 5)
The concept of the "joli garcon" (literally "pretty boy" in English) was one that often appeared in French social satires and literature of the 19th century. Ridiculed for both his youthful charm and ingenuous naïveté, the distinguished clothing of the "joli garcon" also provided caricaturists with an opportunity to criticize the bourgeoisie.
" Le joueur de boules "
Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 2, p. 289. Colored wood engraving by
Louis, drawing by Nicolas Toussaint Charlet.
Although originating in Italy, Bocce ball was a popular leisure activity
in 19th century France among older generations. Parks near the Champs-Elysées
attracted players and spectators alike to gather together in light-hearted
competition. The game became so popular that even the blind players
participated inside the Hôtel des Invalides.
" L'enfant de fabrique "
Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 1, p. 257. Colored wood
engraving by Hébert, drawing by Hippolyte Louis Emile Pauquet.
In the first half of the 19th century, many Parisian factories hired entire families in an attempt to attract more workers to the industry, despite the horrific working conditions. Children, sometimes as young as five years of age, were therefore exposed to the dangers of factory work. It was not uncommon for children, both boys and girls, to be on their feet for seventeen hours a day, and they often suffered grave injuries that sometimes proved to be fatal. Labor laws were eventually passed protecting women and children from the harsh working conditions of Parisian factories.
" La marchande de poissons"|
Les Français peints par eux-mêmes : encyclopédie morale du dix-neuvième siècle
Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 5, p. . Colored wood engraving
by Harrison, drawing by Hippolyte Louis Emile Pauquet.
For centuries working class women have served as vendors at various
market places throughout the capital city. Stereotyped as being an uncompromising
but productive businesswoman, the "marchande de poissons"
was a figure to be found in Parisian markets for many centuries.
" La Colonelle "
Paris : E. Plon et Cie, printers and editors, 1880. No.
28. Hand-colored plate
The Commune was comprised of a diverse group of Parisians,
from varying social, political and economic backgrounds. The Commune's
socialist approach depended on representation of the city as a whole,
including women. Women played an active role in participating in various
committees and serving as soldiers in battles against the Versailles
government. One club, known as the "Union des femmes pour la défense
de Paris et les soins aux blessés," founded by Marx's friend
Elizabeth Dmitrieff, was an especially active association of women who
helped to aid wounded communards.
Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 4, p. 275. Colored wood engraving by
Soyer ; drawing by Hippolyte Louis Emile Pauquet.
Désagrémens, des parapluies. Vue prise sur le quai de Voltaire entre la rue de Beaune et la rue du Bacq.
A Paris : Chez Martinet, Rue du Coq, no. 124, .
Artist unknown. Hand-colored engraving. 26 x 34.5 cm. (Caricatures parisiennes)
Although the umbrella was a symbol of the privilege of
the bourgeois in the latter part of the 19th century, it was considered
to be a fashion accessory in the early 1800s, despite its awkward nature.
Because few Parisians successfully mastered handling the device, caricaturists
quickly exploited the irony of such Parisians who simply wished to appear
fashionable in public.
Paris and the Parisians in 1835. London : R. Bentley, 1836. Vol. 1.
Drawing and etching by A. Hervieu, dated 1835.
The Tuileries Gardens were built in 1644 by the same designer responsible
for the garden at Versailles. Although they underwent considerable architectural
changes in the centuries to follow, the Tuileries Gardens became one
of Paris's most popular recreational gathering places. By the 19th century,
the gardens offered Parisians and tourists alike a peaceful setting
featuring small bodies of water, public walkways, various terraces and
pavilions, as well as numerous statues, all of which made the gardens
the ideal setting for leisure activities. The Tuileries Gardens continue
to attract visitors today, and are located adjacent to the Louvre in
the first arrondissement.
Garneray, Louis, 1783-1857.
A Paris au Jardin Baujon, et chez Ch. Bance, Rue J.J. Rousseau, [c.
1817]. Hand-colored engraving by Jean-Nicolas Lerouge; drawing by Louis
Garneray. 34.5 x 53 cm.
Opened in Paris in 1817, the "Promenades Aériennes"
came to be recognized as the first modern roller coaster featuring two
separate tracks that lead in opposite directions and to which the coaster
cars were locked into place. The heart-shaped design and double tracks
allowed for two separate cars to descend in opposite directions, sometimes
up to 40 miles per hour, to rejoin each other at the bottom of the hill,
and then to be pushed by attendants up parallel lifts to the top of
the ride. In 1826, the "Promenades Aériennes" became
the first roller coaster to use a cable system to pulls cars to the
top, and is today known as the world's first racing coaster. The enormous
popularity of the coaster can be credited to the novelty of amusement
rides, as well as to the psychological thrill Parisians experienced
while on the ride.
No. 15. Paris : Maison Martinet, Impr. Auguste Bry, 14 rue du Bac,
1858. Lithograph by A. Provost.
Located at 51 boulevard des Champs-Elysées, the Bal Mabile which opened in 1840, was one of the most trendy dance establishments in 19th century Paris. The brothers Mabile inherited the Champs-Elysées property from their father, previously a dance instructor, and transformed the small country ball into a luminous garden spectacle. Because of the recent developments of gas lighting, the Bal Mabile was open both in the afternoon and the evening, and was decorated with illuminated glass balls and colored garlands suspended from trees. It opened in 1840 and quickly became a popular gathering place for rich Parisians to dance the polka and mingle in a fairy-tale setting.
"The Italian Campaign"
London, Chappell & co. 49 & 50 New Bond St., M. & N. Banhart, printer, [c.1865].
Lithograph by Brandard, illustration of sheet music cover with caption
"Peage illuminations in Paris."
London, Hopwood & Crew, 42 New Bond St., Stannard & co., printer,
The Quadrille, introduced in France around 1760, continued to be a popular dance in 19th century Paris. Originally performed in sets of two couples, the quadrille evolved into different forms and variations, many of which were similar to the waltz and the polka.
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