VOLUME 23 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1984
Articles and Notes
Lab Animal Welfare Issue Gathers Momentum........1
Note on the Status of the Wooly Spider Monkey........4
News, Information, and Announcements
Primate Pathology Workshop........3
Availability of Timed-Pregnant Baboons........4
Newsletter Funding Renewed........5
Announcement from NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses........5
Funds for Travel to IPS Congress in Kenya........6
Group Travel Flight to IPS Congress........6
Fondation Fyssen 1984-1985 Fellowships and 1984 International Prize........7
Upcoming Primate Meetings........7
. . . ASP; IPS
Research Opportunities at Duke University Center for the Study of Primate Biology and History ........8
Non-Government Organizations Becoming Source of Some Government Publications........8
Parasitology Service Laboratory and Repository at Delta Center........9
German Primate Center Now Issuing Primate Report ........9
AFIP Comparative Pathology Course........9
Recent Books and Articles ........10
Address Changes ........18
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Animal welfare and animal rights groups are claiming growing momentum behind their efforts to impose stricter controls on--or even eliminate--the use of animals in research. The strength of their cause is likely to be tested this year in the U.S. Congress and some state legislatures, where a variety of proposals to restrict animal research are under consideration. Although portraying themselves as the underdogs in the contest to impose stricter controls, representatives of these groups recently have scored some legislative victories at the state level, and they believe support for federal legislation is increasing.
The issue of animal use in research draws on a wide spectrum of special interest groups, some of whose views and values are considerably easier to accept by researchers than are others. Indeed, some groups such as that called the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), headquartered in the Washington, D.C. area, have been created largely from within the research community. Established 5 years ago, SCAW is intended to make scientists who use animals in research more aware of the animal welfare issue and to get them to go beyond a "knee jerk, defensive attitude," says the group's president S. Barbara Orlans, who is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) staff member. Another Washington-based group, the National Coalition for Science and Technology, plans to hold a conference this spring to explore the issue. "There are large areas of animal research without documented problems," a spokesman says. "But we could make better progress if we look at the legitimate problems."
Representatives from these groups, as well as from traditional humane societies, argue that some scientists have been lax or careless in their treatment of animals. Hence, implementing better, more uniform, less painful procedures will not only benefit the animals being used but the research programs themselves, they say.
Other groups, however, consider the issue of animal welfare too tame, arguing that virtually all experimental manipulation of animals is cruel and unnecessary unless it will directly benefit the individual animals involved. They call the use of animals in research a form of speciesism or slavery, and thus justify the occasional "liberation" of monkeys, dogs, rodents, and other species from the confines of the laboratory. Acknowledging that such actions are crimes, one animal rights advocate contacted by the journal, Science, pointed to the abolitionist movement before the Civil War as a parallel instance when many people broke unjust laws to serve a higher purpose.
Not surprisingly, many experimental surgeons, physiologists, anatomists, neuroscientists, and psychologists have difficulty reconciling such views with their current research needs. And some of them see the animal rights movement as a direct threat to their intellectual freedom. Some animal rights leaders cynically reply that much research is merely repetitive or self-aggrandizing.
In its current session, Congress is likely to face the animal welfare issue in somewhat more down-to-earth terms, although the philosophical and ethical questions that are viewed so differently are helping to shape the pragmatic side of this legislative issue. Currently, two pieces of legislation, the NIH reauthorization bill (HR 2350) and amendments (S 657) to the broader-based Animal Welfare Act, are under active consideration in Congress. The draft of another bill, called the Research Accountability Act by the United Action for Animals group that authored it, may be introduced during this session if a congressional sponsor can be found. And, at the state level, California legislators are considering two bills to amend the statute allowing the use in research of animals from pounds. Massachusetts recently passed a law that will bring an end to that practice and will also halt the import into Massachusetts of animals for research obtained from pounds in other states (Science, 13 January, p. 151).
The House version of the NIH reauthorization bill was approved late in 1983, but the Senate version still has not moved out of committee for consideration by the full Senate. It is being held up by fights over several issues, including fetal research and the establishment of a National Institute of Nursing. The two versions differ in several ways on animal welfare matters, with the House version spelling out more stringent requirements than yet are being called for in the Senate.
Both the House bill and Senate draft call for the National Academy of Sciences (or another nonprofit private entity) to study the use of animals in biomedical and behavioral research. This provision is aimed at quantifying what has been a mushy subject. For example, the total number of animals used in research and testing in the United States per year is estimated at anywhere between 40 and 150 million. Whether that number is increasing, how those animals are being used, what alternate methods could be implemented to reduce those numbers and at what cost, and whether the NIH is taking the right steps to ensure or to improve the humane treatment of those animals are some of the questions the study would address. The need for such a study is widely recognized, although some animal welfare and rights advocates argue that it is merely a stalling device.
The Senate version of the NIH reauthorization, which is sponsored by Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) and Edward Kennedy (D-Mass), goes no further insofar as animal welfare measures are concerned than asking for a study. However, the House bill adds several important provisions, some of which eventually might be incorporated into the Senate's bill if it moves from limbo, acording to Hill observers.
The House bill vests responsibility for ensuring proper care of research animals with the NIH director, who is to implement a short-term study into alternatives for the use of animals in research. The NIH director also is to establish guidelines requiring animal care committees and specifying their composition at each research institution receiving NIH support. The committies must include a veterinarian and one individual from outside the institution. Moreover, the NIH director is authorized to suspend or revoke support for an institution if it fails to comply with the animal care guidelines.
There is, however, another bill waiting in the wings. Called the Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act, and introduced by Senator Robert Dole (R-Kans.) as amendments to the Animal Welfare Act, it could be pushed as an amendment to the NIH reauthorization bill if it ever reaches the Senate floor. Dole's bill contains many provisions regarding the use and treatment of animals that are similar to those in the House version of the NIH reauthorization bill. However, Dole's amendments are proposed as "standards" instead of "guidelines," giving them greater legal weight. Moreover, they would apply to all, rather than merely to NIH-supported research facilities in the United States.
Dole's bill also calls for seminannual inspections of animal "study areas and facilities" and for reviews "to ensure that animal pain and distress are minimized..." His bill also would establish, through the National Agricultural Library and the National Library of Medicine, a service to disseminate information about improved methods for animal research and of ways to avoid "unnecessary duplication of animal experiments." Lobbyists from the research community oppose some of these provisions as too vague and potentially too intrusive. And Hatch and Kennedy would likely oppose their incorporation in the NIH bill.
Meanwhile, Joseph Meadows, a Washington-based representative for United Action for Animals, is hoping to find a sponsor for the group's draft legislation, "the Research Accountability Act." "This is not an animal welfare bill but an economics bill," says a spokeswoman for the organization in New York. "It would save millions of dollars in research funds--and many animals lives--in the process." The bill calls for setting up a central clearinghouse for experiments involving animals. The National Library of Medicine would perform this function in a way that goes substantially beyond its role as specified in Dole's proposals. Thus, according to the draft legislation, new methods for disseminating information could find use to ensure that research "repeated hundreds of times" will be halted. Just what criteria and who will determine which research projects are to be eliminated are serious stumbling blocks for this plan.
At the local and state levels, there is plenty of activity on animal welfare issues, according to Frankie Trull, executive director of the Association for Biomedical Research in the Boston area. Sometimes this activity is paid scant attention by the research community so that, in a few cases, legislation that would drastically affect research has come very close to passing without first getting full consideration, she says. For example, a bill to eliminate vivisection was introduced in Wyoming's legislature and came close to passage, although it eventually was allowed to die. There also have been recent attempts in various states to withdraw the long-standing exemptions from strict adherence to anticruelty statutes granted to research institutes. About a dozen states and several cities have laws prohibiting the use of impounded animals in research.
Two bills pertaining to animal welfare issues were introduced in the California legislature during 1983. One, introduced by state Senator David Roberti, a Democrat from Hollywood, has been sharply criticized by members of the university research community. Though withdrawn by Roberti from consideration just before a critical vote last year, his bill will likely be reconsidered during the current session. Like the recently passed Massachusetts law, Roberti's bill would prohibit the use in research of dogs, cats, and other animals from pounds. The bill also would make it a misdemeanor to cause pain and suffering to dogs and cats used in research. Opponents object to those provisions as too vague and encompassing.
Roberti's bill would not prohibit researchers from using specially bred dogs and cats. But breeding animals for research--about 10,000 dogs and cats are used per year in the state--will add anywhere from $3 million to $23 million to current costs, according to opponents of the bill. The upper end of that range includes estimates of more than $12 million in capital expenditures to establish a breeding program and more than $8 million in annual operating costs.
Another bill, proposed by Assemblyman William Filante, a Republican from Marin County, also is being considered in California. So far it has won a warm reception from researchers, university associations, and the like--some of whom helped in its drafting. The Filante bill calls for the continued use of stray animals for research but calls for various measures to ensure that identifiable pets will not be sent inadvertently to research facilities or, if that occurs and the animals can be identifed, they will be returned to their owners. Like some of the federal legislative proposals, the Filante bill calls for institutional animal welfare committees, which are to include a veterinarian and a member from outside the institution.
The Filante bill recently was approved in key committee votes and soon could come up for a general vote in the state Assembly. However, its outcome should it pass the Assembly is uncertain, in part because Roberti is president pro tem of the State Senate and thus in a position to influence how legislative proposals work their way through the system. Meanwhile, groups such as the California Biomedical Research Association, which was founded early in 1983, are mounting statewide educational campaigns to explain the need for animals in research. This organization, believed to be the first of its kind formed at the state level, is itself an index of how seriously the research community in California is taking this issue. And it also provides a measure of how costly this contest has become in terms of the money, time, and energy being spent in it by the growing numbers of contestants. [This is a reprint with a few minor changes of an article by Jeffrey L. Fox in Science, 1984, 223, 468-469. The article is copyright 1984 by the AAAS.]
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The 1984 Primate Pathology Workshop will be held at the San Francisco Hilton on Sunday, March 11, 1984, the day before the meeting of the International Academy of Pathology which is scheduled for March 12-16, also at the Hilton. For information, contact George Migaki, DVM, Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306 (phone: 202-576-2452). A set of case histories and microslides will be sent prior to the workshop to each registrant. The registration fee of $10.00 (check or money order payable to UAREP) should be sent to Dr. Migaki. Chairman of local arrangements is Dr. Linda Lowenstine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (phone: 916-752-1182 or 1385).
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The muriqui or woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides) is the largest New World monkey and among the most endangered primates in the world. It is found only in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil. The Atlantic forests are a unique series of ecosystems quite distinct from the much more extensive Amazonian forests to the northwest.
Large scale forest destruction, particularly because of economic development within the last 10-20 years, has resulted in a reduction of the original Atlantic forest cover to between one and five percent of the region.
When the German naturalist Prince Maximillian zu Wied explored southeastern Brazil in the early 1800's, he found the muriqui to be quite abundant, and his expedition party frequently lived off muriqui meat. Since then, the unceasing forest destruction has all but eliminated its primary habitat. Illegal hunting for food and for sport also threatens populations of the near-extinct muriqui.
In four years of survey work in southeastern Brazil, a joint Brazilian-American survey team, supported by World Wildlife Fund-US, and led by Dr. Russell A. Mittermeier/WWF-US along with Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center and Celio Valle of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, has been able to confirm the existence of only about 200-250 muriquis in seven small remnant forest areas. Three of these forests are government reserves and four are privately protected, but none can be considered entirely secure.
A complete assessment of the status of this species awaits survey work along the coast of the state of Sao Paulo, long considered to be the stronghold of the muriqui. Yet this region has been subjected to heavy hunting pressure for so long that the muriqui population, a prime target, is not likely to exceed a few hundred individuals. Effective protection in this vast area, where hunters are better equipped, more knowledgeable, and more motivated than the handful of guards, is difficult or impossible to institute.
Although the muriqui remains very poorly known, preliminary studies indicate that it breeds slowly, lives in large groups of at least 25 individuals, and that it feeds primarily on leaves, fruits and flowers. It has a long, powerful prehensile tail, and moves through the trees on all fours or hand-over-hand beneath branches. Adult muriquis weigh at least 12 kg and perhaps as much as 15 kg. They can measure almost 1.5 m from head to tail-tip. The species has never bred in captivity and presently there is only one captive individual in the world--in the Sao Paulo Zoo.
Since the muriqui is the largest mammal entirely restricted to Brazil, and a single-species genus with no close relatives, it has become an appropriate symbol for the Brazilian conservation movement. In addition, World Wildlife Fund, the Brazilian Conservation Foundation and the Federal University of Minas Gerais have initiated a campaign which includes a film, "The Cry of the Muriqui," to increase international awareness of the plight of this uniquely Brazilian species. For further information, contact the Public Information Department, World Wildlife Fund, 1601 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20009. [Based on the information in an article in the Technical Bulletin Insert, 1983, 1, an insert in the November 1983 Endangered Species Technical Bulletin.]
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The NIH-supported baboon breeding program at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research can provide timed-pregnant female Papio anubis baboons. Investigators with NIH grant or contract support will have first priority. The price is $2,000 per baboon plus shipping. For further information contact: Dr. William J. Goodwin, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, PO Box 28l47, San Atonio, TX 78284. Phone: 512-674-1410.
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We were very pleased to learn that PHS, through the Animal Resources Branch, Division of Research Resources, NIH, will continue funding the Laboratory Primate Newsletter for an additional five years. We thank our readers for the strong support over the years in the form of letters and contributions. The best way to continue support for the Newsletter is to send contributions--notices, requests for information, notes, and articles of general or practical interest. Keep in mind that the Newsletter is a fast way of disseminating information to most of the people carrying out research on nonhuman primates (in the field as well as in the laboratory), who are involved in the care of these animals, or who are otherwise interested in research on these animals.
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We wish to advise all investigators submitting specimens to this center for virus studies of the following:
Inquiries should be directed to: Dr. S. S. Kalter, NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses, Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, PO Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284.
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The International Primatological Society has applied for funds from the National Science Foundation, through its International Travel Grant Program, to help support travel expenses of U.S. participants in the IPS's Congress scheduled for July 22-27, 1984 in Kenya. If received by IPS two types of awards will be made. The first type will cover the full cost of a round-trip super-APEX ticket from the recipient's resident city to Nairobi. Only a very limited number of these awards will be made. The second type will be for $600 (approximately half the round-trip super-APEX airfare to Nairobi); a larger number of these $600 awards will be made. Use of U.S. carriers is stipulated for both types of awards.
Individuals wishing to be considered for these travel awards should prepare an application that contains (1) their name, Social Security number, title, institutional affiliation, and address, (2) a brief outline, NOT TO EXCEED ONE PAGE, of their proposed participation in the Congress (and/or in Pre- and Post-Congress activities that are part of the Congress's overall scheduled program) and of their qualifications for such participation, (3) whether they would be willing to accept a $600 award rather than one covering the full round-trip airfare and (4) when an NSF travel grant was last received. These applications should be sent to:
Dr. W. Richard Dukelow
Endocrine Research Unit
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
The deadline for receipt of applications is April 15, 1984.
All applications will be reviewed by an Ad Hoc Committee of IPS, appointed by the Secretary General, and all awards will be made primarily on the basis of proposed participation in the Congress's overall scheduled program. Results will be tabulated and announced by Dr. Stephen J. Suomi, Secretary for the Americas, IPS. Decisions regarding awards will be made in accordance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the implementing regulations prohibiting discrimination against any person on the grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin.
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Several American primatologists have contacted officers of the International Primatological Society and the American Society of Primatologists regarding possible group flights to the July meeting in Kenya. Mr. John Berg, Safari Specialist, C.T. Safaris, 3200 Sunrise Highway, Wantagh, NY 11793 (phone: 516-826-8770) is arranging such a group flight and primatologists may wish to contact him. Other travel agents may be arranging group tours or IPS and ASP members may make their own travel arrangments. If you receive an NSF travel grant (see the other announcement, this newsletter) you are reminded of the requirement to use U.S. Flag Carriers--W. Richard Dukelow, Treasurer, IPS/ASP.
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The Fyssen Foundation's general aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, into their biological and cultural bases, and into their phylogenetic and ontogenetic development". For this purpose, the Foundation will award a certain number of Fellowships. These fellowships are meant for the training and support of research scientists working in disciplines relevant to the aims of the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, logic and the neurosciences. The Foundation wishes to support, more particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes and of their embryonic and postnatal development, as well as the elementary mechanisms they involve. Anthropology-Ethnology: Study of cognitive foundations: a) of the representations of the natural and cultural development, b) of the technical systems developed in the various form of social organization. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.
Priority will be given to French scientists wishing to work abroad and to foreign scientists wishing to work in French laboratories. Study grants will normally be granted for one year but may be extended up to three.
Applications should be established according to a form to be obtained from the Foundation which will include: the curriculum vitae; the list of publications of the applicant; the names of two senior scientists whom the applicant has asked to send testimonials to the Secretariat of the Foundation by the date indicted below; the letter of acceptance of the inviting laboratory.
The completed files should be sent in 15 copies to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 195, rue de Rivoli, 7500l Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation: April 1, 1984.
1984 International Prize
A substantial International Scientific Prize shall be given for a major contribution to the progress of knowledge in the fields of research supported by the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, logic and the neurosciences. It was awarded in 1980 to Professor Andre Leroi-Gourhan, in 1981 to Professor William H. Thorpe, in 1982 to Professor Vernon B. Mountcastle and in 1983 to Professor Harold C. Conklin. Disciplines considered for the 1984 prize: Cognitive psychology and Epistemology. The nominations should include: a curriculum vitae of the nominee; a list of his publications; a summary (four pages maximum) of the research work upon which the nomination is based. Nominations for the 1984 prize of the Fyssen Foundation should be sent in 15 copies to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 7500l Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of nominations: September 1, l984.
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Sixth annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Arcata, California, June 29 - July 3, 1984. The deadline for abstracts is January 31,1984. Program information is available from the program Chairman: Dr. David M. Taub, c/o Yemassee Primate Center, 414 New St., Beaufort, SC 19902 (phone: 803-524-6872).
Xth Congress of the International Primatological Society, July 22-27, 1984. Nairobi, Kenya. Despite any rumors to the contrary, this meeting will definitely be held as scheduled. For information about the Congress contact: IPS Congress Office, Institute of Primate Research, P.O. Box 34505, Nairobi, Kenya. The first notice of the meeting was reproduced in the April, 1983 issue of this Newsletter.
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Duke University Primate Center is the largest breeding center for prosimians in the world. At present, we hold 630 individuals in 19 species and 27 subspecies. Our dual objective is first, to breed self-sustaining populations of the rarest and most endangered prosimian primates, and second, to pursue conservation-oriented research and, where possible, benign biological research on unknown or little known species. At present research is being undertaken on social organization and behavior, reproductive behavior, and, in natural habitat enclosures, behavioral ecology. Research programs on reproductive physiology, nutrition, aging, vitamin biosynthesis, metabolic rates, thermoregulation, chromosome evolution and biochemistry are in progress or planned. Tissues and organs of animals dying suddenly are preserved for DNA analysis, protein sequencing, and vision research. Furthermore, frozen cell lines are available from most species for a variety of biochemical uses. Cadavers are used for a wide variety of anatomical studies.
It is the policy of the Center to use this unique library of living animals for the widest possible range of non-invasive programs of research. We are especially interested in attracting post-doctoral investigators to pursue research goals in the areas of animal nutrition, reproductive endocrinology, social organization and behavior of nocturnal species, chemical communication, immunology, and behavioral ecology.
Interested parties should write to the Director, Professor E. L. Simons or Dr. J. I. Pollock, Research Manager, giving details of their research programs and protocol. Address: Duke University Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Rd., Durham, NC 27705.
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With smaller and smaller budgets for various government agencies, increasingly tight restrictions have been placed on the mailing of free government publications. In several cases, arrangements have now been made for the printing or reprinting of these publications so that they can be again made more widely available.
One such publication is the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, issued by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. This Report is also now being printed and distributed by the Massachusetts Medical Society, publishers of the New England Journal of Medicine. Subscription information may be obtained by writing to: MMS Publications, C.S.P.O. Box 9120, Waltham, MA 02254.
Another such publication is the Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, issued by the Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Dept. of Interior. A reprint series of the Bulletin is now being planned under the sponsorship of the Wildlife Management Center of the University of Michigan and the World Wildlife Fund-US. The Bulletin will be reprinted exactly as printed by the Fish and Wildlife Service. Additional material in the form of an insert, the Technical Bulletin Insert, clearly distingushable from the Bulletin itself, will also be sent to subscribers. The objective of this material will be exchange of scientific information or publication of activities related to endangered species. Exhortation or polemic will be regarded as appropriate in other forums.
The subscription fee is $12 per year. For further information write to: Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, Wildland Management Center, School of Natural Resources, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109.
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The Delta Regional Primate Research Center maintains a Parasitology Service Laboratory and Parasite Repository which has served the needs of its professional staff and collaborating investigators for many years. Its major functions have been to identify the parasitic organisms found in primates in the course of screening colony animals during their quarantine period and at necropsy. In the process, the laboratory has developed an estensive collection of both common and unusual parasites from primates.
The service of this laboratory is available to clinicians, pathologists and researchers who may have unusual parasites which they are unable to identify in feces, blood, body fluids and tissues. We would be willing to examine such specimens and identify them insofar as possible (without charge). However, we would ask that a portion of the material submitted be deposited in the Repository for future reference. The services provided by the Service Laboratory and Repository would not be designed to screen large numbers of blood or fecal samples for routine diagnostic parasitology.
For further information, inquiries should be sent to: Dr. Mark L. Eberhard, Department of Parasitology, Delta Regional Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433.
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Mr. Ulrich Zeller is now editing Primate Report, formerly edited by Dr. Arnold Spiegel. Primate report had been issued bi-annually as the publication organ of the Working Group on the Use and Supply of Non-Human Primates for Biomedical Purposes, sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities. The support of the European Community ended with the publication of the eighth issue. An additional issue appeared at a cost of $10. Issue No. 10 was the first under the new editorship. Also, the purpose of the publication has been changed. It will now inform readers of the work of the German Primate Center. The Report is financed by subscriptions and advertisements. The subscription fee is now $8 (DM 15) per issue. All correspondence and articles for the Report should be addressed to Ulrich Zeller, Zentrum Anatomie der Universitat, Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 36, D - 3400, Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany.
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The 11th annual continuing education course on "Comparative Pathlogy" will be presented April 30, May 1-2, 1984 at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC. This course is specially designed to bring attention to disease processes in animals for which similar entities occur in man. Differences and similarities of pathologic lesions as well as the biologic behavior of specific entities will be compared in animals and man. Application forms to attend the course may be obtained by contacting The Director, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, (AFIP-EDE), Washington, DC 20306. Completed application forms should be returned by April 16, 1984. Non-federal civilians and foreign nationals are required to submit a $75.00 fee, payable to the Treasurer of the United States. Military and federal service employees in the medical, veterinary and other medical fields are requested to consult respective agency regulations for appropriate application procedures. Civilian physicians, veterinarians and allied scientists are invited to apply. All applications will be considered on a space available basis.
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Primates of the World: Distribution, Abundance, and
Conservation. Jaclyn H. Wolfheim. Seattle: University of
Washington Press, 1983. 856 pp. [Price: $57.50]
. . .This book is intended to inform readers where each species of non-human primates is found in the wild and what its status is. Each species account contains an original range map, sections on taxonomy, distribution, abundance and density, habitat, factors affecting populations (habitat alteration and human predation), conservation action, and tables showing particulars of distribution as reported in the literature and in personal communications between fieldworkers and the author.
Child Abuse: The Nonhuman Primate Data (Monographs in
Primatology. Vol. 1). Martin Reite & Nancy G. Caine (Eds.).
New York: Alan R. Liss, 1983. 200 pp. [Price: $28.]
. . .Contents: 1. Child abuse in humans: A clinician's view, by J. A. Rogers. 2. Infant abuse in captive pig-tailed macaques: Relevance to human child abuse, by N. Caine, & M. Reite. 3. Infant-directed abuse in a seminatural environment: Precipitating factors, by S. J. Schapiro, & G. Mitchell. 4. A history of motherless mother monkey mothering at the University of Wisconsin Primate Laboratory, by S. J. Suomi, & C. Ripp. 5. Primate infant abuse: Communication and conflict, by J. Erwin. 6. The ecological context of infant maltreatment in primates, by E. Plimpton, & L. Rosenblum. 7. Variability in the parental conduct of captive great apes and some generalizations to humankind, by T. L. Maple, & A. Warren-Leubecker. 8. Experiential influences on infant abuse of gorillas and some other nonhuman primates, by R. D. Nadler. 9. Child abuse in monkeys and humans: A comparative perspective, by T. Field.
Viral and Immunological Diseases in Nonhuman Primates
(Monographs in Primatology.
Vol. 2). S. S. Kalter (Ed.).
New York: Alan R. Liss, 1983. 278 pp. [Price: $30.]
. . .Proceedings of a symposium, entitled "Use of Nonhuman Primates in Exotic Viral and Immunological Disease," held in San Antonio, Texas, Feb. 28-March 3, 1982. Contents: 1. Nonhuman primates, their use in biomedical research, by J. R. Held. 2. Occurrence of spontaneous diseases, by K. Benirschke. 3. Future needs of primates in exotic diseases, by H. L. Amyx, D. M. Asher, C. J. Gibbs, Jr., & D. C. Gajdusek. 4. Genetics of nonhuman primates in relation to viral diseases, by J. L. VandeBerg. 5. Primate viruses--their significance, by S. S. Kalter. 6. Nonhuman primates in viral oncology, by R. L. Heberling. 7. Lymphotropic herpesviruses of nonhuman primates, by H. Rabin. 8. The use of nonhuman primates in human viral hepatitis, by F. Deinhardt. 9. Newer methods for the detection of primate viruses, by E. H. Lennette, & N. J. Schmidt. 10. Immunohematologic parameters in nonhuman primates: Applications in husbandry and in biomedical research, by W. W. Socha, & J. Moor-Jankowski. 11. The marmoset as a model for clinical and basic immunology, by N. Gengozian. 12. Biohazards and protection of personnel, by P. J. Gerone. 13. Animals other than simians for the study of disease, by R. A. Whitney, Jr.
. . .SHORT REPORTS. Clinical history and viral characterization of delta herpesvirus infection in a patas monkey colony, by E. A. Gard, & W. T. London. Development of an in vivo model system (tree shrew) for investigation of organotropic function of herpes simplex virus, by G. Darai, J. Scholz, & H.-G. Koch. Fetal infection of the baboon (papio cynocephalus) with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, by R. Ackermann, S. S. Kalter, R. L. Heberling, B. McCullough, D. M. Boenig, & J. W. Eichberg. Comparison of infectivity of human non-A/non-B hepatitis and the GB hepatitis agent in marmosets, by R. O. Whittington, R. H. Decker, C. -M. Ling, & L. R. Overby. Anemia in chimpanzees on hepatitis studies, by E. Muchmore. The chimpanzee as an experimental model in cancer research, by J. S. Rhim, & R. J. Huebner. Induction of chimpanzee sarcoma in an infant chimpanzee after transplantation of human osteosarcoma nonproducer cells infected with baboon endogenous virus, by J. S. Rhim, R. J. Huebner, R. L. Heberling, & S. S. Kalter. Is the tree shrew a model system for the investigation of Hodgkin's disease?, by G. Darai, H. -D. Koch, P. Moller, H. Hofmann, H. Gelderblom, & R. M. Flugel. The pathology of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in non-immune and immunized monkeys, by A. Baskerville, P. Hambleton, J. R. Stephenson, & C. Wiblin. Viruses in nonhuman primate stools, by G. C. Smith, R. L. Heberling, & S. S. Kalter. Enzootic retroperitoneal fibromatosis in Macaca Spp., by W. E. Giddens, Jr., W. R. Morton, E. Hefti, S. Panem, & H. Ochs. The role of the joint ICLAS/WHO medium-term programme on laboratory animal health in the international primate resources programme, by T. Fujikura.
Blood Groups of Primates: Theory, Practice, Evolutionary
Meaning (Monographs in Primatology.
Vol. 3). Wladyslaw W. Socha &
Jacques Ruffie. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1983. 282 pp.[Price: $56.]
. . .The aim of this book is a review of the current knowledge about the immunology of the red cells of primates and a discussion of some immunological processes associated with the differentiation of species. Contents: 1. The place of primates in the animal kingdom. 2. Taxonomy of living primates. 3. Monkeys and man. 4. History of the discovery of blood groups in monkeys. 5. The A-B-O system. 6. The M-N system. 7. The rhesus system. 8. Blood systems specific to cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys). 9. Methodology of blood grouping in nonhuman primates. 10. Spontaneously occurring agglutinins in primate sera. 11. Practical applications of blood group studies in nonhuman primates. 12. Prospects offered by the study of blood groups of nonhuman primates.
The Behavior of Gonadectomized Rhesus Monkeys
(Contributions to Primatology.
Vol. 20). James D. Loy, Kent Loy,
Geoffrey Keifer, & Clinton Conaway. 144 pp. [Price: DM 79; U.S.
. . .This monograph presents the results of a study of gonadectomized rhesus monkeys designed to explore the interactions between hormones and social factors in the production of primate behavior. Matching experimental and control groups were drawn from the yearling and two-year-old members of one group on Cayo Santiago. Both groups were housed in outdoor corrals, and all experimental monkeys were gonadectomized pre- or peri-pubertally. Behavioral observations were conducted for 4 years post-operatively, ending when all animals were fully adults. Data are presented on behavioral development and social organization, including such aspects as agonism, sexual behavior, and several forms of 'friendly' interaction. Information on the behavioral transition from immaturity to adulthood and the variables influencing that transition is also presented.
Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach.
Robert A. Hinde (Ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 1983. 384 pp.
[Price: Cloth--$40. Paper--$2l.]
. . .The book is organized into 13 chapters, most of which contain an introductory survey followed by one or more individual contributions. The latter are varied in nature and include empirical data, reviews and theoretical models, but concern primarily three reasonably well-known species--rhesus macaques, baboons, and vervet monkeys. The contributors were: C. M. Berman, B. Chapais, D. L. Cheney, J. Colvin, S. B. Datta, R. I. M. Dunbar, A. H. Harcourt, R. A. Hinde, J. M. Hooley, P. C. Lee, C. J. Moss, J. H. Poole, K. L. R. Rasmussen, S. R. Schulman, R. M. Seyfarth, M. J. A. Simpson, B. B. Smuts, J. Stevenson-Hinde, K. J. Stewart, and R. W. Wrangham. Contents: 1. A Conceptual Framework. 2. Species, Study Sites and Methods. 3. Description of Social Behaviour. 4. Individual Characteristics and the Social Situation. 5. Influence of Individual Characteristics upon Relationships. 6. Development and Dynamics of Relationships. 7. Effects of Interactions and Relationships upon the Individual. 8. Influence of the Social Situation on Relationships. 9. Triadic Interactions and Relationships. 10. Description of and Proximate Factors Influencing Social Structure. 11. Intergroup Relationships. 12. Ultimate Factors Determining Individual Strategies, Relationships, and Social Structure. 13. Generality of the Approach to Other Species.
Choice of associate by nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1975-1983. J. B. Williams. Seattle, Primate Information Center, 1984. 18 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Send order to: Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
Defective maternal behavior in nonhuman primates: A bibliography. J. B. Williams. Seattle, Primate Information Center, 1984. 14 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Order information same as above.]
Tool use by nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1940-1974. J. B. Williams. Seattle, Primate Information Center, 1984. 13 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Order information same as above.]
Tool use by nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1975-1983. J. B. Williams. Seattle, Primate Information Center, 1984. 11 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 predpaid). Order information same as above.]
(5th Ed.)). Bethesda, MD: Division of
Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, 1983 (NIH
Publication No. 84-1431).
. . .This is a complete revision of the 1981 edition of the Directory prepared by the Research Resources Information Center for the Division of Research Resources (DRR), National Institutes of Health. It is one of a series of directories of the special research resource facilities and services supported by the DRR throughout the U.S. This new directory is a guide for scientists seeking sources of assistance and collaboration involving animals in health research. The entries are organized by type of resource. Each entry includes the name of the resource; the name, address, and telephone number of the principal investigator or resource director; research emphasis of the resource; and the services provided. A geographical index to these resources is provided at the end of the directory. Refer all inquiries about this publication to: Research Resources Information Center, 1776 East Jefferson Street, Rockville, Maryland 20852 (Phone: 301-881-4150); or Office of Science and Health Reports, Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20205 (Phone: 301-496-5545).
(Revised 1983). Bethesda, MD:
Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, 1983
(NIH Publication No. 83-1430).
. . .A list of the resources of the Biotechnology Resources Program. The Program concentrates on the application of the physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering to biology and medicine. Ultrasophisticated instruments, the latest state-of-the-art methods, and expert support personnel are provided by the program to help life scientists. The program's capabilities include large-scale and minicomputer systems; biochemical and biophysical instruments (mass spectrometers, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, electron spin resonance spectrometers); million-volt electron microscopes; lasers; flow cytometers; vibrating probes; biomedical engineering technologies; and production of biochemical research materials. The complex computer systems are used primarily for statistical data reduction, mathematical analyses, biomedical modeling , and organized knowledge systems. Other computers are used for specialized operations such as monitoring vital signs in critically ill patients. The biomedical and biophysical instruments facilitate research on biological structure and function at the molecular level. The biochemical materials resources produce labeled chemical compounds for use in research.
. . . The Program works with biomedical scientists toward the development of new research technologies or new applications of existing technologies. In addition, the program provides training for the research community in the use of all biotechnological tools and procedures. The biotechnology resources supported by the program are available for use by scientists with qualified projects. [Refer all inquiries on this publication to the sources listed in the preceding entry.]
Special Journal Issues
Diseases of the Gastroitestinal Tract and Pancreas of Nonhuman Primates.
Harold M. McClure (Ed.).
Veterinary Pathology, 1982, 19, Supplement 17, 1-209.
. . .The papers contained in this issue were presented in abstract form at a symposium held at the Letterman Army Institute of Research, San Francisco on March 19, 1979. Contents: Early colonic lesions in experimental shigella infection in rhesus monkeys: Revisited, by Takeuchi, A. Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in rhesus monkeys, by Holmberg, C. A., Henrickson, R. V., Malaga, C., Schneider, R., & Gribble, D. Infection by spirilla in the stomach of the rhesus monkey, by Sato, T., & Takeuchi, A. Infection of the colon of the rhesus monkey by spiral-shaped organisms, by Zeller, J., & Takeuchi, A. Enteric Viruses of nonhuman primates, by Kalter, S. S. The pathoparasitology of the alimentary tract and pancreas on nonhuman primates: A review, by Toft, J. D. II. Mycotic infections of the alimentary tract of nonhuman primates: A review, by Migaki, G., Schmidt, R. E., Toft, J. D. II, & Kaufmann, A. F. Gastrointestinal neoplasms in nonhuman primates: A review and report of eleven new cases, by DePaoli, A., & McClure, H. M. Acute gastric dilatation in nonhuman primates: Review and case studies, by Pond, C. L., Newcomer, C. E.., & Anver, M. R. Mucosal microhernias in the nonhuman primate colon: Their role in the pathogenesis of colonic disease, by Scott, G. B. D. An analysis of the association of gastroenteric lesions with chronic wasting syndrome of marmosets, by Chalifoux, L. V., Bronson, R. T., Escajadillo, A., & McKenna, S. Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal disease in macaques, by Holmberg, C. A., Leininger, R., Wheeldon, E., Slater, D., Henrickson, R., & Anderson J. Adenoviral pancreatitis in rhesus monkeys: Current knowledge, by Chandler, F. W., & McClure, H. M. Insular amyloidosis in spontaneously diabetic nonhuman primates, by Palotay, J. L., & Howard, C. F., Jr. A survey of pancreatic lesions in nonhuman primates, by McClure, H. M., & Chandler, F. W.
Aneurysms in a large colony of squirrel monkeys
(Dept. of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray Sch. of Med., Wake Forest
University, Winston-Salem, NC 27103.)
Laboratory Animal Science, 1983, 33, 589-592.
. . .This communication reports the findings of a retrospective study of extracranial aneurysms found at necropsy in a large colony of squirrel monkeys. Eleven (1.5%) of 730 cases had dissecting, saccular, or fusiform aneurysms of the carotid arteries or aorta. Saccular and fusiform aneurysms were found only in animals that had been fed atherogenic diets, whereas dissecting aneurysms occurred in both normo- and hypercholesterolemic monkeys. Neither the type or location of aneurysms, however, could be predicted by the length of time an animal consumed an atherogenic diet, nor by the total mean serum cholesterol concentration. The anatomical characteristics, location, and incidence of aneurysms found in squirrel monkeys resembled closely those observed in human autopsy cases.
(Saguinus oedipus oedipus):
Hematologic reference values and hemopathologic responses. Hawkey, C.
M., Hart, M. G., Knight, J. A., Fitzgerald, A. K., &
Jones, D. M. (Dept. of Veterinary Sci., Inst. of Zoology, Zoological
Society of London, London NW1 4RY, England.)
American Journal of Primatology 1983, 5, 231-239.
. . .Hematologic reference values have been established for captive adult cotton-top tamarins by carrying out full blood counts and fibrinogen estimation on 43 clinically normal animals. Females were shown to have significantly lower hemoglobin levels, red cell counts and packed cell volumes, and higher reticulocyte counts than males. The reference values were used to identify abnormal changes in the blood of 13 clinical cases. Marked neutrophilia was found in animals with localized bacterial infections, and a degenerative left shift was recorded in an individual with streptococcal septicemia. Three cases of unexplained progressive muscle wasting showed Heinz body aneimia and abnormal white cell changes. These hematologic responses have been compared where possible with those recorded in other species of Callithricidae.
Tupaia herpesviruses: Characterization and biological properties.
Darai, G., Zoeller, L., Matz, B., Fluegel, R. M., Moeller, P., Hofmann,
W., Gelderblom, H.., & Delius, H. (Inst. f. Medizinische Virologie,
Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 6900 Heidelberg,
Fed. Rep. of Germany).
. . .Four distinct herpesviruses THV-1, 2, 3, and 4 have been isolated. The characterization and biological properties of these herpesviruses is the subject of this report. It is remarkable that two out of the four known Tupaia herpesviruses were directly isolated from metastisizing tumors, in one case from a malignant lymphoma and in the other case from a Hodgkins's-like disease.
Carcinoma of the colon in the cotton-top tamarin: A radiographic
Clapp, N. K., Henke, M. A., Holloway, E. C., & Tankersley, W. G.,
(Med. and Hlth. Sci. Division, Oak Ridge Assoc. Univ., Oak Ridge, TN
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association,
. . .This paper describes an extension of a previously reported radiographic technique that permits tumor-bearing tamarins to be identified at an early stage. Their clinical course can then be monitored, thus providing information about the pathogenesis and time course of the disease.
Causes of death of infant rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Padovan, D.,
& Cantrell, C. (Delta Reg. Prim. Res. Ctr., Covington, LA 70433.)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association,
. . .The necropsy records of 144 infant rhesus monkeys and 38 infant squirrel monkeys that died during a 2-year period at the Delta Regional Primate Research Center were reviewed for causes of deaths and other clinically important findings. Bronchopneumonia, enteric diseases, and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections were the most frequent causes of death in infant rhesus monkeys. Trauma was the most frequent cause of death in squirrel monkeys less than 1 month old and bronchopneumonia was the most frequent cause of death in older squirrel monkey infants.
Epizootic of parainfluenza-3 virus infection in gibbons. Martin, D.
P., & Kaye, H. S. (Biomed. Prod. Dept., Du Pont Experimental Station,
Wilmington, DE 19898.)
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association,
. . .A laboratory-housed breeding colony of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) experienced an epizootic of upper respiratory tract disease characterized by lethargy, anorexia, coughing, and serous rhinorrhea. Signs were more severe in adults than in offspring, and all animals recovered without complications. Base-line, acute, and convalescent sera from the most severely affected gibbons were tested for antibodies against a wide spectrum of infectious agents. For personnel known to have had contact with the gibbons, testing for the same agents was done on base-line sera and sera obtained at the same time as the acute and convalescent sera were obtained from the gibbons. Rising titers against parainfluenza-3 virus were detected in 6 or 7 gibbons tested. An increase in titer was not seen in the sera of personnel.
Hepatic and gastric amebiasis in black and white colobus monkeys.
Loomis, M. R., Britt, J. O., Gendron, A. P., Holshuh, H. J., & Howard,
E. B. (Hlth. Ctr., Los Angeles Zoo, 5333 Zoo Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90027).
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association,
. . .Three cases of hepatic amebiasis and one case of gastric amebiasis were diagnosed in black and white colobus monkeys during a 9-month period. The diagnosis was difficult because of the absence of trophozoites and cysts in the feces and because of few trophozoites found in many of the hepatic lesions. Indirect hemagglutination titers were diagnostic in 2 monkeys.
Electrocardiogram and His bundle electrogram of Japanese monkeys
Imanishi, S., Arita, M., Aomine, M., & Kiyosue, T. (Dept. of
Physiology, Faculty of Med., Med. College of Oita, 1-1506 Idaigaoka
Hazama-cho Oita 879-56, Japan.
. . .Electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from Macaca fuscata in the supine position under secobarbital anesthesia. The ECG was similar to that of humans as well as monkeys of other species in their general patterns and in the voltage of each wave (P, Q, R, S, T), though the heart rate was considerably different. The direction of T wave was consistent with that of human ECG. The PR, QRS and QT intervals and the duration of P wave were in good agreement with those of monkeys of other species, and amounted to about 50% of those of human ECG. His bundle electrogram (HBE) was recorded with electrode catheter inserted into the right ventricle via the femoral vein, and PA, AH, HV and PV intervals were measured. All of the values were also approximately 50% of those reported in human HBE. Such short time intervals observed in Macaca fuscata may be due to a smaller heart size of the monkey as compared to the human's.
The hemogram, serum biochemistry, and electrolyte
profile of aged
Kessler, M. J., Rawlins, R. G., & London, W. T. (Caribbean Prim.
Res. Ctr., P.O. Box 1057, Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico, 00749).
Journal of the Medical Primatology,
. . .The hemogram, serum biochemicals, and electrolytes of aged (15- to 28-year-old) rhesus monkeys were compared with values for younger adults (4-14 yr old) maintained under identical conditions. Aged males had lower mean corpuscular volume, serum iron and magnesium, and higher percentages of eosinophils, globulins, and triglycerides than adult males. Aged females had lower corpuscular hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, percentage of neutrophils, alkaline phosphatase and magnesium, and higher percentages of lymphocytes and eosinophils, globulins, and uric acid than adult females.
Blood values of free-ranging patas monkeys
Kessler, M. J., Phoebus, E. C., Rawlins, R. G., Turnquist, J. E., &
London, W. T. (Address same as above).
Journal of the Medical Primatology,
. . .Free-ranging patas monkeys from El Guayacan island, Puerto Rico, were surveyed to establish values for the hemogram, serum biochemicals, calcium, and phosphorus. Results were tabulated for males and nonpregnant/nonlactating, pregnant, and lactating females. A summary of blood values from previous studies on captive patas monkeys was also presented for comparison.
Chromosomal analysis of perinatal death in
Small, M. F., & Smith, D. G. (Dept. of Anthro., Univ. of CA., Davis,
American Journal of Primatology,
. . .Peripheral blood samples from 53 macaque perinatal deaths at the California Regional Primate Research Center were cultured to produce chromosomes for analysis. Karyotypes were constructed for 26 successful cultures and revealed no apparent chromosomal anomalies. A genetic screening program at primate breeding facilities is important for estimating the frequency of chromosomal anomalies in macaques and for understanding the contribution of chromosomal anomalies to reproductive loss and congenital malformations in macaques.
Neonatal deaths in bonnet monkeys born to dams with rudimentary
papillae mammae. Sesline, D. H., Simpson, J., & Henrickson, R. V. (CA.
Prim. Res. Ctr., Univ. of CA., Davis, CA 95616.)
Laboratory Animal Science,
. . .Deaths due to dehydration and starvation occurred in the early neonatal period in bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) infants housed with their dams in an outdoor half-acre corral. Dams were found to have small, rudimentary papillae mammae of insufficient size to permit suckling. Both papillary and breast tissue of affected dams were histologically normal; the nipples differed macroscopically from those of normal females only in size. This abnormality accounted for half of the neonatal mortality experienced in this breeding colony over a 5-year period.
Hysterosalpingography: A technique to aid in assessment of
reproductive fitness of female squirrel monkeys
Abee, C. R., & Aksel, S. (Dept. of Comp. Med., College of Medicine,
University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688.)
Laboratory Animal Science,
. . .A hysterosalpingography method was developed to examine the uterine cavity and oviducts of potential additions to our squirrel monkey breeding colony and those animals within the colony with a history of infertility. Females to be examined were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency. A needle was inserted transabdominally into the body of the uterus, the cervix was sealed with a clamp applied vaginally, and water soluble contrast media was infused into the uterine cavity with sufficient pressure to fill the oviducts. Radiographs were obtained during infusion resulting in visualization of the uterine cavity and the lumina of the oviducts. The ovaries were visualized as they were surrounded by contrast media draining from the fimbriae of the oviducts. Hysteriosalpingography proved to be a useful method for clinical evaluation of reproductive potential of female squirrel monkeys. It also has provided a means to diagnose causes of infertility associated with dysfunction of the oviducts.
A 4-year summary of the nonsurgical recovery of baboon embryos: A
report on 498 eggs. Pope, V. Z., Pope, C. E., & Beck, L. R. (Cook
Springs Primate Facility, Box 45, Cook Springs, AL 35052.)
American Journal of Primatology,
. . .A nonsurgical embryo recovery procedure, developed to allow the economical acquisition of cleavage stage baboon embryos, has been successfully used for 4 years. With this technique, 498 eggs have been recovered from 979 uterine flushes (50.9%) on 71 baboons. Of 467 eggs recovered from mated baboons, 290 (62.1%) were fertilized. Papio anubis females provided a higher percentage of fertilized eggs (75.3%) than did P. hamadryas (47.8%) or P. cynocephalus (44.3%) females following exposure to males during estrus. The optimum time for performing the procedure was the third day PD, when 113 (40%) embryos were recovered. The abilities of baboons to become pregnant and to provide fertilized embryos were significantly related, allowing the embryo recovery technique to be used as a screening procedure for evaluating baboon fertility.
The effects of dominance on mating behavior and paternity in a
captive troop of rhesus monkeys
Curie-Cohen, M., Yoshihara, D., Luttrell, L., Benforado, K.,
MacCluer, J. W., & Stone, W. H. (Stone, Dept. of Biology, Trinity
University, 715 Stadium Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284.)
American Journal of Primatology,
. . .The effects of social dominance on male mating behavior and paternity in a troop of rhesus monkeys were examined. A wild-caught troop of monkeys, captured in India in 1972, has been monitored in captivity for eight years. The frequency and duration of copulation in any one year appeared to reflect a male's rank in the dominance hierarchy. However, in all but one year of our study, the largest number of offspring were sired, not by the dominant male, but by young males who were second or third in rank. This study demonstrates that observed copulations are imprecise indicators of paternity, and that paternity in any one breeding season is a poor indictor of the genetic struture of a population.
Outbreak of severe aggression in captive
A., & Henrickson, R. V. (Henrickson, California Primate Research
Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.)
American Journal of Primatology,
. . .An outbreak of severe aggression ocurred among females in rhesus macaque breeding group at the California Primate Research Center 4 years after the group was established. During the breeding season in which this occurred, the incidence of injured females in other breeding groups at the Center was significantly higher than in the previous year. This breeding season was the first in which a large number of females reached sexual maturity. The group in which the most severe aggression occurred contained the largest number and proportion of maturing females. These results emphasize the need for exchange of information between behavioral researchers and those managing breeding colonies of monkeys. Ongoing behavioral monitoring schemes and greater attention to demographic factors other than total size and density will add to the productivity and quality of conditions in captive populations, as well as increase basic understanding of factors that facilitate and limit severe aggression.
Influence of male aggression on mating of gorillas in the
laboratory. Nadler, R. D., & Miller, L. C. (Yerkes Regional Primate
Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.)
. . .The frequency of sexual interactions between oppositely-sexed pairs of gorillas tested in the laboratory was directly related to the frequency of male aggression directed toward the female. The data suggest that male aggression stimulated female presenting and copulation, and accounted for mating temporally dissociated from the periovulatory period. Among the great apes tested in the laboratory, the male primarily accounts for mating that is unlikely to contribute to reproduction.
Facilities and Care
Cage-size effects on locomotor, grooming and agonistic behaviors of
the slow loris,
(Primates, Lorisidae). Daschbach, N. J., Schein, M. W., & Haines, D. E.
(Schein, Dept. Biol., W. Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV 26505)
Applied Animal Ethology,
. . .Slow lorises were housed in male-female pairs under 2 experimental conditions. One pair was kept in a 0.42-cu-m cage and a second pair was allowed the run of an 8.75-cu-m walk-in cage. Animals in the walk-in cage showed significantly higher amounts of locomotion than they did in the small cage, but differences in amounts of allo- and auto-grooming, and in amounts of agonistic behavior, were not correlated with cage size. Recommendations for cage sizes depend upon the uses for which the animal is being kept. Results of the experiments in this study indicate that slow lorises kept in larger cages will be more active than those housed in cages approaching recommendations for size proposed by the U.S. National Research Council. Serious consideration of the effects of reduced activity on the animal must be made in determination of cage size.
National and international services for primate animal research.
Kalter, S. S. (Southwest Foundations for Research and Education, P.O.
Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .Extensive use of nonhuman primates for biomedical research has contributed to periodic acute shortages of these animals. As a result, various resources have been developed to assist investigators in maintaining healthy colonies and conserving stocks. A wide range of expertise is available at the national and international levels to investigators working with nonhuman primates.
Standard nomenclature for primate breeding and husbandry. Hall, A.
S. (Dept. of Animal Care, Oregon Hlth. Sci. Univ., 3181 S. W. San
Veckson Park Rd., Portland, OR 97201)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .Managers of primate colonies seek to record colony data in a systematic way which will be helpful in daily management. Each colony develops individual record systems, tailored to its specific operations and budget. These diversified systems provide the base for a set of uniform record items, which enables information to be shared among institutions, and used for the overall management of a self-sustaining captive primate population, as well as for national planning of primate resources. The present report identifies basic information needed for local colony management and data items that require standard nomenclature. Such data will provide the basic demographic profiles unavailable at most primate colonies today.
Government regulation of nonhuman primate facilities. Meyers, N. M.
(Meyers, Marshall & Meyers, 1050 17th St., NW., Washington, DC 20036)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .Myriad international, federal, and state laws, regulations, rules, guidelines, and standards directly affect the activities of all nonhuman primate research facilities. Federal regulations alone encompass every aspect of facility operations. They govern (a) the procurement, possession, handling, care, and utilization of nonhuman primates, (b) the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the facility, and (c) the occupational and environmental protection afforded not only facility personnel, but also the general public. Proper management of a nonhuman primate facility depends on continual monitoring of constantly changing laws and regulations applicable to the type of facility operated and research conducted. An in-house compliance assurance program is necessaary to assure conformance with pertinent regulations.
U.S. laws, regulations, and policies important to managers of
nonhuman primate colonies. Johnson, D. K., & Morin, M. L. (National
Institutes of Health, Bldg. 14D, Room 301, Bethesda, MD 20205)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .The various animal welfare laws, regulations, policies, accreditation standards, and welfare groups have an obvious impact on the activities of managers of nonhuman primate colonies. Federal organizations such as the Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Interior, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Transportation, and the Justice Department regulate many aspects of animal management. Pertinent guidance is available through scientific organizations such as the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care and the National Academy of Sciences. Finally, the recommendations of responsible animal welfare organizations should also receive careful consideration.
The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.
Schwindaman, D. F. (Technical Assessment Staff, NPPS-VS-APHIS-USDA,
Federal Bldg. Rm. 703, Hyattsville, MD 20782)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .The Animals Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department og Agriculture is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for reseaarch, testing, or experimentation.
National and international regulations governing transportation and
supply of primate animals. Parsons, R. M. (12th Floor, 1050 17th St.,
N.W., Washington, DC 20036)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .Import and export of primates is controlled by the Endangered Species Act and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Permits are required for all international transactions, and certain primates may not be traded at all for commercial permits.
Comparison of research cost: Man-primate animal-otheir animal
models. Fitzgerald, T. A. (Office of Grants Administration and
Institutional Studies, New York University Medical Center, 550 First
Ave., New York, NY 10016)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .The costs of research in human subjects are compared to those in primate animals and in other animal models on the basis of data available from a U.S. institution. The cost of experimentation in a chimpanzee is 3.59% of the per diem cost of clinical research in man. The cost for the dog is 37.1% of that of the chimpanzee, and the mouse costs 2.02% of the cost of the dog.
Research management of the USSR medical primatology program. Lapin,
B. A. (Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, USSR Academy of
Medical Sciences, Sukhumi, USSR)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .A short historical survey and a more extensive presentation on the present developments of research using primates in the USSR are given.
Primate research resources in the Soviet Union. Held, J. R., & Gay,
W. I. (Division of Research Services, National Institutes of Health,
Bldg. 12A, Rm. 4007, Bethesda, MD 20205)
Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . .The authors visited Soviet medical institutions as part of a USA-USSR Professional Exchange Program sponsored by the Fogarty International Center. The primary purpose of this visit was to obtain a general view of the Soviet use and care of laboratory animals in biomedical research and to lay a foundation for a continuing exchange of information and models.
Instruments and Techniques
A restraint chair for primates. Lennox, M. S., & Taylor, R. G.
(Surgery, Westminster Hosp., Dean Ryle, St., London, SW1, England)
. . .An adjustable, comfortable restraint chair is described which is suitable for a wide variety of experiments on unsedated primates weighing between 3.5 and 15 kg.
A census of the Virunga gorillas. Aveling, C., & Harcourt, A. H.
(Frankfort Zoological Society, Alfred-Brehm Platz 16, 6000 Frankfort am
Main 1, Fed. Rep. of Germany)
Oryx, 1984, 18, 8-13.
. . .The mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) with a wild population of fewer than 400, is the rarest of the three subspecies of gorilla, and is found only in the 375 sq km conservation area of the Virunga volcanoes of Zaire, Rwanda and Uganda, and in 310 sq km Bwindi Forest Reserve of Uganda. Since the early 1960s, the Bwindi Forest population has probably only decreased slightly, but the Virunga population roughly halved between 1960 and the early 1970s. Since 1973, no census of the whole Virunga population has been conducted in all three countries at the same time, although during that period a trade in gorilla skulls and live infants started, and a major conservation program--the Mountain Gorilla Project--was initiated. The census reported in the present article was carried out between May and October 1981 by a team of census workers in collaboration with the relevant government departments from Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. Since the last census the population in question has declined from about 275 to about 255.
In urgent need of protection--habitat for the woolly spider monkey.
Hatton, J., Smart, N., & Thomson, K. (Ecology and Conservation Unit,
University College London, Gover St., London WC1E 6BT, UK)
Oryx, 1984, 18, 24-29.
. . .In 1983, the authors carried out a vegetation and habitat survey in the forest of Fazenda Montes Claros, one of the last remaining refuges for the woolly spider monkey Brachyteles arachnoides. The 47 individuals within the forest form the largest single breeding population in the world today. Rapid and effective action is required to secure this habitat if there is to be any hope of saving this primate from extinction.
* * *
Jules S. Cass, 1513 Sanford Rd., Silver Spring, MD 20902.
Institute of Primate Research, PO Box 34505, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa.
Ronald L. Tilson, Research Dept., Minnesota Zoology Gardens, Apple Valley, MN 55124.
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NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
We are grateful to Linda Straw Coelho of San Antonio, Texas, for providing the cover drawing of a chimpanzee.
Copyright @1984 by Brown University
Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor Helen Janis Shuman