Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Some Improvements of Mother Surrogates for Squirrel Monkeys: A Technical Note, by M. Herzog & S. Hopf........1

News, Information, and Announcements

Summer Program: Field Work in Animal Behavior........2

Revision of Directory of Doctoral Programs in Primatology and Primate Research Planned: Call for Entries........3

Wildlife Preservation Trust Professional Training Program........3

New Editorial Address for American Journal of Primatology........4

Summer Field Sessions in Panama ........4

News Briefs: Whitehair Retires, Replaced by Johnsen........4

New Newsletter: Primate Conservation........5

Seventh ASP Meeting........5

Symposium -- Genetic Research with Nonhuman Primates: Serving the Needs of Mankind........6

Cartoon, thanks to the New Yorker

Another Cartoon, also thanks to the New Yorker


Recent Books and Articles ........7

Address Changes ........12

* * *

Some Improvements of Mother Surrogates for Squirrel Monkeys: A Technical Note

M. Herzog and S. Hopf
Max-Planck-Institute for Psychiatry, München, FRG

The infant squirrel monkey climbs to its mother's back immediately after birth. One of its earliest actions is to search for the mother's nipples (Hopf, 1971; Ploog, Hopf, & Winter, 1967). In a species carrying their young dorsally this is a somewhat more complicated interaction between infant and mother than in those species carrying their young ventrally.

For rearing squirrel monkeys artificially, Kaplan and Russell (1973) developed a mother surrogate which provided adequate size and form, a furry surface allowing secure clinging, suitable temperature, a bottle and nipple on the underside of the surrogate for self-feeding, and limited passive mobility. Although these conditions should meet the basic needs of the neonate, some of the artificially reared squirrel monkeys sucked their thumbs (Kaplan, 1977). The same has been true for our subjects reared in isolation under stimulus substitution conditions (Herzog & Hopf, 1983, 1984). Thumb-sucking was never observed in mother-reared squirrel monkeys.

The type of mother surrogate which we used was similar to that of Kaplan and Russell. We also added four more functions: (1) Surrogate rocking to provide the infant with vestibular stimulation analogous to that of being carried around (Mason & Berkson, 1975); (2) a lever to exert slight pressure on the bottle so that feeding could be facilitated during early ineffective nursing attempts; (3) arm-like structures, added after observations that mother-reared infants, when rooting and breast-seeking, slip and push through the other's armpit in an apparently directed, "single-minded" way; (4) an extra nipple to meet a need for non-nutritive sucking and to counteract thumb-sucking.

Surrogate rocking: This was provided at least 10 times per day for 5 minutes by means of an electric motor which moved the surrogate with the infant up and down at an angle of 6 deg., 0.5 to 3 times per second. The rocking motion caused the infant to relax, close its eyes and fall asleep within 1-2 minutes. It proved to be a powerful means of overcoming distress from whatever cause. The effect decreased toward the end of the first month of life, which is the age when the infant first leaves the surrogate (or mother) and moves on its own feet.

Feeding facilitation: This was only used during the first few days of life. As the surrogate was stiff and, for technical reasons, slightly larger in diameter than an average squirrel monkey mother, the neonate's feeding attempts had to be assisted by caretakers. A mother-reared neonate, when searching for the nipples, first slides half down on the side of the mother's trunk. From this position, the infant is able to release the grip of its hands and feet and move further down ventrally to reach the nipples. Assisting the neonate's feeding attempts on the surrogate was most successful when supporting its lower body and squeezing a drop of formula out of the nipple when the infant reached it.

The arm-like structures: While the mother's armpit serves as a guiding stimulus to the mother-reared, already habituated infant, the arm-like structures of the surrogate apparently do not exert this effect on the neonate (Hopf, 1970). The early difficulties involved in locating of the nipple on the surrogate probably contributed to thumb-sucking as a form of oral substitute behavior.

Extra nipple: The most important reason for thumb-sucking, however, is to be seen in the fact that the hole in the rubber nipple could not be made small enough to exhaust the animals' sucking capacities. Therefore, the extra nipple was given to two infants, male J and female K, beginning on days 2 and 3, respectively, after thumb-sucking had been observed on the same day and the day before. The nipple was of the same size and material as the nutritive one but, of course, not perforated. It was fixed on the upper side of the surrogate, close to the area where the infant usually positions its head. J began to suck the non-nutritive nipple within three hours and K within one day. Both infants used it especially in novel situations and when tense or upset. There was not the slightest indication that the infants confounded the nutritive and the non-nutritive nipples. While K stopped thumb-sucking immediately after initial use of the non-nutritive nipple and resumed it only for a few very brief occasions on days 20 and 60, J continued to suck both his thumb and the extra nipple up to day 30, two days after first leaving the surrogate and walking around. Thereafter, J used only the extra nipple, the last time during a playback of the alarm peep on day 45 (Herzog & Hopf, 1984). K used the extra nipple for the last time on day 81, the day after she had been introduced to a female companion (her first conspecific encounter).

These experiences show that a non-nutritive nipple, placed within easy oral reach, will decrease thumb-sucking during arousing situations.


Herzog, M. and Hopf, S. (1983). Effects of species-specific vocalizations on the behaviour of surrogate-reared squirrel monkeys. Behaviour, 86, 197-214.

Herzog, M. and Hopf, S. (1984). Behavioural responses to species-specific warning calls in infant squirrel monkeys reared in social isolation. American Journal of Primatology, 7, 99-106,

Hopf, S. (1970). Report on a hand-reared squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Zeitschrift f. Tierpsychologie, 27, 610-621.

Hopf, S. (1971). New findings on the ontogeny of social behavior in the squirrel monkey. Psychiatria, Neurologia, Neurochirugia, 74, 21-34.

Kaplan, J. (1977). Some behavioral observations of surrogate- and mother-reared squirrel monkeys. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff and F. Poirier (Eds.), Primate bio-social development: Biological, social and ecological determinations. New York: Garland.

Kaplan, J. and Russell, M. (1973). A surrogate for rearing infant squirrel monkeys. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 5, 379-380.

Mason, W. A. and Berkson, G. (1975). Effects of maternal mobility on the development of rocking and other behaviors in rhesus monkeys: A study with artificial mothers. Developmental Psychobiology, 8, 197-211.

Ploog, D., Hopf, S. and Winter, P. (1967). Ontogenese des Verhaltens von Totenkopf- affen (Saimiri sciureus). Psychologische Forschung, 31, 1-41.


Author's address: Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie, Postfach 401240, Kraepelinstrasse 2, D-8000 München 40, FRG


* * *

Summer Program: Field Work in Animal Behavior

The 1985 course, the sixth, will consist of four weeks of travel and study within the national parks and wildlife reserves of Kenya, East Africa. Students receive six quarter system hours of credit for completion of the course, which consists of lectures, discussions, observations, independent and group study, and tutoring in the field. Only 15 students will be admitted for the 1985 course, commencing in late July. Early applications are recommended. Interested students should contact the instructor at the following address: Dr. Terry L. Maple, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332.

* * *

Revision of Directory of Doctoral Programs in Primatology and Primate Research Planned: Call for Entries

A revised Directory will be published in the July issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. If you wish to have your program listed or to revise your entry, please send us the necessary information following the format shown here as closely as possible. Return the information as soon as possible, but not later than June 15, 1985 to Mrs. Helen Shuman, Psychology Dept., Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.
1. State:
2. Institution:
3. Division, Section, or Department:
4. Program Name and/or Description:
5. Faculty and Their Specialties
6. Address for further informaiton

* * *

Wildlife Preservation Trust Professional Training Program

Purpose. To train individuals in the techniques of captive breeding of a variety of endangered animal species so that they can advance the causes of endangered species and animal conservation in their respective countries.

Background. The Wildlife Preservation Trust is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the support of captive breeding of endangered species. It supports projects in captive breeding, field surveys, rescue missions, research and education. The zoological facility for the Trust's work is located on the island of Jersey, Channel Islands, British Isles. This facility is both a zoo and breeding/research facility for endangered species, and has a collection of over 100 species of birds, mammals and reptiles. The International Training Center is an educational facility for training in captive breeding and endangered species work; it combines dormitory, classroom and research facilities for students, staff and visiting scientists.

Program. The training program consists of 16, 10 or 6 weeks of intensive work in all divisions of the zoo. Trainees work in close contact with zoo staff in all phases of animal keeping and breeding. Each trainee spends two weeks in each section and a final two weeks on an independent project. Daily duties are supplemented with weekly seminars on a variety of topics. The program is flexible in terms of length and focus.

Eligibility. The program is designed for individuals with previous practical experience with animals: zoo and animal center staff and postgraduates in conservation-related fields.

Application & Fees. Applications may be obtained from the address below. Selection is made in July/August of each year. Applications should be submitted by June 1, 1985 for training beginning in 1986. Starting date is by arrangement. Tuition is free. Full room and board costs are 60 pounds (approximately $66) per week. Trainees are responsible for air fare to and from Jersey, Channel Islands, as well as personal expenses.

For application and further information write or call: Training Program, Wildlife Preservation Trust International, 34th Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104. (Phone: 215-222-3636)

* * *

New Editorial Address for American Journal of Primatology

Dr. Joe Erwin resigned his position as Curator of Primates for the Chicago Zoological Society to accept a full-time editorial position with the National Geographic Society. He began work at the Society on January 2 as Associate Editor of the new interdisciplinary journal, National Geographic Research. He will continue service with the Chicago Zoological Society as a consultant and will continue to edit the American Journal of Primatology. Effective March 1, l985, the address for correspondence regarding the American Journal of Primatology will be: Dr. J. Erwin, Editor, American Journal of Primatology, PO Box 65481, Washington, DC 20035-5481 (Phone: 202-857-7624).

* * *

Summer Field Sessions in Panama

The School for Field Studies is offering two four-week summer field sessions on primate social behavior. The course will be located in Panama and students will participate in a census of the endangered Panamanian tamarin (Saguinus oedipus geoffroyi) and a study of its behavior and ecology. Patterns of social structure, organization, and reproduction will be studied as well as the responses of local groups to the introduction of strangers. Each course carries 8 quarter (optional) academic credits through Northeastern University, Boston. Enrollment is limited to 15 students each session. Dates are June 17-July 16, 1985 (introductory) and July 23-August 22, 1985 (advanced). The fee is $1,550 including room and board. Groups will be led and instructed by Dr. Dennis Rasmussen, Director, Animal Behavior Research Institute. Please request additional information and application materials from Dr. Elizabeth Gibson, School for Field Studies, 196 Broadway, Cambridge, MA 02139.

* * *

News Briefs: Whitehair Retires; Replaced by Johnsen

Dr. Dennis Johnsen was named Director of the Primate Research Centers Program at the National Institutes of Health, succeeding Dr. Leo Whitehair who retired after heading up the program for the last nine years. The Primate Research Centers Program is part of the Animal Resources Program within the NIH's Division of Research Resources.

Johnsen was chief of the Veterinary Medicine and Surgery Section of the Veterinary Branch in the NIH Division of Research Services. Johnsen holds a B. S. degree in Veterinary Medicine and DVM degree from the University of California, Davis. He also earned an M. S. degree in Veterinary Medicine/Laboratory Medicine from The Ohio State University. Johnsen began his government career in 1961 as a Veterinary Officer in the U. S. Army and held several positions in the armed forces until joining NIH in 1976 as executive secretary of the Animal Resources Advisory Committees in the Division of Research Resources, and in 1980 was detailed to the Department of State as Science Attaché and International Health Representative at the American Embassy in New Delhi, India. He returned to the NIH Division of Research Services in May, 1984.

* * *

New Newsletter: Primate Conservation

The first issue of Primate Conservation, the newsletter and journal of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, appeared in January, 1985. This publication had previously been entitled IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Newsletter. Like its predecessor, Primate Conservation contains announcements and news items about animals both in the field and in captivity, all of which are of interest to the primate conservation community. In addition, by virtue of its expanded format, this newsletter/journal now includes a section of longer, in-depth articles on primate conservation priorities. Specifically, this first issue contains articles on the world's top countries for primates and tropical forest, and ecological study of the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) in Brazil's Atlantic forest region, a current look at primate conservation activities in Madagascar, recent sightings of aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) on the island of Nosy Mangabe, a conservation report on the primates of China, and a look at the status of spider monkeys (Ateles) in captivity and in the wild.

Primatologists working in conservation are invited to submit material for publication. All materials submitted should be typewritten and double-spaced. Announcements should be brief (several paragraphs), news items between 2-3 pages, and articles between 3-20 pages in length. Longer texts will be considered, however, should the subject matter warrant such treatment. Authors are encouraged to include any maps, figures, and photos which will enhance their text, and also any good quality photographs of endangered or little-known primates which they might want to have considered for either the front or back covers.

Primate Conservation will be published semi-annually (January and July) by the World Wildlife Fund - U.S. Primate Program, and will be distributed free of charge to all IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group members. Subscriptions can be obtained for $10 per year (checks to be made out to World Wildlife Fund - U.S.) by writing to: Bill Konstant, Dept. of Anatomical Sciences, Health Sciences Center, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794.

* * *

Seventh ASP Meeting

The seventh meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be held in Niagara Falls, New York, June 1-4, 1985. For registration forms and other information about the meeting write to the Chair of the Local Arrangements Committee: Dr. Chris R. Duggleby, American Society of Primatologists, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14261.

* * *

Symposium--Genetic Research with Nonhuman Primates: Serving the Needs of Mankind

The Southwest Foundation Forum will host an international symposium entitled "Genetic Research with Nonhuman Primates: Serving the Needs of Mankind," in San Antonio, Texas, on March 2-5, 1986. Invited speakers will present papers in the areas of biochemical genetics, cytogenetics, immunogenetics, molecular genetics, population genetics, and genetic predisposition to common diseases. Contributed papers also will be accepted for presentation.

A Distinguished Scientist Award in Genetics and a cash prize of $1,000 will be made to a geneticist who has already made significant contributions in health-related basic research and has demonstrated great potential for future achievement. The recipient, who need not necessarily have worked with nonhuman primates, will be invited to present a keynote address at the symposium.

Please send requests for information and letters of nomination for the Distinguished Scientist Award to: John L. VandeBerg, Director, Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P. O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284.

Letters of nomination must be received by July 1, 1985.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


Size and Scaling in Primate Biology. William L. Jungers (Ed.). New York: Plenum, 1985. 491 pp. [Price: $69.50]
. . . Contents: 1. Size and adaptation in primates, by J. G. Fleagle. 2. Genetic and evolutionary aspects of allometry, by R. Lande. 3. Sexual dimorphism in primates: The effects of size, by W. Leutenegger & J. M. Cheverud. 4. Size, sexual dimorphism, and polygyny in primates, by R. H. Clutton-Brock. 5. Gastrointestinal allometry in primates and other mammals, by R. D. Maretin, D. J. Chivers, A. M. MacLarnon, & C. M. Hladik. 6. Organ weight scaling in primates, by S. G. Larson. 7. Allometric considerations of the adult mammalian brain, with special emphasis on primates, by E. Armstrong. 8. Brain size allometry: Ontogeny and phylogeny, by R. D. Martin & P. H. Harvey. 9. Ontogenetic allometry and scaling: A discussion based on the growth and form of the skull in African apes, by B. T. Shea. 10. Modeling differences in cranial form, with examples from primates, by F. L. Bookstein. 11. Ontogenetic allometry of the skull and dentition of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), by L. R. Cochard. 12. Allometric scaling in the dentition of primates and insectivores, by P. D. Gingerich & B. H. Smith. 13. Tooth size-body size scaling in a human population: Theory and practice of an allometric analysis, by M. H. Wolpoff. 14. Comparative energetics and mechanics of locomotion: How do primates fit in?, by N. C. Heglund. 15. Body size and limb design in primates and other mammals, by R. M. Alexander. 16. Body size and scaling of limb proportions in primates, by W. L. Jungers. 17. Influence of size and proportions on the biomechanics of brachiation, by H. Preuschoft & B. Demes. 18. Intraspecific, interspecific, metabolic, and phylogenetic scaling in platyrrhine primates, by S. M. Ford & R. S. Corruccini. 19. The present as a key to the past: Body weight of miocene hominoids as a test of allometric methods for paleontological inference, by R. J. Smith. 20. Allometric perspectives on fossil catarrhine morphology, by K. Steudel.

Biology of Tarsiers. Carstein Niemitz (Ed.). Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer, 1984. 357 pop. [Price. DM 118]
. . . Contents: 1. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Tarsius Storr, 1780, by C. Niemitz. 2. The place of Tarsius as revealed by multivariate statistical morphometrics, by C. E. Oxnard. 3. Paleobiology of tarsiiform primates, by P. D. Gingerich. 4. Functional morphology of the dentition of the Tarsiidae, by W. Maier. 5. Synecological relationships and feeding behaviour of the genus Tarsius, by C. Niemitz. 6. The parasites of wild-caught tarsiers (Tarsius bancanus), by M. Brack & C. Niemitz. 7. Activity rhythms and use of space in semi-wild Bornean tarsiers, with remarks on wild spectral tarsiers, by C. Niemitz. 8. An investigation and review of the territorial behaviour and social organisation of the genus Tarsius, by C. Niemitz. 9. Vocal communication of two tarsier species (Tarsius bancanus and Tarsius spectrum), by C. Niemitz. 10. Osteology and myology of the upper extremity of Tarsius, by M. Schultz. 11. Comparative study of the lower extremity in the genus Tarsius, by F.-K. Jouffroy, C. Berge, & C. Niemitz. 12. Locomotion and posture of Tarsius bancanus, by C. Niemitz. 13. External biomechanics of leaping in Tarsius and its morphological and kinematic consequences, by A. Peters & H. Preuschoft. 14. The interscapular brown fat body in Tarsius bancanus, with comparisons to Tupaia and man, by C. Niemitz, G. Klauer, & S. Eins. 15. The nasal cavity and nasal skeleton of Tarsius, by D. Starck. 16. The macroscopial and microscopial anatomy of the external nose in Tarsius bancanus, by G. Klauer. 17. The eye of Tarsius, by A. Castenholz. 18. Morphology of the brain in Tarsius, by H. Stephan.

The Meaning of Primate Signals. Rom Harré & Vernon Reynolds (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 257 pp. [Price: $39.50]
. . . This volume is the result of discussions held among the various authors in Bad Homburg in January 1981. Contents: Part I. The setting of the problem. A. The problem of animal mentation. 1. Devious intentions of monkeys and apes? by D. Quiatt. Comment by R. M. Seyfarth. B. Primate communication systems in use. 2. What the vocalizations of monkeys mean to humans and what they mean to monkeys themselves, by R. M. Seyfarth. Comment by D. Ploog. 3. Category formation in vervet monkeys, by D. L. Cheney. Comment by J. Leiber. Part II. Theoretical preliminaries. A. Intention and action. 4. The strange creature, by J. Leiber. Comment by D. Ploog. Comment by D. Quiatt. 5. Vocabularies and theories, by R. Harré. Comment by H. Kummer. Comment: Two eyes of science, by F. B. M. de Waal. Comment by D. Ploog. Comment by G. Ettlinger. Reply by R. Harré. B. Language and the description of communication systems. 6. Ethology and language, by E. Ardener. 7. Must monkeys mean? by R. Harris. Comment by D. Ploog. Reply by R. Harris. 8. The inevitability and utility of anthropomorphism in description of primate behaviour, by P. J. Asquith. Comment by R. Harris. Reply by P. J. Asquith. Rejoinder by R. Harris. Rejoinder 2, by P. J. Asquith. Part III. Steps towards a solution. A. Approaches to the interpretation of action. 9. 'Language' in apes, by H. S. Terrace. Comment by D. Ploog. Comment by R. Harris. Comment by G. Ettlinger. Response by H. S. Terrace. 10. Social changes in a group of rhesus monkeys, by V. Reynolds. Comment by R. M. Seyfarth. Comment by D. Quiatt. Comment by H. S. Terrace. Reply by V. Reynolds. B. Internal and external environments of social signals. 11. Categorization of social signals as derived from quantitative analyses of communication processes, by M. Maurus & D. Ploog. Comment by R. Harré. Reply by M. Maurus & D. Ploog. 12. Experience tells, by E. Jones & M. Chance. Comment by D. Quiatt. Reply by E. Jones & M. Chance. Prospects for future research.


Neural correlates of social behavior in nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1965-1984. Williams, J. B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. [Price: $6.00 ($5.00 prepaid). Send order to: Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]

Ethyl alcohol studies in nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1975-1984. Caminiti, B., & Williams, J. B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]

The effects of drugs on cognitive behavior in nonhuman primates, 1965-1984. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. (98 Citations, Primate Index) [Price: $6.00 Ordering information same as above.]


Yersinia enterocolitica infection in breeding colonies of ruffed lemurs. Bresnahan, J. F., Whitworth, U. G., Hayes, Y., Summers, E., & Pollock, J. (Div. of Lab. Ani. Resources, Duke Univ. Med. Ctr., Duke Univ., Durham, NC 27710) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1984, 185, 1354-56.
. . . Two outbreaks of yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica occurred in breeding colonies of red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra) and black and white ruffed lemurs (V. v. variegata) housed in outdoor enclosures during the winter breeding season and spring birth season, respectively. Seven of 11 animals at risk in the combined outbreaks became ill, and 3 died of acute to chronic infection. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hyperpyrexia. Necropsy findings included ulcerative enterocolitis and multifocal necrosis and abscess formation in mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lungs. Histologically, lesions were characterized by necrotizing inflammation containing masses of basophilic bacteria. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:2 was isolated from lesions. Neomycin sulfate given orally and chloramphenicol given intramuscularly were effective in treatment early in the course of the disease or in mild cases. In severe cases, lemurs did not respond to antibiotic and fluid therapy. Exposure to soil contaminated with infected rodent feces, stress, and behavioral factors in the ruffed lemur species are believed to have precipitated the infection.

Cardiomyopathy associated with vitamin E deficiency in seven gelada baboons. Liu, S., Dolensek, E. P., Tappe, J. P., Stover, J., & Adams, C. R. (Dept. of Ani. Hlth., New York Zool. Soc., 185th St. & Southern Blvd., The Bronx, NY 10460) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1984, 185, 1347-50.
. . . Between November, 1979 and July, 1982, 7 captive gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) died; 5 of them died unexpectedly, 1 died after a 4-month history of heart failure, and 1 was anemic and dyspneic for 2 days before death. Of those that died unexpectedly, 1 was anemic and 4 were clinically normal. At necropsy, all baboons had white or pale patches of myocardium. Histologically, fibrosis and acute myocytolysis were observed in the myocardium. Three affected baboons were tested for plasma alpha-tocopherol content and were found deficient. Four unaffected baboons were given vitamin E for 24 months, and plasma alpha-tocopherol content returned to normal. Blood selenium content was determined in 1 affected baboon and was normal.


Normal serum biochemical, hematological, and EKG parameters in anesthetized adult male Macaca fascicularis and Macaca arctoides. Verlangieri, A. J., DePriest, J. C., & Kaperghian, J. C. (Dept. of Pharm., Sch. of Pharm., Univ. of Miss., University, MS 38677) Laboratory Animal Science, 1985, 35, 63-66.
. . . Selected serum enzymes, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, uric acid, protein, albumin, bilirubin, BUN, hematology, and electrocardiograms (EKG) were obtained from adult male cynomolgus and stumptailed macaques. Serum alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, albumin, bilirubin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and monocytes were significantly lower in the cynomolgus monkeys. This relationship was reversed for serum levels of triglycerides, phosphorus, red blood cell counts and lymphocytes. EKG analysis revealed significantly increased PR interval and QRS wave duration in the cynomolgus species. However, there were no differences in heart rate. Right axis deviation was common in both species.

Hematology and serum chemistry values of juvenile and adult ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Karesh, W. B., & Olson, T. P. (Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, 5500 Phinney Av., No. Seattle, WA 98103) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 5-12.
. . . Hematologic and serum chemistry values are presented for adult and juvenile red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra) and black and white ruffed lemurs (V. v. variegata) maintained in a zoological collection. Hematologic and serum chemical values are compared between age groups and subspecies and with other primate species. Elevated hematocrit, total protein, and serum albumin values were noted. Significant differences in cholesterol, total protein, and serum albumin values between the two age groups are discussed.


The effects of extended time in the laboratory on selected aspects of reproduction in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Martin, D. P. (Biomedical Products Department, DuPont Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE 16898 American Journal of Primatology, 1984, 7, 39-55.
. . . Reproduction data from 60 wild-caught and 16 captive-born, hand-reared female rhesus monkeys were examined. Both groups had been maintained in a controlled laboratory environment, the wild-caught for a minimum of 10 yrs. and the captive-born for a minimum of 5 yrs. All were bred to wild-caught males. Animals of both sexes were individually caged unless being bred. Data from 662 pregnancies indicated that, although seasonal breeding became attenuated in the laboratory, it did not disappear. Neither pregnancy outcome nor number of matings necessary for conception was affected by increasing parity or prior occurrence of fetal wastage or hysterotomy. Nor did hysterotomy affect the potential for a subsequent vaginal delivery. The number of matings necessary for conception were shown to be a useful predictor of animals that should be culled from the breeding colony. Birth weights of infants of wild-caught females, but only male infants of house-born females, increased with parity of the mother. Parity had only minimal effect on gestation length. Conception was shown to occur infrequently at less than 100 days postpartum even when animals were not lactating and were rebred beginning as early as 56 days postpartum. Summary data were presented for pregnancy outcome, gestation length, infant birth weight, and sex for both groups of animals.

Progesterone as a predictor of cyclicity in Bolivian squirrel monkeys during the breeding season. Aksel, S., Diamond, E. J., Hazelton, J., Wiebe, R. H., & Abee, C. R. (Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Dept. of Obs. & Gyn., College of Med., Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688) Laboratory Animal Science, 1985, 35, 54-57.
. . . In a squirrel monkey breeding colony, 2 distinct groups of females were observed during the breeding season, December through March. One had low and the other had high estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) concentrations. The conception rate in females with high E2 and P values was 74%. However, only 25% of monkeys with low steroid concentrations became pregnant during the breeding season. This study showed that all mature females in a colony may not be cycling concurrently and that 2 serum P measurements obtained at 4-day intervals may be utilized to detect noncycling monkeys during the breeding season.

Reproduction and social rank in female stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Nieuwenhuijsen, K., Lammers, A. J. J. C., de Neef, K. J., & Slob, A. K. (Dept. of Endocrinology, Growth & Reprod., Faculty of Med., Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam, The Netherlands) International Journal of Primatology, 1985, 6, 77-99.
. . . Reproductive physiology was studied in female stumptail macaques. Initially the monkeys were housed indoors (individually and in small groups) and later as one large (92 individuals) social group in an outdoor cage. Most data were collected during the 4-yr outdoor period. Plasma progesterone determination in blood samples taken at weekly intervals allowed estimation of ovulation and conception dates. The age at first ovulation (XMonitoring ovarian function in marmosets and tamarins by the measurement of urinary estrogen metabolites. Hodges, J. K., & Eastman, S. A. K. (The Institute of Zoology, The Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, United Kingdom) American Journal of Primatology, 1984, 6, 187-197.
. . . Practical aspects of urinary estrogen were considered with regard to establishing simple and reliable methods for monitoring ovarian function in marmosets and tamarins. Changes in the hormone:creatinine ratio in small volumes of urine from the common marmoset were significantly correlated with changes in 24-hr. excretion. Comparison of the metabolism and excretion of estrogens during the ovarian cycle in the common marmoset and cottontop tamarin revealed interesting species differences. high concentrations of conjugated estrone were measured in marmoset plasma, but estradiol 17-beta was the predominant estrogen in urine. In contrast, estrone was the most abundant estrogen measured in tamarin urine. Both species excreted very little estriol. Sulfates and glucuronides were present in urine in similar proportions before ovulation in the marmoset, although after ovulation sulfates were the more abundant. Conversely, most of the estrogens in tamarin urine appear to be conjugated as glucuronides. Direct assay for estrone sulfate was applied to the measurement of urinary estrogen excretion during the ovarian cycle in a marmoset. The results compared well with those for total estradiol 17-beta after hydrolysis and ether extraction. The use of direct assays for conjugated estrogens in small volumes of urine is suggested as a practical method for monitoring ovarian function in marmosets and tamarins.

Determinants of fecundity and reproductive success in captive vervet monkeys. Fairbanks, L. A., & McGuire, M. T. (Lynn A. Fairbanks, Dept. of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sci., 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024.
. . . Between 1975 and 1983, adult female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) over 3.5 yrs. of age, living in 2 undisturbed social groups in a captive colony in Sepulveda, California, have averaged 1.0 births per female year with a mean interbirth interval of 10.7 mos. Increased fecundity did not result in decreased survival rates of offspring in this population. Fecundity was influenced by the mother's age and dominance rank. The primary factor in the age-fecundity relationship was the age at first birth, which varied from 3 to 5 yrs. High-ranking females contributed the most to the high rate of fecundity, with significantly shorter interbirth intervals, more birth per female year, and more surviving infants compared to low-ranking females.

Improved method for artificial insemination in the great apes. Gould, K. G., Martin, D. E., & Warner, H. (Yerkes Primate Research Ctr., Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 8, 61-67.
. . . Artificial insemination in the great apes has not achieved its potential as a tool in maintenance of the endangered captive population. ahree factors can influence the success rate of artificial insemination: sperm preparation, site of insemination, and timing of insemination. We have tried to optimize methods regarding these three steps. A modified method for insemination is described which has resulted in 21% success rate (6 term pregnancies from 29 inseminations) in the chimpanzee and which has successfully initiated a pregnancy in a gorilla.

Effects of sibling-rearing experience on future reproductive success in two species of callitrichidae. Tardif, S. D., Richter, C. B., & Carson, R. L. (Marmoset Research Ctr., Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37830). American Journal of Primatology, 1984, 6, 377-380.
. . . The survival rate for offspring of mothers who either had or did not have previous experience rearing younger siblings was compared in two callitrichid species, Callithrix jacchus and Saguinus oedipus. Offspring of mothers with sibling-rearing experience had a higher survival percentage than offspring of inexperienced mothers in both species. While 50-60% of offspring of inexperienced C. jacchus mothers survived, no offspring of inexperienced S. oedipus mothers survived. The results suggest that sibling-rearing experience is necessary for adequate maternal behavior S. oedipus, but not necessary to the development of maternal behavior in C. jacchus. Effects of previous sibling-rearing experience of S. oedipus fathers on offspring survival were also examined. Whether the father had rearing experience was not related to the survival of their offspring.

Seasonal changes of serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Diamond, E. J., Aksel, S., Hazelton, J. M., Jennings, R. A., & Abee, C. R. (Dr. Christian R. Abee, Dept. of Comp. Med., Primate Res. Lab., College of Med., Univ.of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688). American Journal of Primatology, 1984, 6, 103-113.
. . . Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) were measured in group-caged, sexually mature female squirrel monkeys, housed with males. Sampling was carried out during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, for periods of 19-20 days from September, 1981 to May, 1982. Seasonal differences in serum concentrations of E2 and P were found with low levels of E2 and P and an absence of preovulatory surges of E2 during the nonbreeding season. This pattern was also observed in some animals during the breeding season. Levels of both steroids in cycling animals were higher than those reported for other primates and for previous measurements made in squirrel monkeys. Cycle length based on time interval between consecutive E2 peaks varied from 6-12 days.

Interbirth intervals in a captive group of Japanese macaques. Scucchi, S. (Catt. di Ecologia ed Etologia Animale, Dipto di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy) Folia Primatologica, 1984, 42, 203-208.
. . . Interbirth intervals in a captive group of Japanese macaques were found to be shortened and inconsistently affected by stillbirth and infant loss within 6 mos. of life. The reduction in the length of the interval between successive births was in all probability the result of shorter periods of lactation and larger amounts of body fat stored by the well-nourished females of the study group.


Population recovery in the moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax): Management strategies and mechanisms of recovery. Ramirez, M. (Dept. of Anthrop., Graduate Ctr., CUNY, 33 West 42nd St., New York, NY 10036) American Journal of Primatology, 1984, 7, 245-259.
. . . In 1978, 66% of the individuals of Saguinus mystax and 9.5% of S. fuscicollis were cropped from a population at the Yarapa river, Peru. The effects of cropping on the remaining tamarin population were evaluated by conducting censuses in 1981 and 1982 and by trapping and release of S. mystax in 1981. Within 3 years after cropping, the population of S. mystax had increased by 124%, more than double the size left in 1978. Increased reproductive rate, early breeding, and reduced infant mortality contributed to the reovery. On the other hand, S. fuscicollis had decreased by 12% in the 3 years following the cropping but had increased in the 4th year to a level slightly below the precroping density. The cropping of more S. mystax than S. fuscicollis might have contributed to the decline of the latter. The cropping of a sizable percentage of S. mystax from a natural population does not seem to impair its recuperative powers. It may take longer than 4 years for a population exhibiting high density, such as that at the Yarapa site, to recover completely.

Population growth of free-ranging rhesus monkeys at Tughlaqabad. Malik, I., Seth, P. K., & Southwick, C. H. (Dr. I. Malik, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India) American Journal of Primatology, 1984, 7, 311-321.
. . . A population of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at the ancient site of Tughlaqabad on the southern outskirts of New Delhi, India, showed moderate growth throughout the 1960s and 1970s and very rapid growth in the last 4 yrs. The striking record of population growth in this population can be attributed to total protection, abundant food, good cover, a lack of predators, a generally improving habitat, and low disease. With the right combination of ecological and behavioral factors, rhesus populations can double in 4 yrs.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.


* * *

Address Changes

Donald A. Clauser, 2331 South 82st St., West Allis, WI 53219.

Michael Evans, 4830 West 45th Ave., Gary, IN 46408.

John G. Golden, Veterinary Sciences Division, School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, TX 78235.

Carol Iglauer, 3824A Shenandoah, St. Louis, MO 63110.

Robert M. Werner, National Institute of Mental Health, Bldg. 9, Rm. IN 124, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20205.

* * *

NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.

Photo of twin stumptailed monkeys (Macaca arctoides) and mother by by Allan M. Schrier (see this Newsletter, 1984, 23[3], 18).

Copyright @1985 by Brown University

Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor Helen Janis Shuman