VOLUME 24 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1985
Articles and Notes
Conservation of the Callitrichidae, by W. R. Kingston ........1
Repetitious Melody, by Jo Fritz........4
The Longevity of a Colony of Nocturnal Prosimians (Perodictius potto), by U. M. Cowgill, S. J. States & K. J. States........6
Note on the Behavior of the "Difficult" Neo-Tropical Primate Genera in Captivity, by W. R. Kingston........10
News, Information, and Announcements
Predoctoral Fellowship To Study Chimpanzee Behavior........9
Conference Announced: "Primates--The Road to Self-sustaining Populations"........11
AFIP Comparative Pathology Course ........11
Animal Liberation Front Uses Fake Bombs in Campaign Against Animal Research ........12
Annual CALAS Convention Announced........12
Fyssen Foundation 1985-1986 Fellowships and 1985 International Prize........13
. . . Massa Dies; Health Research Act Vetoed
Primate Pathology Workshop Announced........14
American Society of Primatologists Annual Meeting Announced........14
Recent Books and Articles........15
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W. R. Kingston
Centro Nacional de Primatas, Belém, Brazil
There is world-wide concern over the imminent threat of extermination of many forest dwelling primates posed by the apparently unstoppable felling of tropical rain forests. Among such primates are the Callitrichidae and Callimiconidae families, which include the squirrel sized marmosets and tamarins. The five genera, fifteen or so full species and forty-five subspecies recognized by Hershkovitz (1977) in his recent monograph are confined to South and Central America and include some of the most highly endangered primates. Although very similar in size and form, they are remarkable for the very wide variations in coat color and adornments, such as ear tufts and moustaches, between obviously very closely related subspecies. They are true simian primates but unique in that they have claws rather than nails on the digits. They normally give birth to dizygotic twins which are known to share placental circulation without problems of freemartinism and frequently give birth to two such litters annually. Their normal social organization is a monogamous pair living in family groups with young of various ages, which are peculiar in that only the alpha female breeds although other post-pubertal individuals are often present. It is obvious that they are of great interest to a number of different scientific disciplines.
In addition to their general interest they have been found to be of great value in biomedical research. Although relatively few species have
been available for this purpose, they have played a large part in the production, of a vaccine for viral hepatitis, in the study of viral oncogenesis, immunological diseases such as asthma, and currently, colonic cancer. Although as yet little used, their twin births with shared placental circulation must surely be of great interest to immunologists and students of drug induced teratogenesis. An additional advantage is their small size with concomitant ease of handling and housing plus the relatively small amounts of test material required on a drug/body weight basis as compared with other primates. The relatively short lifespan deduced from captive records and the known relationship of life span to body size in mammals, make these true primates appropriate for the study of age related disease in man with a reasonable time scale such that the experimental animal will not outlive the working life of the researcher. They will accept a wide range of foodstuffs including many items of normal human diets, making them very suitable animals for diet related research. With proper precautions, young can be taken from the parents within a few hours of birth, examined, weighed and returned without risk of subsequent rejection; in fact they can be hand reared from birth with little difficulty. Add to this the ease with which a number of species can be bred under controlled conditions and it can be seen that they are an extremely valuable research animal.
It is obvious from the above that the loss of any species of the families in question would be, from many points of view, highly undesirable over and above the general conservation ethic. Without a doubt the most satisfactory way of trying to prevent this is the creation of secure permanent reserves of adequate size in the natural habitat of each species. In spite of much publicity and dedicated effort, I am afraid that it is true that no such reserve yet exists and, given the political and human pressures foreseeable in the countries to which these animals are endemic, is ever really likely to exist. Failing this, the alternative is captive breeding and the creation of self-propagating colonies which will at least preserve the genome and, if really secure reserves become a reality, provide stock for release in them.
Although this idea is widely accepted, albeit with reservations about the viability of captive bred animals under natural conditions, the sheer size of most primates makes the cost of maintaining sufficient numbers to ensure adequate genetic diversity almost prohibitive, a position aggravated by the low productive rate of most species. Largely as a result of biomedical research demands, methods have been developed to breed several species of marmosets and tamarins quite successfully at relatively low costs. Several species have been bred to four or five generations without the need to introduce wild caught animals. Personal experience in both Peru and Brazil has demonstrated that these costs can be still further substantially reduced if breeding is done in the countries of origin where building, labor, and food costs are all considerably less than those prevailing in more highly developed countries, where costs are still further increased by the need for artificial heating, at least in the winters of temperate zones. The Brazilian National Primate Centre is currently breeding Callithrix humeralifer, C. argentata, C. jacchus, C. j. penicillata and Saguinus midas niger quite successfully (Kingston & Muniz, 1983), with total food costs of less than $3 U. S. per animal/month and labor costs about one-fifth of those of Europe and the U. S. A. Second generation Callithrix humeralifer are thriving and similar C. argentata are expected shortly.
Is there not then a case for the setting up of an internationally supported breeding facility, located in South America, to breed all species required both for conservation and scientific interests? The size of the colony of each species, subject to a viable minimum, could be adjusted to the number required. Funding is, of course, the major problem but I would suggest that capital costs should be met by donation from all interested parties, and running costs, dare I say it, by a charge for each animal supplied to research institutions based on the actual costs of production assessed by independent accountants. If this plan could be implemented, combined with an absolute ban on the export of any wild-caught animals by international agreement, it would at least ensure that biomedical research needs for these animals could be met with infinitely superior control-bred stock, at the same time keeping the drain on wild populations to an absolute minimum and maintaining a viable nucleus of even the most highly endangered species.
There would remain the necessity of maintaining a number of separate small colonies of each species both to ensure genetic diversity and to cover for the risk of decimation of the principal colony by disease. This would, of course, represent additional costs. I have always felt that insufficient attention has been paid to the public exhibition value of these animals as a source of funds for their maintenance. The potential of this is perhaps greater in the more developed countries of Europe, the U. S. A., Japan, and South Africa than in the countries of origin but even there, if the exhibit is situated close to large centers of population the potential still exists. What I have in mind is something on the lines of the following:
There should be an exhibit of reasonably tame specimens of each species housed in visually attractive cages permitting a clear opportunity for viewing and photography by the public. Full descriptive labelling and perhaps literature couched in non-technical language should be provided, in which full use is made of the publicity value of extreme rarity, the maternal and paternal care of the offspring which is a feature of these animals, and the sentimental appeal of the minute "babies". Besides the general exhibit, there would be either a functional breeding unit or, if conditions permit (suitable climate and terrain), a free-ranging reserve, provisioned if necessary. With proper planning, viewing of these could be permitted, with guides for which an extra charge could be made. Properly situated and designed, I would be surprised if this did not generate an income sufficient for the maintenance of the whole colony. With cooperation between these units each could display a wide range of species to interest the public but be responsible for the larger scale production of a limited number, care being taken that each unit had at least one easy species (e.g., one of the Callithrix) and one of the more difficult Saguinus species. Equally, care should be taken that the more spectacular species, such as Leontopithecus, Saguinus imperator, S. bicolor, S. oedipus should be evenly distributed, but in return each unit should house a less "showy" species such as S. midas niger, S. fuscicollis fuscicollis or S. bicor martinisi. I fully appreciate the magnitude of the organization of all this, but given the will I think it is possible. The excellent work of Dr. Devra Kleiman et al. with Leontopithecus rosalia has demonstrated very well what can be done in this way. I certainly feel that the public would respond more generously to appeals for conservation funds if they were given the opportunity to see what they were being asked to support, and, if a little restrained advertising was allowed, sponsorship by industry would probably be forthcoming.
With regard to the obviously more desirable creation of permanent reserves in the country of origin, it has always seemed to me that there is a lack of realism about these very worthy plans. At the Front Royal meeting in 1975 on the conservation of the Callitrichidae, there were long discussions about the size of the reserves required to maintain a viable population of several species. In all seriousness, areas were marked on maps of remote areas of Amazonian jungle in the localities in which these species are found. In hard practical terms surely these are nothing more than wishful thinking. While they remain remote no doubt the species is safe, but it only needs a road to be driven through the area or gold or oil suspected and such plans become worthless. Even for the decreed reserves, the funds are totally inadequate for effective policing or demarcation on the ground. No doubt, given the will, increased funds could be found but politicians, however dictatorial, ultimately depend on public support and, given the fmancial position of most developing countries, the survival of some obscure monkey of interest mainly to foreigners is likely to be considered of very low priority. Even the international prestige gained by loudly acclaimed protection of native fauna has a very low appeal to the general public understandably clamoring for an improvement in their own lot.
No, in my opinion the only way that secure reserves can be established is for them to offer a demonstrable material advantage to the people of the country in which they are created. The only practical way for this to occur is for them to produce an income either by being a tourist attraction and/or by producing something which can be profitably sold, preferably for badly needed foreign currency. Reserves should be situated near enough to large centers of population, even if this means translocating some species, to make them accessible to both national and foreign visitors who should be permitted to visit at least parts of the reserves. They should be large enough to permit the much publicized controlled harvesting of species which have some value beyond the conservation ethics be it biomedical research or frankly commercial. Then there is some hope that the funds generated by both entrance fees and the sale of the controlled harvests will both fund proper maintenance of the reserves and justify them to the general public of the country concerned.
I am fully aware that these suggestions will arouse considerable hostility from the conservation lobbies both international and national, particularly in countries which have passed completely inflexible export bans. I can fully appreciate their concern that the "pure" conservation ideals should be tainted with any suggestion of commercialism. However, I would ask them to be realistic. It must be obvious that, while specific appeals may well produce substantial donations for the initial costs of reserves and conservation oriented breeding facilities, these, if they are to be of lasting value, require continuously increasing funds for their maintenance. If breeding is successful, stocks increase and need more housing, food, and people to look after them. Reserves, whether purchased outright, leased, or decreed, require continuous management as well as effective policing, Vehicles and other required equipment need maintenance and replacement when worn out. Where is this money to come from? The continuous creation of new reserves is a very satisfying achievement, but unless these can be successfully maintained the value of them is relatively transitory and the money would be better spent in making the existing ones more effective and permanent. The fauna of a country is a natural resource which with proper management is renewable indefinitely. If a legitimate demand exists for an element of it and this can be supplied without endangering the survival of the species concerned, the only objection that I can see is that it may involve the death of the aniinal concerned. Whether this situation is any worse than the almost universally accepted production and slaughter of equally sentient animals for human consumption is a matter of opinion.
Hershkovitz, P. (1977) Living New World Monkeys (Platyrhini) (Vol. 1). Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Kingston, W. R., & Muniz, J. A. P. C. (1983) Preliminary report on the establishment in Brazil of a breeding colony of marmosets (Callithrix humalifera humalifera). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 22 1-2.
Author's address: Centro Nacional de Primatas, Caixa Postal l641, Belém 66.000, Pará, Brazil.
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Primate Foundation of Arizona
A chapter of a monkey owner's organization used to send us approximately $250.00 each year. I say "used to" because in their last newsletter the Foundation's name was not included in their list of donor recipients. I know why, but the reasoning behind it is extremely contradictory. They do not approve of us sending youngsters to New York for 9 to 12 months of hepatitis vaccine testing, because we desperately need the funding assistance it brings, therefore... they will not give us any monetary assistance. Years ago, it was exactly that same sort of reasoning which forced us to search for more stable means of support.
Fifteen years ago, we approached the large, well-known humane organizations and told them what we wanted to do and that while we could initially support it ourselves, if we were successful, we would eventually need monetary assistance. Without exception, they told us what marvelous people we were and how the project was desperately needed. Five years later, we had exhausted our savings and saleable possessions. The number of chimpanzees in the colony meant full-time care was mandatory--we had to quit our income producing jobs. We went back to the same organizations. Again--without exception-they said, "Maybe we can give you a small one-time donation, but that's it. We see no future for you to become a self-supporting organization and we cannot be obligated for continual support." Yet--that was exactly what was needed--life-time support for an animal that lives 50 years! We took their one-time donation. It bought time while we frantically searched for other means of financial assistance.
We were told to stop breeding--separate the males and females. We couldn't do that! Most of our animals didn't know they were chimpanzees when they arrived. Some didn't know how to climb and were terrified of other chimpanzees. We devoted all of our knowledge and time to reeducating them to the life that had been lost when they were brought into captivity. Surely, our own joy was a small thing compared to what the chimpanzee felt as she cradles her own baby--most particularly when we remembered what she had been and what had happened to her before coming here.
Curiously, the same people that told us to stop breeding, continued to refer calls to us and begged us to take "just one more--she (or he) will have to be killed if you don't." Or, "The animal has had a terrible life. It deserves to be with ita own kind and to f'inish out its life as normally as possible." A "normal" life for a chimpanzee means living in a group of both males and females and breeding or not as the mood strikes. Well--we took the "one more," we taught it to be a chimpanzee, and we begged for support. It wasn't (and still isn't) there.
Oh, yes, people sent $2.00 and $3.00 and we gratefully accepted it (and still do)--but not enough people. Most facilities f'igure the minimum cost of maintaining a chimp at $10.00 per DAY. We have approximately 50 chimpanzees in the colony--thus our costs should be $500.00 per day, or $182,500.00 per year. However, our total cost (including administration) is less than one-half of this or approximately $85,000.00 per year. Medical personnel donate their skills. 75% of our food is donated, and Paul and I work 15 to 16 hours a day. However, we must purchase medication, laboratory tests, 25% of the food, gas, electricity, straw bedding, etc., etc., etc. Forget the thought of improving anything, it's all we can do to just keep ourselves baling wired together Only 3,200 members at $25.00 per year would keep us at our present level of support, but we can't find them in a country of millions. It would make a lot more sense if instead of condemning and subtracting even more money, assistance were increased by helping us to solicit new members and more funding.
Eventually, I will put all of this to music, so I can dance to it while I'm saying it over and over and over again. Meanwhile, I am going to continue to praise the members who do understand, who do continue to help support the animals and who do send us membership renewals. I will also praise and support, New York University, LEMSIP, because they understand our concerns for our animals and the whole captive chimpanzee population. They do everything possible to meet our demands for our animals and from them we receive much of our needed support. Because of them and a few very faithful members we are still here.
Because we are still here, we were able to assist Marine World/Africa U. S. A. in handrearing techniques for two babies and were able to convince them to leave another infant with its mother rather than hand-raising it. At least that infant has a running chance at a normal life. We were able to advise Primarily Primates in Texas on the handling and needs of a young chimpanzee that had been reared by humans and then all of a sudden caged next to adults. We were able to convince them that it still needed the security of humans as it made its transition and that most of all it desperately needed a young chimpanzee companion. We have presented papers on improved captive management at scientific conferences and we have referred pet owners and trainers to veterinarians with expertise in chimpanzee medical care. We have provided learning experiences for students, and we have worked hard in helping to develop a National Chimpanzee Plan. Because we are still here our Fellowship program is still viable. That means there will be more educators and behaviorists trained in better understanding and improved management of the captive chimpanzee. We have worked with them all--for the chimpanzee.
I could list many more achievements, including the assistance to human-health related research, but the point is that we are still here, we are not going to "fold our tent and quietly slip away" just because a few find fault. We are available day and night and the telephone rings 24 hours a day to prove it! More importantly, our chimpanzees are alive, healthy, and happy! Our commitment to them and every other chimpanzee, both captive and wild, has never and will never change! Thankfully, most of our donors and supporters exhibit intelligence and good sense along with their kindness and concern. To each of them--we express our deepest gratitude and heartfelt thanks.
I want to acknowledge that I do most wholeheartedly agree that everyone has a right to their own opinion and certainly the right to choose that which is deserving of their support. I do not expect everyone to agree with me or to lend me support in everything I do. I do expect a dedication from myself that is only allowed to temporarily wobble when knees are weak with fatigue and I have the right to expect an equal amount of dedication from those who would take issue. My dedication also includes both the right and the obligation to defend my point of view, but it does not include the right to attack those whose dedication is in a different direction or whose viewpoint differs from mine. (Mud-slinging belongs in the mud wrestling pit where muscles and illegal holds are used instead of brains and good sense!)
One man said it just for me, with all of the right words:
"If I tried to read, much less answer, all the criticisms made of me and all of the attacks leveled against me, this office would have to be closed for all other business. I do the best I know how, the very best I can. I mean to keep on doing this, down to the very end. If the end brings me out all wrong, then ten angels swearing I had been right would make no difference. If the end brings me out all right, then what is said against me now will not amount to anything." (Abraham Lincoln)--------------------
Author's address: Primate Foundation of Arizona, PO Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85281
This note originally appeared in "Chimp Chatter,' (1984, 9[3-41, the newsletter of the Foundation, a non-profit organization devoted to the preservation, propagation, and study of the chimpanzee.
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U. M. Cowgill, S. J. States and K. J. States
The Dow Chemical Company and the University of Pittsburgh
As fewer and fewer primates become available for export from their native countries to other countries for research, and as more primates join the endangered species list, information on longevity in captivity becomes more important.
On December 20, 1959, three pairs of fully mature Perodicticus potto ibeanus Thomas, 1910 arrived at Yale University. In January of 1964, two of these pairs of P. potto came to reside with one of us (Cowgill). In May of 1981, the lone surviving male joined the States family, with whom he remained for the rest of his life. The living conditions and food supply have been described elsewhere (Cowgill, 1964, 1969, 1974; Martin, Rivers, & Cowgill, 1976), and it is important to note that both the living conditions and food supply have been essentially the same smce 1964.
The purpose of this paper is to record the length of life span exhibited by four P. potto and to examine their longevity compared to other terrestrial mammals.
The average life span of P. potto under natural conditions is unknown. There is even scant information on their longevity in captivity. Jones (1962) noted the life span of two animals, P. potto potto, 6 years and 4 months and P. potto ibeanus, 8 years and 1 1 months. Napier & Napier (1967) record the latter as the longevity record in captivity. Crandall (1964) kept a pair of P. potto alive at the New York Zoological Park for over eight years, while Jarvis & Morris (1960) note the survival of one captive P. potto for nine years. Charles-Dominique (1977) reports a female P. potto edwardsi who, at the time of this writing, was at least nine years old. Cowgill & Zeman (1980) reported two animals that had survived captivity for 11 years, 4 months and 19 years, 0.7 months, respectively. The latter was a female, who on arrival in 1959 was at least primiparous. According to Charles-Dominique (1977), sexual maturity is attained in P. potto at 18 months. This would suggest that this female was at least 20 years, 6.7 months at her death. Urs Rahm, Director of the Basel Natural History Museum, had one female P. potto collected from the Ivory Coast who lived 22 years (Personal Communication, Marvin Jones). Table 1 shows the life span of four P. potto that arrived as fully mature individuals in the United States in late December, 1959. It is believed that the last male, who probably was 26 years, 0.9 months at his death, survived captivity longer than any other known member of his species. He died sometime in the early morning before 7:00 a.m., apparently of cardiac arrest. His appetite had been good up to the time of his death and he showed no sign of illness.
Table 2 shows the weights and lengths of the four P. potto on their arrival in the United States and again at their respective deaths. The differences between the two sets of measurements probably reflect human error, since they were carried out by two different groups of people, rather than reflecting any real growth in the animals.
Table 1. Life span of a P. potto colony
--------------------------------------------------------------------- | | |Time of| Length of | Probable| Cause Sex| Date of|Date of | death | Captivity | age | of | arrival|death | (hr.) |(year month)| (years*)| death --------------------------------------------------------------------- F |12.20.59|01.09.64| 16.00 | 4 0.7 | 5 |Endometriosis | | | | | | M |12.20.59|04.19.71| 15.00 | 11 4.0 | 12 |Poison | | | | | | F |12.20.59|01.09.79| 21.00 | 19 0.7 | 21 |Circulatory | | | | | |collapse due to | | | | | |occlusion of | | | | | |major vessels | | | | | |by tumor of | | | | | |unknown origin | | | | | | F |12.20.59|07.16.84| 1.00- | 24 6.9 | 26 |Cardiovascular | | |7.00 | | |failure ---------------------------------------------------------------------
*Probable age may be underestimated since Charles-Dominique (1977) states that age of sexual maturity is 18 months. AD animals were sexually mature on arrival.
Table 2. Weights and measurements of four P. Potto on their arrival in the United States and at their death
------------------------------------------------------------ | On Arrival | At Death ----+--------------------------+---------------------------- Sex | Body | Head & | Tail | Body | Head & | Tail | Weight | Body | Length | Weight | Body | Length | | Length | | | | | (kg) | (mm) | (mm) | (kg) | (mm) | (mm) ----+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+---------- F | 1.1 | 301 | 48 | 1.20 | 305 | 50.8 | | | | | | M | 1.2 | 290 | 38 | 1.36 | 292 | 38.1 | | | | | | F | 1.3 | 318 | 62 | 0.92 | 322 | 63.5 | | | | | | M | 1.5 | 327 | 76 | 1.60 | 332 | 76.2 ------------------------------------------------------------Discussion
It is of interest to compare Iongevity in relation to size to discover how P. potto fits in with other terrestrial mammals. There is a general trend of increasing longevity with increasing size among the terrestrial mammals. Hutchinson (1978) has compared data of longevity with length for the Chiroptera (bats), Carnivora, Rodentia and Insectivora. When such groups are compared, bats appear to have a longevity ten-fold greater than insectivores and rodents of comparable size. This observation may possibly be explained by the fact that many members of the order Chiroptera undergo seasonal hibernation, and in addition, appear to be able to regulate their body temperature through greater thermal ranges than most mammals (Lyman, 1970). A least squares (Napierian log system) calculation was made employing the Hutchinson (1978) data. The regression equations are given below:
(1) ÿ (years) = 0.7878 + 0.4078 x length (cms)
Chiroptera, Carnivora, Rodentia, Insectivora
r = 0.602, p < 0.001 n = 72
(2) ÿ = -0.3365 + 0.6577 x length
r = 0.658, p < 0.001 n = 67
Substituting the length of the four pottos at death m equation (1) provides a mean longevity of 8.9 years with a range of 8.7 to 9.2 years. Utilizing equation (2) in the same fashion, provides a mean longevity of 6.9 years with a range of 6.6 to 7.2 years. The members of the order Chiroptera that were examined here (Hutchinson, 1978) exhibited a mean longevity of 20.6 years with a mean size of 9.5 cm. Substituting in equation (2) provides a calculated longevity of 3.2 years.
In the case of both the potto and some bats, the equations underestimate the observed longevity of both species. It may be suggested that the lack of conformity between estimated longevity in relation to actual size in the case of bats listed by Hutchinson (1978), is probably due to the fact that they hibernate about half of their lives. Hibernation may extend the life of the individual in the sense that this phenomenon results in the avoidance of the hazards of living, and concurrently, preserves the integrity of the individual's physiology. As for potto longevity, good medical care contributes to a longer life. The oldest female and male had their lives extended by medical intervention by roughly five years. In the case of the female, by successful surgical removal of a tumor (Cowgill & Zeman, 1980); and in the case of the male, the setting of a broken leg. In both of these instances, had they occurred ferally, death would have resulted.
Longevity is not only dependent upon size, but upon temperature as well (Hutchinson, 1978). This Perodicticus colony has been maintained at an ambient temperature of 21.l deg. C +/- 0.5 deg. C and a relative humidity of less than 50% (Cowgill, 1969). Charles-Dominique (1977) reports environmental temperatures in the Ogoué-Ivindo region of West Africa (Gabon), an area where P. potto has been, studied, to vary from a maximum of 30 deg. C in March and April to a minimum of 22 deg. C in July. At no point in his study was the relative humidity less than 50%. Presumably, the controlled, lower than normal environmental temperature contributed to the longevity of three of four P. potto discussed in this paper, since lower temperature encourages lower metabolic rate, and thus, may be instrumental in extending life.
It is tempting to speculate that longevity may be increased by maintaining animals in a lower ambient temperature than normal. In addition, a varied diet of natural food that provides balanced nutrition is of great importance. Adequate space and an emotionally quiet atmosphere not only improves the quality of life, but may assist in its extension. These observations are of special importance to Zoos that are faced with the responsibilty of protecting endangered species.
Two Perodicticus potto herein described survived 19 years, 0.7 months and 24 years, 6.9. months of captivity and were probably at least 20 years, 6.7 months and 26 years, 0.9 months at the time of their deaths. On the basis of the present paper, it may be concluded that the life span of P. potto is at least 25 years.
Charles-Dominique, P. (1974). Ecology and Behaviour of Nocturnal Primates (pp. 12-20, 134-144). New York: Columbia University Press.
Cowgill, U. M. (1964). Visiting in Perodicticus. Science, 146, 1183-1184.
Cowgill, U. M. (1969). Some observations on the prosimian Perodicticus potto. Folia Primatologica, 11, 144-150.
Cowgill, U. M. (1974). Co-operative behaviour in Perodicticus. In R. D. Martin, G. A. Doyle & A. C. Walker, (Eds.), Prosimian Biology. London: Duckworth.
Cowgill, U. M., & Zeman, L. B. Life span in captive nocturnal prosimians (Perodicticus potto) with reproductive and mortality records. Primates, 21, 437-439.
Crandall, L. S. (1964). The Management of Wild Animals in Captivity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1978). An Introduction to Population Ecology (pp. 41-44). New York: Yale University Press.
Jarvis, C., & Morris, D. (1960). Longevity survey: length of life in mamznals in captivity at the London Zoo and Whipsnade Park. In C. Jarvis & D. Morris (Eds.), International Zoo Yearbook (pp. 288-299). London: Zoological Society of London.
Jones, M. L. (1962). Mammals in captivity -- primate longevity. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 1, 3-13.
Lyman, C. P. (1970). Thermoregulation and metabolism in bats. In W. A. Wimsatt (Ed.), Biology of Bats (pp. 301-330). New York: Academic Press.
Martin, R. D., Rivers, J. P. W., & Cowgill, U. M. (1976). Culturing mealworms as food for animals in captivity. In P. J. S. Olney, R. Biegler, & P. Ellis (Eds.), International Zoo Yearbook (pp. 63-70). London: Zoological Society of London.
Napier, J. R., & Napier, P. H. (1967). A Handbook of Living Primates. New York: Academic Press, 1967.
First author's address: Department of Environmental Quality, The Dow Chemical Company, 2030 Willard H. Dow Center, Midland, AU 48674.
The authors are grateful for the assistance provided by the many veterinarians who helped maintain the health of the Perodicticus colony and to the many people who helped us care for the animals.
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The Primate Foundation of Arizona, in association with Arizona State University, has available predoctoral fellowships for the study of chimpanzee behavior. Two annual fellowships are offered for 12 months; award amount is $9,000.00. Deadlines for application submittal are: September 30 for a 12 month period beginning January 1 and April 30 for a 12 month period beginning August 1.
The Foundation's general aim with the awarding of this Fellowship is to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into the behavior of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The Fellowship is meant for the training and support of predoctoral students working in disciplines relevant to the aims and policies of the Foundation. The Foundation is primarily interested in studies of the reproductive and mothering behaviors of captive born chimpanzees and studies germane to the Foundation's long term goals of improving the quality of life and reproductive potential for all captive chimpanzees.
There are presently a total of 50 chimpanzees in the colony: 30 females and 20 males; ranging in ages from 1 month to 26 years. For the main part, this number will remain stable, however some animals are temporarily cycled in and out of the colony. Infants remain with their mothers for periods up to 18 months, then enter the nursery group. Contact: Jo Fritz, Administrative Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, PO Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85281.
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W. R. Kingston
Centro Nacional de Primatas, Belém, Brazil
There exists in the literature of Primatology, many references to the poor survival under captive conditions of Alouatta (howlers), Chiropotes (bearded sakis), and Pithecia (sakis). However, recent reports of successful maintenance and breeding of several species in a number of modern zoological gardens and parks indicates that this problem can be overcome with enlightened management in such institutions. The conditions under which primates are maintained in research facilities are inevitably less naturalistic; diets tend to be less varied and, generally speaking, there is less scope for individual and specialized attention to the less obvious but possibly important needs of particular species.
We have recently received a number of Alouatta and Chiropotes rescued from the flooding for the hydroelectric project at Tucurui in the state of Pará, Brazil and, at least to this writer, their behavior has been surprising. Our first experience with Alouatta was the arrival of a very young A. belzebul some four years ago. She was reared without difficulty and has developed into one of the most lively and active monkeys I have ever known. In the past few months, we have received some 50 A. belzebul and a small number of A. seniculus from Tucurui and the first thing that strikes one is the extreme calmness of these animals. Within a few days of capture, adult males weighing 7 kg housed in relatively small all-wire cages in the quarantine room will accept food from your hand. A human passing within a foot of their cages elicit none of the alarm which is a distressing feature of, for example, Cebus apelia in precisely similar situations. Some 15 young animals ranging from some very recently born orphans to young adolescents will take a milk diet from a syringe with no difficulty whatsoever, and their playful behavior is a joy to see. Randomly selected breeding groups of a male and four or five females have settled into their 4 x 4 x 3 m pens in a very satisfactory manner, spend hours contentedly grooming, and treat us to the most astonishing vocal choruses at any time of the day when thunder or rain is imminent. The volume of noise produced by only four animals is incredible and causes the 40 m brick- and concrete-built breeding room to literally vibrate. A tape recording of their "song" played at minimum volume is so loud as to be uncomfortable to listen to. On a diet of bananas, papaya, carrots, and an ample supply of assorted tree foliage, together with boiled whole grain rice moistened with reconstituted whole milk, they appear to be thriving and very few animals have been lost.
We currently have 14 Chiropotes satanus spp. including two very young individuals. The adults of both sexes, several of which females are undoubtedly parous and the males patently sexually mature, are much lighter and more slender than photographs and descriptions of this species which I have seen. They are clearly brown and not blackish in color. The adults are certainly rather nervous, but have fed without difficulty and settled down into two breeding groups. None have been lost or presented any health problems whatsoever to date. The two young are ridiculously tame and are waiting at the cage door every morning to be picked up and fed from a syringe. Another incidental observation is that although the unique and apparently threateningly massive dentition of the genus would suggest that handling them would be a somewhat hazardous affair, in actual fact they make little attempt to bite and once again, as compared with Cebus apella, are easy in this respect. We have not had Pithecia here so far, but two examples of P. monachus, received as adolescents in the primate center in Iquitos, Peru, certainly did not display the lethargy and lack of interest in their surroundings attributed to this species in some of the literature. Like the young Alouatta mentioned above, they grew into very healthy lively animals and like her, one of their great pleasures was to sit on my head and groom my all too sparse grey hair!
Finally, I must point out that the Alouatta and Chiropotes mentioned above have only been in the Center a few months, having been rescued from tree tops as the water levels rose on the closing of the Tucurui dam in October, 1983. It remains to be seen whether they continue to thrive under our conditions and successfully breed, which is the primary objective. Should this be achieved, it would again demonstrate that, given the will, not only the relatively easy Callitrichidae, Saimiri and Cebus can be bred for research or conservation but most other species and, if done in the countries of origin, at relatively low cost.
Author's address: Centro Nacional de Primatas, Caixa Postal l641, Belém 66.000, Pará, Brazil.
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This conference, sponsored by the Zoological Society of San Diego and the Morris Animal Foundation, will be held in San Diego, June 24-28, 1985. The conference is intended to be a week-long international discourse among field, zoo and laboratory personnel, and is designed to seek ways to conserve vanishing primates better than m the past and to provide direction for future management. Topic areas include: Overall situation (Primates in natural habitats, Abundance; Management; Long-range conservation). Zoos and governmental facilities (Breeding successes and failures; Primate traffic; Genetic considerations for taxonomy and breeding). Strategies for endangered species (Researchable problems; Steps for reintroduction; Monetary resources; Whose responsibility?).
Workshops will deal with Mortality; Pathology; Virology; Veterinary medicine; Housing, furniture; Reproductive physiology; and Behavior. Proceedings will be published.
For further information contact: Zoological Society of San Diego, PO Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551 U.S.A. (Phone: 619-231-1515) or Morris Animal Foundation, 45 Inverness Drive East, Englewood, CO 80112 U.S.A. (Phone: 303-790-2345)
* * *
The 12th annual continuing education course on "Comparative Pathology" will be presented April 22-24, 1985 at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC. This course is specially designed to bring attention to disease processes in animals for which similar entities occur in man. Differences and similarities of pathologic lesions as well as the biologic behavior of specific entities will be compared in animals and man.
Application forms to attend the course may be obtained by contacting the Director, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, (AFIP-EDE), Washington, DC 20306. Completed application forms should be returned by April 8, 1985. Nonfederal civilians and foreign nationals are required to submit a $75.00 fee, payable to the Treasurer of the United States.
Military and federal service employees in the medical, veterinary and other medical fields are requested to consult respective agency regulations for appropriate application procedures. Civilian physicians, veterinarians and allied scientists are invited to apply. All applications will be considered on a space available basis.
* * *
In September of last year, fake bombs were left near the homes of Charles Cornelius, Director of the California Regional Primate Research Center at Davis, and Andrew Hendrickx, the Associate Director. The two shoe-box-size mock bombs were found outside the homes in the morning and police bomb squads were called. Upon arrival the bomb squads found notes on the outside of the boxes saying "This is not a bomb, but time is running out." Inside of each box was a ticking alarm clock and a copy of Australian philosopher Peter Singer's book, Animal Liberation.
A spokesman for the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) said: "There never was any intent to harm, or threaten harm, to any individuals. We believe we made that clear when we identified the packages [left at Cornelius' and Hendrickx's homes] as safe by [printing] disclaimers such as, "'This is not a bomb."
"There never has been, nor will there ever be, any intent or attempt by the ALF to harm anyone. We do not, however, consider attacks on property to be violence.
'We believe the overreaction by the research community is an example of its paranoia. They know the great injustice they are committing inside research laboratories to both humans and non-human animals.
"They know this research is a fraud, that it is designed not to find cures for human ailments, but to earn a living and gain recognition for themselves. In the process they are maiming and murdering innocent animals by the millions and preventing legitimate research from finding any meaningful cures for humankind.'
The spokesman also said that the ASF "doesn't have any problems with 'legitimate' research efforts," but believes that "the cures the world is waiting for should not, and will not, come from the use of innocent animals.
"This was an innocent act by us to inform the research community. The overreaction by the researchers was their mistake. Any danger perceived was imagined."
The Center at Davis has been a target of animal rights groups. Last April a 33-hour march and vigil was staged at the Center. The ALF has been active in its efforts to halt the use of laboratory animals, most recently liberating 23 laboratory rats from Sacramento State University. The ALF has invaded other research facilities, including the University of Pennsylvania (two times), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, the Johns Hopkins University, Howard University, and the US Naval Medical Center in Bethesda (two times). [Based on a note in the NSMR Bulletin, September, 1984.]
* * *
The annual convention of the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science will be held in Toronto, Canada, June 24-26, 1985. For information contact: CALAS/ACTAL Convention 1985, University of Toronto, DLAS Room 1236, Medical Sciences Building, I Taddle Creek Rd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S lA8.
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The Fyssen Foundation's general aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, into their biological and cultural bases, and into their phylogenetic and ontogenetic development". For this purpose, the Foundation will award a certain number of Fellowships. These fellowships are meant for the training and support of research scientists working in disciplines relevant to the aims of the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology,
anthropology, psychology, logic, and the neurosciences. The Foundation wishes to support, more particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes and of their embryonic and postnatal development, as well as the elementary mechanisms they involve. Anthropology-Ethnology: Study of cognitive foundations: a) of the representations of the natural and cultural development, b) of the technical systems developed in the various form of social organization. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.
Fellowships will be given to French scientists wishing to work abroad and to foreign scientists wishing to work in French laboratories. Study grants will normally be granted for one year but may be extended up to three.
Applications should be established according to a form to be obtained from the Foundation which will include: the curriculum vitae; the list of publications of the applicant; the names of two senior scientists whom the applicant has asked to send testimonials to the Secretariat of the Foundation by the date indicated below; the letter of acceptance of the inviting laboratory.
The completed files should be sent in 15 copies to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 195, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation: April 1, 1985.
1985 International Prize
A substantial International Scientific Prize shall be given for a major contribution to the progress of knowledge in the fields of research supported by the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, logic, and the neurosciences. It was awarded in 1980 to Professor Andre Leroi-Gourhan, in 1981 to Professor William H. Thorpe, in 1982 to Professor Vernon B. Mountcastle, in 1983 to Professor Harold C. Conklin, and in 1984 to Professor Roger W. Brown. Disciplines considered for the 1985 prize: Cognitive psychology and Epistemology. The nominations should include a curriculum vitae of the nominee; a list of his publications; a summary (four pages maximum) of the research work upon which the nomination is based. Nominations for the 1985 prize of the Fyssen Foundation should be sent in 15 copies to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 195, rue de Rivoli, 75001, Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of nominations: September 1, 1985.
* * *
Massa, the world's oldest gorilla at 54 years of age, died December 30 at the Philadelphia Zoo where he had lived since 1935. The cause of death was disposed as a stroke. A postmortem examination revealed that Massa had recently had two heart attacks. Massa had been raised by West Africans and brought to the United States in 1930, first as a house pet.
Health Research Act Vetoed
President Reagan late last year vetoed the Health Research Extension Act of 1984 that had been passed in the closing hours of the 98th Congress. This Act would have extended current authorities of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and added several new requirements for NIH including provisions concerning laboratory animals. New requirements for NIH concerning laboratory animals were to be: to undertake an 18-month study on the use of animals and alternative methods during the last five years; to design a research plan for the development of alternative methods; to establish compulsory guidelines for animal care; and to require all research facilities supported by NIH funds to have institutional animal care committees. The bill included a provision to make the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates of New York University one of the Regional Primate Research Centers. The reasons for the veto had to do with various other provisions of the bill that the President deemed would be too costly.
President Reagan stated publicly that his veto was based on his belief that the legislation was costly and represented unwarranted government intrusion. However, it is well-known that NIH strongly resisted many of the bill's provisions, particularly the establishment of the two new institutes (on arthritis and nursing), and the bill's attempt to formalize NIH's prevention activities. It is believed that NIH opposition played a major part in the President's decision.
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The 1985 Primate Pathology Workshop will be held at the Sheraton Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada on Sunday, March 10, 1985, the day before the meeting of the International Academy of Pathology, which is scheduled for March 11-15, also at the Sheraton Centre.
Please review your files for interesting cases to be discussed with colleagues at the workshop, and send the history and 75 microslides for each case by, January 31 to George Migaki, DVM, Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306 (202-576-2452). A set of case histories and microslides will be sent prior to the workshop to each registrant. The registration fee of $10.00 (check or money order payable to UAREP) should be sent to Dr. Migaki.
* * *
The seventh meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be held in Niagara Falls, New York, June 1-4, 1985. The deadline for submission of abstracts is March 1, 1985. For registration forms and other information about the meeting write to the Chair of the Local Arrangements Committee: Dr. Chris R. Duggleby, American Society of Primatologists, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Baffalo, NY 14261.
* * *
(Addresses are those of first authors)
Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates. David J. Chivers,
Bernard A. Wood, and Alan Bilsborough (Eds.). New York: Plenum, 1984. 576 pp.
. . . The proceedings of a two-day symposium and three-day workshop held in Cambridge, England, March 22-26, 1982 under the sponsorship of the Primate Society of Great Britain and the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
. . . Contents: SECTION I. ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND FOOD ACQUISITION. Chapter 1. Primates: Their niche structure and habitats, by M. J. Coe. 2. Environmental grain, niche diversification and feeding behaviour in primates, by S. Ripley. 3. Body size, brain size and feeding strategies, by R. D. Martin. 4. Primate locomotion and diet, by J. G. Fleagle. 6. Habitat richness, foraging range and diet in chimpanzees and some other primates, by A. Kortlandt. 6. The adaptive capacities of the hanuman langur and the categorizing of diet, by P. Winkler. 7. Subcategorizing foods in primates, by M. G. M. van Roosmalen. 8. Food acquisition and processing as a function of plant chemistry, by P. G. Waterman.
. . . SECTION II. FOOD PROCESSING IN LIVING PRIMATES. 9. Diet and gut morphology in primates, D. J. Chivers, & C. M. Madik. 10. Comparative functional morphology of maximum mandibular opening (gape) in primates, by R. J. Smith. 11. Functional aspects of primate jaw morphology, by K. Hiiemae; 12. Chewing it over: Basic principles of food breakdown, by P. W. Lucas & D. A. Luke. 13. Tooth morphology and dietary specification, by W. Maier. 14. Predictions of primate diets from molar wear patterns, by C. Janis. 15. The microstructure of primate dental enamel, by A. Boyde & L. Martin. 16. Stress-strength relationships in the mandibles of hominoids, by B. Demes, H. Preuschoft, & J. E. A. Wolff. 17. A theoretical approach to solve the chin problem, by J. E. A. Wolff. 18. Mechanical stresses at the primate skull base caused by the temporomandibular joint force, by B. Demes. 19. Cranial morphology and masticatory adaptations, by M. Sakka.
. . . SECTION III EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES ON FEEDING. 20. An evolutionary model for feeding and positional behaviour, by P. Andrews & L. Aiello. 21. Anatomy and behaviour of extinct primates, by R. F. Kay & H. H. Covert. 22. Food acquisition and the evolution of positional behaviour. The case of bipedalism, by M. D. Rose. 23. Deciduous molar microwear of South African Australopithecines, by F. E. Grine. 24. Interpreting the dental peculiarities of the 'robust' Australopithecines, by B. A. Wood. 25. Food acquisition and processing in primates: Concluding discussion, by D. J. Chivers, P. Andrews, H. Preuschoft, A. Bilsborough, & B. A. Wood.
The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. Randall L.
Susman (Ed.). New York: Plenum, 1984. 435 pp. [Price: $59.50]
. . . Proceedings of a symposium held August 9, 1982 in Atlanta in conjunction with the IXth Congress of the International Primatological Society. The symposium honored Harold Jefferson Coolidge. Contents: PART I. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, SYSTEMATICS, AND MORPHOLOGY. Chapter 1. The Tervuren Museum and the pygmy chimpanzee, by D. P. E. Thys Van den Audenaerde. 2. Blood groups of pygmy and common chimpanzees: A comparative study, by W. W. Socha. 3. Pygmy chimpanzee systematics: A molecular perspective, by V. M. Sarich. 4. A measure of basicranial flexion in Pan paniscus, the pygmy chimpanzee, by J. T. Laitman & R. C. Heimbuch. 5. The dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscia by W. G. Kinzey. 6. An allometric perspective on the morphological and evolutionary relationships between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common (Pan trogiodytes) chimpanzees, by B. T. Shea. 7. Body size and skeletal allometry in African apes, by W. L. Jungers & R. L. Susman. 8. Body build and tissue composition in Pan paniscus and Pan trogiodytes, with comparisons to other hominoids, by A. L. Zihlman. 9. The common ancestor: A study of the postcranium of Pan paniscus, Australopithecus, and other hominoids, by R. M. McHenry.
. . . PART 11. BEHAVIOR OF PAN PANISCUS. 10. Feeding ecology of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba, by T. Kano & M. Mulavwa. 1 1. Feeding ecology of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire, by N. Badrian & R. K. Malenky. 12. Interaction over Food among pygmy chimpanzees, by S. Kuroda. 13. Social organization of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire, by A. Badrian & N. Badrian. 14. Sexual behavior of Pan paniscus under natural conditions in the Lomako Forest, Equateur, Zaire, by N. Thompson-Handler, R. K. Malenky, & N. Badrian. 15. The locomotor behavior of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, by R. L. Susman. 16. Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes: Contrasts in preverbal communicative competence, by E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh. 17. Will the pygmy chimpanzee be threatened with extinction as are the elephant and the white rhinoceros in Zaire?, by K. K. Mubalamata.
The Barbary Macaque: A Case Study in Conservation. John E. Fa (Ed.).
New York: Plenum, 1984. 369 pp. [Price: $49.50]
. . . Based on papers presented at the International Conference of the Barbary Macaque, June 16-20, 1982, in Gibraltar. The survival of the Barbary macaque--a species that has figured largely in the history of Mediterranean civilizations--is now in jeopardy. This volume is intended as a presentation of all known data on the current position of the Barbary macaque in the wild and in captive and seminatural envirorunents, written in the hope that conservation measures will be undertaken to alleviate the precarious status of the species.
. . . Contents: GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 1. The Barbary Macaque, by J. E. Fa. PART I; THE BARBARY MACAQUE IN THE WILD. 2. The demise of Barbary macaque habitat--past and present forest cover of the Maghreb, by J. V. Thirgood. 3. A brief historical account of the recent decline in geographic distribution of the Barbary macaque in North Africa, by D. M. Taub. 4. The distribution and current status of the Barbary macaque in North Africa, by J. E. Fa, D. M. Taub, N. Menard, & P. J. Stewart. 5. Demography of the Barbary macaque at Ain Kahla in the Moroccan Moyen Atlas, by J. M. Deag. 6. The feeding ecology of the Barbary macaque and Cedar Forest conservation in the Moroccan Moyen Atlas, by G. R. Drucker. 7. Aspects of the ecology and conservation of the Barbary macaque in the Fir Forest habitat of the Moroccan Rif Mountains, by P. T. Mehhuan.
. . . PART II. THE BARBARY MACAQUE IN CAPTIVE AND SEMI-NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS. 8. The sense and direction of captive breeding programmes--The position of the Barbary macaque, by M. F. Stevenson. 9. A comparison of proximity behavior in 2 groups of Barbary macaques--Implications for the management of the species in captivity, by S. G. Hornshaw. 10. Breeding Barbary macaques in outdoor open enclosures, by G. de Turckheim & E. Merz. 11. Structure and dynamics of the Barbary macaque population in Gibraltar, by J. E. Fa. 12. The genetic ixnplications of effective population size for the Barbary macaque in Gibraltar, by F. D. Burton & L. A. Sawchuk.
. . . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 13. Conclusions and recommendations, by J. E. Fa. Appendix I: Definition of age-sex classes for the Barbary macaque. Appendix II: Diet of the Barbary macaque in the wild. Appendix III. Variant spelling of place names mentioned in the test.
A Complete Guide to Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Michael
Kavanaugh. New York: Viking Press, 1984. 224 pp. [Price: $19.95]
. . . An illustrated guide to the living primates of the world, intended for the general reader as well as the specialist. The guide describes the animals' physical characteristics, ecology, and behavior, based on field and laboratory data. There are distribution maps and color photographs illustrating every genus.
One Medicine: A Tribute to Kurt Benirschke. Oliver A. Ryder & Mary
L. Byrd (Eds.). Berlin: Springer-Veriag, 1984. 373 pp. [Price: $36.50]
. . . A Festschrift for Kurt Benirschke with contributions from his students and colleagues. Of the 29 articles, those that are of special interest to primate researchers are: Primate breeding in zoos: A 10 year summary, by D. G. Lindburg, J. M. Berkson, & L. K. Nightenhelser; The effects of prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure on the genital tracts of fetuses and neonates (Cebus apella, Macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens), by L. D. Johnson; Yersiniosis: A review and report of an epizootic in nonhuman primates, by H. M. McClure & F. A. King. There is also a bibliography of the scientific papers of Dr. Benirschke.
Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine: An Introduction. Donald D. Holmes.
Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1984. Softcover. 138 pp. [Price:
. . . The book is not intended to be an in depth presentation of clinical medicine of laboratory animals for the specialist in this area, but, rather, as an introduction for those planning to pursue further training in laboratory medicine, as a text for veterinary medical students, and as a practical guide to veterinarians in private practice. There is a chapter dealing with nonhuman primates.
Language in Primates: Perspectives and Implications (Springer Series in
Language and Communication 11). Judith de Luce & Hugh T. Wilder
(Eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983. 198 pp. [Price: $26]
. . . Contents: Introduction, by J. de Luce & H. T. Wilder. 1. Apes who "talk": Language or projection of language by their teachers?, by H. S. Terrace. 2. Apes and language: the search for communicative competence, by H. L. Miles. 3. Chimpanzee language and elephant tails: A theoretical synthesis, by R. S. Fouts. 4. Genes, evolution and language in apes: The nature of the phenotypes, by E. C. Simmel. 5. Communication in primates, by S. Stebbins. 6. Limits of primate talk, by T. W. Simon. 7. Ethics, anirnals and language, by M. Benjamin. 8. Linguistic innateness and its evidence, by M. Atherton & R. Schwartz. 9. Talk to the animals, by M. Atherton & R. Schwartz. 10. Apes who sign and critics who don't, by W. C. Stokoe. 1 1. Prospects for a cognitive ethology, by D. R. Griffin.
Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and Elsewhere
in the British Isles. Part 3, Family Cercopithecidae Subfamily Colobinae.
P. H. Napier. London: British Museum (National History), 1984. Approx. 160
pp. (Price: 35 pounds sterling]
. . . This, volume deals with the leaf-eating Old World monkeys (subfamily Colobinae) and includes a summary of their taxonomy and morphology; an account of the origins of the Cercopithecoidea by Peter Andrews; a complete list of the BM(NH) collections, both living and fossil, and important specimens in other museums; a list of field measurements of adult specimens in the collections, and an extensive bibliography of the group. Each genus has information on morphology, range, ecology, social behavior and reproduction, and keys for the recognition of species and subspecies, together with their principal synonyms and type localities. Full data are given for individual specimens. This work is the first species by species account of the Colobinae and as such it will be of interest to zoologists, anthropologists, ecologists, primate palaeontologists, etc.
Primate Behaviour and Social Ecology. Hilary 0. Box. New York: Methuen,
1984. 283 pp. [Hardback price: $22.95].
. . . This textbook concentrates on aspects of behavioral diversity within and between species of primates and how these may be related to their natural life styles. The central theme of the book concerns behavioral responses to changes withm social and physical environments and examples are selected from captive, wild, experimental and naturalistic studies. Topics include those of birth, infanticide, the formation of social units, intertroop movement, "intelligence" and learning.
Directories and Supplements
Handbook: Animal Models of Human Disease (thirteenth fascicle). C. C.
Capen, D. B. Hackel, T. C. Jones, & G. Migaki (Board of Editors).
Washington,, DC: Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of
. . . Twenty new studies from The American Journal of Pathology and the Comparitive Pathology Bulletin with a cumulative index, supplementing the fascicles published from 1972-1983. Four of the new studies deal with monkeys, as does 1 of the 3 supplemental updates. The 13th Fascicle can be purchased in a 3-ring vinyl binder large enough to hold 3 Fascicles for $10 per copy or unbound for $6. A Special Library Edition of the first 7 Fascicles may be purchased in a binder for $30. Individual unbound Fascicles 1-12 are available at $5 each. All prices include postage. Orders must be prepaid, with a check or money order made payable to UAREP and sent to Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306.
Educational Opportunities in Comparative Pathology: United States and
Foreign Countries--1984. (1984) Washington, DC: Registry of Comparative
Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
. . . The revised directory includes 82 programs m the United States and 18 in foreign countries. There is no charge for the directory. Contact the Registry of Comparative Pathology, at the address given above.
Behavioral development in infant cebidae: A bibliography. Williams, J. B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. 10 pp. [Price: $6.00 ($5.00 prepaid). Send order to: Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]
Ethograms for nonhuman primates: A bibliography. Williams, J. B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. 17 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Infections, diseases and physical disorders of zoo captive monkeys and prosimians, 1970-1984. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. (248 citations, Primate Index) [Price: $7.00. Ordering information same as above.)
Infections, diseases and disorders of zoo captive apes: A bibliography, 1974-1984. Caminiti, B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. 18 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Parasites of the digestive system of nonhuman primates and tupaiidae: A bibliography, 1970-1984. Caminiti, B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. 29 pp. [Price:10.00 ($9.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Drug effects on social behavior in nonhuman Primates: A bibliography, 1970-1984. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. 14 pp. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Diarrhea in nonhuman primates: A survey of primate colonies for incidence rates
and clinical opinion. Hird, D. W., Anderson, J. H., & Bielitzki, J. T.
(Dept. of Epidemiology and Preventive Med., Sch. Vet. Med., Univ. Calif.,
Davis, CA 95616) Laboratory Animal Science, 1984, 34, 465-470.
. . . Veterinary clinicians associated with 18 colonies of nonhuman primates were surveyed for their experience with diarrhea disease in colony animals for calendar year 1981. The 1981 diarrhea incidence rate, diarrhea-specific mortality rate and diarrhea case fatality rate for 13,385 monkeys were 10.6%, 1.2% and 11.1%, respectively. It was not possible to incriminate age or type of housing as risk factors for diarrhea, but some species seemed at greater risk than others. Erythrocebus patas monkeys had relatively high diarrhea incidence rates (18.8%) and the highest case fatality rate (48.4%) of all species surveyed. Squirrel monkeys- (Saimiri sciureus) and baboons (Papio sp.) had low diarrhea incidence rates (2.1% and 3.2%, respectively). This opinion survey indicated a lack of uniformity among primate clinicians with respect to approaches to diagnosis and therapy of monkey diarrhea. The survey also suggested that many of the agents associated were perceived differently among primate clinicians, and that the roles of some agents are still poorly understood.
A pathological study in cynomolgus monkeys infected with Edeson filaria
malayensis. Nonoyama, T., Sugitani, T., Orita, S., & Miyajima, H.
(Central Res. Div., Takeda Chemical Ind., Ltd. 6-10-1 Himurocho, Takatsuki,
Osaka 569, Japan) Laboratory Animal Science, 1984, 34, 604-609.
. . . The host response to natural infection with Edeson f'ilaria malayensis in 6 female adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) imported from Indonesia was examined retrospectively by histopathology and clinical investigations. Reduced values of hemoglobin and hematocrit, an increased number of eosinophils, an elevated level of total protein and a decrease in A/G ratio were noted in hematological and blood chemical examinations of the infected animals. The filarial worms inhabited subserosal connective tissues of the abdominal and the thoracic cavities but not the lumina of the body cavities. There was thickening of the connective tissues, hemorrhage and adhesion of the serosa in the site occupied by the worms and the cysts. Histopathologically, proliferation of the connective tissues and/or granulation tissues, infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes and other cells associated with inflammation and hemorrhage were observed. The worms occasionally caused mechanical damage in nearby tissues such as the pancreas and the iliopsoas muscle. In addition, splenic nodules were found in 5 of the 6 infected monkeys as a secondary lesion specifically related to the infection with E. malayensis.
Endometriosis with bacterial peritonitis in a baboon. DaRif, C. A., Parker, R.
F., & Schoeb, T. R. (Dept. of Comp. Med., Sch of Med. & Dentistry,
Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL) Laboratory Animal Science, 1984,
. . . An adult female Papio hamadryas being used in reproductive studies was found moribund unexpectedly. Palpation revealed acute abdominal pain and a pelvic mass. A tentative diagnosis of endometriosis and shock was made. Necropsy and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis and identified an associated bacterial peritonitis.
Secondary amyloidosis in rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling venous
catheters. Doepel, P. M., Ringler, D. H., & Petkus, A. R. (Unit for
Laboratory Animal Med., Univ. of Mchigan Med. Sch., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0010)
Laboratory Animal Science, 1984, 34, 494-496.
. . . Secondary amyloidosis was diagnosed in 5 rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling venous catheters. Diagnostic enzymology demonstrated normal serum alanine aminotransferase concentration and consistently elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. Serum protein electrophoresis on all 5 animals showed a typical pattern of decreased albumin and increased gamma globulin. Necropsy or biopsy specimens verified the presence of amyloid deposits in all animals. The diagnostic usefulness of clinical enzymology, serum protein electrophoresis and liver biopsy were demonstrated and the importance of considering amyloidosis as a differential diagnosis in monkeys with indwelling vascular catheters is emphasized.
A survey of parasitic lesions in wild-caught, laboratory-maintained primates:
(Rhesus, cynomolgus, and baboon). Abbott, D. P., & Majeed, S. K. (Pathol.
Dept., Huntingdon Res. Ctr., Huntingdon, Cambridge PE18 6ESI, England)
Veterinary Pathology, 1984, 21, 198-207.
. . . The lesions associated with parasitic infestation in 1156 wild-caught, laboratory-maintained nonhuman primates (Macaca facicularis, Macaca mulatta, and Papio spp) are described. The 2 most connnon parasites mm were lung mites (Pneumonyssus spp) and nodular worms (Oesophagostonum spp). In addition, in cynomolgus monkeys (M. facicularis) only, Nochtia nochti was a frequent pathogen.. The etiology of mineralized fibrotic nodules in the mesentery of cynomolgus monkeys was thought to be infection with Paragonimus westermani, the oriental lung fluke.
Camne tooth root infection as a cause of facial abscess in the common marmoset
(Callithrix jacchus). Baskerville, M. (Chemical Defence Establishment,
Porton Down, Salisbury, Wilts, SP4 OJG, England) Laboratory Animal,
1984, 18, 115-118. (German summary)
. . . Facial abscesses in a colony of common marmosets were found to be caused by abscessation of an upper canine tooth root. Trauma to the upper canine, resulting in exposure of the pulp cavity, was thought to be the mode of infection. Radiography was the most useful diagnostic aid in establishing the nature and extent of the lesion. Antibiotic therapy alone was inadequate, and provision of drainage by extracting the tooth, in conjunction with antibiotics, proved the most effective treatment.
Physiology and Behavior
Blood pressure values in Macaca fascicularis. Hartley, L. H.,
Rodger, R., Nicolosi, R. J., & Hartley, T. (Harvard Med. Sch., New
England Reg. Prim. Res. Ctr., One Pine Hill Rd. Southborough, MA 01772)
Joumal of Medical Primatology, 1984, 13,183-189.
. . . Normal data are presented for blood pressure values of adult Macaca fascicularis. The mean arterial pressure (direct) was 99 +/- 9.8 mmHg (mean +/- standard deviation) and. was not correlated with sex, age, or weight. Normative data are presented which suggest that this species has a range of values similar to that observed in other primate species including man.
Hemodynamic and endocrine parameters in the anesthetized cynomolgus monkey: A
primate model. Udelsman, R., Bacher, J., Gallucci, W. T., Gold W., Morin, M.
L., Renquist, D., Loriaux, D. L., & Chrousos, G. P. (Surgery Branch, DCT,
NCI, Bldg.. 10, Rm 2B42, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20205)
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1984, 13, 327-338.
. . . Hemodynamic and endocrine parameters were determined in 9 anesthetized adult male cynomolgus monkeys. Simultaneous phasic and mean pressures were measured in the right atrium, pulmonary artery, and abdominal aorta. Intermittent pulmonary artery wedge pressures and mean cardiac output measured by the thermal dilution method were used to calculate stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and plasma renin activity were measured throughout the procedure. Technical aspects, data in the anesthetized monkey, and comparison with previously reported data are presented.
The influence of physical and chemical restraint on the physiology of the
chacma baboon (Papio ursinus). Goosen, D. J., Davies, J. 14., Maree,
M., & Dormehl, I. C. (Inter Laboratories (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 13873,
Sinoville 0129, South Africa) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1984,
. . . The chacma baboon is extensively used in South Africa for biomedical research. Being a large primate, it is always necessary to apply some measure of chemical or physical restraint. The physiological effects of placing an animal in a restraint chair are compared with the effects of various chemical agents, such as ketamine, halothane, and ketamine/xylazine combination over 90 min. It was found that ketamine and thiopentone infusion were a satisfactory chemical restraint agent that gave a stable physiological state over 90 min.
Cementum annulus counts provide a means for age determination in Macaca
mulatta (Primates. Anthropoidea). Kay, R. F., Rasmussen, D. T., & Beard
K. C. (Dept. of Anatomy, Box 3011, Duke Univ. Med. Ctr., Durham, NC 27710)
Folia Primatologica, 1984, 42, 85-95.
. . . 14 teeth of 8 rhesus rnacaques of known age were analyzed. to assess the usefulness of cementum annuli counts as a means of estimating chronological age. Methods used were histological examination of stained thin sections by light microscopy, and examination of polished and etched epoxy-embedded sections by scanning electron microscopy. In 11 of 14 cases, the known chronological ages of the individuals fell within the predicted age ranges based on cementum annuli counts; in 2 other cases, it fell within half a year of the ranges. Cementum annulus counts can provide valuable information about the age of primates living in semitropical environments. This is the most accurate method for aging skeletally adult primates that has yet been tested on animals of known age.
Pharmacology and Anesthesia
The relief of pain in laboratory animals. Flecknell, P. A. (Div. of Comp.
Med., Clinical Res. Ctr., Watford Rd., Harrow, Middx HAl 3UJ, England)
Laboratory Animals, 1984, 18, 147-160. (German summary)
. . . The data concerning the types of analgesic drugs available and the experimental evidence for their efficacy in laboratory species are reviewed. The information is then extrapolated to the clinical situation to provide guidance as to methods of achieving effective analgesia in experimental animals. The most generally useful agent at present seems to be buprenorphine which can be used to provide effective, long lasting analgesia in a wide range of species.
Breeding and Rearing
Reproductive performance, population dynamics and anthropometrics of the
free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Rawlins, R. G., Kessler, M. J.,
& Turnquist, J. E. (Caribbean Prim. Res. Ctr., PO Box 1053, Sabana Seca,
PR 00749) Joumal of Medical Primatology, 1984, 13, 247-259.
. . . This report summarizes demographic data collected on the Cayo Santiago colony of rhesus monkeys from 1976-1983 and compares the results with those from 1959-1964 [8, 9]. For males and nonpregnant/lactating, pregnant, and lactating females mean (+/- 1 SD) body weights, crown-rump lengths, and ponderal indices are tabulated for each age on a large (n = 586) single sampling of this free-ranging population of macaques.
Limitations of the nonhuman pregnancy kit for pregnancy diagnosis in baboons.
Bambra, C. S., Eley, R. M., & Wall, H. (Institute of Primate Research,
National Museums of Kenya, PO Box 34505, Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1984, 13, 219-227.
. . . The Nonhuman Primate Pregnancy Test (NHPPT) kit was evaluated for diagnosis of pregnancy in baboons. Unreadable controls rendered 33% of all tests inconclusive. Refrigeration and dilution did little to improve the number of inconclusive tests. Positive- and false-negative results from readable tests on days 20 to 27 of confirmed pregnancy were 75% and 25%, respectively. The NHPPT did not always provide an accurate diagnosis of pregnancy and often proved unreadable.
Effects of sibling-rearing experience on future reproductive success in 2
species of callitrichidae. Tardif, S. D., Richter, C. B., & Carson, R. L.
(Marmoset Res. Ctr., Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37830)
American Joumal of Primatology, 1984, 6, 377-380.
. . . The survival rate for offspring of mothers who either had or did not have previous experience rearing younger siblings was compared in 2 callitrichid species, Callithrix jacchus and Saguinus oedipus. Offspring of mothers with sibling-rearing experience had a higher survival percentage than offspring of inexperienced mothers in both species. While 50-60% of offspring of inexperienced C. jacchus mothers survived, no offspring of inexperienced S. oedipus mothers survived. The results suggest that sibhng-rearing experience is necessary for adequate matemal behavior in S. oedipus, but not necessary to the development of maternal behavior in C. jacchus. Effects of previous sibling-rearing experience of S. oedipus fathers on offspring survival were also examined. Whether the father had rearing experience was not related to the survival of their offspring.
Parturition in wild gorillas: Behaviour of mothers, neonates, and others.
Stewart, K. J. (Sub-Dept. of Animal Behaviour, Univ. Cambridge, High St.,
Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, England) Folia Primatologica, 1984,
. . . 2 gorilla births observed in the wild are described. The data presented are similar in many respects to those from a previous gorilla birth observed m the wild, and are related to the captive management of gorillas in zoos. Stressed in particular is the importance of housing females and their neonates with conspecifics.
Comments on reproductive senescence female Japanese macaques. Gouzoules, H.,
Fedigan, L., Gouzoules, S., & Fedigan, L. (Rockefeller Univ., Field Res.
Ctr., Tyrrel Rd., Millbrook, NY 12545) Journal of Mammalogy,
. . . A calculation error in a previously published article by other researchers is reported here, which suggests that, contrary to the prior conclusion, there was no difference in reproductive rate of young female Japanese macaques (6-17 years) and old ones (18 years and older) of the Arashiyama West group during 1976-1979. A correction in statements about the size of the group is also made.
Sexual behavior of group-housed stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides):
Temporal, demographic and sociosexual relationships. Estep, D. Q., Bruce, K. E.
M., Johnston, M. E., & Gordon, T. P. (Dept. of Psychol., Univ. of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602) Folia Primatologica, 1984, 42, 115-126.
. . . A detailed quantitative analysis of behavior in a social group of captive stumptail macaques was conducted. The distribution of copulations both over days and among animals, and the relationships between copulation and various sociosexual patterns were investigated. Copulations occurred erratically over days and were preferentially directed to a small minority of females. Most patterns of sociosexual behavior were at their highest rates during actual copulatory episodes, others occurred independently of ejaculation. It is suggested that the relationships between variables such as social rank, age, and parity and sociosexual patterns are qtute flexible and probably vary with the species, testing conditions and demographic makeup of the group.
A longitudinal study of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) milk composition:
Trace elements, minerals, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Lönnerdal, B.,
Keen, C. L., Glazier, C. E., & Anderson, J. (Dept. of Nutrition, Univ. of
Calif., Davis, CA 95616) Pediatric Research, 1984, 18, 911-914.
. . . The concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, protein, carbohydrate, and fat were analyzed in milk from rhesus monkeys during the course of lactation. Concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, sodium, potassium, and protein were higher in milk of early lactation (colostrum) than in mature milk, while concentrations of calcium increased with lactation time. Concentrations of zinc in monkey colostrum and mature milk were similar to that of human milk, while iron, copper, calcium, and protein concentrations were higher than in human milk.
Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys genus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A
preliminary report with description of a hitherto unnamed form. Hershkovitz, P.
(Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605) American Journal of
Primatology, 1984, 7, 155-210.
. . . 2 groups of squirrel monkeys, genus Saimiri, are distinguished by external characters. The first, or Roman type, contains Saimiri boliviensis of upper Amazonia south of the Rio Marañón-Amazonas, with 2 subspecies of which S. boliviensis peruviensis is described as new. The second group, or Gothic type, contains 3 species: Samiri sciureus with 4 subspecies distributed over much of tropical South America, Saimiri ustus of Brazil between the south bank Amazonian Rios Purús and Xingu, and S. oerstedi isolated on a Pacific coastal area straddling Costa Rica and Panama. The geographic range of S. sciureus overlaps parts of those of S. ustus and S. boliviensis. Incomplete karyotypic data indicate that the diploid number of chromosomes for the genus is 44. Geographic variation is characterized by reduction from 7 to 6 or 5 paired acrocentric autosomes through pericentric inversion with reciprocal increase in number of paired submetacentric or subtelocentric autosomes. Geographic distribution, behavior, sexual dimorphism including dichromatism, and hybridization are discussed. Ventral guide hairs for orientation of subprecocial newborn toward the matemal mammae are described. Distinguishing characters of species and subspecies are provided in a key. The taxons are listed with the taxonomy of each discussed, their geographic distribution plotted and mapped. (A republication, occasioned by publisher's errors, of an article that originally appeared in the American Joumal of Primatology, 1984, 6, 257-312. The designation of Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis Hershkovitz dates from the first publication in the American Joumal of Primatology, 1984, 6, 285. It is recommended that all other references to this article be cited from the present republication.)
The Mountain Gorilla Project: Progress report no. 6. Wilson, R. (Projet
Gorilles de Montagne, BP36, Ruhengeri, Rwanda) Oryx, 1984, 18,
. . . The Mountain Gorilla Project (MGP) has now been running in the field for over 5 years. This report covers its activities between November 1982 and February 1984. The MGP is devoted to the conservation of the mountain gorilla Gorilla gorilla beringei in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. This park contains about half of the 250 gorillas in the Virungas, the chain of inactive volcanoes on the Rwanda-Zaire-Uganda border that is the stronghold of the subspecies. Another 115 are found in the Bwindi (Impenetrable) forest in Uganda, which is now cut off from the Virunga population by a barrier of cultivated land, and these 2 groups, totalling 360-370 animals, constitute the world mountain gorilla population. The MGP has been instrumental in turning an apparently hopeless situation around to one where the future of the mountain gorilla hangs in the balance. The loss of habitat has been stopped, the decline in the gorilla population in Rwanda has also been checked, the stage is set for a population increase and the park is profitable. At the same time poaching is still at an intolerable level, there are new problems created by over-demand from tourism and the conservation education work is still in its early stages. In the background the basic problems of over-population of humans and a galloping growth rate remain unchanged, although their consequences for the park are, in the writer's view, no longer inevitable. The situation, however, is still not good, and the object of the project, to ensure the survival of the mountain gorilla, is not yet attained. One of the most important things is to keep the MGP in place in the field. If this is not done it is likely that the gorillas will be lost.
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In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
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NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
Photo of twin stumptailed monkeys (Macaca arctoides) and mother by by Allan M. Schrier (see this Newsletter, 1984, 23, 18).
Copyright @1985 by Brown University
Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor Helen Janis Shuman