VOLUME 24 NUMBER 3 JULY 1985
Articles and Notes
A Case of "Transient Adoption" in a Captive Group of Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana), by B. Thierry........1
Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1985)........7
News, Information, and Announcements
Symposium on Nutrition Diseases Announced........4
Note on Gestation Period of Callitrichids........4
Comings and Goings........5
. . .Held to Argentina; Whiteny in Washington, DC; Marriott to Puerto Rico
Revised Edition of NIH Animal Care Guide Available........6
Newspaper Clippings: Jimmy's Old, But He Can Still Swing........16
Recent Books and Articles ........17
Address Changes ........26
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B. Thierry, and N. Herrenschmidt
Université Louis Pasteur
Adoption sometimes occurs in free-ranging nonhuman primates but it is a rarely observed event. The outcome of this peculiar alloparental behavior is nursing the youngster (if unweaned) and/or protecting it from the physical and social environment. Actually, protection seems the most important because unweaned infants have a very low probability of survival, non-maternal care givers being males or non-lactating females in most cases (Hrdy, 1976; Hasegawa & Hiraiwa, 1980; Hamilton et al., 1982). However, several cases of adoption by lactating females have been reported in various species, both in the field and in the laboratory (Thierry & Anderson, in press).
We report here an instance of "transient adoption" in a captive group of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). By this term, we mean the fostering of an infant for several days and its return to its true mother.
Subjects were Tonkean macaques .us (Macaca tonkeana), one of the seven species living on Sulawesi. They originated from a colony the prior history of which was reported elsewhere (Herrenschmidt, 1977). The present group was housed in a fifty square meter cage. It contained one adult male, three adult females, one subadult male, one subadult female, four juvenile males, and three infants. Dates of birth and kinship relations are available in Thierry (1984). From 1979 to 1982, the females Gau and Mig gave birth three times and, in the days prior to the event reported, each of them carried an infant, respectively 6 and 2 months old. Tik, the oldest female (estimated to be twenty years old), had previously given birth to four infants; two were Gau and Tia (subadult female); two others were born in 1980 and 1981 but died in the days following birth. In October 1982, Tik was in the late stages of pregnancy and, on the evening of the 31st, she was observed apart from the group for most of the time.
On the morning of November 1st, Mig was seen carrying two infants, her own (M) and a neonate (T). Tik was observed in a very poor condition, pale and standing in a corner of the cage, umbilical cord hanging from the vulva. The veterinary diagnosis was that the placenta had not been expelled and thus that Tik had no milks. Clearly, Tik's infant had been taken over by Mig; the birth having occurred during the night. No information about it was available. The group was observed for two hours in the afternoon (14:00-16:00 hr). T remained clinging to Mig's ventrum; when M climbed onto Mig, she disturbed T who then searched for the nipples by lateral head movements; Tik did not move and huddled with Mig or others.
On the following three days, the group was observed one hour in the afternoon (14:00-15:00 hr). No competition was observed over nipples between T and M; T was sometimes at the left nipple and sometimes at the right; when M clung, she gripped the available nipple, settling beside T. Tik's health gradually improved and the umbilical cord dangling from her vulva disappeared on the second day. Placental scraps were assumed to be delivered and ingested by Tik on about the fourth day. Tik often remained huddled with other subjects but had no interaction with the infants.
On the morning of November 5th, Tik began to interact with the infants. In order to assess the behavior of the three adult females towards T, the group was observed one hour every other day in the afternoon (14:00-15:00 hr) from the 5th to 15th, scoring the frequency of contacts (patting, mouthing, or grooming) performed by each female towards T and M.
No preference between the two infants were detected in Mig; over the six observation hours, there was no significant difference (Walsh test) in the frequency of touches directed by Mig towards T and M. On the other hand, comparing Tik's behavior with those of her daughter, Gau, considered as control female, it was found that while Gau touched T and M equally, Tik more frequently touched M (P<0.01, Chi-sq =7.5, 1 d.f.). This unexpected result clearly showed that Tik did not exhibit a preference for her own infant.
On the morning of the 16th, T was observed clinging to Tik. The evening before, he was still being carried by Mig; the transfer occurred during the night and its circumstances remain unknown. No unusual behavior was observed in the following days, but T's health gradually failed between the 18th and 20th; T constantly remained clinging to Tik, eyes closed, and Tik sometimes supported the infant on her belly with one hand when she was walking. On occasions, Tik was seen to force the infant away from the nipple, which appeared inflamed by too intense sucking, and it became obvious that she did not have a sufficient quantity of milk. On the morning of the 21st, T was dead and Tik was holding the corpse in one hand.
It is noteworthy that no agonistic interaction was observed between Tik and Mig throughout the study.
Tik's delivery was difficult owing to her old age; it seems likely that exhaustion rendered her incapable of giving post-parturition care to her infant. Instead, the infant was fostered by another female. Other instances where a female has taken over the infant of another living female have already been reported in the literature (Fucillo et al, 1983; Itani, 1959; Marsden & Vessey, 1968; Scollay, 1978). In one case, two chimpanzee females took care of the 2.4 year-old infant of a temporarily ill mother (Uehara & Nyundo, 1983). In the present case, the infant was nursed by his foster mother for two weeks immediately after birth, before being retrieved by his true mother. Jensen's experimental study (1965) showed that macaque females discriminate immediately after birth between their infant and an infant a few months old, but suggested that they need some days to differentiate it from other neonates. At first, Tik did not direct any particular behavior towards her infant. T's returning to this true mother was unexpected. It is very likely that the infant's role was passive. Unfortunately, the lack of data about the circumstances of this transfer precludes insight into the motivations of the two females.
However, the result of this transient adoption was survival of Tik's infant for two weeks. This was due to the fact that Mig was lactating when the birth occurred. Tik's failure to produce milk in sufficient quantity caused the subsequent death of her infant. This last event demonstrates that there was no planning in the two females' behavior: 1) Tik at first left her infant to Mig but probably not in order to save him since she later retrieved him although she was unable to nurse him; 2) Mig fostered T on one occasion when he was in peril of death but she did not do it a second time. There is no evidence of cooperation between the females to attain a common goal. It is likely that each of them only responded to T as a very attractive object.
As pointed out by several authors (Hamilton et al, 1982), adoption may be consistent with kinship theory. With regard to the transient adoption reported here, the behavior of the foster mother put her own infant at risk, and in addition, the adopted infant died after the return to his mother. Adaptive function is not obvious in this case, but it is not possible to be conclusive about the evolutionary basis of such behavior in view of one instance occurring in captivity.
Understanding of phenomena such as adoption is helped by considering the parental and alloparental relationships in the species. Tonkean mothers have been described as rather permissive (Thierry, 1985): they allow their infants of a few weeks to interact with many group members with little regard to kinship ties. Aunting behavior is frequently observed and, for example, in another semi-free ranging group, a subadult female might simultaneously carry two infants of a few months age, her own mother's and that of another female. In the same group, a lactating female was also sometimes observed carrying another unweaned infant in addition to her own for several minutes: this infant was thus able to suck (Thierry, unpublished data). It seems possible that such "open" relationships facilitate the occurrence of adoptive behaviors, for example as hypothesized in chimpanzees (Nishida, 1983; Uehara & Nyundo, 1983).
Fucillo, R., Schucchi, S., Troisi, A., & D'Amato, F. R. Newborn adoption in a confined group of Japanese macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 1983, 5, 257-260.
Hamilton, W. J., Busse, C., & Smith, K. S. Adoption of infant orphan chacma baboons. Animal Behaviour, 1982, 30, 29-34.
Hasegawa, T., & Hiraiwa, M. Social interactions of orphans observed in a free-ranging troop of Japanese monkeys. Folia Primatologica, 1980, 33, 1-14.
Herrenschmidt, N. Semi-free breeding of tropical Celebes macaques (Macaca tonkeana) in a continental European climate. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1977, 6, 58-65.
Hrdy, S. B. The care and exploitation of non-human primate infants by conspecifics other than the mother. Advances in the Study of Behaviour, 1976, 6, 101-151.
Itani, J. Parental care in the wild Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata fuscata. Primates, 1959, 2, 61-94.
Jensen, G. D. Mother-infant relationship in the monkey Macaca nemestrina: development of specificity of maternal response to own infant. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1965, 59, 305-308.
Marsden, H. M., & Vessey, S. H. Adoption of an infant green monkey within a social group. Communications in Behavioral Biology, 1968, Part A, 275-279.
Nihida, T. Alloparental behavior in wild chimpanzees of the Mahale mountains, Tanzania. Folia Primatologica, 1983, 41, 1-33.
Scollay, P. A. The kidnapping of a neonate squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus (Peruvian). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 1978, 17, 11-13.
Thierry, B. Clasping behavior in Macaca tonkeana. Behaviour, 1984, 89, 1-28.
Thierry, B. Social development in three species of macaque (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. tonkeana) : a preliminary report on the first ten weeks of life. Behavioural Processes, 1985 (in press).
Thierry, B., & Anderson, J. R. Adoption in anthropoid primates. International Journal of Primatology, 1986 (in press).
Uehara, S. & Hyundo, R. One observed case of temporary adoption of an infant by unrelated nulliparous females among wild chimpanzees observed in the Mahale mountains, Tanzania. Primates, 1983, 24, 456-466.
Author's address: Laboratorie de Psychophysiologie, Université Louis Pasteur, 7 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
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A symposium, "Nutritional Diseases: Research Directions in Comparative Pathobiology", will be held at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD on November 4 and 5, 1985.
The symposium is being sponsored by the Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC and Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology, Inc., Bethesda, MD. The purpose of this symposium is to emphasize the importance of comparative pathobiology in enhancing our understanding of nutritional diseases in humans. The six major topics of the symposium are: 1) Differentiation and Development, 2) Nutritional Influences on Transcriptional and Translational Modifications, 3) Nutritional Effects on Function of the Immune System, 4) Nutrition, Hormones, and Osteoporosis, 5) Selective Nutritional Diseases and Imbalances, 6) Nutritional Factors in Arteriosclerosis.
The symposium will be open, and places will be reserved for at least 100 participants. Invitations will be given on a first-come basis. For further information, contact George Migaki, DVN, Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306 (phone: 202-576-2452).
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The estimated mean period of gestation for Callithrix given in Hershkovitz (1977) is 140 to 145 days. It may be of interest to record a positive interbirth interval of 131 days for Callithrix humeralifer humeralifer. The parents are a cage bred pair who produced their first litter of twins on December 9, 1984 and a second similar litter on April 19, 1985. All four young are surviving at the time of writing and living together in the same cage. Although the latest young, which are one of each sex, weigh only 27 and 28 g which is some 5 g lighter than the average of the very limited number of birth weights that we have of this species, they appear otherwise perfectly normal and not in any way premature.
Since this is an interbirth record and a post partum oestrus is unlikely to have occurred less than a week following parturition, the gestation period is presumably appreciably less than 131 days. Thus the interbirth interval and gestation time are considerably less than any of the absolutely certain records listed by Hershkovitz for normal births.--W. R. Kingston and J. A. P. C. Muniz, Centro Nacional de Primatas, Caixa Postal 1641, Belé m 66.000, Pará, Brazil.
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This section provides information about people who have recently changed positions. We encourage people who send us address changes to provide us with such information. The Address Changes section at the back of each issue will be continued.
Held to Argentina
Dr. Joe R. Held, Director of the Division of Research Services (DRS) and Chief Veterinary Officer of the Public Health Service, retires November 1, 1984 from active PHS duty to assume the directorship of the Pan American Zoonoses Center in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He served 29 years in the Commissioned Corps, 27 of them on active duty.
The center is operated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization. Dr. Held had previously served there for 2 years on a detail from PHS.
Dr. Held had served as DRS Director since 1972, having served previously as head of the Veterinary Resources Branch. Dr. Held became an Assistant Surgeon General and Chief Veterinary Officer of the PHS in 1975. That same year he was selected by the Assistant Secretary for Health to chair the new Interagency Primate Steering Committee (IPSC). The committee was expanded in 1983 into the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC), also chaired by Dr. Held. The IPSC was established to coordinate efforts by Federal agencies to ensure the availability and conservation of nonhuman primates needed for biomedical research and testing.
IRAC recently drafted "U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training," at the request of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.
Dr. Held has been deeply involved in many other national and international activities to ensure an adequate supply and proper use of animals in research, especially nonhuman primates. He is chairman of the International Scientific Advisory Board for the Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, and he recently chaired the committee of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) responsible for drafting CIOMS's "International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals."
Dr. Held joined the PHS Commissioned Corps in 1955 and was assigned to the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control). In 1962 he transferred to NIH, first as administrator of the Primate Centers Program, DRR, then as a research parasitologist in NIAID, 1964-1967. Following his detail to the Pan American Zoonoses Center, he became chief of the Veterinary Resources Branch, DRS, in 1969.
Dr. Held received his D.V.M. in 1955 from the University of California, Davis, and the M.P.H. in 1959 from Tulane University. [From The NIH Record, Nov. 6, 1984.]
Whitney in Washington, DC
Dr. Robert A. Whitney, Jr., was named chief veterinary officer of the U.S. Public Health Service on Nov. 1, by the Surgeon General. He is also now chairman of the Interagency Research Animal Committee, and Acting Director of the Division of Research Services. He succeeds Dr. Held who has retired from all these positions (see above).
Marriott to Puerto Rico
We received the following letter during July from Dr. Bernadette M. Marriot which was sent to her friends and colleagues: Just a brief note to let you know that I have decided to accept a new position as Associate Researcher in the Division of Comparative Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico. This is the academic position for my appointment as Assistant Director for Education of the Caribbean Primate Research Center (CPRC), which is administered through the University of Puerto Rico. I will also have a joint appointment as Associate Professor of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine.
I am sad to leave my friends and colleagues at Goucher College and the fine primate facility here, but I am looking forward to the opportunity to conduct field work with primates on a more regular basis. The CPRC is in the process of constructing an aviary-type enclosure for my small colony of squirrel monkeys, so those of you who have come to know Captain, Emily, and the monkey group at Goucher College over the years can be assured that they will soon have a small piece of tropical forest to call their own.
We will be moving during the month of August and mail which will arrive after August 1, 1985 can be addressed as follows: Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749 (phone: 809-784-6619).
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A revised edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is now available for distribution, according to Dr. William Gay, director of the Animal Resources Program of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) Division of Research Resources (DRR). Since the initial edition in 1963, the Guide has become widely recognized as the primary reference on standards of animal care in scientific institutions.
Last revised in 1978, the Guide was updated recently by a special committee of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources of the National Academy of Sciences to reflect the policy of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that animals used in research experiments be well cared for. In addition to improving its bibliography, the latest edition makes recommendations for new methods of cage ventilation and other housing requirements, including a few revisions in cage sizes.
The new version of the Guide also goes a step beyond previous editions in adding specific references to support their recommendations and defining more specifically many of their recommendations.
The Guide includes, as an appendix, a statement of principles developed by the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC), a group of federal agencies that use research animals in the programs they support. In addition to NIH, a part of DHHS, other members of IRAC include: Departments of Agriculture, Defense, State, and Interior; the Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Science Foundation; and Veterans Administration.
Since the Guide first appeared, more than 300,000 copies have been distributed to all types of scientific institutions. A copy of the latest edition of the Guide may be obtained by writing to: Office of Science and Health Reports, Division of Research Resources, Building 31, Room 5B-10, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20205. Bulk copies of the publication should be obtained directly from GPO by writing to: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Orders may also be placed by telephone and charged to MasterCard or Visa by calling 202-783-3238. The GPO publication number for the Guide is 017-040-00498-2.
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Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. in Anthropology. Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional anatomy, and primate evolution. Facilities include a breeding colony of Galago senegalensis, extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, and a variety of specimens for dissection. Faculty interests are in relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, functional anatomy and locomotion. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, galagos, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (physical anthropology, primate anatomy, paleo- anthropology, human evolution).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Leanne T. Nash, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287. (Phone: 602-965-4812, 602-965-6213)
University of Arizona, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: The Department of Psychology offers a Ph.D. program in biopsychology with a possible specialization in comparative psychology and primate behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Sigmund Hsiao (brain behavior relationships, consummatory behavior, primate aging); James E. King (complex learning and retention, primate social behavior, primate aging).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (for general description of doctoral program and application forms). Dr. James E. King (for specific information about the primate behavior program).
University of California, Berkeley, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Primate Studies Program. A comprehensive program in primate studies emphasizing anatomy, behavior, and ecology and focused on primate species as integrated systems.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Phyllis Dolhinow (development and behavior of human and nonhuman primates); Katharine Milton (energetics, feeding ecology and digestive anatomy of human and nonhuman primates).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: P. Dolhinow, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
University of California, Davis, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Comparative Psychology is a specialization within the Psychobiology program.
FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Richard G. Coss (social and antipredator behavior, developmental neuro- psychology, behavioral development, evolution); William A. Mason (primate social behavior, development, responses to stress, hormonal correlates of behavior); G. Mitchell (primate behavior, comparative psychology, sex differences); Robert M. Murphey (genetic correlates of behavior, bovid behavior, psychopathology); Donald H. Owings (antipredator behavior and communication by ground squirrels).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
University of California, Riverside, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Comparative Psychology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: L. Petrinovich (social behavior, birdsong); R. Riesen (early experience, primate neuroanatomy); R. Rhine (socioecology, primate development); D. Warren and E. Strelow (perceptual aids for the visually impaired); P. Wilson (visual system in several mammals).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: R. J. Rhine, Psychology Department, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.
University of Florida, Psychology Dept.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology); E. F. Malagodi (experimental analysis of behavior).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
Emory University, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Behavior and Biology of Primates Training Program: Postdoctoral training is available in several sciences that contribute to our understanding of the behavior and biology of primates. These include: primate behavior, including learning, memory, cognition, communication, social behavior and psycho- pharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrinology; neurobiology, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and psychophysics, particularly as related to visual processes; pathology and primate models of human diseases. Training facilities: Training facilities of the Yerkes Center including its Field Station and Language Research Center as well as a wide variety of laboratories are available. Funding for Research Associates and Research Fellows generally is derived from individual research grants at the center or fellowships assigned by public and private agencies.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Director, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Program in Experimental Psychology.
FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Terry L. Maple (social and emotional development of primates; environmental psychology, aggression and conflict); M. Jackson Marr (operant conditioning; behavioral pharmacology); Anderson D. Smith (cognitive psychology; aging and memory; primate models of memory); Larry D. Byrd (operant conditioning; behavioral pharmacology; primate behavior).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Terry L. Maple, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332.
University of Georgia, Athens, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Graduate program in anthropology, specialty in primate behavior and evolution. M. A. and Ph.D. programs current.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dr. Carolyn L. Ehardt (primate social organization, socialization); Dr. Ben G. Blount (primate communication, socialization); Dr. Charles R. Peters (primate ecology, paleoecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (404) 542-3922.
University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Biopsychology, specialty area in primatology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Irwin S. Bernstein (primate social organization).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. I. S. Bernstein, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
University of Chicago, Depts. of Anthropology & Biology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Doctoral programs, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anthropology, Department of Biology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Stuart Altmann (biology, evolutionary biology: behavioral ecology of primates, especially foraging); Jeanne Altmann (biology: social behavior, especially maternal behavior and infant development); Martha McClintock (evolutionary biology, human development: menstrual synchrony, pheronomal communication); Leonard Radinsky (evolutionary biology, anatomy: mammalian brain evolution); Russell Tuttle (anthropology, evolutionary biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior). Russell S. Lande (evolutionary biology, biophysics & theoretical biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Leigh Van Valen (biology, evolutionary biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Michael J. Wade (biology, evolutionary biology: population biology and evolutionary theory).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above at Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 1103 E. 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637.
The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Functional anatomy & evolution. Offers graduate training for the Ph.D. in functional anatomy with an evolutionary perspective. Students are required to take the first year courses of the M.D. program (cell biology, human gross anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, neuroanatomy). Other course work is arranged at the School of Medicine or on the Homewood Campus to suit the requirements and interests of the student. Our graduate program is small and offers individualized attention for each student. Opportunities are available for graduate teaching assistantships in human anatomy and for paleontological field work in western North America and East Africa. Our department houses a large collection of comparative cases of fossil primates. Research is further facilitated by access to the extensive collections of recent and fossil vertebrates at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), which is only an hour away.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Alan C. Walker (functional anatomy and evolution of Old World Primates); Kenneth D. Rose (evolution and functional anatomy of early Tertiary mammals); Christopher B. Ruff (bioengineering theory to issues of skeletal adaptation and functional anatomy of the primate postcranial skeleton); Pat Shipman (field and experimental studies of taphonomic agents); and Mark F. Teaford (mammalian functional morphology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Walker, Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (30l-955-3173).
Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy. The Department of Anatomy offers a Ph.D. in anatomy. In addition there is an active post-doctoral training program. While a variety of species are utilized in the different anatomical research projects conducted within the department, three members of the faculty (Drs. Pandya, Raviola, and Rosene) focus their research programs almost exclusively on research problems in the primate, principally the rhesus monkey. Two other faculty members (Drs. Peters and Vogt) also have significant research interests in the primate. Other members of the department occasionally take advantage of the availability of rhesus monkeys to extend their investigations into the primate.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: D. N. Pandya (the organization and thalamocortical relationships of the cerebral cortex of the rhesus monkey); G. Raviola (the morphology of the primate eye, including the structural basis for maintenance of the normal values of intraocular pressure); D. L. Rosene (the organization of the limbic system in the rhesus monkey, particularly the connections and histochemistry of the hippocampus and amygdala); M. B. Moss (neuronal plasticity and the neurobiology of memory); A. Peters (the intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of area 17 of the monkey visual cortex); B. A. Vogt (the connections and receptor binding characteristics of the monkey cingulate cortex).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Peters, Chairman, Department of Anatomy, Boston Univ. Sch. of Med., Boston, MA 02118.
City University of New York, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Evolutionary primatology and biological anthropology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Eric Delson (paleoanthropology, catarrhine primate evolution and systematics); Robert DiBennardo (biometrics and human variation); Warren Kinzey (primate anatomy, ecology, and behavior; field studies in South America); John Oates (behavioral, ecological and evolutionary studies of tropical rainforest primates); Todd R. Olson (hominid paleontology, primate systematics, comparative anatomy); Frank Spencer (biological and medical anthropology, history of anthropology); Sara Stinson (growth and development; human ecological adaptations); Frederick S. Szalay (primate evolutionary history, with an emphasis on the fossil record).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Executive Officer, Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, Graduate Center, CUNY, 33 West 42 St., New York, NY 10036. 212-790-4617.
Cornell University, Ecology and Systematics Section in the
Division of Biological Sciences
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Human Biology Program: Primate studies appear in Cornell University's Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Ecology and Systematics. The primate studies are in both the Human Biology Program for undergraduates and in the graduate program. There are courses and labs in comparative primate anatomy and primate evolution.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (primate comparative anatomy and paleontology/evolution). We curate teaching collections and research collections of primate skeletons. There are faculty members in the Department of Psychology at Cornell University who have had research programs and teaching programs in primate studies. (The person to contact for further information is: Dr. Barbara Finlay, Dept. of Psychology, Uris Hall, Cornell University).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Ecology and Systematics, Division of Biological Sciences, Corson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (607) 256-5070, Ext. 214.
Kent State University, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Experimental psychology
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: F. Robert Treichler (primate learning and retention mechanisms; retention of concurrently learned tasks; interference effects in complex retention).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Psychology, Kent State Univ., Kent, OH 44242.
The Ohio State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Graduate work in primatology is part of the specialization of the Ph.D. program in physical anthropology. Students are expected to receive training in primate ethology, primate anatomy, primate evolution and primate conservation.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frank E. Poirier (primate ethology, particularly socialization; conservation of endangered species; primate evolution); Paul Sciulli (primate dentition; primate evolution; primate genetics). Additionally, students are advised to take courses in the departments of psychology and zoology, both of which have faculty interested in primatology. Students have an opportunity for an internship at the Columbia Zoo, which is famous for its gorilla collection.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Frank E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, Lord Hall, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210
Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train predoctoral students. The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center is one of seven federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health problems through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive physiology: perinatal physiology; reproductive behavior; and cardio- vascular, metabolic, and immunologic diseases. The Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland is the host institution of the Center. It provides academic support, and many ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the OHSU School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 35 scientist with Ph.D., M.D., or D.V.M. degrees, as well as 130 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathlogy, electron microscopy, radioimmunoassays, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, medical illustration, photography, and science editing.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Center employs three full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care for 2,300 nonhuman primates, and for many small laboratory animals. There are on-going programs in reproductive biology, perinatal physiology, diabetes research, studies on lipoprotein metabolism and gallstone formation, and behavioral research.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006. (503) 645-1141.
Bucknell Univ., Psychology Dept., Program in Animal Behavior
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: M.A. or M.S. in Animal Behavior; M.A. or M.S. in Psychology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Nancy G. Caine (development of social behavior and peer relationships); Douglas K. Candland (perceptual organization and kinship selection in Macaca fuscata, Papio hamadryas, Saimiri sciureus and Saguinus labiatus).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Program in Animal Behavior, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a Ph.D. in Anthropology with a specialty in Primatology. They will have an opportunity to familiarize themselves with theory and methods in Anthropology during their first year, and thereafter may specialize in the aspect of primatology that interests them. Courses in primate behavior, ecology, and anatomy are given within the Department, but students are encouraged to make use of the extensive resources available elsewhere in the University, in the Departments of Biology and Psychology, the Veterinary School, and the Medical School, as well as in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences and the Philadelphia Zoo.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Robert S. O. Harding (primate ecology and behavior, primate conservation, human evolution); Alan Mann (primate anatomy, primate paleontology, human paleontology and human evolution).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Robert S. O. Harding, Department of Anthropology, University Museum F-l, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Biological Anthropology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Steven J. C. Gaulin (sociobiology, behavior, ecology, extant primates, neotropics); Jeffrey H. Schwartz (evolution of the primates including Hominidae, dental development, evolutionary theory and systematics, comparative osteology); Michael I. Siegel (functional anatomy, cleft palate research, experimental morphology, primate biology, adaptation).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Carol Brosier Calloway, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.
Brown University, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: The Psychology Department offers a Ph.D. program in experimental psychology with the option of specializing in research with nonhuman primates, especially research on complex learning and visual information processing. There are related courses in the Linguistics and Anthropology Departments and the Division of Biology and Medicine.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Psychology Dept.: Allan M. Schrier (complex discrimination learning and visual information processing, comparative behavior).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: For a brochure describing the graduate program in experimental psychology write to: Mrs. Patricia Devine, Psychology Department, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. For application forms write to the Graduate School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. For additional information about research programs write to Professor Schrier.
Vanderbilt University, Depts. of Psychology & Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Neurobiology and behavior program. As part of the regular Ph.D. program in psychology or anatomy, it is possible to concentrate research activities on the behavioral, anatomical, or physiological studies of the visual or somatosensory systems in tree shrews, prosimians, New World monkeys, or Old World monkeys.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: V. A. Casagrande (behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology); R. Fox (behavior); J. H. Kaas (neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and behavior); J. A. McKanna (anatomy).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jon H. Kaas, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 134 Wesley Hall, Nashville, TN 37240.
University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Dept.
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, evolution, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud A. Bramblett (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); Ellen R. Brennan (physical anthropology, demography, population genetics); Kenneth H. Jacobs (primate and hominid evolution, archeology and ethnology of gather-hunters, European prehistory, skeletal biology); Robert M. Malina (physical anthropology, child growth, human adaptability).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.
University of Washington, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: The Animal Behavior Program at the University of Washington is dedicated to providing the best possible graduate training in scholarly knowledge, research techniques, theory and actual investigative work with animals both in the laboratory and in their natural habitat or zoos. The program leads to the Ph.D. in Psychology, with special training in animal behavior (including primate social behavior). It is administered by the core faculty in animal behavior, listed below. One of the great assets of the Animal Behavior Program is the interest and competence of faculty in departments other than Psychology. Cordial and cooperative relationships exist with behavior-oriented colleagues in Zoology, Sociology, Anthropology, Wildlife Science (College of Fisheries and Forest Resources), the Institute for Environmental Studies (Gordon Orians, Director) and the Regional Primate Research Center (Orville Smith, Director). Excellent relations and research potential also exist with the Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan S. Lockarda (primate social behavior, human ethology, animal behavior, circadian rhythms, neurobehavior); Michael D. Beecher, (animal communication, avian sociobiology and ecology, behavior of zoo animals); Gene P. Sackett (primate development and behavior); David P. Barash (sociobiology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior and evolution); Robert C. Bolles (animal behavior, learning, and motivation); Eric A. Fischer (ethology and sociobiology, evolutionary models, ecology and behavior (particularly of marine animals)).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joan S. Lockard, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology NI-25, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95.
Washington State University, Primate Research Center
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Primate Behavior; M.S. and Ph.D. in Psychology with an emphasis on Primate Behavior including sensory (all aspects), learning and memory, social behavior, comparative and physiological characteristics, drug aspects, sexual behavior, handling and care of primates. Courses and research opportunities in these areas.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Roger T. Davis (learning memory, social and aging); Joseph W. Harding (peptides and neurochemistry); George A. Leary (vision and refractive characteristics); C. W. Leathers (microbiology and pathology); John W. Wright (peptides and behavior); Francis A. Young (vision, audition, sexual behavior, breeding and care, aging, sensory effects and drug effects).
ADDRESS FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Francis A. Young, Ph.D., Director, Primate Research Center, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Animal Behavior Area Group. The department has an extensive program of research and training in animal behavior. The Primate Laboratory carries out research with rhesus monkeys on the development of social behavior and affectional systems, classical and operant conditioning, complex learning, animal models of psychopathology, biochemical and immunological correlates of stress psychopharmacology, hormone function, and environmental behavioral toxicology. Additional research in these areas is conducted at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center adjacent to the Primate Laboratory. The Primate Center offers an opportunity for students in Psychology to interact with scientists in other disciplines: anthropology, ecology, biochemistry, and endocrinology. Facilities for research with two species of New World Primates are available in the Psychology Building. Seminars on animal learning, animal behavior, and comparative psychology including such areas as ethology, sociobiology, animal models of psychopathology, and social development are offered by the staff.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Robert Bowman (behavioral toxicology, biochemical bases of behavior); Christopher Coe (behavioral, hormonal and cellular correlates of stress, psychoimmunology); John Davenport (hormones and behavior, psychological stress); David Goldfoot (interaction of social and hormonal factors in sociosexual development and adult sexual behavior, social communication); Robert Goy (neuroendocrinology, social and sexual development); Susan Mineka (animal models of psychopathology, phobias); Charles Snowdon (animal communication social and reproductive behavior of endangered primates).
ADJUNCT FACULTY FROM PRIMATE CENTER: J. Stephen Gartlan (Field studies on primate ecology, primate conservation); Frans B. M. de Waal (aggression, dominance and reconciliation in apes and monkeys).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Charles Snowdon (for program information), Jane Fox-Anderson (for applications and admissions materials), Dept. of Psychology, Charter at Johnson St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Dept. of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. Electrophoretic analysis of local populations of Cercopithecus aethiops, cercopithecus mitis, and Macaca silenus. More than 500 embalmed and skeletonized specimens of Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercocebus albigena, Papio cynocephalus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus albifrons, and Saguinus nigricollis. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Neil C. Tappen (primate anatomy, ecology and evolution, structure and function of bone and muscle); Trudy R. Turner (nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.
University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Although the Wisconsin Primate Center offers no formal graduate program, students may conduct research at the Center by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and by choosing a faculty advisor with Center affiliation. Appropriate departments for graduate students hoping to do research at the Center include Psychology, Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology, Pathology, Genetics, Veterinary Science, and Meat and Animal Science, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program and the Neurosciences Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Ph.D. level staff (* indicates joint faculty appointment at UW-Madison). Barry Bavister* (reproductive physiology); William Bridson* (gonadotropic physiology); Philippa Claude (neural ultrastructure); Christopher Coe (psychobiology); Gary Davis (neurochemistry); Frans de Waal (social behavior); Donald Dierschke* (reproductive physiology); J. Stephen Gartlan (primate ecology); David Goldfoot (behavioral endocrinology); Robert Goy* (behavioral endocrinology); Joseph Kemnitz (feeding and energy regulation); Jerry Robinson (reproductive endocrinology); Samuel Sholl (reproductive endocrinology); Ei Terasawa (neuroendocrinology); Hideo Uno (experimental pathology); Richard Wolf* (reproductive physiology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: R. W. Goy, Director, Wisconsin Primate Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
University of Calgary, Dept. of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Master of Arts in Anthropology. The department gives an M. A. in Anthropology for primatology studies (in addition to more traditional fields). The orientation is towards behavioral ecology, but studies of purely behavioral approach or of anatomy are also acceptable. The basic program requires 3 full courses in anthropology, research work in the form of field work, and the preparation and defense of a thesis. Students in the department have conducted field research on howler monkeys in Mexico, on a large captive group of gorillas in England, and on gorilla mothers in various zoos, and on the structure of primate hair.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: James D. Paterson (behavior and ecology of New World arboreal and Old World terrestrial primates; captive gorilla studies; allometry and bioenergetics; evolutionary theory; computer modelling and data acquisition systems); Philip T. Spaulding (physiology of digestion, sexual physiology, anatomy); Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N lN4.
University of Toronto, Dept. of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Primate studies are part of the program of the sub-field of Physical Anthropology. Undergraduate and graduate courses are taught in primate studies including social behavior, demography, ecology and anatomy. Ph.D. dissertations have dealt with Macaca spp; Cercopithecus, and Papio. Graduate students follow the regular M.A. program: four courses and a comprehensive exam and specialize thereafter.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frances D. Burton (primate behavior, ecology, demography; Macaca sylvanus; Cercopithecus spp.). Becky Sigmon (paleoanthropology, primate anatomy).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: F. D. Burton, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Toronto, St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1.
* * *
At 55, Jimmy, the chimpanzee at the Seneca Park Zoo, may well be the oldest primate in the world. There is one chimp, Bula, at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center at Emory University in Atlanta, that could be as old. Jimmy was born wild somewhere in the African Congo and arrived at the then brand new Rochester Zoo in 1931. Zookeepers estimated he was at least a year old at the time. Bula was born on April 27, 1930, on the estate of Madame Rosalia Abreu in Havana.
Marvin Jones, an expert on primate longevity who is registrar of the San Diego Zoo, says Jimmy is older. He bases his decision on a photograph taken of the chimp about the time he arrived in Rochester. Jimmy and Bula still have a few years to equal the all-time longevity record set by Guas, a male orangutan who died at the Philadelphia Zoo on February 9, 1977, at the age of about 59.
Jimmy is looking a bit threadbare these days. The coarse, jet-black hair is patchy on the back of his neck, his wrists, and the front of his thighs. He seems to have a little arthritis or rheumatism in his legs and he squints a lot. He may be nearsighted. He is too old to be sedated for a manicure and pedicure, so his nails have overgrown. The hair around Jimmy's mouth has turned into a white beard, and there are splotches of pink around his mouth where the skin should be black. Nevertheless, Dr. Jeffrey Wyatt, his veterinarian, says Jimmy has the good appetite, bright attitude, and basically sound constitution of a chimp 25 years younger.
Jimmy keeps handfuls of monkey chow biscuits always close at hand and munches often on oranges, apples, bananas, lettuce, and carrots. (He peels the bananas, eats them, and then methodically eats the peels.) His hearing is acute and his teeth are strong, especially considering he has never undergone dental work, as most older primates have.
Even at 55, Jimmy can still swing his 160-pound bulk to the top of his 20-foot-high cage using only his arms, or stamp out a thundering tattoo on his plank perch when the mood strikes him. And when disturbed by zoo visitors or his nemesis, the giant orangutan in the next cage, Jimmy can still curl out his lips and sound an authentic jungle call: "OO-OO-OO-OO!".
Jimmy has an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records and an annual birthday party put on by zoo supporters at which he receives -- and generally ignores -- a banana cream pie sprinkled with raisins.
Jimmy is a crotchety bachelor. Even as a youth, he turned a cold and hairy shoulder to the wiles of every female chimp who was placed in his cage to mate. Jimmy regards unfamiliar human beings with a cold eye, especially people in brass-buttoned uniforms and some redheads, because they remind him of the hated orangutans next door. Jimmy has not lived with another chimp or been handled by a human being since 1938, when he went on a rampage in his playhouse and hurled chairs, tables, pots, and pans at fleeing attendants. Zookeepers decided the giant chimp -- he weighed more then 200 pounds at the time -- was getting too temperamental and too big for tricks.
Dr. Wyatt examines Jimmy from afar. He says he won't give Jimmy a physical as long as he appears healthy because he fears the chimp might never revive if sedated. For now, Dr. Wyatt says, "He's really in the T.L.C., the tender, loving care stage. We just don't want to upset anything." [From an A.P. article by P. Coy in the Providence Journal-Bulletin, July 20, 1985.]
* * *
Laboratory Animal Medicine. James G. Fox, Bennett J. Cohen, &
Franklin M. Loew (Eds.). Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984. 750 pp.
. . . This is the latest volume in a series being developed by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), which was founded in 1957 to encourage education, training, and research in laboratory animal medicine, among other purposes. The present volume is, in part, a distillation for teaching purposes of material presented in prior volumes of the series, published during the past decade. Included among the chapters that deal specifically with nonhuman primate species are the following: 1. Laboratory animal medicine: Historical perspective, by B. J. Cohen & F. M. Loew. 2. Laws, regulations, and policies affecting the use of laboratory animals, by C. W. McPherson. 11. Primates, by C. B. Richter, N. D. M. Lehner, & R. V. Henrickson. PART A. Biology and diseases of Old World primates, by R. V. Henrickson. PART B. Biology and diseases of cebidae, by N. D. M. Lehner. PART C. Biology and diseases of callitrichidae, by C. B. Richter. 17. Design and management of animal facilities, by J. R. Hessler, & A. F. Moreland. 18. Preanesthesia, anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia, by D. H. Clifford. 19. Techniques of experimentation, by W. S. Bivin, & G. D. Smith. 20. Control of biohazards associated with the use of experimental animals, by W. E. Barkley, & J. H. Richardson. 21. Genetic monitoring, by C.-K. Hsu. 22. Selected zoonoses and other health hazards, by J. G. Fox, C. E. Newcomer, & H. Rozmiarek. 23. Factors that complicate animal research, by S. P. Pakes, Y.-S. Lu, & P. C. Meunier. 24. Animal models in biomedical research, by G. Migaki, & C. C. Capen. 25. Developing research in laboratory animal/comparative medicine, by T. B. Clarkson, D. S. Weaver, & F. M. Lusso.
Clinical Management of Infant Apes (Monographs in Primatology.
Vol 5). Charles E. Graham & James A. Bowen (Eds.). New York: Alan R.
Liss, 1985. 228 pp. [Price $48.]
. . . Proceedings of a workshop on the topic held during the IXth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Atlanta, GA, August, 1982. Approximately one in four great apes born in captivity dies within the first year of life. This volume presents information that might help reduce the high levels of morbidity and mortality in these animals. Contents: Preface--Infant ape mortality: Problem and promise, by C. E. Graham & J. A. Bowen; The hand-rearing unit: Management decisions that may affect chimpanzee development, by J. Fritz, & P. Fritz; The prevention and control of infectious disease in the nursery, by P. L. Alford; Changes in infant chimpanzee husbandry in response to a Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak, by J. W. Eichberg; Bacterial diseases of infant apes, by L. B. Cummins; Viral Diseases of infant Great Apes, by S. S. Kalter; Immunoprophylaxis in infant Great Apes, by M. R. Loomis; Intensive care of infant chimpanzees, by J. A. Bowen; Intravenous catheterization of infant chimpanzees, by J. A. Bowen, & L. B. Cummins; Nutritional management of infant apes, by J. Fritz, J. W. Ebert, & J. F. Carland; Assessment of postnatal weight gain in nursery-reared infant chimpanzees, by W. A. Lawrence, & A. B. Gorzitze; Determination of standard hematological and serum chemistry values for infant chimpanzees (0-14 months), by W. A. Lawrence; Fetal maturity estimation by lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios, pregnancy duration, and Cesarian section in chimpanzees, by C. E. Graham, J. A. Bowen, B. Billhymer, & L. B. Cummins; Perinatal care of apes: A neonatologist's viewpoint, by D. E. Hill; Neonatal and infant mortality in captive-born Great Apes, by U. S. Seal, N. Flesness, & T. Foose.
Nonhuman Primate Models of Human Growth and Development
(Monographs in Primatology. Vol. 6).
Elizabeth S. Watts (Ed.). New
York: Alan R. Liss, 1985. 342 pp. [Price: $46.]
. . . Contents: Introduction, by E. S. Watts; Practical and evolutionary considerations for use of the nonhuman primate model in prenatal research, by L. Newell-Morris, & C. E. Fahrenbruch; Adolescent growth and development of monkeys, apes and humans, by E. S. Watts; Nonhuman primate dental development and its relationship to human dental development, by D. R. Swindler; Nonhuman primates as models for human craniofacial growth, by J. E. Sirianni; Baboon dimorphism: Growth in weight, length and adiposity from birth to 8 years of age, by A. M. Coelho, Jr.; Longitudinal allometry: Some problems using rhesus monkeys, by J. A. Gavan; Prenatal protein deprivation, by A. J. Riopelle; The assessment of cognitive development in human and nonhuman primates, by R. K. Thomas, & E. L. Walden; Development of social behavior in free-living nonhuman primates, by M. E. Pereira, & J. Altmann.
The Lion-Tailed Macaque: Status and Conservation.
(Monographs in Primatology. Vol. 7).
Paul G. Heltne (Ed.). New York: Alan R. Liss, 1985. 422 pp. [Price:
. . . This book attempts to examine the critical issues that must be addressed to assure the continued survival of this species, one of the 76 endangered primate species. Contents: Saving the lion-tailed macaque, by W. Conway; An overview of the status and distribution of the lion-tailed macaque, by R. Ali; Macaca silenus, the lion-tailed macaque: Its status and habitat management in Kerals, by K. J. Joseph; Lion-tailed macaque behavior in the wild, by T. J. Mangalraj Johnson; Patterns of extinction in India, Sri Lanka, and elsewhere in Southeast Asia: Implications for lion-tailed macaque wildlife management and the Indian conservation system, by A. Kumar; Inter-troop interactions in the lion-tailed macaque, Macaca silenus, by A. Kumar, & G. U. Kurup; Sexual behavior of the lion-tailed macaque, Macaca silenus, by A. Kumar, & G. U Kurup; Sexual behavior in relation to time of ovulation in the lion-tailed macaque, by D. G. Lindburg, S. Shideler, & H. Fitch; Urinary estrogen profiles in the lion-tailed macaque, by B. L. Lasley, N. M. Czekala, & D. G. Lindburg; Reproductive techniques of potential use in the artificial propagation of nonhuman primates, by D. E. Wildt; Serogenetic analysis and the conservation of lion-tailed macaques, by C. J. Jolly, & A. W. King; Macaca silenus: Survey of North American and European zoo practices, by S. Kempske; Analysis of statistics submitted to the lion-tailed macaque studbook--North American zoos, by L. G. Gledhill; Notes on the ethogram of captive lion-tailed macaques, by P. C. Johnson; Comparison of maternal-infant and dyad-troop interactions in lion-tailed macaques, by P. Johnson; Proximity behavior in a captive group of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus), by S. G. Hornshaw; The lion-tailed macaque: Captive propagation and management at Delhi Zoological Park, by J. H. Desai; Sustained yield management of natural resources: A broad range alternative for the conservation movement, by P. G. Heltne; Species conservation: Criteria for success, by C. H. Freese; International programs for support of conservation, by D. A. Ferguson, & R. Mittermeier; The Working Groups; Models for population management of lion-tailed macaque resources in captivity (a working paper), by T. J. Foose, & W. G. Conway; Strategies for optimizing the reproductive potential of lion-tailed macaque colonies in captivity, by D. G. Lindburg, & B. L. Lasley; Habitat preservation and management of the lion-tailed macaque in the wild, by V. S. Vijayan; Recommendations of the working committees; Progress toward a master plan of population management for the lion-tailed macaque, by L. G. Gledhill; Bibliography on the lion-tailed macaque, by The Primate Information Center; Index.
The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology. H.
Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman, & N. Creel (Eds.).
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1984. (Distributed in the U. S.
A. by the Columbia University Press.) 709 pp. [Price: $56.]
. . . The purpose of this book is to present the present state of knowledge about gibbon (Hylobates) biology. The book is the product of a conference held in July, 1980 at Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany. Contents: I. CONSERVATION. 1. Gibbon conservation: Looking to the future, by W. Y Brockelman, & D. J. Chivers; 2. The distribution and status of the hoolock gibbon in Bangladesh, by S. P. Gittins; 3. The distribution and status of gibbons in Indonesia, by J. R. MacKinnon; 4. The gibbon in Java, by M. Kappeler; 5. Management of free-ranging gibbons, by D. S. R. Leighton, & A. J. Whitten; 6. Breeding and rearing lar gibbons in captivity, by T. G. Kawakami, & G. V. Kollias, Jr.; 7. Gibbons in European zoos, with notes on the identification of subspecies of concolor gibbon, by D. Schilling; 8. Census of gibbons in North America, by A. Mootnick; 9. The conservation of gibbons in American zoos, by G. J. Fox.
. . . II. FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY. 10. Anatomy and function, by H. Preuschoft, & N. Creel; 11. Bimanual suspensory behaviour: Morphology, selective advantages and phylogeny, by U. Hollihn; 12. Biomechanics of brachiation, by H. Preuschoft, & B. Demes; 13. Kinesiological aspects of brachiation in lar gibbons, by W. L. Jungers, & J. T. Stern, Jr.; 14. Kinesiological aspects of bipedal walking in gibbons, by H. Ishida, T. Kimura, M. Okada, & N. Yamazaki; 15. Scaling of the hominoid locomotor skeleton with special reference to lesser apes, by W. L. Jungers; 16. Applications of allometry: The postcrania of the higher primates, by L. C. Aiello; 17. The functional morphology of gibbon dentition, by W. Maier; 18. Correlation and adaptation in the dentition of lar gibbons, by J. G. Fleagle, & J. Kitahara-Frisch.
. . . III. ECOLOGY: FEEDING AND RANGING. 19. Large versus small gibbons: Relative roles of bioenergetics and competition in their ecological segregation in sympatry, by J. Raemaekers; 20. Ecological comparisons between Kloss gibbons and other small gibbons, by A. J. Whitten; 21. Diet and feeding behaviour of the moloch gibbon, by M. Kappeler; 22. Ecology of pileated gibbons in south-east Thailand, by S. Srikosamatara; 23. Notes on the ecology and behaviour of the hoolock gibbon, by S. P. Gittins, & R. L. Tilson; 24. Feeding and ranging in gibbons: A summary, by D. J. Chivers.
. . . IV. SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR. 25. Social behaviour of gibbons: Introduction, by W. Y. Brockelman; 26. Territoriality, monogamy and song in gibbons and tarsiers, by J. R. MacKinnon, & K. S. MacKinnon; 27. Maintenance and evolution of social structure in gibbons, by W. Y. Brockelman, & S. Srikosamatara; 28. Food transfer in gibbons, by G. J. Fox; 29. Acoustic and organizational features of gibbon songs, by E. H. Haimoff; 30. The vocal repertoire and song of the agile gibbon, by S. P. Gittins; 31. Vocal bouts and territorial maintenance in the moloch gibbon, by M. Kappeler; 32. Song bouts and duetting in the concolor gibbon, by D. Schilling; 33. Patterns and functions of loud calls in the concolor gibbon, by M. Goustard; 34. The trilling handicap in kloss gibbons, by A. J. Whitten; 35. Territorial advertisement and defence in gibbons, by S. P. Gittins.
. . . V. EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY. 36. Pathways of speciation: An introduction, by N. Creel, & H. Preuschoft; 37. Are there any fossil gibbons? by J. G. Fleagle; 38. Molecular perspectives on the evolution of the lesser apes, by L. L. Darga, M. L. Bba, M. L. Weiss, & M. Goodman; 39. Molecular evolution and speciation in the lesser apes, by J. E. Cronin, V. M. Sarich, & O. Ryder; 40. Biogenetics of the Siabon (Gibbon-Siamang hybrids), by D. A. Shafer, R. H. Myers, & D. Saltzman; 41. Natural hybridization in the Hylobates lar species group: Implications for speciation in gibbons, by W. Y. Brockelman, & S. P. Gittins; 43. Gibbons of the lar group: Relationships based on voice, by J. T. Marshall, J. Sugardjito, & M. Markaya; 43. A new look at the taxonomy and phylogeny of the gibbons, by C. P. Groves; 44. Systematics of the lesser apes: A quantitative taxonomic analysis of craniometric and other variables, by N. Creel, & H. Preuschoft; 45. A phylogeny and classification of gibbons based on morphology and ethology, by E. H. Haimoff, S. P. Gittins, A. J. Whitten, & D. J. Chivers; 46. Pathways of speciation: Some conclusions, by N. Creel, H. Preuschoft, W. Y. Brockelman, & D. J. Chivers.
Adaptations for Foraging in Nonhuman Primates. Peter S.
Rodman, & John G. H. Cant (Ed.). New York: Columbia University Press,
1984. 351 pp. [Price: Cloth--$35. Paper--$18.50.]
. . . The subtitle of this book is "Contributions to an Organismal Biology of Prosimians, Monkeys, and Apes." The book grew out of a symposium held at the 1980 annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, though several chapters represent changes in topics covered and others were not dealt with at all at the symposium. Contents: Introduction: From comparative morphology and socioecology to an organismal biology of primates, by P. S. Rodman, & J. G. H. Cant. 1. On the use of anatomical features to infer foraging behavior in extinct primates, by R. F. Kay; 2. Motion economy within the canopy: Four strategies for mobility, by T. I. Grand; 3. Foraging, habitat structure, and locomotion in two species of Galago, by R. H. Crompton; 4. Use of habitat and positional behavior in a neotropical primates, Saguinus oedipus, by P. A. Garber; 5. Foraging and social systems of orangutans and chimpanzees, by P. S. Rodman; 6. Feeding ecology and sociality of chimpanzees in Kibale Forest, Uganda, by M. P. Chiglieri; 7. Ecological differences and behavioral contrasts between two mangabey species, by P. M. Waser; Body size and foraging in primates, by L. A. Temerin, B. P. Wheatley, & P. S. Rodman; 9. The role of food-processing factors in primate food choice; by K. Milton; 10. Is optimization the optimal approach to primate foraging? by D. G. Post; 11. A conceptual approach to foraging adaptations in primates, by J. G. H. Cant, & L. A. Temerin.
Symposium on Marmoset Pathology. Mary J. Tucker & Peter
F. Wadsworth (Eds.). Macclesfield, England: Imperial Chemical
Industries PLC, Pharmaceuticals Division, 1985. Soft cover. 112 pp.
[Price: 5 pounds. Order from Dr. M. J. Tucker, ICI PLC Pharmaceuticals
Division, 22G5 Mereside, Alderly Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TG,
. . . This symposium was held at Macclesfield June 8, 1984. Contents: Hepatic iron levels in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), by C. W. Davy, & J. G. Edmunds; Observations on marmoset hepatitis, by M. Jackson; Pancreatic atrophy and pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), by J. Beach; Observations on the pathology of the alimentary system in the ICI marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), by M. J. Tucker; A survey of pathological findings in the endocrine glands and reproductive systems of marmosets from a breeding unit during 1982-1983, by P. F. Wadsworth; Is the presence of Heinz bodies a useful diagnostic sign of wasting marmoset syndrome, by C. M. Hawkey; Marmoset haematology: Reference ranges and pathological changes, by G. Bell; Observations on the pathology of the respiratory system in the ICI marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), by M. J. Tucker; A survey of pathological findings in the brain, ear and eye in marmosets from a breeding unit during 1982-1983; P. F. Wadsworth; Skeletal muscle atrophy in wasting marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): A detailed histopathological and histochemical study, by L. B. Murgatroyd; Renal disease in the ICI marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), by M. J. Tucker; Squamous cell carcinomas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), by G. R. Betton, & P. F. Wadsworth; Testicular tumour in a marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), by A. J. Murphy; A survey of neoplastic diseases in marmosets at Alderley Park, by P. F. Wadsworth; Toxicity of clobuzarit in the marmoset, by M. J. Tucker.
A bibliography on atherosclerosis in nonhuman primates: Etiology, pathology & therapy (Supplement 1982-1985). Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. (190 Citations, Primate Index) [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Send order to: Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95].
Normal values of total blood volume in nonhuman primates. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. (32 Citations, Primate Index) [Price: $5.00 ($4.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.
Normal or control values for endogenus chemicals in the cerebrospinal fluid, 1965-1985. Seattle Primate Information Center, 1985. (98 Citations, Primate Index). [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Fertility and birth rates among feral or free-ranging nonhuman primates (2nd edition). Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. (20l Citations, Primate Index). [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as above.]
Neural correlates of memory, 1970-1984. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. (298 Citations) [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Home range size and travel distance in Asian monkeys. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. (184 Citations) [Price: $6.00 ($5.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Home range size and travel distance in African monkeys. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. (149 Citations) [Price: $6.00 ($5.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Home range size and travel distance in Great and Lesser Apes. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1984. (147 Citations) [Price: $6.00 ($5.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Colony breeding of New World Monkeys, 1980-1984). Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. (99 Citations, Primate Index) [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Vocalization sonograms and spectographs, 1970-1984. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. (198 Citations, Primate Index). [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Prolactin in endocrine function and behavior of the male nonhuman primate. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. (90 Citations, Primate Index). [Price: $6.00 ($5.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Vocalizations sonograms and spectography of nonhuman primates, 1970-1984. Williams J. B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Prolactin in endocrine function and behavior of the male nonhuman primate. Caminiti, B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Catecholamines and corticosteroids in nonhuman primates during stress. Caminiti, B. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $7.00 ($6.00 prepaid). Ordering information same as in previous reference.]
Disseminated nocardiosis in three macaque monkeys. Liebenberg,
S. P., & Giddens, W. E., Jr. (Dept. Clin. Investig., Madigan Army Med.
Ctr., Tacoma, WA 98431).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1985, 35, 162-166.
. . . Extrapulmonary nocardiosis was diagnosed at necropsy in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and one pigtailed monkey (M. nemestrina) over a four-year period in a large primate center. Typical lesions were multiple pyogranulomatous foci in the liver, intestines, peritoneum, lung and brain. Partially acid-fast, branching, filamentous organisms were seen in all lesions. Nocardia sp. was isolated from two cases. We postulate that two of the monkeys were infected by the oral route because of the distribution of lesions.
An outbreak of
Plasmodium inui malaria in a colony of diabetic Rhesus monkeys.
Schofield, L. D., Bennett, B. T., Collins, W. E., & Beluhan, F. Z.
(Biologic Resources Lab., Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, 1840 W. Taylor
St., Chicago, IL 60612).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1985, 35, 167-168.
. . . Plasmodium inui malaria is an infrequently reported disease of Macaca mulatta. In this report a total of 21 of 48 monkeys in a closed colony of diabetic animals developed hematological evidence of P. inui infection with 5 showing overt clinical signs of the disease. Diagnosis was confirmed morphologically, serologically and by transmission studies. Since 6 of these animals were born in the colony, a means of transmission was sought and it was determined that multiple use of a syringe to administer intravenous anesthesia was the probable means of cross transmission.
Malignant lymphoma in a colony of
Macaca arctoides. Holmberg, C. A., Henrickson, R., Anderson, J., &
Osburn, B. I. (Calif. Prim. Res. Ctr., Univ. of Calif., Davis, CA
Veterinary Pathology, 1985, 22, 42-45.
. . . Malignant lymphoma occured in six Macaca arctoides from a colony of 83 animals during a 30-month period. The cells of two neoplasms had T cell markers. Concurrent disease processes included atypical mycobacterial disease in 4 macaques and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in one. The epidemic nature of these neoplasms suggests a common etiological factor. No viral agent was identified in preliminary studies. A previous outbreak of malignant lymphomas occurred in M. mulatta (rhesus macaques). It ended several years prior to this onset in M. arctoides and differed in that it consisted of both B and T cell neoplasms. The relationship of these malignant lymphomas to recently reported simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is under study. The present evidence suggests that lymphomas in M. arctoides are linked to simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in rhesus monkeys.
Encephalitozoonosis in squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri sciureus). Zeman, D. H., & Baskin, G. B. (Delta Reg.
Prim. Res. Ctr., Three Rivers Rd., Covington, LA 70433)
Veterinary Pathology, 1985, 22, 24-31.
. . . Twenty-two cases of naturally occurring encephalitozoonosis in squirrel monkeys are reported from breeding colonies of the Delta Regional Primate Research Center, Covington, LA. Characteristic foci of granulomatous inflammation and organisms were demonstrated in brains, kidneys, lungs, adrenals, and livers. Vasculitis and perivasculitis were also common lesions in several organs. At least 7 cases were congenital while 10 others occurred in monkeys less than 9 months old. Granulomatous placentitis, previously unreported in any species due to Encephalitozoon cuniculi, was present in one monkey. No epizoologic conclusions could be made after studying the source and incidence pattern within the facility. The awareness of this disease in squirrel monkeys is extremely important, especially if such animals are involved with experimentation involving potential brain or vascular lesions. In young animals, the disseminated form of the disease could complicate the pathologic picture in numerous organ systems. Also, the ability of E. cuniculi to produce placental disease makes it an important consideration in the investigation of reproductive failure in breeding colonies of squirrel monkeys.
Fetal blood sampling through ultrasound-guided puncture of the
umbilical vein in rhesus monkeys. Lindgren, P.-G., & Lindberg, B. S.
(Dept. of Obs. & Gyn., Univ. Hosp., 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 159-163.
. . . Access to fetal blood is of importance in many studies of fetal physiology and pharmacology. In such studies, it may also be of value to inject a substance into the fetal circulation and measure its transfer across the placenta and the distribution within maternal compartments. Long-term access to the fetal circulation has been achieved by cannulating blood vessels after delivery of fetal body parts through a hysterotomy. However, such operations often initiate uterine contractions and premature delivery. In the present study, fetal blood was obtained through puncture of the umbilical vein in rhesus monkeys. The puncture needle was introduced during direct visual control through ultrasound. This method offers a possibility of obtaining fetal blood without opening the uterine cavity. Injection into the fetal circulation is also possible.
Sequences and timing of dental eruption in Bolivian captive-born
(Saimiri sciureus). Galliari, C. A., & Colillas, O. J. (Serrano
661, 1414 Buenos Aires, Argentina).
American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 8, 195-204.
. . . Squirrel monkeys, colony-born from Bolivian parents, were studied to establish the sequences and timing of eruption for deciduous and permanent teeth. Infants were born with a naked gingiva, and in only one monkey was di-1 present at birth. No significant sexual differences were found in the age of eruption. By the age of 14 weeks, all deciduous teeth had erupted. The sequence of eruption of the replacement teeth was different from that of milk teeth. Significant sexual differences were found in total eruption (TE) for PM-3 and I-2 and highly significant differences in TE and initial eruption (IE) for C-1, females being more precocious than males. The age at which monkeys completed dental eruption was highly variable, 103-119 weeks for males and 89-112 weeks for females. Differences were found when our results were compared with previous results for Colombian squirrel monkeys.
Pharmacology and Anesthesia
The effects of ketamine anesthesia on glucose clearance in African
green monkeys. Brady, A. G., & Koritnik, D. R. (Dept. Comp. Med., Bowman
Gray Sch. of Med., Winston-Salem, NC).
J. Med. Primatol., 1985, 14, 99-107.
. . . Ketamine hydrochloride's effect on glucose clearance-insulin secretion during intravenous glucose tolerance testing was studied in five African green monkeys. Animals were tested with ketamine anesthesia and then had indwelling cannulas implanted and were retested both in the presence and absence of ketamine anesthesia. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were determined. There were no significant differences in the glucose clearance rate (K value), basal glucose and insulin concentrations, maximum insulin concentration, and area under the insulin response curve, among the three different conditions.
Weight growth in savannah baboons: A longitudinal study from birth to
adulthood. Glassman, D. M., Coelho, A. M., Jr., Carey, K. D., &
Bramblett, C. A. (Cardiopulmonary Dept., Southwest Foundation for
Biomedical Res., San Antonio, TX 78284).
Growth, 1984, 48, 425-433.
. . . Postnatal growth in body weight, from birth to 7 yrs., was studied longitudinally in a sample of savannah baboons. Measurements of weight were collected on 45 male and 42 female baboons at 12-wk intervals. The weights of males and females were treated independently and compared for gender differences. Distance and mean increment curves were used to describe the pattern and changes in the rate of growth. The results demonstrated that the savannah baboon shares a pattern of weight growth similar to that of other anthropoid primates including humans. An adolescent growth spurt was observed for both genders. The intensity of the growth spurt was substantially greater for males. Differential growth rates between genders during adolescence were responsible for the extensive sexual dimorphism exhibited in adult weight. Females were advanced over males in their percentage of adult growth attainment at all ages.
Relationship between fetal position and stillbirth in the cynomolgus
(Macaca fascicularis): Retrospective analysis. Cho, F., Hanari,
K., Suzuki, M. T., & Honjo, S. (Tsukuba Primate Ctr. for Med. Sci.,
NIH, Hachimandai, Yatabe-machi, Tusukuba-gun, Ibaragi-ken, Japan 305.)
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 169-174.
. . . Retrospective analyses were made on the relationship between fetal position and stillbirth, using 703 pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. Incidence of the breech position was 59.l% to 12 weeks of gestation. The rate decreased stepwide to 10.4% on the day before delivery. Twenty-one (65.6%) of 32 monkeys who were in the breech position on the day before delivery had stillbirths, whereas only one stillbirth occurred among 275 monkeys whose fetuses were in the cephalic position.
Management of a harem breeding colony of rhesus monkeys to reduce
trauma-related morbidity and mortality. Kessler, J. J., London, W. T.,
Rawlins, R. G., Gonzalez, J., Martinez, H. S., & Sanchez, J. (Caribbean
Primate Research Ctr., PO Box 1953, Sabana Seca, PR 00749).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 91-98.
. . . A management procedure was developed for a harem breeding colony of rhesus monkeys to reduce trauma-related injuries and deaths, resulting from the periodic removal of pregnant monkeys for research and their subsequent return to the population. Lower morbidity and mortality rates, a reduced mean conception interval, and a higher mean conception rate occurred when monkeys were maintained in permanent harems to which returning females were reintroduced compared to new social groups formed from aggregates of unfamiliar animals.
Factors associated with birth rate and live birth rate in multi-male
breeding groups of rhesus monkeys. Casebolt, D. B., Henrickson, R. V.,
& Hird, D. W. (Dr. Roy V. Henrickson, California Prim. Res. Ctr., Univ.
of Calif., Davis, CA 95616).
American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 8, 289-297.
. . . Reproductive records of 284 female rhesus monkeys housed in 6 multi-male corrals at the California Primate Research Center were examined for the birth seasons 1977-1982 to determine possible associations between the probability of birth or live birth and female age, parity, origin, parturition in the previous season, infant birth date, and infant birth date in previous season. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify and quantify the effects of factors on the probability of birth or live birth, while controlling for the possibly confounding effects of other factors in the model. Females who had infants early in the previous season were 2.5 times as likely to give birth as those who had infants late in the previous season. Females with 2 or 3 previous births were 2.1 times as likely to give birth, and those with 4 or 5 previous births were 6.7 times as likely to give birth as were females with no or one previous birth. Controlling for other factors (age, parity, and timing of birth in the previous season), corral-born females were 3.3 times as likely to give birth as either wild-caught or domestic-born monkeys not native to the corrals. Domestic-born females who were not corral natives were 0.3 times as likely to have live births as wild-caught females. Births late in the season were 1.8 times as likely to result in live infants as births early in the season.
Ovulation in the marmoset monkey: Endocrinology, prediction and
detection. Harlow, C. R., Hearn, J. P., & Hodges, J. K. (Inst. of
Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, England).
Journal of Endocrinology, 1984, 103, 17-24.
. . . Circulating progesterone, oestrogens and LH were measured in female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) over the periovulatory period. Progesterone concentrations increased in all animals within 1 day of the estimated day of ovulation, confirming the usefulness of this hormone for retrospective detection of ovulation. Oestradiol-17-beta and LH both showed a preovulatory rise, but due to the large quantity of plasma required (oestradiol: 0.2 ml) and the length of time taken for the assay (LH: 2-3 days), measurement of these hormones is not practical for the prediction of ovulation. There were no preovulatory changes in unconjugated oestrone, but a rise in total (i.e., conjugated plus unconjugated) oestrone was used to time the collection of recently ovulated oocytes. Levels of oestrone-3-sulphate showed an increase at least 1 day before the expected day of ovulation in 4 out of 5 animals. This preovulatory rise can be measured easily by a rapid direct assay, thereby providing a practical method for predicting ovulation in this species.
Radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone in the baboon
(Papio hamadryas). Khan, S. A., Katzija, G., Lindberg, M., &
Diezfalusy, E. (Reproductive Endocrinology Res. Unit, the Karolinska
Institute and Hospital, S-104 01, Stockholm, Sweden).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 143-157.
. . . An increasing number of nonhuman primate species are being used as animal models for the study of the primate reproductive processes in general and for the assessment of the safety and efficacy of new fertility regulating agents in particular. The necessary pharmacodynamic studies are, however, hampered by the lack of reliable homolgous RIA procedures for the estimation of various pituitary glycoprotein hormones. This article describes a heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for luteinizing hormone (LH) consisting of a cynomolgus LH tracer and an antiserum raised against human chorionic gonadotropin that fulfilled the recognized criteria of reliability when applied to baboon plasma and pituitary extracts obtained in different endocrine conditions. This RIA is 5.5 times more sensitive than the ovine system, yields estimates of baboon LH (bLH) fairly close to those obtained by in vitro bioassay, and recognizes all bioactive molecular species of bLH present in male and female pituitary extracts. However, the system yields slightly but significantly lower estimates of bLH than the in vitro bioassay.
Reproduction in the slender loris
(Loris tardigradus malabaricus). Izard, M. K., & Rasmussen, D. T.
(Duke Univ. Prim. Ctr., 3705 Erwin Rd., Durham, NC 27705).
American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 8, 153-165.
. . . A breeding colony of slender lorises was studied to obtain data for comparison with other prosimian species, to contribute reproductive information for improving management of captive lorises, and to resolve some uncertainties in the literature regarding reproduction in the slender loris. At the Duke University Primate Center, a female slender loris reached sexual maturity at approximately ten months of age and conceived at one year of age. The length of the estrous cycle was 29-40 days, with copulation occurring over 2 consecutive days during estrus. Gestation length was 166-169 days. Litter size for each of 6 births was 1. Conception did not occur during an immediate post-partum estrus, but 4 months after birth, resulting in a 9 1/2-month interbirth interval. There was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. Lactation lasted between 5 and 7 months. Reproductive rates of slender lorises are among the lowest of primates less than 500 g. Differences in reproductive parameters may exist between different subspecies of slender lorises.
Techniques for hand-rearing tree-shrews
(Tupaia belangeri) from birth. Tsang, W. N., & Collins, P. M.
(Dept. of Biol. Sci., Univ. of Calif. (W.N.T., P.M.C.), Santa Barbara,
Zoo Biology, 1985, 4, 23-31.
. . . In captivity, Tupaia belangeri (Thailand tree-shrew) frequently show aberrant patterns of maternal care which result in the death of offspring. In order to maximize the potential of the tree-shrew as an animal resource for experimental studies, a program was developed for hand-rearing tupaiidae from birth. Newborn tree-shrews were removed from mothers with a history of poor parental care to a nursery maintained under conditions of controlled relative humidity and temperature on a 12 h dark:12 h light cycle. The young tree-shrews were fed on a liquid formula until the eyes opened (Day 18-23) and for the subsequent 10 days on a transitional diet until they could feed themselves on solid food. Our hand-rearing protocol appears to conform to the natural weaning pattern of tupaiids. The initial growth rate of male and female hand-reared tree-shrews was slower than that of maternally reared animals during the liquid diet phase. The growth rate accelerated subsequently and the body weight of hand-reared tree-shrews eventually reached that of maternally reared animals of the same sex. Various developmental changes occurred during the same period in artificially and naturally reared animals. The high fecundity of tree-shrews in captivity reinforced with a program for hand-rearing the young make T. belangeri a potential alternative to more conventional laboratory species in specific areas of biomedical research.
Sexual behavior and urinary ovarian hormone concentrations during the
lowland gorilla menstrual cycle. Mitchell, W. R., Lindburg, D. G.,
Shideler, S. E., Presley, S., & Lasley, B. L. (Research Dept., San
Diego Zoo, San Diego, CA 97112).
International Journal of Primatology, 1985, 6, 161-172.
. . . Sexual behaviors were recorded and urinary concentrations of total estrogens and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (Pdg) measured during 6 normal menstrual cycles from 2 female lowland gorillas in a stable, captive group. Frequencies of female presentations, mounts, and copulations were positively associated with peak estrogen values but not with elevations of Pdg. These results support the observation that sexual behaviors in the gorilla occur most frequently in the periovulatory period and that copulations serve primarily a sexual function.
Facilities and Care
Allowing captive primates to forage. Anderson, J. R., & Chamove, A.
S. (Laboratoire de Psychophysiologie, Université Louis Pasteur, 7,
Rue de L'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France).
Standards in Laboratory Animal Management. Part 2. Universities
Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar (U.K.), 1984. Pp. 253-256.
. . . This study shows that when deprived of the opportunity to forage, monkeys compensate by increasing other behaviors. The young group showed increases in play, aggression, manipulation of the environment of stumptailed monkeys, and abnormal behaviors, primarily self-aggression. A litter substrate reduces these behaviors and encourages foraging, even in the absence of grain. In another study we have also shown that the beneficial effects of deep litter: generalize to other primate species, and that the litter is inhibitory to the growth of several types of bacteria.
The Japanese Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science (TPC): An
outline. Honjo, S. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science,
National Institute of Health, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun Ibaragi-ken,
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 75-89.
. . . The facilities and activities of the Japanese Primate Center at Tsukuba, Japan are described. The Center became partially functional in 1978 and was completed in 1979. The three main aims of the Primate Center are: (1) to quarantine newly imported primate animals, (2) to breed, and (3) to study them.
Genetic and evolutionary relationships among Asian macaques.
Melnick, D. J., & Kidd, K. K. (Dept. of Anthropology, Columbia Univ.,
New York, NY 10027).
International Journal of Primatology, 1985, 6, 123-160.
. . . Published gene frequency data, checked for consistency of allele definitions across laboratories and for comparability of geographically identical samples, were pooled into a data set containing frequencies at 9 loci for each of 20 populations that encompassed 10 macaque species. Genetic distances were calculated by the methods of Kidd and Cavalli-Sforza (1974). These distances were used to construct phylogenetic trees and to evaluate the relationships between divergence times and effective population sizes. Inter- and intraspecific genetic distances and the groupings defined by phenetic tree analyses support Fooden's (1976) classification of the genus Macaca into 4 species groups. A paleozoogeographical model of Asia including the known times of major sea-level changes allows us to explain Macaca into 4 species groups. A paleozoogeographical model of Asia including the known times of major sea-level changes allows us to explain qualitatively the inferred evolutionary relationships among macaque species. Many assumptions are required in order to estimate the variables necessary in the quantitative prediction of genetic differences for a comparison between any 2 populations. Examination of those assumptions demonstrates the need for more accurate genetic as well as paleozoogeographic information.
Instruments and Technique
Liver wedge biopsy in nonhuman primates. Eichberg, J. W. (Virology
and Immunlogy Dept., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San
Antonio, TX 78284).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 165-168.
. . . Many experimental protocols require more liver material than can be obtained through conventional percutaneous liver biopsies. This is particularly true for viral hepatitis studies in chimpanzees where large amounts of liver tissue are requested and these valuable animals cannot be sacrificed. The paper describes a surgical method for obtaining a liver wedge biopsy based on techniques used in man.
De Brazza's monkeys
(Cercopithecus neglectus) in Kenya: Census, distribution, and
conservation. Brennan, E. J. (Institute of Primate Research, PO Box
24481, Karen, Kenya).
American Journal of primatology, 1985, 8, 269-277.
. . . The population of De Brazza's monkeys in Kenya, East Africa, was surveyed from May to September of 1983 to estimate its numbers, distribution, and conservation status. A small number of De Brazza's monkeys are protected within Saiwa National Park; however, the vast majority of the population is endangered because they are restricted to small, isolated pockets of forests amid expanding farmland within the Trans-Nzoia area of western Kenya. A few animals are found on the slopes of Mt. Elgon and on the Cherangani Hills, although these areas offer little protection. The pressures now facing this population are loss of habitat, reproductive isolation, and a decline in numbers as the result of being killed, either as a food source or as agricultural pests. If the current situation continues and no attempt is made to conserve the remaining De Brazza's monkeys, the species faces almost certain extinction in Kenya.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
D. D. Battista, Dept. of Psychology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6, Canada.
Bobby Brown, Dean, Clinical Sciences, Ross University, Rt. 1, Box 168, Gordo, AL 35466.
Ciba-Giegy Central Library, R-1o8o.P, CH-4002 Basle, Switzerland.
J. James Cunningham, 945 San Ildefonso Dr., #58, Los Alamos, NM 87544.
Carol Glick, 5623 Stanton Ave., #1, Pittsburgh, PA 15206.
Kenneth M. Green, Science Application Research 4400 Forbes Blvd., Lanham, MD 20706.
Dr. Joe R. Held, Director, CEPANZO, Casilla 3092 - Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina.
W. R. Kingston, The Old Smithy, Bishops Frome, Worcester WR6 5BA, United Kingdom.
Michael Kavanagh, World Wildlife Fund Malaysia, PO Box 10769, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Jane Lancaster, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131.
I. McConnell, PO Box 362, Ft. Rucker, AL 36362.
Bernadette M. Marriott, Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749.
Yon Kal Oh, Central Animal Facility, School of Medicine, Temple University, 3400 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, PA 19140.
Daris R. Swindler, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
Shinobu Yonetani, Charles River Japan, Inc., 795 Shimofurusawa, Atsugi-Shi, Kanagawa, Japan 24302.
* * *
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NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
Photo of twin stumptailed monkeys (Macaca arctoides) and mother by by Allan M. Schrier (see this Newsletter, 1984, 23, 18).
Copyright @1985 by Brown University
Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor Helen Janis Shuman