VOLUME 25 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1986
Articles and Notes
Cotton Tops, Colitis, Colon Cancer & Conservation, by W. R. Kingston........1
Trends in Primate Imports into the United States: 1984........4
Earthquake: Langur Monkeys' Response, by N. Krusko et al.........6
NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses, by S. S. Kalter........8
News, Information, and Announcements
Symposium Announcement: "Understanding Chimpanzees"........7
Farm Bill Signed With Animal Welfare Act Amendments........10
Dian Fossey Killed in Rwanda........12
. . . Whitney Appointed Director of DRS; Penn Ordered to Review Its Animal Research Labs; Animal Resources Improvement Awards Made
AFIP Comparative Pathology Course ........14
Fyssen Foundation 1986-87 Fellowships and 1986 International Prize........15
Newspaper Clippings: On "Torturing" Animals........16
Upcoming Primate Meetings........18
. . . IPS; ASP
Funds for Travel to IPS Congress........18
Group Travel Flight to IPS Congress........18
Workshop Planned on "Applying Behavioral Research to Zoo Animal Management"........19
Doctoral Programs Directory: Addendum........f30
Cartoon, thanks to the New Yorker
Address Changes ........11
Recent Books and Articles ........20
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W. R. Kingston
Centro Nacional de Primatas, Belem, Brazil
A well known primate conservationist recently told me that it is estimated that not more than seven hundred cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) remain in northern Colombia, the only area in which the species is found. It is therefore highly endangered. Recently a report (van Kruiningen, 1984) summarized the proceedings of a meeting held to discuss the value of the species as a model for the study of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. This meeting was held following reports from two research institutions in the U.S.A., which maintain colonies of cotton tops, of a high incidence of these conditions, which are ultimately fatal, the cause of which had not yet been established. Obviously there is a double conservation problem, first of the species as a whole, and second, at least until their value as a model of the human condition is established one way or another, of the two affected colonies. The human disease syndrome is of great importance, being, I believe, second only to cardiac problems as a cause of death in the U.S.A. and the availability of an animal model is of the greatest possible value for successful biomedical research. The matter is perhaps of particular topical significance in view of the condition of President Reagan.
The state of the wild population is, of course, the all too familiar pattern of a species with a relatively restricted habitat which happens also to offer quick profits by commercial exploitation, in this case, timber. Only the establishment of an adequately sized, demarcated, and policed reserve would ensure the survival of the species in the wild. Whether the Colombian government has the political will and/or resources to provide this, with or without outside help, remains to be seen. It is obvious that there is no time to be lost.
There should be no danger of the loss of the species as a whole since there are quite a number in captivity in Europe, the U.S.A., and Japan and the species is not too difficult to breed in captivity. Having said this, I am quite aware that they do not breed as freely or prolifically as Callithrix and Cebuella but I consider that this could probably be improved by some practical research. There were a few pairs at Fisons in the United Kingdom between 1966 and 1973 which were kept with and managed in the same manner as several other Saguinus spp. and Callithrix jacchus. The latter produced young regularly at 6-month intervals, while Saguinus had inter-birth intervals of 9 to 15 months with the exception of one pair of S. oedipus. The latter produced 17 young in just over five years and reared all but two of them. A postpartum oestrus does therefore occur in this genus and they too have a potential output of four young per annum. There is no doubt that they are more "highly strung" than Callithrix. The latter can be handled, weighed, etc. right through pregnancy up to parturition with no risk of abortion, but Saguinus will miscarry or resorb if handled after even the first few weeks of pregnancy. A purely subjective opinion is that there is something missing in the diet provided for this genus in captivity, an idea probably arising from the known difference in dentition. Even without this improvement, a properly managed international breeding program such as has been so successfully set up for Leontopithecus, would undoubtedly ensure the survival of sustainable self-propagating colonies indefinitely. It is my personal opinion that the major colony should be developed by the Colombian authorities as a logical exploitation of a natural resource, but sufficient numbers already exist outside the country to ensure the foundation of a sound viable nucleus.
With regard to the two colonies with the disease problem, the significance seems to me to be that it has occurred in two quite separate locations and as far as I know in unrelated stock, and yet has not occurred in other quite substantial and long maintained colonies elsewhere. For example, there have been no cases at Fisons and some of their animals and their descendants, some of which are now of considerable age, are still in robust health. It is therefore obviously important to know if there has been at any time any connection or contact between the colonies at Oak Ridge and the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC). This should include information about the sources of stock including the chronology for both colonies, any transfer of animals or animal material between them, not only of S. oedipus but also of other animals which might carry an infection. If it transpires that there has been no possibility of transfer of an infective agent between the two colonies then it must be assumed that the infection or other mediator of the disease syndrome must be present independently in both locations.
It was reported that bacteriological and virological tests had so far failed to find a likely agent causing the disease although the epidemiology suggests an infection. There is the possibility of a latent infection, perhaps common to the species as a whole, triggered into an active condition by any of a wide variety of possible stimuli: items of diet or dietary supplements; veterinary treatment such as vermifuges; environmental factors such as chemical fumes from a nearby laboratory; insecticides or insecticidal aerosols; disinfectants used in cage or room cleaning; nature and finish of cage materials, paint, etc.; bedding, particularly sawdust or wood shavings. Any abnormal levels of metallic ions in the drinking water, not only of the two districts but in the actual supply to the animals which might arise from the plumbing, e.g. copper or lead in solution from old piping, sipper tubes or automatic watering devices, is a possibility. I am thinking of such a condition as the bovine papillomas which only develop if the cattle have eaten bracken fern.
Another line worth investigating is the presence and possible infection from other primate species housed with or in close proximity to the cotton tops. It was reported that the same disease condition appeared at Oak Ridge in other Callitrichids but not to the same extent, so other species were certainly kept there and certainly there are others at the NERPRC. Hence there is the distinct possibility of something akin to the oncogenic virus common to Saimiri, harmless in the normal host but very active in other species. If both colonies have been derived from the same original stock and/or importation, there is the possibility of a virus from other mammals, some of which take a long time to develop in another host. An example of this possibility, currently in the news, is the suggestion that Paget's disease in man is derived from childhood infection with canine distemper virus.
It would be useful to know more about the history of both colonies. Presumably because the age of the animal when the disease manifests itself is quoted in the report, there must have been extensive breeding in the colonies. Did the disease appear first in imported animals or animals reared in the colony? If in imported stock, did any of the animals develop overt symptoms in less than the time known for bred animals, suggesting that they were already infected when received? From the numbers quoted, it would seems that there must have been quite a large initial stock, but how large? Does the incidence of the disease show any relationship to particular family lines? Have animals from either of these colonies gone elsewhere and if so has the disease appeared there, assuming of course that the time interval has been long enough for it to have manifested itself?
In view of the importance of the disease to mankind, determination of the etiology is of obvious value as a first step to finding a means of preventing or curing the disease. It could well be that some common and apparently innocuous substance is responsible for the condition in these animals and man. The occurrence in just two colonies of many, particularly if there is no known link between them, could well provide the clue. A detailed comparison of all the above environmental and management factors of both colonies might reveal some item common to both which is unusual and unlikely to be repeated in other establishments.
With regard to the survival of the affected colonies, since the appearance of the ultimately fatal adenocarcinoma is at an average animal age of three to four years, there is time for the production of several litters to sustain the colonies. These animals are relatively easy to hand rear from birth. Some young should be removed before suckling in case the agent is transferred in the colostrum or subsequent lactation or by vertical infection. These young should then be reared in isolation from the rest of the colony and by different personnel. Specific pathogen free procedures have been successfully employed with Callithrix jacchus and could be used with this species. Animals from other colonies where there has been no occurrence of the colitis etc. could be exposed to contact with the affected colonies and their environments and then monitored for the appropriate development time.
Undoubtedly some, if not all, of the above ideas and suggestions have already been put into practice and the answers are already known. I have not seen anything in print relative to it, but of course the availability of scientific journals here in Brazil is limited, mainly due to foreign currency restrictions. I would therefore like to apologize in advance to anyone who has published work on this matter which I have not acknowledged. My excuse is that this center is very much concerned with the breeding of Callitrichids and therefore in biomedical research for which they are of special value. It may ultimately turn out that the disease in these primates is only superficially similar to that of man but, until this is established beyond doubt, it does seem to the writer that no effort should be spared to determine the etiology and to maintain both the affected colonies and a viable normal stock of the species. These would be of incalculable value should the human and animal syndrome be found to have the same causative agent, providing as they would models for both research and drug screening.
van Kruiningen, H. J. (1984). Spontaneous disease of marmosets provides model for the study of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 23, 3.
Editor's Note.--Conversations with Dr. C. Richter, NIESH, and Dr. Laura Chalifoux, New England Regional Primate Research Center, provided the following additional information: No survey has been made to determine the incidence of colitis or carcinoma in wild Saguinus oedipus killed during trapping or other survey procedures. There are two sub-species, S. o. oedipus (Colombian) and S. o. geoffroyi (Panamanian). It is not known if S. o. geoffroyi is also susceptible to colitis and/or colon carcinoma. Colon carcinoma has been recently documented in a S. oedipus in Bristol, England (Journal of Comparative Pathology, in press). Articles from a symposium held in 1984 to discuss colitis and colon carcinoma in S. oedipus are due to be published in Gastroenterology and the Journal of Digestive Diseases. Some other pertinent references: Chalifoux, L. V. & Bronson, R. T. (1981). Colonic adenocarcinoma associated with chronic colitis in cotton top marmosets, Saguinus oedipus. Gastroenterology, 80, 942-946.
Clapp, N. K., Lushbaugh, C. C., Humason, G. L., Gangaware, B. L., Henke, M. A., & McArthur, A. H. (1985). The marmoset as a model of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, 186, 247-261.
Madara, J., Podolsky, D., King, N., Sehgal, P., Moore, R., & Winter, H. (1985). Characterization of spontaneous colitis in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and its response to sulfasalazine. Gastroenterology, 88, 13-19.
Podolsky, D., Madara, J., King, N., Sehgal, P., Moore, R., & Winter, H. (1985). Colonic mucin composition in primates: Selective alterations associated with spontaneous colitis in the cotton-top tamarin. Gastroenterology, 88, 20-25.
Richter, C. B., Lehner, N. D. M., & Henrickson, R. V. (1984). Primates. In D. G. Fix, B. J. Cohen, & F. M. Loew (Eds.). Laboratory Animal Medicine. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Author's address: Centro Nacional de Primatas, Caixa Postal 1641, Belém 66.000, Pará, Brazil.
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TRAFFIC (U.S.A.), Washington, DC
Statistics published by the U.S. Department of Commerce (1968-1984) show that between 1968 and 1982 U.S. primate imports declined sharply, while only minor fluctuations were recorded between 1982 and 1984. The number of primates imported in 1984 increased 14.7 percent over the number of imported in 1983, but was still less than the number imported in 1982.
The past 20 years have brought about numerous international bans and restrictions on the primate trade. In 1984 approximately 80 percent of U.S. primate imports originated from just four countries: the Philippines, Indonesia, Kenya, and Guyana. Two exporters, Bolivia and Malaysia, stopped primate trade in the middle of 1984. A 1-year Bolivian ban on exports of live wildlife took effect on May 1, 1984, causing the percentage of total U.S. imports declared as originating from that country to drop from 13.2 percent in 1983 to just 1.5 percent in 1984. An increase in imports from Guyana, Peru, and Guatemala probably compensated for this ban.
On June 15, 1984, Malaysia ended trade in macaques (Macaca spp.), making its ban on export of primate species complete. The percentage of total imports from Malaysia to the United States, however, decreased by only 2.7 percent from 1983 to 1984, which might indicated that exporters in Malaysia hastened exports to meet the U.S. demand for macaques before the ban went into effect. Not surprisingly, the Philippines has stepped up its export of macaques to the United States.
Primate Species Imported in 1983
Data from an annual report filed by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for 1983 under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1985) show that imports of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) account for an overwhelming percentage of all primate imports (71.5%). Other heavily imported species include the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) at 12% and the green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) at 7.2%. Together, these three species comprised 91% of all primates imported into the United States in 1983. Of the species making up the remaining 9 percent, several are important to biomedical research, including baboons (Papio spp.), night monkeys (Aotus spp.), and tamarins (Saguinus spp.).
Reexports from the United States
Many animals recorded as imports are reexported in the same year (David Mack, World Wildlife Fund--U.S., Washington, DC, personal communication, 1985; Thomas Wolfle, Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, personal communication, 1985). FWS data show 3,278 primates were exported in 1983. However, it is not known how many of these primates were reexports and how many were exports from domestic production colonies.
Domestic Placement, Production, and Experimentation
Eleven major source countries have banned primate exports since 1967, at times creating shortages of biomedically important species, especially rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) (Mack, 1982). Biomedical researchers in the United States have coped with these bans, in part, through domestic breeding programs and an increased reliance on recycled primates. The success of these programs has lessened U.S. dependence on wild-caught animals.
Adult, captive-bred rhesus monkeys cost as much as $1,400 per animal (Thomas Wolfle, IRAC, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, personal communication, 1985). Biomedical researchers are responding to this high cost in a number of ways, including retaining and reusing each rhesus and other primates for longer periods of time and seeking less expensive primate and nonprimate models.
The Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse (PSIC) at the University of Washington, Seattle, operates under a grant from the National Institutes of Health as a placement service for surplus primates held in U.S. research facilities. In 1984, for the first year since its inception in 1978, PSIC experienced a large, unexplained decrease in placements (from 7,135 to 4,030 (44%). This difference is difficult to explain because totals for primates used in experimentation and captive breeding programs have remained relatively constant over the past 3 years (see below).
Total production of primates by captive breeding in 1984 remained on par with figures for 1983. IRAC, which compiles figures from registered breeding facilities throughout the United States, reports 8,151 primates born in 1984 (Thomas Wolfle, IRAC, and Dennis Johnsen, Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, personal communication, 1985). This figure represents a decrease from the 1983 total of 9,078 (Gray-Schofield and Chandler, 1984).
The annual report Animal Welfare Enforcement, which is prepared for the Congress by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains data on animals used in experimentation in the United States (APHIS, 1980-1985). With the exception of the year 1982, the number of primates used has changed very little since 1979, ranging from 55,338 to 59,359 per year and comprising 2.7 to 3.5 percent of the total research animal use. Even in 1982, when only 46,488 were used, primates comprised only 2.9 percent of the total research animal use. Demands for particular species also appear to have changed little over this period, with the exception that the demand for night monkeys (Aotus spp.) for ophthalmological and malaria research has increased (Thomas Wolfle, IRAC, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, personal communication, 1985).
Aside from unusually low placement figures from the PSIC, primate trends in 1984 continued to follow the pattern of the previous 2 years. The total number of primates in experimentation remained constant, as did captive-breeding totals and imports. Trade bans that took effect during the past year will probably affect the number and sources of primate imports in 1985, and might ultimately affect domestic breeding programs and the use of primates in biomedical research as wild-caught animals become more difficult to obtain. For more information on the worldwide trade in primates, including information on the needs and breeding programs of all user nations see Mack and Mittermeier (1984).
APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service). (1980-1985). Animal Welfare Enforcement, FY1979-FY1984. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) (1985). Annual Report, 1983. Washington, DC: Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.
Gray-Schofield, L., & Chandler, J. L. (1984). Trends in primate imports into the United States, 1983. ILAR News, 27, 6-12.
Mack, D. (1982). Trends in primate imports into the United States. ILAR News, 25, 10-13.
Mack, D., & Mittermeier, R. (Eds.). (1984). The International Primate Trade: Vol. 1. Legislation, Trade, and Captive Breeding. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund--U.S.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. (1968-1984). U.S. Imports for Consumption (IM-146). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.
Author's address: TRAFFIC (U.S.A.), 1255 23rd St., N.W., Washington, DC 20037.
This is an edited revision of an article that appeared in ILAR News, 1985, 28, 4-7. In particular, refer to the original for extensive tables of data pertaining to the comments in the article.
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N. Krusko, P. Dolhinow, C. Anderson, W. Bortz, J. Kastlen,
K. Flesher, M. Flood, R. Howe, A. Kelly, N. Le Favour, C.
Leydorf, C. Limbach, & E. Read
University of California, Berkeley
Animal response before, during, and after earthquakes has been of great interest to animal behaviorists (for example, see Tributsch, 1982; Shaw, 1977; Gruddinski, 1975; and Andersen, 1973). Many investigators have noticed that their subjects behaved differently from weeks to minutes prior to an earthquake and some observers even suggested that certain animals may be useful in predicting earthquakes. Because few primates are observed, most reports have focused on nonprimates.
On April 24, 1984, at 1:16 p.m., an earthquake registering 6.2 on the Richter scale shook the San Francisco Bay Area. The quake lasted approximately 35 seconds and was centered near San Jose, California, some 50 miles south of Berkeley. Earthquakes occur moderately often in this part of California, but this was the first time we were recording behavioral observations in the langur monkey (Presbytis entellus) colony at the Field Station for Behavioral Research at the University of California, Berkeley, campus when the quake occurred. The colony consisted of twenty-four langurs in three social groups. On this afternoon, a primate behavior laboratory had been in progress for one hour when the quake started. Fourteen people were either taking focal animal samples (11 observers, each on separate animals including: 2 adult males, 1 adult female, 4 sub-adult males, 1 sub-adult female, and 2 immatures) or were observing general group behavior. Every observer was very familiar with the group, knew all animals individually, and had achieved reasonable proficiency in recording the entire repertoire of typical langur monkey behavior (Dolhinow, 1978). Each observer recorded that before the quake, langur monkey behavior was quite normal. There were no signs of any unusual behavior such as increased aggression, locomotor activity, vocalizations, or levels of general awareness which might indicate that the animals anticipated the event. On inspection, the colony records for the month preceding the quake showed no deviation from normal relations and behavior patterns characteristic of that time of the year.
Every langur monkey remained still for the duration of the quake, and there was no increase in activity during the 35 seconds of rumbling and shaking. Of 12 animals being observed individually in focal animal samples, only the adult female and one immature showed an alertness or awareness of something happening as measured by focusing on and watching several runway perches that suddenly began to swing with some vigor. Animals do not usually watch objects in their enclosures unless there is a sudden change in the movement or placement of an object. No animal vocalized during the quake, and none moved from one place to another.
The most unusual feature that every human observer noted during the quake was the behavior of the birds. A number of bird species are abundant in the Berkeley hills where the colony is located and the birds are generally very noisy in the afternoons (for example, Stellar, Cyanocitta stelleri, and Scrub, Aphelocoma coerulescens, jays). During the quake the birds ceased all calling and they remained quiet for a few minutes following the quake.
After the earthquake, the langurs continued to sit quietly. Behaviors were the same as pre-quake with little recordable activity. This was typical as most afternoons are generally a quiet time for the animals. Several of the younger animals began play bouts approximately 10 minutes after the quake. None had been playing for some time before the quake. Observations during the hour preceding and two hours following the quake indicated that it did not have any apparent effect on the behavior of the animals.
A report from the Stanford Outdoor Primate Facility (Shaw, 1977) suggests that several deviations in behavior frequency were observers in a chimpanzee colony one day before a mild quake. Observed noted an increase in general restlessness and changes in the time chimpanzees spent in particular areas of the facility. No indication was given as to how significant the reported changes were or what, if any, other extrinsic factors might explain these particular behavioral patterns.
Reports in the literature suggest certain animals might be useful in predicting earthquakes. For example, cattle have not grazed, fish jumped out of water, and snakes have left winter burrows early and frozen on the ice. Unfortunately, most accounts are ancedotal in nature. It should be noted that birds, fish, reptiles, and insects have different sensory capabilities than mammals and these may allow the former animals to detect changes in magnetic fields, ground tilts, or water levels which could all herald an earthquake. Nonhuman primate sensory systems are not substantially different from our own and evidence from the event presented here suggests that neither the monkeys nor the humans were aware of the impending quake. Human and nonhuman primates alike responded with silence and stillness to the actual noise and earth shaking. Afterwards, the humans looked to each other, exclaimed, and discussed what had happened--while each monkey kept its own counsel.
Andersen, C. J. (1973). Animals, earthquakes, and eruptions. Bulletin of Field Museum of Natural History, 44, 9-11.
Dolhinow, P. (1978). A behavior repertoire for the Indian langur monkey (Presbytis entellus). Primates, 19, 449-472.
Gruddinski, U. (1975). Verrät die Tierwelt den kommenden Erdstoss? Frankfurter Allgemine Zeitung, March 5, 1975.
Shaw, E. (1977). Can animals anticipate earthquakes? Natural History, 83, 14-20.
Tributsch, H. (1982). When Snakes Awake: Animals and Earthquake Prediction. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Authors' address: Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
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The Chicago Academy of Sciences is organizing an international symposium on the field and captive behavior of chimpanzees. The symposium, entitled "Understanding Chimpanzees," will be held on May 2, 3, and 4, 1986. Within the perspective of 25 years of field studies of chimpanzees, the symposium will present recent results from field observations in East and West Africa. Also included will be recent work on pygmy chimps, chimpanzee behavior in captivity, signing and symbolic behavior, distribution, and conservation. For further information on the program and registration materials, contact: "Understanding Chimpanzees," The Chicago Academy of Sciences, 2001 North Clark Street, Chicago, IL 60614.
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S. S. Kalter
Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research
This Center continues to provide virological support to primate investigators faced with viral problems (see next page) in their colonies of nonhuman primates or in laboratory personnel. As indicated in the past, this support is principally in the form of virus diagnosis as determined by detection of antibody and/or isolation and identification of a virus in primate colonies or attending personnel. Charges for such services remain unchanged: $30.00 per serum sample (for one or more tests on that serum sample) and $50.00 per specimen for virus studies.
Serological testing has been improved to provide more rapid, sensitive, and specific results. Our serologic procedures now include a modified ELISA (Heberling & Kalter, 1986) that offers antibody or virus identification in 3 to 5 hours. When necessary, the usual tests such as serum neutralization, hemagglutination-inhibition, complement fixation, and immunofluorescence are also available.
We recommend that investigators who are concerned about the health of their primate colonies consider monitoring their animals, not only when an illness is apparent, but also to establish baseline information on each animal as part of their biological profile. Recent indications of the presence of SAIDS (Simian AIDS and related viruses) in monkeys as well as experience with outbreaks of hepatitis, simian hemorrhagic fever, Marburg disease, and others emphasize the importance of maintaining awareness of viral diseases.
Recently, there has been increased concern regarding health maintenance of primate colonies principally because of conservation efforts and the increasing cost of these valuable animals. Knowledge of the influence of health on experimental results has prompted investigators to pay closer attention to colony problems and to request data on a wider range of biologic parameters than was previously required.
The NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses will continue to provide such support as requested. The following are important in obtaining results of value: 1) time of collection of specimens in terms of clinical illness; 2) submission of specimens to the laboratory by most rapid means of transport; 3) protection of specimens in order to minimize deterioration; and, 4) providing the laboratory with sufficient information for them to determine appropriate procedures to follow.
Sera need not be frozen, but may be stored at refrigerator temperature (4deg C) and shipped without refrigeration. Tissues or specimens for virus isolation must be sent as soon as possible after collection on wet ice! DO NOT FREEZE! Most viral suspensions will stay viable for approximately 5 days. Special precautions are required for preservation of viruses by freezing.
Wrap and ship materials in order to avoid breakage and/or leakage. Comply with U.S. Public Health Service shipping regulations (Fed. Reg. 45, No. 141, July 21, 1980). Ship materials to WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses, West Loop 410 at Military Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284.
Notify the laboratory by mail or phone that you are shipping specimens, and give us as much information as possible about your reasons for needing diagnosis.
Heberling, R. L. & Kalter, S. S. (1986) Rapid dot-immunobinding as an assay on nitrocellulose for viral antibodies. Microbiology, 23, 109-113.
Author's address: Virology & Immunology Dept., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284.
Nonhuman Primate Virus Diseases and Their Laboratory Diagnosis
Infection/Disease Specimen(s) Comment Respiratory Adenoviruses, Entero- Throat and/or nasal Several procedures avail- viruses--(includes swabs, nasopharyn- able:Serology-- SN, Rhinoviruses), Herpes- geal washings, blood HI,FA, DIA. Isolation viruses, Influenza (serology) --cultivation of virus viruses, Mumps virus, Parainfluenza viruses, Respiratory syncytial virus Central Nervous System Blood (serology, As above Arboviruses, Entero- isolation), brain viruses, Herpesviruses, biopsy, throat Mumps virus, Rabies swab, stool (rectal virus swab), CSF, urine, vesicle fluid Diarrhea-- Gastrointestinal Adenoviruses, Parvo- Stool (rectal swab), As above; certain of these viruses, Rotaviruses blood (serology) viruses grow with diffi- culty (or not at all) and require special studies. Skin rash (exanthema) Adenoviruses, Entero- Throat swab, stool As above; special studies viruses, Herpesviruses (rectal swab), may be required (including V-Z), blood vesicle fluid, Measles virus, Pox- (serology) viruses, Rubella virus Eye (conjunctivitis) Adenoviruses, Entero- Throat swab, conjunc- As above viruses, Herpesviruses tival swab, blood (serology)
Miscellaneous (generally special studies):
AIDS--SAIDS: Several viruses involved (of both human and simian origin) may be detected by virus isolation as well as by serologic tests.
Congenital disease: A number of viruses may involve the fetus or placenta, and may be detected by virus isolation as well as by serologic tests.
Cytomegalovirus: A number of strains of human and simian origin may be detected by isolation and/or serology.
Hepatitis: Nonhuman primates (particularly the apes) do develop hepatitis with the human hepatitis virus and probably by others as well (herpesviruses). Detection of virus infection is by serology or virus isolation.
Marburg virus: Concern over the presence of this virus still exists and its presence may be determined by serology (isolation of virus is extremely hazardous).
Retroviruses (tumors): A number of these viruses are present in nonhuman primates and may be detected by serology and/or isolation.
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On December 23, President Reagan signed the 1985 Farm Bill that was passed earlier by both Houses of the U.S. Congress. The bill includes amendments to the federal Animal Welfare Act. The Animal Welfare Act amendments will take effect one year after the bill was signed. In brief, some of the changes in the existing Animal Welfare Act made by the amendments are:
"for animal care, treatment, and practices in experimental procedures to ensure that animal pain and distress are minimized, including adequate veterinary care with the appropriate use of anesthetic, analgesic, tranquilizing drugs, or euthanasia;
"for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates."
that alternatives to painful procedures are considered;
that stated requirements are followed in any practice which could cause pain to animals;
"that no animal is used in more than one major operative experiment from which it is allowed to recover except in cases of scientific necessity; or other special circumstances determined by the Secretary.
"that exceptions to such standards may be made only when specified by research protocol and any such exception shall be detailed and explained in a report...filed with the Institutional Animal Committee."
Existing statutory language prohibiting promulgation of rules or regulations with regard to "design, outlines, guidelines or performance of actual research" is revised to make exceptions for certain of the new standards.
The full-text of the Animal Welfare Act Amendments (Subtitle F of the Farm Bill, H.R. 2100) and the Conference Committee report are available from: National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR), 818 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006. [Based on information in the NABR Alert, Dec. 23, 1985.]
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Elihu Bond, 89 Dubois Road, New Paltz, NY 12561.
H. A. G. Braz, Lab. Animal House Mgr., Foundation 41, 365 Crown Street, Surrey Hills, NSW 2010, Australia
A. S. Clarke, Health Psychology, UCSF, 1350 Seventh Ave, CSBS-204, San Francisco, CA 94143.
L. B. Cummings, White Sands Research Center, 1300 LaVelle Road, Alamogordo, NM 88310.
D. E. Haines, Dept. of Anatomy, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216.
Roy V. Henrickson, Office of Laboratory Animal Care, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
Howard C. Hughes, Jr., Laboratory Animal Science, Smith Kline & French Laboratories, Swedeland, PA 19479.
David M. Moore, Laboratory Animal Resources, VA-MD Regional College of Vet. Med., VPI & State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
Gwendolyn K. Murdock, Dept. of Psychology, Missouri Southern State College, Joplin, MO 64801.
Russell Losco, Federated Medical Resources, RD. 2, Beaverdam Road, Honey Brook, PA 19344.
Charles M. Rogers, Dept. of Psychology, P.O. Box 1263, Crystal River, FL 32629.
Arthur D. Schaerdel, 6506 Echo Forest, San Antonio, TX 78239.
J. W. Street, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Ridgefield, CT 06877.
Linda L. Taylor, SW Found. for Biomed. Res., P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284-9950.
Douglas W. Windle, 4910 S. Blackstone, #201, Chicago, IL 60615.
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Dian Fossey, an American zoologist who studied Rwanda's rare mountain gorillas for 18 years, has been killed by unknown assailants at her forest camp in that central African country. Dr. Fossey, who was 53 years old, was a fierce defender of the mountain gorilla, which she feared would become extinct by the end of the century. The police said that Dr. Fossey's body was found Thursday at the Karisoke Research Institute, which she founded, and that her killers appeared to know the area well. The Rwanda radio said that there had been no arrests and that an investigation was continuing, the Associated Press reported.
In Nairobi, friends of Dr. Fossey speculated that she might have been killed by the poachers she fought against for so long. Dr. Fossey said in an interview in 1983 that she believed in "active conservation" and that she frequently went into the forests to destroy poachers' traps, chase out intruders and do her best to preserve the gorillas' natural habitat. She also said she believed gorillas to be superior to humans in some respects. In her 1983 book, "Gorillas in the Mist," she described their close-knit family life in great detail.
The mountainous rain forests straddling Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda are the last stronghold of the mountain gorilla, of which only about 240 are left in the wild. Many have been killed by poachers, who hunt them to make souvenirs of their heads and hands or to capture young animals to sell to zoos. Dr. Fossey said in the 1983 interview that there were only 50 to 80 poachers and that "they can be captured and subjected to imprisonment." She saids she was "a little more optimistic about the future" of the gorillas because their habitat was in the hands of conservationists who seemed to be serious about their work. But she said that apart from poachers, the great apes were also threatened by Rwanda's human population, which is growing at the rate of 3.4 percent a year, among the highest in the world. The gorillas are Rwanda's main tourist attraction and a few have become so used to humans that it is possible to approach them within a few feet.
Dr. Fossey was an occupational therapist when she first came to Africa on a seven-week safari in 1963 and visited the anthropologist Louis S. B. Leakey at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. In 1966 Dr. Leakey visited her in the United States and suggested that she return to Africa. It was Dr. Leakey who recommended she receive financing from the National Geographic Society for long-term study of gorillas. Starting in 1967 she began a hermit-like existence. Over the years she built a tent and tarpaulin camp into the present complex of eight sheet-metal buildings in the Virunga Mountains.
She earned a doctorate in zoology from Cambridge University and was a visiting associate professor at Cornell University in 1981, where she taught neurobiology and animal behavior.
The National Geographic Society praised Dr. Fossey for her "years of dedicated work, undertaken in difficult conditions and often with little regard for her own personal safety." In a statement issued in Washington, Dr. Melvin M. Payne, chairman of the organization's board of trustees and its Committee for Research and Exploration, said "Dian Fossey was a dedicated scientist who devoted her entire adult life to the study of mountain gorillas, whom she considered to be affectionate, friendly animals, nothing like the savage beast known only from the theatrical portrayal of their behavior."
Dr. Fossey had established the Digit Fund, named for a murdered gorilla, to finance antipoacher patrols within the Virungas. In an ad in the New York Times, her publishers suggested that contributions in Dr. Fossey's memory to that non-profit, tax exempt fund would be appropriate. The address is: The Digit Fund, Karisoke Research Center, c/o Rane Randolph, C.P.A., P.O. Box 25, Ithaca, NY 14851.
This is an edited revision of an article that appeared in the New York Times, December 29, 1985.
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Whitney Appointed Director of DRS
Dr. James B. Wyngaarden, Director of the National Institutes of Health, announced the appointment of Robert A. Whitney, Jr., D.V.M., as director of the NIH Division of Research Services (DRS). Dr. Whitney, who has been chief of the DRS Veterinary Resources Branch (VRB) since 1972, assumed his new position November 21, 1985. He had served as acting director since November 1984. DRS supplies research support services to the NIH intramural program through its four branches: Biomedical Engineering and Instrumentation, Veterinary Resources, Medical Arts and Photography, and the NIH Library. It also supplies breeding stock of rare, inbred laboratory rodents to research institutions worldwide.
Dr. Whitney is the Chief Veterinary Officer of the U.S. Public Health Service and also chairman of the Interagency Research Animal Committee, focal point for federal agencies' discussions of the availability, use, and proper care of laboratory animals. He transferred to the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps in 1971 from the U.S. Army, where he had served as director of the Veterinary Corps' postdoctoral training program in laboratory animal medicine and as a consultant to the Army Surgeon General for laboratory animal medicine. During his 13 years as chief of the DRS Veterinary Resources Branch, Dr. Whitney has also chaired the intramural NIH Animal Research Committee. The World Health Organization designated DRS as a Collaborating Center for Defined Laboratory Animals in 1974. As such, it served as an international genetic resource for strains of laboratory animals. In 1977, Dr. Whitney inaugurated within DRS the first regular use of the full range of genetic markers to monitor laboratory rodent breeding colonies for genetic purity. Genetic purity can be crucial to valid results in animal research. Dr. Whitney received the PHS Meritorious Service Medal in 1983 for his outstanding management of the Veterinary Resources Branch, and in 1984 he received the NIH Director's Award. He is a diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine and a past president of the American Association of Laboratory Animal Medicine.
Penn Ordered to Review Its Animal Research Labs
The Government ordered the University of Pennsylvania to review all its research laboratories for animal cruelty and open its laboratories to federal inspectors to verify that abuses have been corrected. The Health and Human Services Department told the university that a research program that inflicted head injuries on laboratory baboons would remain under suspension until reforms were in place. On July 18 the department temporarily suspended the research on head injuries on the basis of a preliminary investigation. The Department also ordered the university to provide new assurances that all its laboratories provided humane treatment of research animals. The new assurances must be provided whether or not the university wants to resume the project on head injuries, the Government said. The university could lose its federal research grants if it failed to provide the assurances, the department said. The university announced Sept. 23 that the brain trauma experiments on primates had been suspended indefinitely.
The Department said that if financing was resumed for the clinic that studies head injuries, the project would be on probation for five years, subject to special reporting requirements and unannounced Federal inspections. The action was announced by Margaret M. Heckler, then Secretary of Health and Human Services, and Dr. James B. Wyngaarden, director of the National Institutes of Health. Mrs. Heckler, who ordered the temporary suspension in July, said the suspension was being continued indefinitely because an investigation of the laboratory on head injuries "determined that the Pennsylvania researchers failed materially to comply with the conditions of their grant with respect to the care and use of nonhuman primates.... Head injury is the leading cause of death and severe disability for individuals from age 1 to 40," Mrs. Heckler said. "Continued research in this area is critical." But she said the research, which requires the use of animals, "must be done humanely."
Mr. Wyngaarden, in his notice to the university, cited five principal failings in the head injury research, which involved hitting baboons on the head to study the resulting injuries. The failings included poor management of anesthesia and pain-relief medication for the animals, non-sterile techniques and facilities for surgery on the animals, improper training of assistants, inadequate records of care and treatment of the animals, and unacceptable standards of cleanliness. [N.Y. Times, Oct. 5, 1985.]
Animal Resources Improvement Awards Made
More than $8.5 million has been competitively awarded to 23 biomedical research institutions or schools of higher education through the Animal Resources Program of the Division of Research Resources (DRR), National Institutes of Health. The Animal Resources Improvement Awards are intended to assist institutions in upgrading their animal research facilities and developing centralized programs of animal care. Another major objective of the awards is to enable institutions to comply with the Department of Agriculture's Animal Welfare Act and the Department of Health and Human Services' policies on the care and treatment of animals. Those institutions receiving the largest awards, which were mainly given for alterations, renovations, and equipment, were: Cornell University, $748,299; West Virginia University, $724,596; University of Michigan, $642,549; University of Alabama at Birmingham, $604,307; University of Iowa, $600,772; University of Missouri, $581,862; and the University of California at San Francisco, $580,239. In order to qualify for funding, an institution had to demonstrate both the need for resource improvements and a sound plan for raising the standards of its entire animal resource. Under this year's guidelines, awards up to $500,000 could be made for alterations and renovations, providing the institution demonstrated it had an equal amount of non-federal matching dollars available. There was no ceiling on the amount of money that could be awarded for equipment purchases. Support for new construction, however, was not permitted under the awards. Approved projects were funded for one year, after which each institution is expected to assume total financial responsibility for its animal resource.
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The 13th annual continuing education course on "Comparative Pathology" will be presented April 21-23, 1986 at the Holiday Inn, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD. This course is specially designed to bring attention to disease processes in animals for which similar entities occur in man. Differences and similarities of pathologic lesions as well as the biologic behavior of specific entities will be compared in animals and man. Application forms to attend the course may be obtained by contacting: The Director, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, (AFIP-EDE), Washington, DC 20306-6000. Completed application forms should be returned by March 31, 1986. Non-federal civilians and foreign nationals are required to submit a $75 fee, payable to the Treasurer of the United States. Military and federal service employees in the medical, veterinary and other medical fields are requested to consult respective agency regulations for appropriate application procedures. Civilian physicians, veterinarians and allied scientists are invited to apply. All applications will be considered on a space available basis.
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The Fyssen Foundation's general aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, into their biological and cultural bases, and into their phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." For this purpose, the Foundation will award a certain number of fellowships. These fellowships are meant for the training and support of research scientists working in disciplines relevant to the aims of the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, epistomology, logic, and the neurosciences. The Foundation wishes to support, more particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes and of their embryonic and postnatal development, as well as the elementary mechanisms they involve. Anthropology-Ethnology: Study of cognitive foundations: a) of the representations of natural and cultural development, b) of the technical systems developed in the various form of social organization. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.
Fellowships will be given to French scientists wishing to work abroad and to foreign scientists wishing to work in French laboratories. Study grants will normally be granted for one year but may be extended up to three.
Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, which will include: a curriculum vitae; a list of publications of the applicant; the names of two senior scientists whom the applicant has asked to send testimonials to the Secretariat of the Foundation by the date indicated below; a letter of acceptance of the inviting laboratory.
15 copies of the completed information should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194 rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is April 1, 1986.
A substantial International Scientific Prize shall be given for a major contribution to the progress of knowledge in the fields of research supported by the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, epistomology, logic, and the neurosciences. It was awarded to Professor Andre Leroi-Gourhan in 1980, to Professor William H. Thorpe in 1981, to Professor Vernon B. Mountcastle in 1982, to Professor Harold C. Conklin in 1983, to Professor Roger W. Brown in 1984, and to Professor P. Buser in 1985. Discipline considered for the 1986 prize: Human paleontology -- hominization. The nominations should include a curriculum vitae of the nominee; a list of his publications; a summary (four pages maximum) of the research work upon which the nomination is based. 15 copies of the nominations for the 1986 prize of the Fyssen Foundation should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation at the above address. Deadline for receipt of nominations is September 1, 1986.
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The following editorial appeared in The Washington Post, July 28, 1985, under the headline "Torturing Animals": Laboratory experimentation with animals has yielded and will continue to yield many important benefits to human health. Still, there is no case for continuing to tolerate inhumane treatment of the sort that columnist James J. Kilpatrick described on the opposite page last week.
The 13 years of baboon brain-bashing that Mr. Kilpatrick reported-- now suspended by order of Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler--came to light because some angry people made off with more than 60 hours of videotapes from a University of Pennsylvania clinical research center. It would be comforting to think that neither the gruesome experiments nor the ghoulish behavior of the researchers who performed it was characteristic of the treatment given many of the 100 million animals used in research every year. But reports of unnecessary research, avoidable suffering and callous researchers recur with disturbing frequency.
Responsible scientists admit that these reports cannot all be dismissed as propaganda by antivivisectionists. When you find well-documented examples of maltreatment at a center that the director of the National Institutes of Health has called "one of the best laboratories in the world," you are entitled to be suspicious about what goes on at satellite laboratories where supervision and standards are often lax.
Neither does the attitude of the medical researchers generally afford grounds for complacency. Scientists are understandably fearful that heavy-handed restrictions on the use of animals might impede highly beneficial research. New techniques, such as computer simulations and bacteria and animal-cell cultures have reduced the need, but for many purposes there is no substitute for using animals for tests. But many researchers have been slow to accept necessary safeguards and are contemptuous of those who argue for some degree of protection.
Many research institutions and animal handlers have already responded to public pressure and are paying more attention to federal guidelines governing the treatment of animals. In May, nine federal agencies adopted tighter guidelines for care of animals. However, new NIH policies--requiring institutions receiving federal grants to set up review committees that must include at least one outside member--will not go into effect until the end of this year and will still depend heavily on good-faith efforts by institutions, handlers and satellite laboratories. We hope these efforts are made. There is every reason to pursue necessary medical research on animals-- but no reason on Earth for the U.S. government to subsidize sadism.
The following replies appeared in the August 3, 1985 issue: The editorial "Torturing Animals" begins and ends by conceding that the use of animals in research has been useful in the past and will continue to be necessary in the future. Unfortunately, the rest of the editorial is a serious setback to the hope for sensible and thoughtful policies in that domain. The Post's treatment of the Head Injury Research Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania and of Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler's temporary suspension of funding for it is uninformed and inflammatory, and it is downright cavalier with respect to issues of fairness in governmental processes.
Those who broke into the Penn lab were not simply "angry people," as The Post would have it. They were political smash-and-grab raiders who trashed a valuable laboratory, stole 60 hours of videotaped research results, distilled them into a film of short highlights and peddled the film to all and sundry. In any other context, The Post would recognize that crime committed in the name of political virtue is still crime, and that to excuse it by calling it something else is corrosive to civic order. The failure to recognize it as such in this instance is disappointing.
The Post might also have seen that the secretary's decision to suspend funding, made during a sit-in at the National Institutes of Health designed to achieve that very result, preempted the department's own inquiry into the facts of the case and the university's opportunity to state its case in an orderly way. Those of us who learned on campus in the 1960s how destructive to civil discourse such tatics are, and how unwise it is to reward them, were chagrined to see those lessons forgotten by an agency of government and The Post.
There may well be deficiencies in the treatment of the animals used in this research. If so, the prescribed processes for seeking them out and correcting them were in motion and should have been allowed to reach a conclusion. That is the position The Post would be arguing in other contexts. That it lapsed in this case is further grounds for disappointment. --Robert M. Rosenzweig
"Torturing Animals" concludes that "[t]here is every reason to pursue necessary medical research on animals--but no reason on Earth for the U.S. government to subsidize sadism." No one in the biomedical research community would disagree.
However, the editorial earlier makes the unsupported assertion that "many researchers have been slow to accept necessary safeguards and are contemptuous of those who argue for some degree of protection." This assertion impunes the decency and good will of people who are dedicated not only to advancing human and animal health but also to humane treatment of experimental animals.
For many years, scientific societies have promulgated acceptable standards for laboratory animal use. Such guidelines provide research scientist with standards on ethical issues in experimental design. In this regard they go well beyond what the federal government and other funding agencies provide.
Systems of self-policing depend ultimately and inevitably on the ethical sense of the individuals involved. If one is inclined to the cynical view, implicit in The Post's editorial, that "researchers" are somehow less moral than the rest of humankind, then self-imposed standards can be dismissed as weak and useless.
On the other hand, when one knows, as I do, that the vast majority of biomedical scientists are decent people who care about humane animal treatment, then the system has great inherent strength.
Instances of apparent failure of this ethical sense clearly force scientists to reaffirm their position on this highly emotional topic. But it is misleading to imply that there is widespread insensitivity among scientists to animal welfare issues or that "federal institutions and animal handlers," responding to "public pressure," are the mainstays of protection for laboratory animals.
Make no mistake about it: responsible scientists will readily join hands with members of the public who demand humane treatment of laboratory animals. But it is vital for the public and their political representatives to recognize that the current campaign of "public pressure" is brought primarily by groups that are dedicated to the total abolition of all animal use for scientific purposes.-- Robert E. Burke, M.D. The writer is a biomedical researcher at the National Institutes of Health.
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XIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, July 20-25, 1986 in Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany. For information contact: IPS Congress Office, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-3400 Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany.
The ninth annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be held in Austin, Texas from June 28 to July 2, 1986. The meeting will be hosted by Dr. Claude Bramblett and the University of Texas. The deadline for abstracts is March 1, 1986. For registration forms and further information contact: Dr. Joyce E. Sirianni, Dept. of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14261.
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The International Primatological Society has applied for funds from the National Science Foundation, through its International Travel Grant Program, to help support travel expenses of U.S. participants in the IPS's Congress scheduled for July 20-25, 1986, in Germany. If received by IPS, the grant will be approximately $800 per person. Use of U.S. carriers is required.
Individuals wishing to be considered for these travel awards should prepare an application that contains a) their name, Social Security number, title, institutional affiliation, and address; b) a brief outline, not to exceed one page, of their proposed participation in the Congress (and/or in Pre- and Post-Congress activities that are part of the Congress's overall scheduled program) and of their qualifications for such participation; and c) when an NSF travel grant was last received. These applications should be sent to: Dr. W. Richard Dukelow, Treasurer, IPS, Endocrine Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.
The deadline for receipt of applications is February 28, 1985.
All applications will be reviewed by an Ad Hoc Committee of IPS, and all awards will be made primarily on the basis of proposed participation in the Congress's overall scheduled program. Decisions regarding awards will be made in accordance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the implementing regulations prohibiting discrimination against any person on the grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin.
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Several American Primatologists have contacted APS/IPS officers regarding possible group flights to the IPS Congress in Göttingen, Germany next year. To date, one travel agency has expressed interest in arranging such flights and this is Mill-Run Tours, Inc. at 20 East 49th Street, New York, NY 10017 (Telephone: 212-486-9840). The contact person is Mr. Paul J. Egley. Interested members may wish to contact him. Other travel agents may also be arranging group tours. ASP and IPS members may make their own travel arrangements. If you receive an NSF travel grant (see announcement this Newsletter), you are reminded of the requirement to use a US Flag carrier.
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The Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, Seattle, will host a national workshop titled "Applying Behavioral Research to Zoo Animal Management." Funded by an Institute of Museum Services Conservation Grant, the workshop will be held July 19-26, 1986. Participants will learn how to conduct their own behavioral research projects and apply the results to specific management problems (e.g. enclosure design, feeding procedures, breeding programs, and veterinary care). Many additional activities are planned, including tours of Woodland Park Zoo and other area facilities (e.g. Point Defiance Zoo, Tacoma, and Northwest Trek Wildlife Park, Eatonville). An evening "ice-breaker" will be held at the Seattle Aquariam, and a nationally-known behavioral scientist will be invited to give a guest lecture. The workshop will be organized and taught by Michael Hutchins, Ph.D. and Carolyn Crockett, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Animal Behavior Program, University of Washington, and Billy Karesh, D.V.M., Woodland Park Zoological Gardens. To insure a quality experience, enrollment will be limited to 40 participants. Registration fee for the 8-day workshop is $75 if paid before May 15. After that time the fee is $100. Priority will be given to zoo staff from AAZPA accredited institutions. Registration prior to May 15 will be limited to two applicants per institution based on the order of receipt of pre-paid applications. Overflow applicants will be placed on a waiting list. For further information and a registration form contact: Dr. Michael Hutchins, Department of Psychology, Animal Behavior Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
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Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine. Vol. 28.
Research on Nonhuman Primates. Charles E. Cornelius, Charles F.
Simpson, & Andrew G. Hendrickx (Eds.). Orlando, FL: Academic Press,
1984. 385 pp. [Price: $69]
. . . Contents: Paternity exclusion analysis and its applications to studies of nonhuman primates, by D. G. Smith, M. F. Small, C. E. Ahlfors, F. W. Lorey, B. R. Stern, and B. K. Rolfs. Contributions of behavioral primatology to veterinary science and comparative medicine, by G. Mitchell and A. S. Clarke. Establishing the Cynomolgus monkey as a laboratory animal. S. Honjo, F. Cho, and K. Terao. Obesity in macaques: Spontaneous and induced, by J. W. Kemnitz. Diabetes mellitus: Relationships of nonhuman primates and other animal models to human forms of diabetes, by C. F. Howard, Jr. Viral disease models in primates, by K. F. Soike, S. R. S. Rangan, and P. J. Gerone. Experimental leprosy in nonhuman primates, by L. N. Martin, B. J. Gormus, R. H. Wolf, G. P. Walsh, W. M. Meyers, C. H. Binford, and M. Harboe. Clinical and pathologic features of an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in macaque monkeys, by N. L. Letvin and N. W. King. Nonhuman primate models for human disease, by H. M. McClure. Aging, by D. M. Bowden and D. D. Williams. Corpus luteum of the nonhuman primate, by N. R. Moudgal.
Handbook of Squirrel Monkey Research. Leonard A. Rosenblum and
Christopher L. Coe (Eds.). New York: Plenum, 1985. 501 pp.
. . . This book brings up to date and expands on information first presented in Rosenblum and Cooper's 1968 book, The Squirrel Monkey. Contents: 1. The taxonomy and distribution of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri), by R. W. Thorington, Jr. 2. The Behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) in natural environments, by J. D. Baldwin. 3. Cognition in squirrel monkeys: A contemporary perspective, by D. M. Fragaszy. 4. Squirrel monkey communication, by J. D. Newman. 5. Physiological consequences of maternal separation and loss in the squirrel monkey, by C. L. Coe, S. G. Wiener, L. T. Rosenberg, and S. Levine. 6. Effects of surrogate-rearing on the infant squirrel monkey, by M. B. Hennessy. 7. Reproductive cyclicity and breeding in the squirrel monkey, by W. R. Dukelow. 8. The Endocrine system of the squirrel monkey, by C. L. Coe, E. R. Smith, and S. Levine. 9. Thermoregulation in the squirrel monkey, by E. R. Adair. 10. Sneezing behavior in the squirrel monkey and its biological significance, by G. G. Schwartz and L. A. Rosenblum. 11. Visual system of the squirrel monkey, by G. J. Jacobs. 12. Use of squirrel monkeys in cardiovascular research, by H. L. Strickland and T. B. Clarkson. 13. Behavioral pharmacology of the squirrel monkey, by J. E. Barrett. 14. Nutrition and metabolism of the squirrel monkey, by L. M. Ausman, D. L. Gallina, and R. J. Nicolosi. 15. Immunology and pathology of the squirrel monkey, by S. S. Kalter. 16. Medical care and management of the squirrel monkey, by C. R. Abee.
Behavior and Pathology of Aging in Rhesus Monkeys. (Monographs
in Primatology, Vol. 8). Roger T. Davis and Charles W. Leathers
(Eds.). New York: Liss, 1985. 380 pp. [Price: $88]
. . . Contents: HISTORY OF PROJECT, BASIC PATHOLOGY, AND CELL GROWTH. 1. Behavioral history, by R. T. Davis. 2. The Effects of aging on the behavior of rhesus monkeys, by R. T. Davis. 3. Aging rhesus monkeys: Project design, resource distribution, and general findings, by C. W. Leathers. 4. In vivo racemization in teeth and the ocular lens nucleus, by J. L. Bada and S. Brown. 5. Age-related declines in the replicative potentials of aortic cells from rhesus monkeys: Evidence from primary cloning and organoid culture techniques, by C. E. Ogburn and G. M. Martin. 6. Age-related changes in the epithelium of the monkey larynx, by M. P. Stearns and C. W. Cummings.
. . . BRAIN, SENSE ORGANS, AND BEHAVIOR. 7. Neuropathological, neurochemical, and behavioral studies of the aging nonhuman primate, by D. L. Price, L. C. Cork, R. G. Struble, C. A. Kitt, D. L. Price, Jr., J. Lehmann, and J. C. Hedreen. 8. Inner ear histopathology in aging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by J. E. Hawkins, Jr., J. M. Miller, R. C. Rouse, J. A. Davis, and K. Rarey. 9. The ocular components and senescence, by G. A. Leary, K. A. L. Bayne, and C. L. Bennett. 10. A quantitative study of lingual taste buds and papillae in the aging rhesus monkey tongue, by R. M. Bradley, H. M. Stedman, and C. M. Mistretta. 11. Quantitative observations of idiosyncratic behavior in old monkeys, by. K. A. L. Bayne.
. . . ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. 12. Fasting metabolites and hormones, and changes found in kidneys and islets of Langerhans in aging Macaca mulatta, by C. F. Howard, Jr. and J. L. Palotay. 13. Autoimmune reactions in the aging endocrine system: A comparison between monkeys and human beings, by H. T. Blumenthal.
. . . HEART AND LUNG. 14. beta-adrenergic binding in cardiac ventricular membranes of aging rhesus monkeys, by B. G. Weick and S. Ritter. 15. Lung phospholipids in aging primates, by M. J. Engle and P. M. Farrell. 16. Age-related changes in connective tissue cross-linking in rhesus monkey lungs, by. K. M. Reiser, R. B. Rucker, and J. A. Last.
. . . BONE AND MUSCLE. 17. Histomorphology of the rib: Bone mass and cortical remodeling, by. T. R. Przybeck. 18. An age series study of skeletal muscle morphology of rhesus monkeys, by G. A. Hegreberg and M. J. Hamilton.
Primate Morphophysiology, Locomotor Analyses and Human Bipedalism.
Shiro Kondo (Ed.). Tokyo: Univ. of Tokyo Press, 1985. (Dist. by
Columbia University Press.) 303 pp. [Price: $42.50]
. . . Contents: Human adult walking, by R. Suzuki. Human infant pre-independent and independent walking, by T. Okamoto, and Y. Goto. Primate bipedal walking: Comparative kinematics, by M. Okada. Primate bipedalism and quadrupedalism: Comparative electro- myography, by H. Ishida, H. Kumakura, and S. Kondo. Bipedal and quadrupedal walking of primates: Comparative dynamics, by T. Kimura. Primate bipedal walking: Computer simulation, by N. Yamazaki. Primate hip and thigh muscles: Comparative anatomy and dry weights, by Y. Hamada. Primate hands and feet: Comparative myology, by S. Inokuchi. Anthropoid pedal morphology: multivariate analysis and locomotor interpretations, by K. Moriyama. Comparative hindlimb osteometry of mammals and the locomotor evolution of the primates, by H. Baba. Interdependence of morphology and behavior in the locomotion of Galagines, by F. J. Jouffroy and M. M. Günther. Leaping locomotion and the anatomy of the tarsier, by C. Niemitz. Bipedalism of Japanese monkeys and carrying models of hominization, by M. Iwamoto. The positional behavior and adaptive complexes of Pan gorilla, by R. H. Tuttle, and D. P. Watts. Chimpanzee behavior and models of hominization, by J. H. Prost.
An Ecological and Behavioural Study of the Pig-Tailed Macaque
(Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 21). Julian O. Caldecott.
Basel: Karger, 1986. 262 pp. [Price: $49.50]
. . . This monograph records the findings of a 29-month field study of the Sundiac sub-species of the pig-tailed macaque in Peninsular Malaysia. The animals were observed in two contrasting habitats, allowing the species ecology and behavior in the wild to be detailed in relation to the ecology of sympatric primate species. Pig-tailed macaques are adapted to life in rain-forests remote from rivers and disturbance, where food sources are generally scarce, patchy, and slow to renew. The species's ecological strategy is defined in contrast to those of other macaques. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Study areas and methods. 3. The habitat. 4. Feeding and foraging. 5. Vocal behavior. 6. Social behavior. 7. Conclusions.
Sex and Friendship in Baboons. Barbara Boardman Smuts. New York:
Aldine, 1985. 303 pp. [Price: $34.95]
. . . This book takes a different perspective than past studies of male-female relations in nonhuman primates, which focused on male-male competition for mates and brief male-female bonds. The author reports results of a two-year study of a troop of baboons in Kenya which focused on male-female relationships that are not explicitly sexual. Evidence is presented that the author concludes shows long-term friendships between adult males and females and that social interactions between members of friendly pairs differ from those of other males and females. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Baboons. 3. Field work and data analysis. 4. Defining friendship. 5. What made friends special. 6. Benefits of friendship to the female. 7. Male-male competition for mates. 8. Benefits of friendship to the male. 9. Making, keeping, and losing friends. 10. Comparative perspectives.
The International Primate Trade. Vol. 1. Legislation, Trade and
Captive Breeding. David Mack and Russell A. Mittermeier (Eds.).
Washington, DC: TRAFFIC (U.S.A.), 1984. 185 pp. paperbound
[Price: $20] (Order from TRAFFIC (U.S.A.), 1255 23rd St., N.W.,
Washington, DC 20037.)
. . . Contents: Introduction, by D. Mack and R. A. Mittermeier. A synopsis of legislation and the primate trade in habitat and user countries, by M. Kavanagh and E. Bennett. A review of the international primate trade, by M. Kavanagh. A review of the U.S. primate trade, by D. Mack and A. Eudey. Use of primates and captive breeding programs outside the United States, by J. O. Caldecott and M. Kavanagh. Use of primates and captive breeding programs in the United States, by A. Eudey and D. Mack. Summary, update and conclusions, by D. Mack and R. A. Mittermeier.
A Guide to Primate Sociobiological Theory and Research. J. Patrick
Gray (Ed.). New Haven, CT: HRAF Press, 1984. 605 pp. [Price: $45]
. . . A "knowledge base" consisting of tested hypotheses bearing on the validity of various aspects of sociobiological theory. Altogether, 396 hypotheses from empirical studies of humans and alloprimates are profiled. These hypotheses are grouped into six categories comprising general subdivisions of the sociobiological enterprise: nepotism theory; reciprocal altruism theory; parental investment theory; sexual selection theory; rank theory; and reproductive strategy theory. The book consists of four parts. Part I describes the book and tells how to use it. It also contains a general review of the main features of sociobiological theory. Part II is a summary of the findings of the hypothesis test reports profiled in Part IV. The summary is presented in tabular form so that one can quickly assess the evidence relevant to the six subdivisions of sociobiological theory listed above. Part III contains six indexes to Part IV: Theory Indirectly Tested, Main Subject, Variable, Society, Species, and Author. These indexes are the link between the questions you seek to answer with the book and the hypotheses and test reports profiled in Part IV. Part IV contains 396 one- or two-page profiles. Each profile consists of a statement of the hypothesis tested and a detailed description of the research used to test or develop the hypothesis. In all, each profile lists over forty items of information about the hypothesis, the document where it is reported, and the research used to test it.
Adoption. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $5.50. Send order to: Primate Research Center, SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]
Agonistic Alliances, 1975-85. Seattle, Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Anesthesia and sedation of nonhuman primates: A bibliography selected for colony veterinarians, 1970-1985. Seattle, Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Behavioral observations of feral and free-ranging gibbons and siamangs (Hylobates): A bibliography 2nd edition. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Behavioral observations of feral gorillas 2nd edition. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Bibliography on stereotaxic atlases 3rd edition. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $4.50. Ordering informaton same as above]
Biological aspects of circadian rhythms, 1980-1985. Seattle, Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $7.50. Ordering information same as above]
Cytogenetics of new world monkeys: A bibliography, 1970-1985. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Cytogenetics of the prosimians: A bibliography, 1970-1985. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $5.50. Ordering information same as above]
Genetics and polymorphisms of blood enzymes of nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1970-1985. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $7.50. Ordering information same as above]
Mating harassment in nonhuman primates: A bibliography. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Oncornaviruses, 1975-1985. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $7.50. Ordering information same as above]
Pharmacokinetics of drugs or toxicants in the pregnant, fetal or infant nonhuman primates, 1965-85. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $10.00. Ordering information same as above]
Play in the old world monkeys, 1975-85. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Sibling interactions in nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1970-1985. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above]
Toward genetic control of nonhuman primate breeding colonies--
various genetic markers and their use. Proceedings of the Third
Tsukuba Primate Center Symposium held at Tsukuba Primate Center for
Medical Science, National Institute of Health, on December 7, 1984.
Convener: Dr. Shigeo, Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science,
Ibaragi 305. Japanese Journal of Medical Science & Biology,
1985, 38, 25-52.
. . . Contents: Introductory remarks: Needs of genetic studies with nonhuman primates, by S. Nakai (Division of Genetics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 260, Japan). Exploitation of genetic markers in laboratory animals--with specific reference to the rat, by J. Yamada (Institute of Laboratory Animals, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606, Japan). Blood-protein variations within and between macaque species, by K. Nozawa (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan). Chromosomal variation as a marker for the genetic studies of nonhuman primates, by M. Hirai (Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan). Molecular evolution of non-human primates-- hemoglobins of macaque monkeys, by O. Takenaka (Department of Biochemistry, Primates Research institute, Kyoto University, Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan). Use of genetic markers in the management of captive groups of rhesus monkeys at the California Primate Research Center, U.S.A., by D. G. Smith (Department of Anthropology and California Regional Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616). Genetic control of the cynomolgus monkey breeding colony by the use of blood groups, by K. Terao (Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science (TPC), National Institute of Health, Hachimandai, Yatabe, Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305, Japan).
Magazines, Newsletters, Reports
Lab Animal, 1985, 14. (United Business Publications)
. . . This issue is their "1986 Buyer's Guide," listing sources for animals, cages and cage washers, bedding, diets, therapeutics, surgical instruments, lab supplies, and maintenance equipment, among other things.
Research Resources Reporter, 1985, 9. (Published by the
Research Resources Information Center for the Division of Research
. . . This issue includes an article by Donald W. McKinstry entitled "Tradeoffs in the battle against psychoses," that summarizes work by Dr. Daniel E. Casey in Portland, Oregon, and others on the problem of side effects of long-term treatment with anti-psychotic drugs. 10 to 15% of patients develop a cluster of symptoms called tardive dyskinesia. Nonhuman primates are being used to study ways to eliminate or at least reduce the severity and incidence of such side effects.
Boletin Primatologico Argentino, Vol. 2 (Subscription: US
$15, Order from: Senor Alejandro D. Brown, Serrano 661, 1414 Buenos
. . . The issue includes the following articles: Behavioral changes of primates in captivity, by J. C. Ruiz; The protection of primates in Argentina, by A. D. Brown; Filariasis in primates, by B. L. Travi.
Primate Conservation, No. 5, January 1985. (Title changed from:
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Newsletter. Subscription: $10,
payable to World Wildlife Fund-US. Order from: Bill Konstant,
Department of Anatomical Science, SUNY Health Science Center, Stony
Brook, NY 11794)
. . . The issue includes the following articles: Sightings of ayes-ayes and red ruffed lemurs on Nosy Mangabe and the Masoala Peninsula, by I. D. Constable, R. A. Mittermeier, J. I. Pollock, J. Ratsirarson, & H. Simons; Observations on the ecology of the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy 1806): Implications for its conservation, by G. A. B. da Fonseca; Current status of the southern bearded saki (Chiropotes satanas satanas), by R. A. Mittermeier & S. D. Nash; Primate diversity: The world's top countries, by R. A. Mittermeier, & J. F. Oates; Rehabilitation and release program for chimpanzees, by A. M. Prince; Conservation areas protecting primates in Brazilian Amazonia, by A. B. Rylands; Rhesus monkeys in Burma, by C. H. Southwick & K. L. Southwick; Madagascar: Current projects and problems in conservation, by R. W. Sussman, A. F. Richard, & G. Revelojaona; The status of primates in China, by B.-J Tan; Swamp monkeys of the Lomako Forest, Central Zaire, by S. R. Zeeve.
Prevention of cage-associated distress. Spinelli, J. S., &
Markowitz, H. (Animal Care Facility, University of California, San
Francisco, CA 94143) Lab Animal, 1985, 14, 19-28.
. . . The authors believe that the way laboratory animals are usually caged causes them distress. They discuss some of the evidence for this and some approaches being taken with monkeys and other animals at their facility to reduce the problem.
Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in
experimental animals and an hypothesis for assessment. Morton, D. B.,
& Griffiths, P. H. M. (British Laboratory Animal Veterinary Association,
c/o 7 Mansfield Street, London, W1M 0AT) Veterinary Record,
1985, 116, 431-436.
. . . Under the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act of Great Britain it is necessary to recognize pain so that an assessment may be made to determine if it is "an experiment calculated to give pain" and "to prevent the animal feeling pain." Under the conditions of the license it is also necessary to recognize "severe pain which is like to endure" and "suffering considerable pain." In the White Paper of May 1983 (Command 8883) it is stated that: "in the application of controls the concept of pain should be applied in a wide sense" and "the Home Secretary's practice has been to interpret the concept of pain to include disease, other disturbances of normal health, adverse change in physiology, discomfort and distress." The draft European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Purposes, aims to control, subject to specific exceptions, any experimental or other scientific procedure which "may cause pain, suffering, distress, or lasting harm." (The White Paper states that UK control will be stricter than the Council of Europe proposals.) Thus, there is a considerable onus on the experimenter to recognise pain (not to define it) and to alleviate it.
. . . It is intended that this article should be of help, not only to newcomers inexperienced in the recognition of pain, but also possibly to those relatively experienced workers who may be called upon to evaluate the pain involved in a new model or an individual animal. The clinical signs and observations detailed in this paper have been based on the experience of animal technicians, animal nurses, research scientists and veterinary surgeons who have looked after experimental animals for a number of years. Some of the signs referred to will appear conflicting and this may reflect the types of physiological abnormality that exist in a broad spectrum of progressive debilitation in an animal. Anticipating when signs of pain may occur is an important part of minimizing and preventing unintended suffering in animals. The prevention of pain by the use of analgesics at critical time periods is important but the effect these might have on the experiment should be considred. Analgesics may not affect the research but those that are anti-inflammatory or have central effects may be unacceptable and an alternative method of controlling the pain will have to be instituted. If an animal is thought to be experiencing moderate or severe pain it is important that professional and experienced advice be sought as soon as possible. Good communication between all parties involved should lead to the prevention and effective treatment of suffering. An agreement as to the time (based on the signs) and methods of treatment should be reached before an experiment is started whenever possible and certainly after experience of a novel experiment has accrued. It should be noted that conditions such as pain and stress may introduce unwanted variables into an experiment and complicate the results obtained.
Breeding and Rearing
Surgical correction of genital prolapse in three rhesus monkeys.
Adams, R. A., Rock, J. A., Swindle, M. M., Garnett, N. L., & Porter,
W. P. (Division of Comparative Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University
School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205) Laboratory Animal Science,
1985, 35, 405-408.
. . . Three adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a breeding colony of approximately 75 adult females developed a clinical condition characterized by protrusion of the cervix through the vulva during pregnancy and/or following parturition. The Filliam round-ligament uterine ventro-suspension procedure (hereafter called the suspension procedure) was used to return the cervix to a normal anatomical position. Following the procedure, one female delivered a normal live infant, but reprolapsed. After a second suspension procedure, she again became preganant and delivered a normal live infant without a reccurrence of the prolapse. A second animal never became pregnant despite repeated breeding to different males for two years. The third animal became pregnant twice following the procedure. The first pregnancy terminated in abortion at two months of gestation, while the second pregnancy ended in an apparent dystocia, necessitating a cesarean section and delivery of a dead fetus. The animal died post-operatively. This surgical procedure successfully salvaged one of these animals which otherwise had no reproductive future.
Captive propagation of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)
in harems. Else, J. G. (Institute of Primate Research, National
Museum of Kenya, Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya) Laboratory
Animal Science, 1985, 35 373-375.
. . . A small breeding colony of captive vervet monkeys, consisting of 10 single male harem groups, was established in Kenya. Vervets were extremely prone to stress after capture and manipulative procedures led to high mortalities. Six weeks were required for partial habituation, after which routine handling was not too problematic. However, complete adjustment to captivity took a minimum of one year. Establishment of stable breeding groups from adult animals initially proved difficult because of fighting among females. Once harem groups stablized, reproductive rate was high with just under 90% pregnancies and 85% live births annually. Births exhibited a seasonal pattern similar to that reported from wild populations in Kenya.
Sperm parameters and testicular volumes in Saguinus mystax.
Harrison, R. M., & Wolf, R. H. (Delta Primate Center, Covington, LA,
70433) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1985, 14, 281-284.
. . . 41 adult male Saguinus mystax tamarins were evaluated for sperm parameters and testicular volumes. Sperm concentrations average 195.5 x 10-to-the-sixth/cc with 41.7% motile sperm. Semen specimens were classified as normal, relative to sperm morphology, when 95% or more of the sperm in the specimen had normal morphology. 76% of the animals evaluated had normal semen speciments using this criterion. Testicular volumes averaged 726.9 mm. A total of 50 infants were sired by 16 of these males during the period covered by this report.
Allomothering behavior of new and old world monkeys. Kohda, M.
(Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Univiersity,
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606 Japan) Primates, 1985, 26, 28-44.
. . . The holding or transferring of newborn infants at less than 1 month old by individuals other than the mothers was studied in 24 species of New and Old World monkeys under captive conditions. The observed monkey species could be divided into two types. Group A included eight species of three families where the mothers were tolerant to "infant transfer" and readily retrieved their infants from other individuals, the frequency of infant transfer being high. The infant transfer of this group was termed allomothering behaviour. Group B included 16 species of two families where infant transfer did not occur at all or its frequency was very low and the mothers were possessive of their infants. Once transfer did occur, the infant could not be reclaimed with ease. The relationships between the two groups and taxonomic status, life forms and social types were evaluated in a total of 45 species from the present study and the literature. Correspondences were found with social type and taxonomic status. That is, species of Group A were seen only in the family or one-male type, except for one species, although none of this group appeared in the Cercopithecinae regardless of social type. The significance of infant transfer is discussed in relation to the participants responses to it and the correlations between the two groups and social types.
Climate and seasonal reproduction in the Cayo Santiago macaques.
Rawlins, R. G., & Kessler, M. J. (Caribbean Primate Research Center, PO
Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749). American Journal of
Primatology, 1985, 9, 87-89.
. . . This paper reports the results of an eight-year study of seasonal reproduction in the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. There was a significant correlation between the start of the annual spring rainy season and the estimated median conception date and median birth date. Conceptions followed the commencement of spring rains by 70 days. Significant and negative correlations were found between the number of days from the start of the rains to the first conception and median conception. When spring rains were delayed, the interval between the onset of rains and conceptions decreased linearly. The median birth date for the Cayo Santiago population was accurately predicted for 1984 using two methods. When results from Cayo Santiago were applied retrospectively to data from the colony of rhesus monkeys near La Parguera, Puerto Rico, it explained the three-month difference in seasonality of reproduction between the two populations located at the same latitude (18deg N). Photoperiod, as a function of latitude, appears to set the temporal limits of seasonal reproduction in rhesus macaques, while the onset of spring rains regulates reproductive activity within that range, at least in the Cayo Santiago population. The biological channel through which the effect is mediated has not been identified.
A breeding colony of cotton-top tamarins. Snowdon, C. T., Savage, A.,
& McConnell, P. B. (Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53706) Laboratory Animal Science, 1985, 35,
. . . A breeding colony of cotton-top tamarins is described where 91% of the breeding females are from the first and second laboratory-born generations, and whose infants have a one year survival rate of 62%. Mortality is greatest in the first week of life, and mortality rate is greater for a female's first litter than for subsequent litters. Females without early experience in caring for other infants have a higher infant mortality rate than females with such experience. No seasonal birth patterns have been observed. Large complex cages with food, water and runways located in the upper half of the cage, high protein diets and reduced handling of animals are suggested as additional variables affecting breeding success.
Uterine rupture during labour in a common marmoset
(Callithrix jacchus). Lunn, S. F. (Medical Research Council,
Reproductive Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers
Street, Edinburgh) The Veterinary Record, 1985, 116, 266-267.
. . . The relative absence of reports of uterine rupture in nonhuman primates may reflect the rarity of occurrence but could also indicate that the condition may be difficult to detect. In the present case, one of a pair of twins was born. The mother showed no signs and it was purely by chance that the second youngster and the uterine rupture were was detected. It may be advisable, therefore, to carry out postpartum examination routinely in members of this species to ensure that delivery is complete.
Weaning of free-ranging infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus) as
indicated by one-zero and instantaneous sampling of feeding. Rhine,
R. J., Norton, G. W., Wynn, G. M., & Wynn, R. D. (Department of
Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521)
International Journal of Primatology, 1985, 6, 491-499.
. . . Weaning from the nipple and the use of solid foods were studied by one-zero and instantaneous sampling during the first year of life for 46 baboon infants. By the end of 1 year, infant baboons were nearing independence from the mother for nourishment and transportation and were competently foraging for insects and several plant foods. Using on-nipple as an index of waning dependence and the transition from riding on the mother to walking as a validity criterion, the two sampling methods yielded comparable scores which were valid indicants of developing independence.
Gestation length in Tarsius bancanus. Izard, M. K., Wright, P.
C., & Simons, E. L. (Duke University Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Road,
Durham, NC 27705) American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 9,
. . . A gestation length of 178 days was determined for Tarsius bancanus based on a vaginal smear containing whole sperm. This value replaces the only previously reported information on gestation length in tarsiers, a rough estimate of approximately 6 months for T. syrichta.
Serum levels of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, including
testosterone, during the menstrual cycle of the chimpanzee (Pan
troglodytes). Nadler, R. D., Graham, C. E., Gosselin, R. E., &
Collins, D. C. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory
University, Atlanta, GA 30322) American Journal of Primatology,
1985, 9, 273-284.
. . . The objective of this study was to expand the data on menstrual cycle serum hormone patterns in female common chimpanzees, both in terms of the number of cycles analyzed and by the addition of data on testosterone levels. The data indicate the need for further study of hormonal contributions to the different patterns of mating in the great apes. They also support the use of the female common chimpanzee as a model for the human female in endocrine studies of the menstrual cycle.
Naturally occuring Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia in patas
monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Skavlen, P. A., Stills, H. F.
Jr., Steffan, E. K., & Middleton, C. C. (Department of Veterinary
Pathology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65203)
Laboratory Animal Science, 1985, 35, 481-484.
. . . Two cases of Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia occurred in a breeding group of 22 adult patas monkeys. Affected animals had acute clinical signs of depression, weakness, dehydration, hypothermia, hepatolmegaly and pronounced leukopenia. Both animals died a few hours after treatment was initiated. Gross necropsy findings included jaundice, fluid in body cavities, hepatolmegaly, splenomegaly, multiple white foci within the liver and spleen, generalized lymph node enlargement and numerous mucosal ulcerations in the colon. Primary histopathological lesions were multifocal hepatic necrosis, splenic necrosis, chronic ulcerative enteritis and diaphragmatic myositis with necrosis and edma. Yersinia enterocolitica was cultured from the liver, spleen, lung, jejunum and rectum. Wild rodents, particularly mice, may have been a source of infection for these animals, as the monkeys were housed in a rural, indoor-outdoor facility. A preliminary culture survey showed that some clinically normal patas monkeys harbored the organism in their intestinal tracts.
Use of streptomycin and isoniazid during a tuberculosis epizootic in a
rhesus and cynomolgus breeding colony. Ward, G. S., Elwell, M. R.,
Tingpalapong, M., & Pomsdhit, J. (Department of Veterinary Medicine,
US Army Medical Component, AFRIMS APO San Francisco, CA 96346).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1985, 35, 395-399.
. . . An epizootic of tuberculosis occurred following the addition of new cynomolgus monkeys to a nonhuman primate breeding colony. A total of 5/47 cynomolgus and 51/148 rhesus became tuberculin positive (reactors). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from reactors which were euthanatized and monkeys which died spontaneously. The isolates were sensitive to the standard antitubercular agents. Rhesus reactors and their unweaned infants were quarantined and given streptomycin and isoniazid by intramuscular injection. Isoniazid was added to the drinking water of the remainder of the breeding colony to curtail the outbreak. Isoniazid toxicity was observed in both infants and adults with an overall incidence of 3%. 48 rhesus reactors and their infants born before the outbreak were alive and healthy at the end of the treatment period. In addition, nine surviving infants were born during the 6 month treatment period. Tuberculin tests were still positive in many of the treated reactors following treatment. In this epizootic, the institution of quarantine and chemotherapy instead of euthanasia resulted in significant savings.
A Yaba-like condition in a young baboon (Papio anubis).
Whittaker, D., & Glaister, J. R. (Hazleton Laboratories Europe Ltd.,
Otley Road, Harrogate, HG3 1PY United Kingdom) Laboratory
Animals, 1985, 19, 177-179.
. . . A rapidly developing proliferation of subcutaneous nodules on the leg of a young baboon is described. Histologically the nodules consisted of plump round cells, many of which contained intracytoplasmic eosinophilic viral-like inclusions.
Tumors in dwarf galagos (Galagoides demidovii). Brack, M.
(Abteilung Pathologie und Tierärztliche Versorgung, Deutsches
Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D 3400 Göttingen, Federal Republic of
Germany) Veterinary Pathology, 1985, 22, 344-346.
. . . Three spontaneously occurring tumors are described in dwarf galagos. One tumor was a subcutaneous fibrous histiocytoma in the left inguinal area of an adult male; the other two were bile duct carcinomas in a seven-year-old male and a four-year-old female. Both bile duct carcinomas had remarkable invasive and metastasizing capacities.
Facilities and Care
Digestibility of a high-fiber biscuit-based diet by black and white
colobus (Colobus guereza). Watkins, B. E, Ullrey, D. E., &
Whetter, P. A. (Chicago Zoological Park, Brookfield, IL 60513)
American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 9, 137-144.
. . . The acceptability and digestibility of a high-fiber biscuit-based diet was investigated using two adult male Colobus guereza animals. Although the animls were intiailly reluctant to accept the biscuit, it was eventually readily consumed. Apparent digestion coefficients for the diet (average composition, dry matter basis: 16% crude protein, 25% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 9.5% acid detergent fiber (ADF), 1.2% acid lignin) determined by total fecal collection were 0.871 for dry matter, 0.813 for NDF, 0.693 for ADF, and 0.208 for acid lignin. Fiber digestive capabilities in C. guereza generally exceed those reported in ruminant species based on predictive equations. Use of acid lignin and chromium trioxide as markers underestimated dry matter digestibility by 3.9 and 6.0% respectively.
Instruments and Techniques
Primate head and body restraint without chronic skin openings or
attachments to the animal. Kurtz, D., & Snodderly, D. M. (New England
College of Optometry, 424 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02115)
Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 1985, 17,
. . . We developed a primate restraint system that requires no chronic skin openings or attachments to the animal. The restraining chair has a unique neck clasp; monkeys without chains and collars are easily trained to readily enter the chair and accept restraint with the neck and head held at a comfortable angle. A bite bar, in combination with contact on broad areas of the monkey's brow and occiput, provides rigid head immobilization. In order to achieve contact with a broad area of the occipital bone, the muscles at the back of the animal's head are surgically detached from the occiput and reattached to the underlying neck muscles. A strain-guage, mounted on the head-holder and monitored by a laboratory computer, detects head movements of the monkey and permits the experimenter to teach the monkey to sit still during data acquisition. This sytem is well accepted by experienced monkeys and helps prevent the risks of infection posed by most earlier methods. Furthermore, the head and shoulders of the monkey are readily accessible for examination and for close positioning of test equipment.
Techniques for improving stereotaxic accuracy in Macaca
fascicularis. Dubach, M. F., Tongen, V. C., & Bowden, D. M.
(Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington,
Seattle, WA 98195) Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 1985, 13, 163-169.
. . . Sources of stereotaxic variability in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were examined by X-ray techniques. Accuracy in the vertical dimension can be improved significantly by measuring from the top of the brain rather than from the Frankfurt plan established by external bony landmarks. Even greater accuracy in both the vertical and anterior-posterior dimensions can be attained by rotating the cranium in the stereotaxic instrument to bring the intercommissural line, as defined by ventriculography, into a plane parallel to the horizontal stereotaxic plane, thus approximating the orientation of the brain as represented in both of the brain atlases currently available for this species. An adjustable eyebar spacer, which allows the cranium to be rotated in the stereotaxic instrument, is described.
Noninvasive measurement of blood pressure in African green monkeys
(Cercopithecus aethiops). Kraft-Schreyer, N., & Angelakos, E. T.
(Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Mail Stop 409, Hahnemann
University School of Medicine, Broad & Vine Streets, Philadelphia,
PA 19102) American Journal of Primatology, 1985, 9, 285-294.
. . . Indirect measurements of arterial blood pressure were made in African green monkeys employing a Doppler ultrasound stethoscope and standard cuff and an Infrasonde automatic blood pressure recorder. Measurements were obtained from ketamine anesthetzied and unanesthetized animals. Ketamine had no effect on blood pressure. Indirect measurements from the brachial artery were compared with direct femoral artery measurements and with each other. Systolic blood pressures measured by the Doppler and Infrasonde methods correlated highly with direct measurements but were significantly lower than systolic blood pressures measured by the direct method. Diastolic blood pressures measured by the Infrasonde method agreed closely with direct measurements. Systolic blood pressures measured by the indirect methods correlated highly in both anesthetized and unanesthetized animals and were not significantly different. Mean blood pressures calculated from direct and Infrasonde measurements also correlated highly with direct measurements, being 4 mmHg higher on the average. Mean blood pressures are less influenced by methodology and are more reproducible than other pressures. These noninvasive methods can be used to obtain simple and accurate measurements of blood pressure from anesthetized and unanesthetized monkeys and are of value in long-term studies in monkeys.
Blood volume measurement in baboons: Simultaneous estimation of red
cell volume and plasma volume. Garner, M. G., Phippard, A. F.,
Horvath, J. S., Duggin, G. G., & Tiller, D. J. (Department of Renal
Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown
N.S.W., 2050 Australia) Journal of Med. Primatology,
1985, 14, 345-356.
. . . A method is described for frequent sequential blood volume estimation in baboons using 32-P for red cell volume measurements and 125-I-albumin for simultaneous plasma volume measurements. Values for red cell, plasma, and total blood volumes are reported. Close correlations of the volumes to bodyweight were demonstrated. Circulatory half-lives of the isotopes, determined from disappearance curves, confirmed their suitability for serial measurements in these baboons.
Pharmacology and Anesthesia
Failure of yohimbine to reverse ketamine anesthesia in rhesus monkeys.
Lynch, S., & Line, S. (School of Veterinary Medicine, Univiersity of
California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616) Laboratory Animal Science,
1985, 35, 417-418.
. . . Yohimbine hydrochloride has been used experimentally to reverse the anesthetic effects of ketamine and xylazine in dogs, cats, cattle, and mule deer, but there are no reports of its use in nonhuman primates. Nine adult female rhesus monkeys were given an intravenous dose of either 0.5 mg/kg yohimbine hydrochloride or saline 10 minutes after intramuscular administration of 10 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride. There was no difference in the duration of anestheisa between the yohimbine and saline treatments, suggesting yohimbine is not effective in the rhesus monkey.
Physiology and Behavior
Haematological characteristics of the common marmoset (Callithrix
jacchus jacchus). McIntosh, G. H., Lawson, C. A., Rodgers, S. E.,
& Lloyd, J. V. (CSIRO Divsion of Human Nutrition, Glenthorn Laboratory,
Majors Road, O'Halloran Hill, South Australia) Research in
Veterinary Sciences, 1985, 38, 109-114.
. . . Blood cell indices and parameters of haemostasis were studied in the common marmoset. The majority of the results were similar to those found in man. Differences from man were that the prothrombin time was shorter in the marmoset, higher concentrations of aggregating stimuli were required to cause platelet aggregation, and marmoset platelets did not aggregate under the influence of adrenalin. There was sexual dimorphism evident in the data for fibrinogen concentration and for platelet count, both of which were higher in females than in males. Marmoset platelets were very similar in ultrastructure to those of man.
Effects of ketamine anaesthesia, stress and repeated bleeding on the
haematology of vervet monkeys. Wall, H. S., Worthman, C., & Else, J. G.
(PO Box 7733, Incline Village, NV 89450) Laboratory Animals,
1985, 19, 138-144.
. . . Haematology values are presented for the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus ethiops), and the relative effects of high dose ketamine anaesthesia, stress of capture and repeated bleedings assessed. Anaesthesia resulted in decreased WBC and RBC values, attributed to depression of cardiovasular function. These effects were the reverse of those of alarm and strenuous exercise (leukocytosis and polycythaemia) during capture. Stress resulted in relatively high white and low red blood cell counts. Opposing effects of stress and anesthesia led to comparable haematological values for trained, non-anesthetized vervets and stressed, anaesthetized vervets. Effects of repeated bleedings were opposite in anaesthetized and non-anaesthetized animals. These effects, however, along with those of ketamine anesthesia and stress, were relatively insignificant compared with the wide variation in haematological values found among individuals. The biological importance of these effects thus appeared to be slight. The concept of "normal values" is discussed.
Further information on the new monkey species, Cercopithecus
salongo Thys van den Audenaerde, 1977. Kuroda, S., Kano, T., &
Muhindo, K. (Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Science,
Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606 Japan) Primates, 1985,
. . . In 1977, T. Kano obtained a monkey's skin in the central part of the Zaire Basin that Thys van den Audenaerde identified as a new Cercopithecus species, designating it as C. salongo. Thys van den Audenaerde described the skin, concluding that the species might be a central African representative of the west African diana monkey. The present paper supplements his description of this new species with subsequently obtained photos and information, corrects some misstatements regarding its ecology, and examines its phylogenic relationship to the diana monkey based on this information including the cranial morphology. Thys van den Audenaerde suggested a close relationship between C. salongo and C. diana based on the resemblance of the frontal area and the existance of a peri-anal light colored area. However, this is not supported from the viewpoint of the ecology and cranial morphology. There are also some different points in the respective color patterns. It seems better, therefore, to leave this question open at this stage.
The nomenclature and taxonomy of the colobine monkeys of Java. Weitzel,
V., & Groves, C. P. (Department of Prehistory and Anthropology, The
Australian National University, Box 4 GPO, Canberra, ACT 2601,
Australia) International Journal of Primatology, 1985, 6,
. . . The current terminology for the colobine monkeys of Java is incorrect. The appropriate term for the West Javan surili is Presbytis comata Desmarest, 1822, and that for the Javan and Bali/Lombok lutung is Trachypithecus auratus E. Geoffrey St. Hilaire, 1812.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
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Primate Studies at Georgia State University
The Department of Psychology at Georgia State University offers a master's and doctoral program in Psychological Sciences. That program includes the option for intensive work with apes at the Language Research Center, cooperatively administered by Georgia State University and the Yerkes Primate Center of Emory University. The curriculum includes research methods, developmental, social, and animal behavior courses. Doctoral students may incorporate courses from other universities into their program. A limited number of laboratory assistantships are available which entail 25 hours of work per week and include remission of out-of-state tuition. The research at the Language Center emphasizes requisites to language and cognitive processes in great apes. Facilities are 15 miles from the GSU campus and are excellent.
Write: Dr. Duane M. Rumbaugh, Dept. of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303.
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NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
We are grateful to Linda Straw Coelho of San Antonio, Texas, for providing the cover drawing of a slow loris, Nycticebus coucang.
Copyright @1986 by Brown University
Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor: Janice E. Viticonte