PLAN OF THE CITY OF PARIS:

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Girard, Xavier
Plan de la ville de Paris divisé en 12 arrondissements, en 48 quartiers indiquant tous les changemens faits et projetés.

Paris, : 1843. col. map. 53 x 96 cm. Hand-colored engraved map.
John Hay Library Maps Collection

This 1843 plan of Paris illustrates the city's layout by arrondissement before the annexation of the Parisian communes. In an attempt to improve the economic conditions of the Parisian suburbs, Napoléon III presented the decree for the annexation of 11 Parisian communes on January 1, 1860. The addition eventually resulted in a major increase in population (4,000,000) that demanded a geographical adjustment: Paris would no longer be comprised of 12 but rather 20 arrondissements.

PLACES AND MONUMENTS:


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Ah! Qu'on est fier d'être français quand on regarde la colonne.

Hand-colored engraving by Caroline Naudet-Fecit. [Paris, chez l'auteur, 1816]. Hand-colored engraving. 55 x 36.5 cm.
Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection



   

" Boulevard des Italiens "
Trollope, Francis Milton, 1780-1803

Paris and the Parisians in 1835. London : R. Bentley, 1836. Vol. 2. Drawing and etching by A. Hervieu, dated 1835.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

Located in the second and ninth arrondissements, the Boulevard des Italiens was originally established in 1685, but it wasn't until 1783 that the boulevard was given its present name, inspired by the neighboring Théâtre des Italiens. As was the case for most of the major Parisian roadways, the boulevard des Italiens did not have any sidewalks until 1830, thereby impacting the development of outdoor social activities. The enormous growth in Parisian cafés, for example, is what brought the boulevard des Italiens its fame: home to the city's most popular gathering places, the boulevard provided a place for the upper classes to mingle and stroll.


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" Marché des Innocents, 1855 "
Hoffbauer, 1839-1922
Paris à travers les âges : aspects successifs des monuments et quartiers historiques de Paris depuis le XIIIe siècle jusqu'à nos jours / fidèlement restitués d'après les documents authentiques par M. F. Hoffbauer ; texte par MM. Édouard Fournier, Paul Lacroix, A. de Montaiglon, A. Bonnardot, Jules Cousin, Franklin, Valentin Dufour, etc.

Paris : Firmin-Didot, 1875-1882. Vol. 2, chapitre IV, pl. III. Colored lithograph by Sabatier ; drawing by F. Hoffbauer.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

The Marché des Innocents was opened in 1788 in the place of what used to be Paris's largest cemetery, the Cimetière des Innocents. This market, located in the first arrondissement, served as a central location for Parisians to purchase various herbs and vegetables. The sellers' stands were protected by brightly colored parasols, each four to five meters in diameter. In addition to the hundreds of vendors, the market also housed the occasional café and was at one time a place where homeless Parisians could go in the winter for a bowl of hot soup.
The Fontaine des Innocents, originally erected in 1549, was transferred to the center of the market in the early 19th century. Although highly decorative, the fountain's four basins served as a sufficient source of water for the entire market. The Marché des Innocents officially closed in 1858 to make way for the popular les Halles marketplace. In 1865, the fontaine des Innocents was once again relocated to what is currently known as the Place des Innocents.

 

" Abattoir at Montmartre "
Pugin, Augustus, 1762-1832

Paris and its environs, displayed in a series of two hundred picturesque views, from original drawings. London: Jennings and Chaplin, 62, Cheapside; [Finsbury], J. Haddon, Printer, Castle Street, Finsbury, 1831. Drawing by A. Pugin; engraving by H. Wallace. Top of p. 2.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

In 1810, in an attempt to appease the complaints of many Parisians, Napoléon I ordered that five slaughtering houses, or "abattoirs," be built just outside of Paris: three on the right bank, and two on the left. These areas were to be the only designated locations where butchers were allowed to slaughter cattle. The abattoir of Montmartre, shown here, was located between the rues Rochechouart, de la Tour d'Auvergne, and des Martyrs, and measured 1074 feet by 384 feet.


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"Quartier de Grenelle"
Les quartiers de Paris.

[Paris : Imp. D'Aubert & cie, undated]. Colored plate by Bouchol. No. 37.
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection

It was not until the end of the 19th century that most Parisians had sufficient drinking water flowing directly into their homes. Because water from nearby rivers and streams was undrinkable, citizens relied on the many wells that were built throughout the capital city. In the 1830s, a number of new artesian wells were created in Paris, particularly in the neighborhood of Grenelle. Construction on one of the most famous Grenelle wells began in 1833, but encountered technical difficulties and was not completed until 1841. Scientists and city planners alike paid particular attention to the temperature of the water at the various wells, which was generally warm. Wells continued to serve as adequate sources for drinking water throughout the 1800s, and by 1875 there were an estimated 30,000 wells in Paris.

 

FIGURES:


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" Le flâneur "
Les Français peints par eux-mêmes : encyclopédie morale du dix-neuvième siècle

Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 3, p. 65. Colored wood engraving by Louis, drawing by Nicolas Toussaint Charlet.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

Known as the "personnification toute française," the flâneur was a figure that reigned in Paris of the 19th century. A keen examiner of anything that passed him by, the flâneur was also the embodiment of a Parisian philosophy, one that relied on deep reflection and analysis as well as observational skills


 

Désagrément d'être joli garçon

A Paris chez bance, rue St. Denis, près celle aux Ours, no. 175. [1803 ?] Hand-colored engraving. 24.5 x 30.5 cm. (L'élégance parisienne, no. 5)
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection

The concept of the "joli garcon" (literally "pretty boy" in English) was one that often appeared in French social satires and literature of the 19th century. Ridiculed for both his youthful charm and ingenuous naïveté, the distinguished clothing of the "joli garcon" also provided caricaturists with an opportunity to criticize the bourgeoisie.


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" Le joueur de boules "
Les Français peints par eux-mêmes : encyclopédie morale du dix-neuvième siècle

Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 2, p. 289. Colored wood engraving by Louis, drawing by Nicolas Toussaint Charlet.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

Although originating in Italy, Bocce ball was a popular leisure activity in 19th century France among older generations. Parks near the Champs-Elysées attracted players and spectators alike to gather together in light-hearted competition. The game became so popular that even the blind players participated inside the Hôtel des Invalides.

 

" L'enfant de fabrique "
Les Français peints par eux-mêmes : encyclopédie morale du dix-neuvième siècle

Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 1, p. 257. Colored wood engraving by Hébert, drawing by Hippolyte Louis Emile Pauquet.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

In the first half of the 19th century, many Parisian factories hired entire families in an attempt to attract more workers to the industry, despite the horrific working conditions. Children, sometimes as young as five years of age, were therefore exposed to the dangers of factory work. It was not uncommon for children, both boys and girls, to be on their feet for seventeen hours a day, and they often suffered grave injuries that sometimes proved to be fatal. Labor laws were eventually passed protecting women and children from the harsh working conditions of Parisian factories.


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" La marchande de poissons"
Les Français peints par eux-mêmes : encyclopédie morale du dix-neuvième siècle

Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 5, p. [302]. Colored wood engraving by Harrison, drawing by Hippolyte Louis Emile Pauquet.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

For centuries working class women have served as vendors at various market places throughout the capital city. Stereotyped as being an uncompromising but productive businesswoman, the "marchande de poissons" was a figure to be found in Parisian markets for many centuries.

 

" La Colonelle "
Bertall, Albert d'Arnoux, 1820-1882
Les communeux 1871 : types, caractères, costumes.

Paris : E. Plon et Cie, printers and editors, 1880. No. 28. Hand-colored plate
Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection

The Commune was comprised of a diverse group of Parisians, from varying social, political and economic backgrounds. The Commune's socialist approach depended on representation of the city as a whole, including women. Women played an active role in participating in various committees and serving as soldiers in battles against the Versailles government. One club, known as the "Union des femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins aux blessés," founded by Marx's friend Elizabeth Dmitrieff, was an especially active association of women who helped to aid wounded communards.


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"Le marchand de parapluie"
Les Français peints par eux-mêmes : encyclopédie morale du dix-neuvième siècle

Paris, L. Curmer, 1840-42. Vol. 4, p. 275. Colored wood engraving by Soyer ; drawing by Hippolyte Louis Emile Pauquet.

 

Désagrémens, des parapluies. Vue prise sur le quai de Voltaire entre la rue de Beaune et la rue du Bacq.

A Paris : Chez Martinet, Rue du Coq, no. 124, [1806]. Artist unknown. Hand-colored engraving. 26 x 34.5 cm. (Caricatures parisiennes)
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection

Although the umbrella was a symbol of the privilege of the bourgeois in the latter part of the 19th century, it was considered to be a fashion accessory in the early 1800s, despite its awkward nature. Because few Parisians successfully mastered handling the device, caricaturists quickly exploited the irony of such Parisians who simply wished to appear fashionable in public.


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ENTERTAINMENT:

 


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" Tuileries' gardens, on Sunday "
Trollope, Francis Milton, 1780-1803

Paris and the Parisians in 1835. London : R. Bentley, 1836. Vol. 1. Drawing and etching by A. Hervieu, dated 1835.
John Hay Library Starred Books Collection

The Tuileries Gardens were built in 1644 by the same designer responsible for the garden at Versailles. Although they underwent considerable architectural changes in the centuries to follow, the Tuileries Gardens became one of Paris's most popular recreational gathering places. By the 19th century, the gardens offered Parisians and tourists alike a peaceful setting featuring small bodies of water, public walkways, various terraces and pavilions, as well as numerous statues, all of which made the gardens the ideal setting for leisure activities. The Tuileries Gardens continue to attract visitors today, and are located adjacent to the Louvre in the first arrondissement.

 

Garneray, Louis, 1783-1857.
Promenades aériennes-Jardin Baujon. Honoré de la Présence de La Majesté, le 2 août 1817.

A Paris au Jardin Baujon, et chez Ch. Bance, Rue J.J. Rousseau, [c. 1817]. Hand-colored engraving by Jean-Nicolas Lerouge; drawing by Louis Garneray. 34.5 x 53 cm.
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection

Opened in Paris in 1817, the "Promenades Aériennes" came to be recognized as the first modern roller coaster featuring two separate tracks that lead in opposite directions and to which the coaster cars were locked into place. The heart-shaped design and double tracks allowed for two separate cars to descend in opposite directions, sometimes up to 40 miles per hour, to rejoin each other at the bottom of the hill, and then to be pushed by attendants up parallel lifts to the top of the ride. In 1826, the "Promenades Aériennes" became the first roller coaster to use a cable system to pulls cars to the top, and is today known as the world's first racing coaster. The enormous popularity of the coaster can be credited to the novelty of amusement rides, as well as to the psychological thrill Parisians experienced while on the ride.


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" Le Bal Mabile, Champs-Elysées "
Paris et ses environs, 1858. Grand album représentant les vues et les monuments les plus curieux de Paris et les sites les plus remarquables des environs.

No. 15. Paris : Maison Martinet, Impr. Auguste Bry, 14 rue du Bac, 1858. Lithograph by A. Provost.
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection

Located at 51 boulevard des Champs-Elysées, the Bal Mabile which opened in 1840, was one of the most trendy dance establishments in 19th century Paris. The brothers Mabile inherited the Champs-Elysées property from their father, previously a dance instructor, and transformed the small country ball into a luminous garden spectacle. Because of the recent developments of gas lighting, the Bal Mabile was open both in the afternoon and the evening, and was decorated with illuminated glass balls and colored garlands suspended from trees. It opened in 1840 and quickly became a popular gathering place for rich Parisians to dance the polka and mingle in a fairy-tale setting.

 

"The Italian Campaign"
Quadrille by Chas. D'Albert.

London, Chappell & co. 49 & 50 New Bond St., M. & N. Banhart, printer, [c.1865].

Lithograph by Brandard, illustration of sheet music cover with caption "Peage illuminations in Paris."
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection


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"Les pompiers de France"
Quadrille on popular French airs by J. Rivière and performed by the band with the greatest success at the Alhambra.

London, Hopwood & Crew, 42 New Bond St., Stannard & co., printer, [c.1859].
Lithograph by Alfred Concanen, illustration of sheet music cover.
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection

The Quadrille, introduced in France around 1760, continued to be a popular dance in 19th century Paris. Originally performed in sets of two couples, the quadrille evolved into different forms and variations, many of which were similar to the waltz and the polka.

 

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