VOLUME 23 NUMBER 2 APRIL 1984
Articles and Notes
An Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Macaque Monkeys, by N. L. Letvin, M. D. Daniel, R. D. Hunt, N. W. King, & R. C. Desrosiers........1
Spontaneous Disease of Marmosets Provides Model for the Study of Ulcerative Colitis and Colon Cancer, by H. J. van Kruiningen........3
News, Information, and Announcements
. . . Research Animals Stolen; Animal Research Discussed at Forum
Barbados Green Monkeys and Blood Specimens Available for Study........2
Workshops -- Animals and the Scientist: Institutional Responsibilities........4
Laboratory Animal Welfare Report Released by NIH........5
A Field School and Research Workshop in Primatology ........6
Interagency Committee Established to Coordinate Research Animal Activities of Federal Agencies........14
Recent Books and Articles ........7
Address Changes ........14
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Norman L. Letvin, Muthiah D. Daniel, Ronald D. Hunt
Norval W. King, & Ronald C. Desrosiers
New England Regional Primate Research Center
We have recently described a disease similar to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the macaque colony of the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC). Monkeys with this disorder have died with unusual opportunistic infections and tumors. Consistent immunologic abnormalities noted in these animals include: dramatically diminished proliferative responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes to lectins and antigens. Furthermore, the T4 (helper/inducer):T8 (suppressor/cytotoxic) ratio of circulating T lymphocytes of the macaques in the colony at greatest risk for developing this syndrome are considerably less than that seen in other macaques. Hematologic data have indicated that animals with this syndrome are anemic and neutropenic. Moreover, affected macaques usually have a bizarre circulating mononuclear cell with vacuolated cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli in their peripheral blood smears.
Histopathologic findings on necropsy of these animals have revealed evidence of opportunistic infections by such agents as cytomegalovirus (CMV), Simian Virus 40, a paramyxovirus, P. carinii, M. avium-intracellulare, Cryptosporidium, C. albicans and Hexamita. Striking lesions of lymphoid tissues have also been seen in these monkeys. Lymph nodes undergo a sequential progression of changes beginning with follicular hyperplasia early in the disease and ending with an effacement of the nodal architecture and the depletion of lymphocytes. In addition, an array of lymphoproliferative changes ranging from nodular infiltrates of small, well-differentiated lymphocytes in the liver, kidney and/or bone marrow to frank lymphomas are seen in these animals.
Epidemiologic studies have indicated that the location in which the animals were caged at the NERPRC constituted a significant risk for the development of this syndrome, implicating a common source agent in the disease process. In fact, we have recently described the transmission of the macaque immunodeficiency syndrome to previously healthy macaques by means of inoculating them with either macaque lymphoma tissue or a cell-free filtrate of a macaque lymphoma. The recipients developed evidence of profound lymphocyte dysfunction and have died with active infections by such opportunistic agents as Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium and CMV. Similar though not identical syndromes have also been described in the macaque colonies at the California Regional Primate Research Center in Davis, California and the Regional Primate Research Center at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington.
These transmission studies implicated an infectious agent in the macaque immunodeficiency syndrome. Adenoviruses, SV40, CMV, paramyxoviruses and foamy viruses have been isolated from affected animals. None of these viruses, however, seemed likely to be etiologic in the macaque immunodeficiency syndrome. We co-cultivated peripheral blood lymphocytes from two macaques with this syndrome with Raji cells, a lymphoblastoid B cell line of human origin. After 7 days large multinucleated cells began appearing in these cultures. Electron microscopic examination revealed numerous type D retrovirus particles in the large cells.
This newly isolated agent is related to but distinct from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), a type D retrovirus previously isolated from a rhesus monkey mammary tumor. We have cloned replicative intermediate (Hirt supernatant) DNA from this new type D retrovirus, devised detailed restriction endonuclease maps and compared this to MPMV maps kindly provided by Eric Hunter of the University of Alabama. Although there are some similarities in Hpa I and Hin D III sites, most sites are not conserved. Furthermore, Type D isolates from M. cyclopis, M. mulatta, and M. fascicularis appeared identical using this restriction endonuclease typing. All these were distinct from MPMV and squirrel monkey type D retrovirus.
The isolation of a similar agent has recently been described at both the California and Washington Primate Research Center. Whether this newly isolated retrovirus is etiologic in the macaque immunodeficiency syndrome or merely another opportunistic agent remains to be determined. Investigators at the California Primate Research Center have reported the death of some macaque inoculated with this retrovirus. Studies done at the NERPRC indicate that inoculated rhesus monkeys develop lymphadenopathy, neutropenia and transient immunologic abnormalities.
The understanding and eventual control of this disease is important for the care of macaques in captivity. It also promises to provide useful insights into the problem of AIDS in man. --Editor's Note. The isolation of a retinovirus from humans with AIDS has just been reported (see for example Research News section in Science, 113, 224, 475-477).
Authors' address: New England Regional Primate Research Center, One Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772.
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Research Animals Stolen
The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) claimed credit for stealing 12 dogs from the Harbor UCLA Medical Center and 6 rats from The Johns Hopkins University during the Christmas holidays. The animal rights organization is the same group that stole 28 cats from the research facilities at Howard University and 2 dogs at the National Naval Medical Center during the previous Christmas. The group claims that all of the dogs, which have experimental pacemakers, have been placed in homes outside of the state. The total loss was estimated at $100,000. At Johns Hopkins, a psychology laboratory was entered and the 6 rats being used for the study of Alzheimer's disease were taken. In a prepared statement the ALF said that animals are "fellow travelers on this planet" and should not be used for "painful, pointless, and repulsive" experiments.
Animal Research Discussed at Forum
The use of animals in research and testing was the focus of a public policy forum sponsored by the National Coalition for Science & Technology, May 7, in Washington, DC. The NCST Forum brought together representatives from the corporate, academic and government research communities to evaluate trends in legislation and regulation and to formulate appropriate responses, and to present current views of animal research and testing. The program was geared toward the concerns of academic researchers, corporate research and testing professionals, university research administrators, government researchers and policy makers and animal laboratory suppliers. NCST represents scientists, educators, business people and engineers who are concerned with the growing crisis in United States science education, research and productivity. For NCST information contact: Sklar Idelson, 800 18th St., NW, `403, Washington, DC 20006. (Phone: 202-223-8460)
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As part of some of the Barbados Primate Research Center's on-going programs concerned with monkey crop damage control and epidemiology of leptospirosis, as well as the continuous screening for acceptable Cercopithecus aethiops for use in polio vaccine production and testing, approximately 1500 wild C. aethiops have been captured and blood specimens collected during the last 3-4 years. Available for study are blood specimens from all of the above monkeys. Serum and RBC samples are maintained in the frozen state and there is corresponding information on the animals' age/sex classification, date and location of capture etc. In addition, the Center is presently holding approximately 500 C. aethiops in individual or gang cages and these animals can be made available for study on-site or abroad and shipped accordingly. Please contact Mr. Jean Baulu, Head and Program Leader, Barbados Primate Research Center, "Hillcrest", Bathsheba, St. Joseph, Barbados, W.I.
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H. J. van Kruiningen
The National Institutes of Health and Oak Ridge Associated Universities recently sponsored a workshop examining the research potential of spontaneous colitis of marmosets. Held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee April 18-20, 1984, the meeting brought together researchers and gastroenterologists from human and veterinary medicine. Separate half-day sessions considered the marmoset as an animal resource, colitis, and colon research.
Many species of marmosets in the wild are known to be threatened or endangered; hence, their use in research must depend largely on breeding them in captivity. However, only limited numbers of species are housed in a few primate centers in this country. While breeding in captivity has been successful, infant mortality is very high. The animals are particularly sensitive to social events within the colony and to handling. Our state of knowledge about their nutrition in captivity is inadequate and information about diets in the wild is lacking. A spontaneous disorder called "chronic wasting syndrome" contributes to mortality and has been attributed to diet and social stresses.
In 1978 Lushbaugh et al. documented an unusual incidence of colonic adenocarcinoma in marmosets at the Oak Ridge colony. While originally reported in several species, the majority of cases occurred in the cotton-topped tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus. What has recently aroused the interests of the research community is the report by Chalifoux and Bronson (1981) from the New England Regional Primate Research Center which suggested a colitis-carcinoma sequence in these animals, similar to that recognized in human ulcerative colitis patients.
At the session addressing colitis, the histologic features of the tamarin colitis were compared with those of ulcerative colitis. Five morphologic stages of colonic disease have been defined in an autopsy series of 177 tamarins from the New England Center. The earliest change recognized consists of crypt abscesses found to occur focally in an otherwise normal colon. The second stage is a diffuse colitis; the third, colitis with distortion of mucosal epithelial architecture; the fourth, adenocarcinoma in situ; and the fifth, invasive carcinoma. Since the tamarins were introduced to the colony in 1976, diffuse colitis has been seen in increasing proportions, i.e., 18% the first year; 38% the second; 63% the third, and 100% the fourth year. Diffuse colitis with mucosal distortion increased in a similar manner, i.e., 2% the first year, 33% the second, 63% the third, and 75% the fourth. Colonic adenocarcinoma were not seen during the first year, occurred in 4% during the second, 38% the third, and 63% during the fourth year. The diffuse colitis consists of numerous crypt abscesses, as well as other evidence of acute and chronic inflammation, including increased numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propria, granulocytes within the mucosal epithelium, decreased numbers of goblet cells, increased numbers of mitosis, and occasionally increased numbers of Paneth cells. The extensive linear ulcerations of human colitis and toxic mega colon are not features of the tamarin colitis. Microbiologic and virologic studies have not identified a cause for the colitis although the epidemiology suggests an infectious etiology. The colitis is responsive to sulfasalazine.
Spontaneous adenocarcinoma occurred in tamarins that had been in captivity for an average of 38.8 mo, with a range of 19-64 mo. Of the 177 animals autopsied by Chalifoux and Bronson, 8% had adenocarcinoma. Clapp et al. (1983), reporting on the Oak Ridge experience, which covered a greater time span, documented a much higher incidence, 34% . The carcinoma is not associated with precursor adenomas, and Yardley, after reviewing the animal material, noted an absence of the displasia precursor seen in human patients with ulcerative colitis. Several studies are underway to identify colon cancer markers in both human and tamarin colitis.
There was a consensus at the meeting, that this spontaneous disease of tamarins offers many opportunities to learn more about ulcerative colitis and the colitis-carcinoma sequence. Finding a means of preserving the colonies in the face of this and other diseases is a primary consideration. The proceedings will be published.
Lushbaugh, C. C., Humason, G. L., Swartzendruber, D. C., Richter, C. B. & Gengozian, N. Spontaneous colonic adenocarcinoma in marmosets. In E. I. Goldsmith, J. Moor-Jankowski, (Eds.), Primates in medicine. Basel: Karger, 1978, 10, 119-134.
Chalifoux, L. V., & Bronson, R. T. Colonic adenocarcinoma associated with chronic colitis in cotton-top marmosets, Saguinus oedipus. Gastroenterology, 1981, 80, 942-946.
Clapp, N. K., Lushbaugh, C. C., Humason, G. L., Gangaware, B. L., & Henke, M. A. A study of early changes in colonic environment associated with spontaneous colon adenocarcinoma in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus. Proceedings of the American Association of Cancer Research, 1983, 24, ll4.
Author's address: Box G, Division of Biology & Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.
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A series of regional educational workshops is planned for 1984-85 by the Scientists' Center for Animal Welfare in cooperation with several universities. Their purpose is to explore the state of the art of Animal Care and Use Committees. These multidisiplinary committees, established by biomedical research institutions on an optional or required basis, review laboratory animal care and use for compliance with nationally accepted humane standards. The goal of the workshops is to identify essential functions, membership criteria, and procedures of effective committees. A final consensus conference will develop national guidelines.
The first was held at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, May 21-22, l984 and was organized in cooperation with The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Among the papers scheduled were the following: Introduction to Program, by W. Jean Dodds; Functions of Animal Care and Use Committees, by David J. Ramsay; Committee Membership, by John D. Strandberg; Committee Procedures, by Frederick A. King; Protocol Review in the Veterans Administration, by Alvin Moreland; Review in an Industrial Facility, by D. Richard Knauff; Animal Care and Use Committees--Who Needs It?, by Richard J. Traystman; Categories of Animal Research, by F. Barbara Orlans; Protocol Preview and Review, by Jeffrey Cohen. In addition small discussion groups analyzed and commented upon assigned case studies. Each case involved an example of an issue that an Animal Care and Use Committee could, in real life, be presented with. All cases were based on fact and included some that pose difficult ethical dilemmas such as long term restraint of primates or chronic pain research. There was a report from each of the groups during a session, "Case Studies: Reports from Group Facilitators."
Other scheduled workshops in this series include Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, October 11-12, 1984 and The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, November 14-15, 1984. Additional workshops will be announced.
For further information about the Scientists' Center for Animal Welfare and the Workshops, write to P. O. Box 3755, Washington, DC 20007 (Phone: 301-229-8045).
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The results of a series of site visits to 10 randomly selected institutions that receive funds from the NIH for research projects involving animals have been published in a special Edition of the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts (Vol. 13, No. 5, April 5, 1984). The special Edition consists of three parts. The first is entitled: "Site Visits to Animal Care Facilities: A Report to the Director of the National Institutes of Health, March, 1984;" the second part: "Preamble - Proposed Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Animals by Awardee Institutions;" and the third part: "Proposed Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Animals by Awardee Institutions."
The following is a statement about the special publication by Dr. William F. Raub, Deputy Director for Extramural Research and Training, NIH.
On several occasions over the past two years, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) published notices about its plan to conduct site visits to awardee institutions to determine the adequacy of its present assurance system for promoting the proper care and use of animals in biomedical research. The Office of Extramural Research and Training (OERT) completed its formal assessment in late 1983. The results of a series of site visits to ten awardee institutions are presented in the report, "Site Visits to Animal Care Facilities: A Report to the Director of the National Institutes of Health, March 1984."
The report concludes that reliance on the present NIH policy of voluntary compliance with the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act and NIH policy outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is an effective way to foster the welfare of laboratory animals. At the same time, the site visits proved very informative and suggested ways by which the NIH might make its assurance process even more effective. One major recommendation is to expand and strengthen the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on laboratory animals.
Although institutions and research investigators have the primary responsibility for the proper care and use of animals in PHS-funded projects, the Office for the Protection from Research Risks (OPRR), NIH, is responsible for the general administration and policy. No PHS awards involving animals or animal facilities are made unless an acceptable written assurance statement is on file with the OPRR, NIH.
During the past year, the OPRR has given the PHS policy careful review and is now prepared to make its latest (March 1984) draft revision, "Public Health Service, Policy on Humane Care and Use of Animals by Awardee Institutions," available for comment by the biomedical community and the general public. The Policy reflects several changes in policy and procedures, some suggested as a result of the recent series of site visits.
Because of intense interest in these recent initiatives, we have decided to publish these related documents in a special edition of the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. The NIH, as a steward of public funds, has been mindful about public concerns about animal experimentation and continues to make vigorous efforts on behalf of animal welfare. This OERT site visit report and the draft revised PHS Policy are the products of activities directed toward ensuring the welfare of research animals.
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Applications for a limited enrollment are now being accepted for a field school/research workshop in primatological methods and procedures to be held in South Carolina from June 14 to July 19, 1984. This program will be under the direction and co-ordination of Dr. David M. Taub, Associate Director of the Yemassee Primate Center and principal investigator of the FDA sponsored, rhesus macaque breeding program at Morgan Island. This program will be designed for the post-DVM trainee specializing in laboratory animal medicine, laboratory-trained psychobiologists interested in field primatology, developmental psychologists interested in applying ethological methods to the study of human behavior, and the advanced undergraduate and graduate student in the behavioral sciences. The general purpose of this program is to provide the participants with intensive applied training in, experience with research on, and an understanding of the methods, techniques, protocols and procedures of biobehavioral primatology conducted in a natural, field setting.
This field program focuses heavily on practical application and direct experience. Daily, participants will practice applying the procedures, techniques and protocols that will be presented by faculty experts. The daily sessions will be 10 hours per day (8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.), six days per week (Monday through Saturday), for five weeks, for a total of some 300 direct hours of instruction, application and practice. All lectures, demonstrations, practicals and observations will be done on the free-ranging rhesus breeding colony (N=250 animals in 21 social groups) on the 400 acre, naturally wooded Morgan Island (except for some week 5 activities which will be done at the Yemassee Primate Center).
The five week curriculum is designed to provide an intensive exposure to and experience in a wide range of fundamental research methods and techniques in field primatology:
Week 1. "Introduction to Behavioral Primatology and the Fundamentals of Rhesian Social Organization". Dr. James Loy, Instructor.
Week 2. "Fundamentals of Data Collection Protocols." Dr. Jeffrey A. Kurland, Instructor.
Week 3. "Automated Modalities of Data Collection and Methods of Analysis." Dr. E. O. Smith, Instructor.
Week 4. Continuation of Week 2 and 3 activities, plus "Audio and Video Techniques of Communication and its Analysis." Dr. E. O. Smith, Dr. Laura Vick, Dr. David Taub, Instructors
Week 5. "Biometric and Biomedical Procedures." Dr. Laura Vick, DR. William Pollitzer, Dr. Jefferson Carraway, Dr. David Taub, Instructors
A registration fee of $1100 is required to defray essential costs of this program, including provision of lodging for the participants (in Beaufort, SC), and transportation to and from Savannah, GA or Charleston, SC to Beaufort, SC.
Because this program will be limited to 10-12 participants, and because we expect more applications than can be accommodated, positions will mostly be reserved on a first come-first served basis, although several slots are being held for post-DVM participants. Basic equipment will be provided; however, participants are encouraged (but not required) to bring their own binoculars, cameras, etc. Weather will be hot and humid--field boots and light cotton (or blend) clothing is desirable. Upon receipt of the registration form/deposit, full and complete information, curriculum schedule, etc. will be provided.--Contact: Dr. David M. Taub, 414 New St., Beaufort, SC 29902 (Residence Phone: 803-524-6872)
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Animal Pain: Perception and Alleviation. Ralph L. Kitchell & Howard
H. Erickson (Eds.) Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1983.
(Distributed by Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD) 221 pp. [Price: $39.95]
. . . This is a publication of papers presented at a symposium held at the 66th Annual Meeting of the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) in New Orleans on April 20-21, 1982. The AVMA Council on Research, with financial support from the AVMA Foundation, planned and organized the symposium. Co-sponsors were the American Physiological Society and the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, who contributed suggestions on planning and organization. The goal of the symposium was to establish the factual background on acute pain in animals from which more detailed and specific information can be developed. Chronic pain in aninuds was not specifically addressed, but the symposium did project research needs to better measure and alleviate pain, discomfort, and anxiety in experimental animals. It was assumed that, as the mechanisms of pain are better understood, the humane treatment and alleviation of pain in experimental animals can be placed on a much firmer scientific basis. The book is divided into two sections, pain perception and alleviation of pain. The former section focuses on peripheral and supraspinal mechanisms involved in pain, segmental neurophysiological mechanisms, spinal cord pathways and control systems, stimulation analgesia and endorphins, behavioral mechanisms for assessment of pain, assessment of pain during surgical procedures, and phylogenetic evolution of pain expression in animals. Alleviation of pain in animals covers drug-disposition factors and species variation, evaluation of analgesic drugs in horses, and control of pain in dogs and cats. There is a significant variation among species in the absorption and biotransformation of drugs used to alleviate pain in animals.
. . . Contents: PERCEPTION OF PAIN. 1. Peripheral mechanisms involved in pain, by L. Kruger, & B. E. Rodin. 2. Neurophysiological mechanisms of nociception, by A. Iggo. 3. Ascending pathways transmitting nociceptive information in animals, by W. D. Willis, Jr. 4. Supraspinal pain mechanisms in the cat, by K. L.. Casey, & T. J. Morrow. 5. Descending control of spinal nociceptive transmission, by E. Carstens. 6. Stimulation-produced analgesia, by T. L. Wolfle, & J. C. Liebeskind. 7. Human and nonhuman primate reactions to painful electrocutaneous stimuli and to morphine, by C. J. Vierck, Jr., B. Y. Cooper, & R. H. Cohen. 8. Concepts of general anesthesia and assessment of adequacy of anesthesia for animal surgery, by E. P. Steffey. 9. Perspectives on phylogenetic evolution of pain expression, by S. G. Dennis, & R. Melzack. ALLEVIATION OF PAIN. 10. Species differences in drug disposition as factors in alleviation of pain, by L. E. Davis. 11. Evaluation of analgesic drugs in horses, by W. V. Lamb, N. L. Pippi, & M. Kalpravidh. 12. Control of pain in dogs and cats, by H. C. Hughes, & C. M. Lang.
The Order of Man: A Biomathematical Anatomy of the Primates. Charles
Oxnard. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984. 366 pp. [Price: $30]
. . . The author presents his view of the order, Primates, based on "morphometrics:" the measurement and analysis of biological form, one of a series of new computer approaches to this subject. The author makes extensive use of pictures, graphs, and drawings to illustrate conclusions about taxonomic relationships within the order based on the data of three basic modes of study of the question: morphological, molecular, and morphometric. The taxonomic system based on morphometrics is, in the author's view, closer to that based on molecular biology than to that of classical morphology.
. . . Contents: 1. HUMAN FOSSILS: THE NEW REVOLUTION. The excitement of new fossils. The excitement of new tools. New views of old bones.
. . . 2. DISTINGUISHING PRIMATES. Primates: convention and controversy. Evolutionary relationships: the basic groundwork. The organismic approach. The biomolecular picture. Points of controversy. Interpolating fossils: the piecemeal approach. Interpolating fossils: studies of the whole. The new methods.
. . . 3. MATHEMATICAL 'DISSECTION' Abstract. Introduction. Discovering structural differences: simple observation. The concept of a group: of data or of organisms. The concept of several groups: of data or of organisms. The concept of interfacers between groups. Examples from real biological data. Discovering structural differences: new methods. One method: the biometric approximation. A second method: the pictorial approach. Yet other methods: the rest of the spectrum. Problems: few measurements versus many. Problems: two dimensions versus three. Problems: keeping geometry versus losing it. Problems: special versus general morphometric points. Problems: two specimens versus many. Problems: testing. Some biological implications of the new methods. Summary.
. . . 4. BIOLOGICAL 'MEANING' OF STRUCTURES. Abstract. 'Biological meanings' of structure. The importance of internal, developmental, factors. The all pervasive effects of function. Structure, function and the structural-functional interface. Animal mechanics: a direct approach. Functional morphology: an indirect evaluation. Average biomechanical situations: locomotor classifications. An alternative: the regional functional spectrum. A summary: the classification versus the spectrum. The 'design' of observations. Observational design: some precautions. Applications to fossils. Summary.
. . . 5. UPPER LIMBS AND TENSION. Abstract. The functions of fore limbs. Early views of upper limb function in primates. The activities of upper limbs. The mix of upper limb functions in individual species. The new biomechanics. Morphometric studies of the primate upper limb. Summary.
. . . 6. LOWER LIMBS AND LEAPING. Abstract. What is leaping? Essays into biomechanics. Anatomy of vertebrate leaping. Leaping in primates. The structural variety of prosimian reapers. Is prosimian leaping even more complex? New studies of leaping behaviour in prosimians. New studies of leaping anatomy in prosimians. Morphometric studies of overall limb form in prosimians. Morphometric studies of the prosimian hip and thigh. A diversion into testing. A diversion into size. Functional implications of these results. Higher primate locomotion. Morphological modes in higher primates. Lower limbs: taxonomy. Summary.
. . . 7. FOUR LIMBS AND QUADRUPEDS. Abstract. Introduction. What is animal quadrupedalism: essays into biomechanics? The quadrupedal theme in vertebrates. Arboreal quadrupedal behaviour of primates. Structural correlates of quadrupedalism. The structure of quadrupeds: a deeper view. Some conclusions on 'generalized' primate quadrupedalism. Summary.
. . . 8. WHOLE PRIMATES: THEIR ARRANGEMENT BY ANATOMIES. Abstract. Introduction. The combination of upper and lower limbs. The head, neck and trunk. Other anatomical combinations. The appreciation of the whole. Humans and apes. Old World monkeys. New World monkeys. A cautionary note. Prosimians. Convergence and the spectral tarsier. Divergence and Daubentonia? A return to the entire Order: functional data, taxonomic result. Summary.
. . . 9. WHOLE ANATOMIES: THEIR 'DISSECTION' BY PRIMATES. Abstract. How anatomies 'arrange' primates. How primates 'arrange' primates. How primates 'arrange' anatomies. Previous essays into anatomical 'dissection'. Morphometric 'dissection' of anatomies. Our test example: biometrical 'dissection' of the shoulder. Another simple case: the talus in higher primates. A complex example: biometrical 'dissection' of arm and forearm. Another complex case: the hip and thigh in prosimians. Biometric 'dissection' of overall proportions of primates. Biometric 'dissection' of prosimian proportions. Conclusions for statistical 'dissection'. Summary.
. . . 10. HUMAN FOSSILS: THE NEW REVOLUTION - REVISITED. Conventional studies of australopithecines. New studies of australopithecines. First question: corroboration, or otherwise, by old methods. Second question: meld, or otherwise, of old data. Third question: new fossils, conventional methods. Fourth question: acceptance or otherwise of new views. Australopithecines, humans and locomotion. Australopithecines, hominoids and systematics. Australopithecines, investigators and convention. Broader implications for human evolution. Human evolution. Grounds for doubt? New confirmations! New investigations of Australopithecines. New data for Ramapithecines. Conclusions & References.
Ethopharmacology: Primate Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Progress in
Clinical and Biological Research, Vol. 131). Klaus A. Miczek (Ed.) New
York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983. 350 pp. [Price: $56.]
. . . The chapters in this book are intended to illustrate the integration of pharmacological and behavioral methodologies for studying drug-induced behavioral changes in primates. Contents: Studying the behavioral effects of drugs in group-living nonhuman primates, by E. 0. Smith & L. D. Byrd; A comparison of three psychotominimetic-induced models of psychosis in nonhuman primate social colonies, by R. F. Schlemmer, & J. M. Davis; Hallucinatory behaviors in primates produced by around-the-clock amphetamine treatment for several days via implanted capsules, by E. B. Nielsen, M. S. Eison, M. Lyon, & S. D. Iversen; Is there a relationship between social isolation, cognitive inflexibility, and behavioral stereotypy? An analysis of the effects of amphetamine in the marmoset, by R. M. Ridley, & H. F. Baker; Ethological analysis of amphetamine action on social behavior in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), by K. A. Miczek and Lisa H. Gold; Response to intracerebral dopamine injection as a model of schizophrenic symptomatology, by M. F. Dubach, & D. M. Bowden; Male dominance, serotonergic systems, and the behavioral and physiological effects of drugs in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus), by M. J. Raleigh, G. L. Brammer, & M. T. McGuire; Amphetamine challenge: Effects in previously isolated rhesus monkeys and implications for animal models of schizophrenia; by G. W. Kraemer, M. H. Ebert, C. R. Lake, & W. T. McKinney; Maternal separation studies: Rationale and methodological considerations, by M. Reite, & R. Short; Substance abuse research in monkey social groups, by T. J. Crowley; Assessment of acute versus long-term effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on social behavior and adaptability in group-living macaques, by E. N. Sassenrath; Effects of subacute administration of amphetamine on food competition in primates, by M. C. Wilson, L. Bailey, & J. A. Bedford; Are primate models of neuropsychiatric disorders useful to the pharmaceutical industry?, by J. L. Howard, & G. T. Pollard; Animal models: Are they useful in the study of psychiatric disorders?, by M. T. McGuire, G. L. Brammer, & M. J. Raleigh.
The Sociobiology of Infant and Adult Male Baboons. David Martin Stein.
Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1984. 229 pp. [Price: $27.50]
. . . The basic question that this book attempts to answer is, "Why do cynocephalus baboon infants and adult males interact with one another?" The author approaches this broad issue from three different perspectives: (a) What exactly is the pattern of interaction between infants and adult males; (b) what are the factors that determine who interacts with whom; (c) what are the consequences of these interactions for both the infants and the adult males? The author also deals throughout with the question of how these patterns change as the infants mature. Several specific hypotheses are examined in the light of data and field observations conducted in Amboseli National Park, Kenya.
. . . Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Methods. 3. Illustrative case histories. 4. Does agonistic buffering occur? 5. Why does agonistic buffering work? 6. Why do infants participate as agonistic buffers? 7. Are infantadult male relationships specific, long-term, and reciprocal? 8. Do infants benefit from their associations with particular adult males? 9. What are the biosocial factors affecting infant-adult male relationships? 10. conclusions and speculations: The nature and function of infant-adult male relationships. 11. Conclusions and speculations: The broader perspective. Appendix A: Paternity classifications of infant-adult male dyads. Appendix B: Selected case histories of infant-female buffering.
The Behavioral Development of Free-Living Chimpanzee Babies and Infants.
Frans X. Plooij. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1984. 207 pp. [Price: $27.501
. . . The author's research methods, data, and theory of behavioral development of these animals is presented in this book. The theory is based on a hierarchical control systems feedback model originally proposed by W. T. Powers. Contents: 1. Introduction and study aims. The problem; Search for consummatory stimuli; Hierarchy of consummatory stimuli; Three procedures to find the consummatory stimuli; Organization of the monograph. 2. General methods. Study area; Study population and subjects; Observation methods. 3. Perinatal period. Prenatal period; Neonatal period; Discussion; 4. Early life: babies. Whimpering (ZWH) and staccato (STC); Development of biting (BIT), playface; Early escape and "fear of strangers"; Miscellaneous; Discussion. 5. Early infancy: 6-12 months. Excursions; Anomalous motor-patterns; Object-play and social gestures; Sociosexual behaviors; General discussion. 6. Beyond one year. Introduction; Methods; Data; Discussion. Summary. Appendix. A. List of abbreviations, names and definitions of behavior categories. B. Groups of behavior categories.
The Case for Animal Rights. Tom Regan. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1983. 425 pp. [Price: $24.95]
. . . A radical view of the animal rights issue. The author, a Professor of Philosophy at North Carolina State University, presents a moral theory as a foundation for his view that the respect of the rights of animals requires the elimination of commercial animal agriculture, a ban on commercial and "sport" hunting and trapping, and the abolition of the use of animals in science. Contents: 1. Animal awareness. 2. The complexity of animal awareness. 3. Animal welfare. 4. Ethical thinking and theory. 5. Indirect duty views. 6. Direct duty views. 7. Justice and equality. 8. The rights view. 9. Implications of the rights view.
Behavioral observations of feral and free-ranging Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): A bibliography. Williams, J. B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1983. 14 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Send order to: Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]
Spontaneous neoplasia in nonhuman primates: A bibliography. Caminiti, B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1983. 12 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Fertility and birth rates among captive nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1968-1983. Caminiti, B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1983. 22 pp. [Price: $8.00 ($7.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Mastication, dental attrition and occlusion in nonhuman primates: A bibliography. Carniniti, B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1983. 14 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Magazines, Newsletters, Reports
Primate Report, No. 11, April 1984. (German Primate Center)
. . . This issue includes various notes about the activities and procedures of the German Primate Center, including one about its animal documentation system, the nutrition of Saguinus oedipus at the Center, a description of a new liquid dispenser for primates in social groups, and comments on the structural characteristics of primate societies. There is also information about larger primate breeding facilities in Europe and a list of recent books and articles concerning the biology or reproduction and breeding of primates.
Research Resources Reporter, 1984, 8. (Published by the
Research Resources Information Center for the Division of Research Resources,
. . . This issue includes an article by R. Cowen entitled "Virus identified as possible cause of simian AIDS."
Primate News, 1984, 2]. (Oregon Regional Primate Research Center.
. . . This issue is a special report presenting selected examples of biomedical research on nonhuman primates that that has been of benefit to humans. The examples are based primarily on work done at the seven regional primate research centers.
An outbreak of Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in a colony of common
marmosets (Callithrix jacchus.) Baskerville, M., Wood, M., &
Baskerville, A. (Chemical Defence Establishment, Centre for Applied Microbiol.
& Res., Porton Down, Salisbury, Wilts, SP4 OJG, England) Laboratory
Animals, 1983, 17, 350-355.
. . . 16 animals in a breeding colony, all except one under 12 months of age, died suddenly. Extensive lesions of pneumonia and pleurisy were found at necropsy and B. bronchiseptica was isolated from the nasopharynx, trachea and lungs. Older animals had only a mild rhinitis. Colonization of the nasal mucosa occurred in 71 of 156 marmosets.
An outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in a small indoor breeding
colony of red-bellied (Saguinus tabiatus) tamarins. Taffs, L. F., &
Dunn, G. (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Holly Hill,
Hampstead, London NW3 6RB, England) Laboratory Animals, 1983, 17,
. . . The outbreak occurred in a small indoor breeding colony of red-bellied tamarins during the winter of 1981. Of 35 monkeys at risk 6 died of an acute or subacute infection over a period of 23 days. Clinical signs were anorexia, weakness, listlessness and depression. The disease was characterized by focal necrosis of the liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, ulcerative enteritis, and the presence of colonies of Gram-negative bacilli in the lesions. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and kidney but not from the blood, lung or intestine. Contaminated food was believed to be the source of infection.
Clinicopathologic study of six cases of meningitis and meningoencephalitis in
chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Solleveld, H. A., van Zwieten, M. J.,
Heidt, P. J., & van Eerd, P. M. C. A. (REP-Institutes TNO, PO Box 5815,
2280 HV Rijswijk, The Netherlands) Laboratory Animal Science, 1984,
. . . Three fatal cases of purulent meningitis and one fatal case of thromboembolic necrotizing meningoencephalitis occurred in chimpanzees from the Primate Center TNO, The Netherlands. In addition, two apes had clinical signs of meningitis and were successfully treated. The severity of the residual hemiparesis and dysphagia in one of these 2 apes was such that it was killed for humane reasons. The histopathological diagnosis was chronic active meningoencephalitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 5 apes and Klebsiella pneumonia from one. In the majority of cases, the primary site of infection was the upper respiratory tract. After reducing the population density, initiating a vaccination program using a commercially available human polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine, and changing the cleaning procedure of the animal facilities, no other cases of meningitis or meningoencephalitis have occurred in the chimpanzee colony in the ensuing 3.5 years.
Hemobartonellosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in a domestic
breeding colony: Case report and preliminary study. Adams, M. R., Lewis, J.
C., & Bullock, B. C. (Dept. of Comp. Med., The Bowman Gray Sch. of Med.,
Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27103) Laboratory Animal
Science, 1984, 34, 82-85.
. . . Infection with Hemobartonella sp. was diagnosed in a colony-born squirrel monkey with normocytic, normochromic anemia and pronounced punctate erythrocytic basophilic stippling on Wright's-Giemsa stained blood films. The diagnosis was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Two randomly selected colony-born squirrel monkeys were splenectomized in an effort to activate and detect possible latent hemobartonellosis. One monkey became parasitemic 12 days following splenectomy. The second monkey was inoculated on day 14 with 1 ml of whole blood from an infected, but nonparasitemic monkey and developed overt parasitemia 3 days later (day 17 following splenectomy). Infections in the latter two monkeys were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy.
Age-dependent loss of accommodative amplitude in rhesus monkeys: An animal
model for presbyopia. Bito, L. Z., DeRousseau, C. J., Kaufman, P. L., &
Bito, J. W. (Dept. of Ophthalmology, Res. Div., College of P & S, Columbia
Univ., 630 West 168th St., New York, NY 10032) Investigative Ophthalmology
and Visual Science, 1982, 23, 23-31.
. . . The refractive power and axial dimensions of the eye were measured under resting and fully accommodated conditions in 123 caged rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 0.5 to >30 years. The mean resting refraction measured under ketamine anesthesia was -5 diopters. Accommodative amplitude calculated as the difference between resting refraction and the most negative refraction measured 0.5 to 1 hr after topical application of a maximally effective dose of a cholinomimetic, showed an age-dependent decline. The mean accommodative amplitude of 1- to 5-year-old rhesus monkeys was a remarkable 34 D, while animals over 25 years of age averaged 5 D of accommodation. Some animals over 25 years of age showed no measurable change in refraction regardless of the dose or the type of cholinomimetic (carbachol, pilocarpine, or echothiophate) used. The resting axial thickness of the lens was found to increase with age throughout adulthood, well past the end of the growth period. A strong correlation was found between pharmacologically induced change in the refractive power of the eye and change in lenticular thickness. These similarities to the human condition suggest that the rhesus monkey represents a highly suitable animal model for the study of accommodation and presbyopia.
Facilities and Care
Effects of diet on health, weight and litter-size in captive cotton-top
tamarins Saguinus oedipus oedipus. Kirkwood, J. K. (Dept. Pathology,
Univ. of Bristol Med. Sch., Univ. Walk, Bristol BS8 ITD, England)
Primates, 1983, 24, 515-520.
. . . The pattern of weight gain during growth of cottontop tamarins is reported, and weights of wild-caught and captive adults are compared. The maintenance and breeding of this species in captivity have on the whole been associated with more problems than with other species of the Callitrichidae. Following alterations to the diet made to combat the occurrence of chronic diarrhea and weight loss, the incidence of triplet births increased from 0 to 33%. The changes in nutrient intake, health, weight and litter-size following the diet alteration are discussed.
Research on reproductive biology of gorillas, Nadler; R. D., & Collins, D.
C. (Ronald D. Nadler, Yerkes Reg. Prim. Ctr., Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322)
Zoo Biology, 1984, 3, 13-25.
. . . Laboratory research has implicated several variables which contribute to the regulation of reproductive behavior of captive gorillas. Females were found to be increasingly attractive to males during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle when estrogen and testosterone concentrations in the female were increasing. Females solicited mating from the males primarily at midcycle, about the time when the concentration of testosterone was maximal. No mating occurred during the mid- to late luteal phase after progesterone concentrations were elevated. Both males and females initiated mating during the midcycle, periovulatory period, but male initiative accounted for most mating that was temporally dissociated from that period. Individual differences between males and among females contributed to the variability in results. Confinement of a male and female in relatively small quarters appears to interact with certain aspects of species-typical behavior to distort patterns of mating in laboratory tests. Data on behavior of gorillas in the wild contributed to interpretation of the laboratory results and suggest an enlightened approach to the captive maintenance and breeding of gorillas. An important consideration in promoting captive breeding of gorillas seems to be the provision of options to the female for regulating the frequency and distribution of mating in the cycle.
Some reproductive parameters of stumptailed macaqpes (Macaca arctoides).
Harvey, N. C., & Rhine, R. J. (Dept. of Psychol., Univ. Calif.,
Riverside, CA 92521) Primates, 1983, 24, 530-536.
. . . Reproductive records kept from 1969 to 1981 were used to study menstrual cycles, pregnancies and births of 8 colony-housed stumptailed macaques. The findings for annual distribution of births, pregnancy duration and infant sex, ratio were consistent with previous reports. The interbirth interval after infant loss was significantly shortened from the interbirth interval when infants were maintained with their mothers. Vaginal bleeding during early lactation indicates that stumptails are not necessarily characterized by a prolonged period of postpartum amenorrhea. Complete copulation was observed prior to 6 months postpartum, but interbirth intervals indicate that conception did not occur prior to that time. Interbirth intervals tended to be shorter for dominant than for subordinate females and to lengthen as a function of increasing age.
Effects of weaning age on matemal reproduction and offspring health in rhesus
monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Goo, G. P., & Fugate, J. K. (Hazleton
Res. Ani., Texas Primate Ctr., PO Box 549, Alice, TX 78333-0549) Laboratory
Animal Science, 1984, 34, 66-69.
. . . A study to systematically evaluate the effect of separation of mother and infant in the first year of life on matemal reproduction and long term offspring health was carried out. This study utilized outdoor harem breeding groups with an average ratio of 1 male to 7 females. Female rhesus monkeys with live born infants (N=750) were assigned to 4 weaning groups: 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Two additional groups (N=155) were included for comparison of reproductive parameters: females whose infants died at 90 days or less and females that had abortions or stillbirths. Females with infants weaned at 6 months had higher reproductive rates than other groups over the 18-month study period. Weaned infants were removed from the dam's cage and housed with age peers. No effect of weaning age was seen on overall measures of offspring health up to 2 years of age. Mortality and morbidity rates showed no differences between infant groups, although the proportion of trauma treatments increased with weaning age. Weights at 1 year varied with weaning groups. These findings showed that infant age at separation from dam affected subsequent maternal reproduction without clinical detriment to infant health in harem groups of rhesus monkeys.
Longitudinal studies on annual changes in plasma testosterone, body weight and
spermatogenesis in adult Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) under
laboratory conditions. Matsubayashi, K, & Enomoto, T. (Primate Res.
Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan) Primates, 1983,
. . . Five adult males were kept in an air-conditioned room with artificial 12/12 hr lighting. Measurements of body weight and blood sampling were conducted monthly for 13 months. The concentrations of plasma testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. The testicular size was measured and testicular tissues taken by biopsy were examined histologically at the 4 seasons. The body weight and plasma testosterone levels showed coincidental annual changes, with a peak in September and a nadir in March or May. The percentage of seminiferous tubules including pachytene spermatocytes and the number of pachytene spermatocytes in tubular cross-sections were significantly increased in both the autumn and winter and decreased in the spring. Electron microscopically, the seasonal change was reflected in an increased size of fat granules in Sertoli cells in the breeding season.
Reproduction of wild-caught tamarins (Saguinus mystax mystax) under
laboratory conditions. Ogden, J.a (Dept. of Immunology-Microbiology,
Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Med. Ctr., 1763 West Congress Parkway, Chicago,
IL 60612) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1983, 12, 343-345.
. . . The reproductive performance of Saguinus mystax mystax under laboratory conditions was evaluated. Fifteen of 20 male-female pairs were fertile and produced 30 live births during an observation period of 3.5 years. Twenty-six breeders (65%) and 12 offspring (40%) more than 3 years old were alive at the termination of the reporting period.
Breeding of the cotton-top tamarin Saguinus oedipus oedipus: A
comparison with the common marmoset. Evans, S. (Dept. Psychol., Univ. of
Stirling, Stirling, Scotland FK94LA) Zoo Biology, 1983, 2,
. . . Following the successful breeding of the common marmoset, 15 cotton-top tamarins were acquired for breeding purposes over a period of 2 yrs. Data are presented on the breeding of the cotton-top and compared with the breeding of the common marmoset. The tamarins did not breed as successfully as the common marmosets. There were several reasons for this: Cotton-tops took longer to produce young on initial pairing, had a longer birth interval, and showed a high incidence of suspected infanticide and parental neglect. These factors are thought to be largely responsible for the relatively low reproductive potential of the cotton-top in captivity.
Observations on marmoset breeding at Fisons. Burt, D. A., & Plant, M.
(Fisons plc-Pharmaceutical Division, Hillcrest Research Station, Dodgeford
Lane, Belton, Loughborough, Leics, LE12 9TE) Animal Technology, 1983,
34, 29- .
. . . The establishment of a marmoset breeding colony is described and observations made on environment, caging, feeding and breeding. The management of infant rejection, hand-rearing and health problems is also noted.
A note on a population model for breeding colonies. Kushner, H., &
Angelakos, E. T. (Div. of Biometrics & Computing, Dept. of Physiology &
Biophysics, Hahnemann Univ., Phil., PA 19102) Animal Production, it
1983, 36, 489-492.
. . . A discrete-time population model is presented which is specific to the characteristics of a breeding colony. It is intended to be a rigorous yet an easily applied model. The model is based on a female-dominated demographic system with constraints on colony size. Fecundity and survival probabilities are incorporated into a net reproductive rate which is age-specific and time and population size invariant. The model is applied to solve an optimization problem for a breeding colony of African Green monkeys and to examine a set of external constraints imposed on the colony.
Lion Tamarins' Survival Hangs in Balance. Mallinson, J. (Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Jersey, Channel Islands) Oryx,
1984, 18, 72-78.
. . . Since the early 1960s, the genus embracing the lion tamarins Leontopithecus has been on a population decline toward extinction. The total wild population of all 3 species, the golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766), the golden-headed lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820) and the golden-rumped lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1822), is currently estimated at fewer than 400 individuals. The golden lions could well become extinct in the wild by 1990, if not before, unless dramatic changes occur to reverse the present inroads into their remaining pockets of distribution in soudi-eastem Brazil. The, author, the Director of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, and a member of the seven-person International Management Committee for the species, describes attempts that have been and are being made to save the species.
Species of the genus Macaca (Cercopithecidea, Primates) as research
subjects in modern biology and medicine. Fridman, E. P., & Popova, V. N.
(E. P. Fridman, Primate Information Ctr., Res. Inst. of Exp. Pathology &
Therapy, USSR Academy of Medical Science, Gora Trapetziva Sukhumi, USSR)
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1983, 12, 287-303.
. . . The present study used information analysis of world science collections consisting of punchcards of scientific publications at the Sukhumi Primate Information Centre (SPIC) of the Research Institute of Experimental Pathology and Tberapy, Sukhumi, USSR. By the end of 1981, it had collected about 70,000 punchcards of scientific publications on the biology and medical experiments with primates. Members of the genus Macaca are the most commonly used animals in biomedical research on primates. Macaca monkeys are used most extensively (from 50% to 73% of the general file) in rapidly developing branches of medical primatology (pharmacology, endocrinology, ophthalmology, stomatology, and central nervous system pathology and physiology), i. e., in those sciences where monkeys are absolutely necessary and where they are used with great efficacy.
In many cases, the original source of reference in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarfly to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
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Interagency Committee Established to Coordinate Research Animal Activities of Federal Agencies
Dr. Edward N. Brandt, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, has established an Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC), replacing the Interagency Primate Steering Committee (IPSC). The new committee, approved by the Assistant Secretary on July 3, 1983, serves as the focal point for Federal agencies' discussions of issues involving all animal species needed for biomedical research and testing. The committee's principal concerns are the conservation, use, care, and welfare of research animals. Its responsibilities include information exchange, program coordination, and contributions to policy development.
Its predecessor committee, the IPSC, functioned since 1975 as the focus of Federal efforts to ensure stable supplies of nonhuman primates for biomedical research. That responsibility will remain part of the new committee's mission.
Lead agency responsibility for the committee will remain with the National Institutes of Health, and the chairman will continue to be Dr. Joe R. Held, Director of the NIH Division of Research Services (DRS) and Chief Veterinary Officer, U.S. Public Health Service. The DRS Veterinary Resources Branch will continue to provide staff support for the committee, including the services of Dr. Thomas Wolfle as executive director.
The members of the IPSC were representatives from the Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Defense, Department of State, National Science Foundation, Environmental Protection Agency, Veterans Administration, and Department of the Interior (Observer). So that the new committee will have representation from all the principal Federal agencies affected by biomedical research animal issues, the Department of the Interior, Department of Agriculture, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration are participating with full membership.
Additional information about the Interagency Research Animal Committee is available from Dr. Thomas Wolfle, Building 12A Room 4003, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20205 (301-496-5424).
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Manfred Brack, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 3400 Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany.
Bill Glitz, Information Office, Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 31, Room 4B03, Bethesda, MD 20205.
Richard J. Haines, Jr., PO Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78184.
Kenneth C. Hayes, Foster Biomed. Research Laboratory, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254.
D. H. Hill Library/Acq. GX, North Carolina State University, Box 7111, Raleigh, NC 27695-7111.
Edward Holmes, Rm. 322, Kennedy Ctr., Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1410 Pelham Parkway, Bronx, NY 10461.
K. R. Kaemmerer, 111 Alexander Rd., 42, W. Munroe, LA 71291.
T. C. Kumar, Institute for Research in Reproduction, Jehangir Merwanji St., Parel, Bombay 400 012, India.
Robert E. Schmidt, 512 Jerome St., Davis, CA 95616.
Douglas W. Windle, 5346 S. Cornell 1008, Chicago, IL 60615 5652.
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NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
We are grateful to Linda Straw Coelho of San Antonio, Texas, for providing the cover drawing of a chimpanzee.
Copyright @1984 by Brown University
Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor Helen Janis Shuman