VOLUME 25 NUMBER 2 APRIL 1986
News, Information, and Announcements
Meeting Reports: Primates--The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations........1
Dates of "Understanding Chimpanzees" Symposium Changed........3
Meeting Reports: Genetic Research with Nonhuman Primates: Serving the Needs of Mankind........4
National Zoo Receives Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Monkeys ........5
Pathology of Laboratory Animals Course........6
Upcoming Primate Meetings........6
. . . IPS; ASP
Note on Animal Welfare Act Amendments........7
Groups Launch Joint Effort in Support of USDA/APHIS Animal Welfare Funds........7
Position Open at St. Kitts Primate Research Facility"........8
FWS Proposes Two Primate Species for Endangered Listing........14
Recent Books and Articles ........9
Address Changes ........14
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This conference, sponsored by the Zoological Society of San Diego and the Morris Animal Foundation, was held in San Diego, June 24-28, 1985.
Overview of Conference
Nearly 500 people joined the 60 speakers and discussants for the week-long conference on the plight of the world's primates. The first two days involved symposia on 1) the natural habitat and 2) captive breeding and genetics. The next two were devoted to workshops on 1) artificial reproduction, 2) virus diseases, 3) veterinary concerns, 4) housing and furniture, 5) behavioral requirements for creating self-sustaining populations (wild and captive), 6) primate models for new reproductive techniques, 7) causes of mortality and 8) strategies for the extremely endangered. On the last day major directions and "Who will pilot the ark?" were considered.
The scene was set by a stimulating address given by Jared Diamond, who stressed that primate conservation was habitat conservation, the reasons why primates are so important in conservation, the wild and captive contributions to conservation, the importance of starting remedies before a species is highly endangered, the lack of educational and research opportunities in conservation biology, and the lack of funds for those disciplines on which conservation is based.
Amy Vedder reviewed the situation of African apes, emphasizing the threats of habitat conversion and hunting; Alison Jolly described the desperate situation in Madagascar of dustbowls and depression; John Oates established priorities for primate conservation in Africa in relation to population growth and lack of food, political instability, the problems of establishing long-term research programs and the priority of habitat protection where endemicity and/or species diversity is greatest. Russ Mittermeier described the plight of Neotropical primates, contrasting the Atlantic forests (which have almost disappeared) with Amazonia (which is about to disappear). One-third of all primate taxa are Neotropical; 75% of primates species occur in five countries--50% in Brazil, Madagascar and Indonesia. Chuck Southwick reported on the 90% decline in numbers of rhesus macaques in India in the last 20 years; Don Lindburg reviewed the state of the other primates of the Indian sub-continent; David Chivers considered the conservation of South-east Asian primates in terms of zoogeography (and taxonomy), socio-ecology of lorises, tarsiers, macaques, langurs and other colobines, gibbons and orang-utans, and the long-term conservation of ever-wet forests by protection, management for sustained yields and more efficient use of agricultural land.
The first day was concluded by a thoughtful consideration of approaches to conservation in relation to human problems and economics by David (Jonah) Western.
The discussion of strategies for conserving the extremely endangered species centered on improved habitat protection and captive breeding for reintroduction. Reference was made to economists and agriculturalists ignoring threats of environmental catastrophes, the need to influence government agencies and multi-national organizations, the importance of local involvement at all levels and of a long-term conservation commitment, and the relevance of the theory of conservation biology to field work and reserve establishment and management. It struck me that, while captive breeding and reintroduction are feasible for the smaller species that breed rapidly, are easily maintained in captivity, and are adaptable (because of the education value and despite the cost), for larger, less known species, habitat protection (and perhaps translocation) is the only way to save the extremely endangered species. This accorded with the general conclusion of the conference that there is no single approach to conserve primates, that a variety of approaches is essential. While the dichotomy of approaches advocated above is an over-simplification, it perhaps has some guiding merit.
The final day started with WWF(US)'s new film on Amazonia, followed by a review of researchable problems in captivity by Kurt Benirschke--perinatal care, nutrition, genetics and social care--and in the wild by Don Lindburg--seeking causes of declining populations, considering reintroductions, the role of satellite mapping, dietary studies (related to laboratory analysis) and the investigation of fecundity. Shirley Strum reviewed the problems and successes in translocating primates, centered on the successful translocation of the Pumphouse Gang of baboons from Gilgil (Kenya) where they had become pests to a more suitable area 120 miles north. This is an exciting development, since I have for long lamented our lack of knowledge about translocation as a conservation tool for primates, although the socio-ecological complexity of primates and lack of suitable habitat would preclude it from being a widespread approach.
The final session was entitled "Who will pilot the ark, monetary resources and other topics". The chairman, Sheldon Campbell (San Diego Zoo) reminded us how much money is spent on everything but the environment (the "ark') and suggested that scientists, economists, and conservation "priests" would be the "pilots". Everyone agreed, in fact, that there was no shortage of pilots, just a problem of paying them! Dennis Meritt (Lincoln Park Zoo) pleaded for improved inter-disciplinary communication, questioned the real meaning of "research" and stressed the different effects of shifting cultivation and agriculture. Jeremy Mallinson (Jersey Zoo) argued for the importance of captive breeding in aiding species conservation and the benefits of promoting collaboration at national and international levels. Russ Mittermeier (WWF-US) suggested that we all pilot the "ark", but asked who would provide the "fuel". He pointed out that WWF(US) had less funds to distribute on behalf of all animals than a small World Bank project, and suggested that 1) zoo education about primate conservation should be improved, 2) zoos should help train personnel from habitat countries both by receiving such persons in their own country and by sending staff overseas, 3) zoos should support field programs centered on those species thriving in their care, and 4) field primatologists should help zoos achieve these aims. Warren Thomas (Los Angeles Zoo) commented on the need to defend biomedical research in the face of "humaniacs" and reviewed the changing history of zoos from being "to amuse and amaze" to being "squalid users" to "productive cooperation"; captive propagation is important as a hedge against disaster in the wild. Finally, Jonah Western pointed out that the "ark" is fragmentary--some components (species) will jump off--the zoo community provides a lifeboat, and asked, somewhat cynically, why conserve, since it does not seem to matter if 90% of biological diversity has disappeared, e.g., Europe, U.S.A., and "humanscape" was better than hostile natural environments. He stressed the importance of education and more pragmatic approaches, giving examples.
This was essentially a meeting of American zoo and laboratory people, with a garnish of field primatologists. It was invaluable for clarifying various issues that had impeded progress in conservation in the developed countries--the zoo and lab people got to understand each other better and the ways in which they could help each other in promoting the captive propagation of endangered primates, in the light of the input from the field people. There were few delegates from habitat countries, but it became clear the the main topics were not so relevant to them. It was better for the developed world to "clean up their act in private"; a truly international dialogue, which is already underway in other circles (Primate Specialist Group of IUCN, International Primatological Society), could then be more productive. If zoos increase their educational activities, improve their breeding successes of endangered species and make significant contributions to conservation in habitat countries, then the conference will have been a real success. [Reprinted with the permission of the author, David Chivers, of Cambridge University, from the October 1985 issue (No. 27) of Primate Eye.]
The symposium attempted a synthesis of primate conservation from several different viewpoints; from emotional appeals based on anthropomorphic accounts of Great Ape behavior to research into captive conditions, veterinary care, nutrition, virology and reproduction. In my view it was a success, both bringing a mixed bag together and in exposing individuals from many disciplines to other points of view. To the more biomedically inclined it was an excellent venue to appreciate the problems and advantages of field research and the status of wild populations. To the field worker it showed the advantages of quantifiable data and physiological investigations in the laboratory. To all of us I think it showed the needs for far more collaboration between the different fields that make up primatology, in order that more effective efforts can be mounted to redress the balance which is currently against the survival of many species.
The program included a full day on genetic aspects of captive breeding and two days of concurrent workshops (detailed earlier). There were plenary sessions to discuss the reports from these workshops and further presentations on reintroduction, translocation, researchable problems and the sources of funding. An added attraction of the conference was the opportunity to visit the excellent animal collections at San Diego Zoo and the more open spaces at the Wild Animal Park about 30 miles outside San Diego.
It is not easy to highlight a few items from the conference. To me the overall impression was optimistic. While populations in the wild continue to decline as a result of expanding human populations and the destruction of habitats, the estimates of remaining wild populations of many species, including the Lowland Gorilla, gave cause for hope if action is taken now to arrest further decline. Studies of the rehabilitation of behavior of captive colonies of rhesus monkeys reintroduced to large open areas indicated that, given time, a full behavioral repertoire and a normal social organization could be reestablished, even though the animals concerned had spent several generations under laboratory conditions. Reintroduction of the Golden Lion Tamarin, while subject to heavy loss of numbers, gave hope for success if eduction programs guaranteed support from the local human population.
Another aspect that I found encouraging is the way in which a number of physiological methods, developed through laboratory studies, should soon be available to field workers. These included rapid, simple assays for steroid or gonadotrophin hormones in urine or feces that can provide a monitor of reproductive status; improved procedures for sedation and anaesthesia which allow rapid sampling from individuals without disturbing the social structure of the group; and improved methods for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The level of understanding of the fundamental physiological mechanisms which govern survival, in genetics, disease, nutrition and reproduction, is increasing rapidly. Translating this knowledge and applying the results to particular practical problems takes a clear definition of the relevant questions. The published account of the meeting should be helpful in suggesting some guidelines. Overall, the clear message is that time is not on our side, lending urgency to the needs for all of us to widen our perspective, to manage primates in captivity and in the wild as one stock and to promote far greater collaboration between those working in primatology in laboratories, zoos and in the field. [Reprinted with the permission of the author, John P. Hearn, of the Zoological Society of London, from the October 1985 issue (No. 27) of Primate Eye.]
The manuscripts have already been sent to the publisher--Springer-Verlag, New York--and the volume of the proceedings of the symposium is expected to appear in April/May (1986), edited by Kurt Benirschke and Don Lindburg, who, with Mary Byrd, deserve credit for organizing such a stimulating meeting.
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The dates of this symposium (see January, 1986 issue of this Newsletter) have been changed to November 7-9, 1986. For further information contact: "Understanding Chimpanzees," The Chicago Academy of Sciences, 2001 North Clark St., Chicago, IL 60614.
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An international symposium on genetic research with nonhuman primates was held in San Antonio, Texas, on March 2-5, 1986. The symposium was sponsored by the Southwest Foundation Forum, which is a lay support group for the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research.
The symposium convened 85 registrants from the United States and five foreign countries. After Mayor Henry Cisneros opened the symposium by describing the rapid development of biotechnology in San Antonio, nineteen scientists presented invited talks that reviewed the present status and future potential of genetic research with nonhuman primates. In the opening session, Dr. John L. VandeBerg stressed the rapidly increasing use of nonhuman primates in genetic research, as evidenced by annual increments in the number and frequency of publications on this topic. Other invited papers were distributed among five sessions, including Biochemical Genetics and Cytogentics, Immunogenetics, Molecular Genetics, Population Genetics, and Genetic Predisposition to Common Diseases. A major theme of the symposium was that a quarter century of basic genetic research with nonhuman primates has enabled the recent initiation of major biomedical research programs that promise important contributions to an understanding of common human diseases.
A highlight of the symposium was the presentation of the Southwest Foundation Forum Distinguished Scientist Award in Genetics to Dr. Thomas J. Gill III. The award recognized Dr. Gill's major contributions to health-related basic research and his great potential for future achievement. Dr. Gill presented the keynote lecture entitled "Genetic factors influencing fertility, spontaneous abortions, and cancer."
Dr. William H. Stone presented the "Symposium Summary and Future Prospects" in the concluding session. He emphasized that we stand on the threshold of a new era in genetic research with nonhuman primates, an era in which these animal models will contribute even more than previously to understanding basic physiological mechanisms of human disease states.
The proceedings of the symposium, including the invited papers and the contributed abstracts are scheduled for publication as an issue of Genetica.
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Ten endangered golden-headed lion tamarin monkeys, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, were scheduled to arrive at the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park in March. It is believed that this is the first time the species will be kept at a zoo in the United States. The tamarins were sent from Brazil, their country of origin, to the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., as well as to the Zoo's Conservation and Research Center near Front Royal, Virginia. In both locations, zoologists will study the primates' behavior and develop techniques for its long-term propagation in captivity.
The ten golden-headed lion tamarins came to Washington by a circuitous route; they are part of a large group of animals that was illegally smuggled out of the eastern coastal forest of Brazil in 1983. The existence of these monkeys in Europe came to light when they were first advertised for sale by an animal dealer in Belgium. Other illegally held golden-headed lion tamarins were simultaneously reported from France and Japan. As a result of two years of painstaking negotiations initiated by the Brazilian government and pressure from several international conservation organizations, most of the monkeys were returned to Brazil where they were temporarily housed at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center while plans for their future could be developed. An international committee consisting of conservationists and zoologists from Brazil, Great Britain, Belgium, and the U.S., and co-chaired by Adelmar Coimbra-Filho (Rio de Janeiro Primate Center) and Jeremy Mallinson (Jersey Zoo) was formed to provide advice on the tamarin situation to the Brazilian government, which maintains strict control over its endangered wildlife. This body, called the International Recovery and Management Committee for the Golden-headed Lion Tamarin, decided it was not in the animals' best interest to attempt to return them to nature, especially since many of the monkeys suffered permanent injury while in the hands of animal traders. The tamarins, instead, are being dispersed to institutions with proven records of success in breeding South American marmoset and tamarin monkeys. The Committee's stated goal is to establish "a viable captive breeding population under scientific management." The wild population of the species, estimated to be between 100 and 1000, lives only in a small area of remnant coastal forest in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These monkeys have an uncertain fate due to continued human encroachment on their tiny natural habitat. Deforestation has already reduced the once extensive tropical forest along Brazil's east coast to two percent of its original size.
National Zoo Assistant Director for Research, Dr. Devra Kleiman, who is a member of the Committee, will oversee propagation efforts for the species at the National Zoo. Dr. Kleiman, in conjunction with other Committee members, is now preparing plans for a world-wide program for the preservation of this endangered species. Dr. Kleiman said, "The project is unique and scientifically interesting in a number of respects. First, we know almost nothing about this animal. Second, the golden-headed lion tamarin recovery program is the first time an international cooperative breeding effort of this scope has ever been undertaken where it will be possible to start from scratch with newly imported, wild-born animals. Finally, it will test many of the new theories involving the genetics and long-term captive management of endangered species."
It will be several weeks before a pair of golden-headed lion tamarins is available for public viewing at the National Zoo. The animals must clear medical quarantine and be allowed to adjust to their new surroundings before being exhibited. Another participant in the international recovery program for these monkeys, the Los Angeles Zoo, was also to receive 10 golden-headed lion tamarins from Brazil in March.
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The "Pathology of Laboratory Animals" course will be held at the Holiday Inn in Bethesda, Maryland, August 11-15, 1986. Veterinarians and other scientists interested in laboratory animals are invited to attend. The course fee is $125, payable to the Treasurer of the United States, and must be paid by civilians not employed by the Federal government. Military and Federal service employees in the veterinary and other medical service fields should consult their agency regulations for appropriate application procedures.
Application forms and hotel information may be obtained from: The Director, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Attn: AFIP-EDE, Washington, DC 20306-6000. [Phone: 202-576-2937.] Completed forms and applicable fees must be received by July 30, 1986.
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XIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, July 20-25, 1986 in Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany. For information contact: IPS Congress Office, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-3400 Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany.
The ninth annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be held in Austin, Texas from June 28 to July 2, 1986. The meeting will be hosted by Dr. Claude Bramblett and the University of Texas. For registration forms and further information contact: Dr. Joyce E. Sirianni, Dept. of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14261.
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A note in the last issue of the Newsletter (January, 1986) described the farm bill signed in December, 1985, with Animal Welfare Act amendments. One requirement, "for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychobiological well being of primates," deserves closer attention. This requirement, which was opposed by a broad coalition of organizations concerned with animal research issues, was included at the insistance of Senator John Melcher, D-MT. The intention of this requirement, as printed in the Congressional Record-House, for December 17, 1985, is as follows: "The intent of standards with regard to promoting the psychological well-being of primates is to provide adequate space equipped with devices for exercise consistent with the primate's natural instincts and habits."
This requirement of the amended Animal Welfare Act could prove to be a serious problem for primate research laboratories. The requirement, as written, is quite vague. The official meaning is in the process of being determined by the Department of Agriculture. The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) published in the March 7, 1986 Federal Register a request for information to be used for drafting proposed regulations and standards. Information requested on the "psychological well-being of primates" included a) the minimum space and time period of exercise that should be required; b) what types of devices or articles should be provided for environmental enrichment; c) how often this exercise and enrichment should be provided; d) whether it should apply to long-term animals, short-term animals, or all animals.
Existing APHIS animal welfare regulations are contained in Chapter 9 of the Code of Federal Regulations (9 CFR) in three sections; Part 1 - Definition of Terms, Part 2 - Regulations, and Part 3 - Standards. Part 3 is broken down into six subparts by type of animal. Although it is too late to submit information to be used in drafting these regulations and standards, APHIS plans to revise Part 2 and publish a draft in the Federal Register this summer with another opportunity for public comment. Part 3, which, among other things, will address standards for exercise of dogs and the physical environment for primates, will be drafted and published later.
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Animal protection groups and academic and professional organizations representing the scientific community have joined together in support of sufficient appropriations for effective enforcement of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). About one hundred such organizations have signed and sent a joint letter to members of the House and Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittees urging a Fiscal Year (FY) 1987 appropriation of $6,648,850 for USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service animal welfare program.
Once again this year the Administration has proposed total elimination of funds for the animal welfare inspection program. Congress declined to zero out the program last year providing $4.8 million to USDA/APHIS for FY 1986--the same amount appropriated in FY 1985. Actually, in FY 1985 USDA reprogrammed funds within the department and added $1 million to improve the quality and quantity of inspections.
Animal protection and scientific organizations have agreed that the minimum amount required to implement the AWA is, therefore, $6,648,850, the amount necessary to continue current services plus $750,000 to establish a voluntary information service at the National Agriculture Library in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine as mandated in the recently passed AWA amendments.
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There is a position open for a person with interests in medical primatology at the St. Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation Primate Facility in St. Kitts, West Indies (Eastern Caribbean). Academic or practical experience in any field of primatology or laboratory animal medicine is essential and other skills required for operating an almost self-sufficient facility would be useful. The most important qualification is personal maturity and adaptability. Previous successful experience in U.S. primate laboratories or field station, or field studies would be helpful. A commitment for a stay of at least a year is desirable, but a longer term is possible if everything works out. The position is available immediately.
A major research focus at present is brain cell transplantation in MPTP Parkinsonian monkeys. Other research interests include a) primate social behavior, b) field studies of behavior, c) animal censusing and humane trapping methods, d) neuropharmacology, e) neurological or cognitive function, or f) other aspects of medical primatology.
There are rustic accommodations in a renovated sugar estate manager's house at the facility and other housing is available in the area. Individuals would have to provide their own transportation on the island, but the cost of an annual round-trip airfare from the U.S. to and from St. Kitts would be covered. Salary to be negotiated depending on previous experience and academic qualifications (Ph.D., D.V.M., or Lab Animal Medicine Certifications). Contact: D. E. Redmond, Jr., M.D., Yale University, Primate Research Facilities, Neurobehavioral Laboratory, P.O. Box 3333, New Haven, CT 06510. (Phone: 203-785-4432 or 203-773-9300.)
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Growth and Development of the Pigtailed Macaque. Joyce E.
Sirianni and Daris R. Swindler. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1985.
168 pp. [Price: $66 in U.S.A.; $76 outside U.S.A.]
. . . An atlas of longitudinally gathered information on the growth and development of Macaca nemestrina. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Craniofacial growth. 3. Somatic growth. 4. Dental maturation. 5. Skeletal maturation.
An Ecological and Behavioural Study of the Pig-Tailed Macaque
(Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 21). Julian Oliver Caldicott.
Basel: Karger, 1986. 262 pp. [Price: $49.50.]
. . . This monograph records the findings of a 29-month field study of the Sundaic sub-species of the pig-tailed macaque in Peninsular Malaysia. The animals were observed in two contrasting habitats, allowing the species' colony ecology and behavior in the wild to be detailed in relation to the ecology of sympatric primate species. Pig-tailed macaques are adapted to life in rain forests remote from rivers and disturbance, where food sources are generally scarce, patchy and slow to renew. The species' ecological strategy is defined in contract to those of other macaques, a number of species of which have only recently been studied in detail. Contents: I. Introduction. II. Study areas and methods. III. The habitat. IV. Feeding and foraging. V. Vocal behaviour. VI. Social behaviour. VII. Conclusions.
Primate Evolution and Human Origins. Russell L. Ciochon and John
G. Fleagle (Eds.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings, 1985.
396 pp. [Price: $19.95]
. . . There has been a great increase in the past two decades in fossil evidence pertaining to the evolution of the primates. This has lead to new interpretations of primate ancestry. In some cases, new discoveries and syntheses have clarified evolutionary histories; in others they have heightened controversy. This book is a collection of publications of investigations in the field from the past 20 years. It is intended to provide a background of information that has shaped current views of primate evolution and human origins. Contents: I. Primate origins. II. Evolution of prosimians. III. Anthropoid origins and new world monkeys. IV. The evolution of old world monkeys and apes. V. Ramapithecus and human origins. VI. Early hominids. VII. Diverse approaches in human evolution.
Functional Morphology of the Miocene Hominoid Foot (Contributions
to Primatology, Vol. 22). John H. Langdon. Basel: Karger, 1986.
226 Pp. [Price: $41.75.]
. . . This monograph reconstructs, by means of comparison of the fossils with extant catarrhines, the function of the foot in the locomotor repertoire of Miocene hominoids. Its purpose is a comprehensive comparative and functional analysis of the catarrhine foot skeleton. The author interpretes quantitative and qualitative observations on the pedal skeleton in the framework of field and laboratory studies on positional behavior and kinesiology to identify significant functional-morphological patterns. The available material of the Miocene hominoids from East Africa, Europe and Pakistan is analyzed within this comparative context. Divided into four sections, the book first reviews contemporary knowledge on Miocene hominoids and the evolution of hominoid positional behavior. The second part is a summary of methods and materials utilized. In the third part, the author describes the range of postures and locomotor modes exhibited by the species utilized in the study, identifies those positions used most frequently, and looks for common patterns of use and stress throughout the repertoire. The final section features osteological comparisons of recent and fossil material concentrating on individual bones and joint complexes. Contents: 1. Miocene hominoids and the evolution of hominoid positional behavior. 2. Methods and materials. 3. Positional behavior and mechanics of the foot. 4. Osteological comparisons of recent and fossil material. 5. Conclusions: Catarrhine foot evolution.
Directories, Magazines, Newsletters
Animal Resources: A Research Resources Directory (Sixth Revised
Edition.) Bethesda, MD: Division of Research Resources, National
Institute of Health, 1985. (NIH Publication No. 86-1431.) Refer all
inquiries on this publication to: Research Resources Information
Center, 1601 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850 (301-984-2870), or
Office of Sciences and Health Reports, Division of Research Resources,
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20205 (301-496-5545).
. . . This is a complete revision of the 1983 edition of this Directory. It is one of a series of directories of the special research resource facilities and services supported by the Division of Research Resources throughout the United States. This new directory is a guide for scientists seeking sources of assistance and collaboration involving animals in health research. The directory entries are organized by type of resource and, within each type, resources are arranged alphabetically by title. Each entry includes the name of the resource; the name, address, and telephone number of the principal investigator or resource director; research emphasis of the resource; and the services provided. A geographical index to these animal resources is provided at the end of the directory. It lists the resources alphabetically by state and by title within each state and includes the names of the cities in which they are located and the page on which each resource entry appears.
Primate Conservation, No. 6, July, 1985. (Title changed from
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Newsletter. Subscription: $10
payable to World Wildlife Fund-US. Order from: Bill Konstant,
Department of Anatomical Science, SUNY Health Science Center, Stony
Brook, NY 11794.)
. . . This issue includes the following articles: Status of the squirrel monkey Saimiri oerstedi in Costa Rica, by S. Boinski; S.O.S. for the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), by J. R. Cerquera; Major program underway to save the black lion tamarin in Sao Paulo, Brazil, by R. A. Mittermeier, C. V. Padua, C. Valle, & A. F. Coimbra-Filho; Captive-born golden lion tamarins released into the wild: A report from the field, by L. A. Dietz; Primates and forest exploitation at Tefe, Brazilian Amazonia, by A. Johns; Primate survey in the Ique-Juruena Ecological Station, Mato-Grosso, Brasil, by E. Z. F. Setz, & K. Milton; Mandrill ecology and the status of Gabon's rainforests, by S. A. Lahm; Current conservation status of the Mwanihana Rain Forest, Uzungwa Mountains, Sanje, Tanzania, by S. K. Wasser; Summary of primate conservation problems in the Mentawai Island, Indonesia, by R. Tenaza, & A. Mitchell; Status of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) in captivity, by S. D. Tardif; The Brazilian National Center, by J. A. P. C. Muniz, & W. R. Kingston; Some aspects of the conservation of non-human primates in Columbia, by J. H. Camacho & T. R. Defler; Distribution and status of primates in Paraguay, by J. R. Stallings; Chimpanzee survey in Mali, West Africa, by J. Moore; Primates and their conservation in the Impenetrable (Bwindi) Forest, Uganada, by T. M. Butynski; Ecological status of the lion-tailed macaque and its rainforest habitats in Karnataka, India, by K. U. Karanth.
Adolescent behavior in nonhuman primates: A bibliography, 1970-1985. 2nd Ed. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985. (191 citations, Primate Index). [Price: $6.50. Send order to: Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 91895.]
Infant behavioral development in feral and free-ranging nonhuman primates: A bibliography. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1985, (153 citations, Primate Index.) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
Special Journal Issues
Is the Marmoset an Experimental Model for the Study of Gastrointestinal
Disease? Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 1985, New Series 30,
[12 (Supplement)]. 158 pp.
. . . The proceedings of a workshop, chaired by Neal K. Clapp (Oak Ridge Associated Universities) and Kirt J. Vener (National Institutes of Health), held at the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN, April 18-20, 1984. This workshop sought to develop a better understanding of some observations which suggested a correlation between a spontaneously occurring colitis and cancer of the large bowel in the cotton-top tamarin (marmoset), Saguinus oedipus oedipus. Since most of the animal models presently being studied for colitis and cancer of the colon are ones requiring induction by an exogenous agent, it seemed appropriate to take a closer look at what is known about these diseases in the marmoset to determine whether this animal might serve as an appropriate model for the study of the human diseases. The workshop title was stated as a question and therefore asked participants to consider the similarities of the marmoset diseases (colitis and colon cancer) to the human conditions. The program was divided into two main components, colitis and cancer, and within each component there was a series of subunits consisting of a major presentation, which dealt with some facet of the marmoset diseases, followed by the comments of one or two discussants.
. . . In addition to discussions which were held immediately following the presentations, concurrent evening sessions were held during which the topics of cancer and colitis in the tamarins were discussed. Summaries of these deliberations are reported by Drs. Kathy Nuass and Harland Winter. Contents: Is the marmoset an experimental model for the study of gastrointestinal disease? by K. J. Vener; Animal models of inflammatory bowel disease--An overview, by W. Strober; Inflammatory bowel disease: Differential diagnosis and cancer of the small and large bowel, by R. H. Riddell; Colony management problems encountered in using marmosets and tamarins in biomedical research, by M. L. Morin; Marmoset husbandry and nutrition, by N. K. Clapp & S. D. Tardif; Is the cotton-topped tamarin a model for behavioral research? by D. A. Drossman; Understanding biologic stress for study design and interpretation of results, S. Szabo; Colonic glycoproteins in cotton-top tamarin: Relationship to chronic colitis, by D. K. Podolsky; Summary of discussion group on Saguinus oedipus colitis, by H. Winter; Experiment models for ulcerative colitis, by A. B. Onderdonk; Histology of colitis: Saguinus oedipus oedipus and other marmosets, by C. Lushbaugh, G. Humason, & N. K. Clapp; Structural characterization of spontaneous colitis in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), by J. L. Madara; Evolution and natural history of colonic disease in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), by L. V. Chalifoux, J. K. Brieland, & N. W. King; Discussion of clinical features and course of tamarin colitis, by A. I. Mendeloff; Immune function in marmosets; Present state of relevant knowledge, D. R. Johnson; Immune function of lamina propria lymphocytes in nonhuman primates, S. P. James; Nonviral infectious agents and marmoset (Saguinus oedipus) colitis, by R. Moore; Coronavirus-like particles and Campylobacter in marmosets with diarrhea and colitis, by R. G. Russell, D. A. Brian, A. Lenhard, L. N. D. Potgieter, D. Gillespie, and N. K. Clapp; Viral agents in marmoset colitis: Dr. Robert Russell, University of Washington, Seattle, and Dr. David Brian, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, by W. L. Beeken; Evaluating viral agents in marmoset colitis, by M. K. Estes; Colon carcinogenesis in the marmoset, by K. M. Nauss; Rodent models for carcinoma of the colon, by A. E. Rogers & K. M. Nauss; Are animal models of colon cancer relevant to human disease, by D. J. Ahnen; Natural history and pathology of colon cancer in Saguinus oedipus oedipus, by N. K. Clapp, C. C. Lushbaugh, G. L. Humason, B. L. Gangaware, & M. A. Henke; Review of clinical aspects of cancer of the colon in patients with ulcerative colitis, by R. P. MacDermott; Histology of colon cancer in Saguinus oedipus oedipus, by C. C. Lushbaugh, G. L. Humason, & N. K. Clapp; Comments on comparative pathology of colonic neoplasia in cotton-top marmoset (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), by J. H. Yardley; Chromosomal markers in study of colon cancer, by S. R. Wolman; Monoclonal antibody-defined antigens detected in colonic tissues of cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, by Z. Steplewski; Mucin glycoproteins in chronic ulcerative colitis: Peanut lectin binding in human and nonhuman primate colons, by C. R. Boland.
Breeding and Rearing
Development and mother-infant relations among captive patas monkeys.
Chism, J. (Dept. of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, CA
94720.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 49-81.
. . . Eight patas (Erythrocebus patas) infants living with their mothers in an established captive group were observed for 960 hours over the first year of life. These infants showed a rapid rate of behavioral development and attainment of independence from mothers. Patas also have one of the fastest rates of sexual maturation of any Old World monkey species. This pattern of rapid social and sexual development can be viewed as a response to a highly seasonal savannah environment in which there is a premium on ability to achieve nutritional, locomotor, and social self-sufficiency as quickly as possible and to reproduce as early and as often as developmental constraints will permit.
Adoption success under single-cage conditions by cynomolgus macaque
mothers (Macaca fascicularis). Cho, F., Suzuki, M., & Honjo, S.
(Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, National Institute of
Health, Hachimandai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaragi-ken, Japan 305.)
American Journal of Primatology, 1986, 10, 119-124.
. . . Retrospective data were studied to determine the success of experimental adoption by 122 cynomolgus macaques kept in individual cages at the Tsukuba Primate Center. The four types of adoption procedures included 1) singletons adopted after weaning (SAW)--21 cases; 2) singletons adopted after stillbirth (SAS)--20 cases; 3) singletons adopted after forced separation of the biological infant during the nursing period (SAF)--4 cases; and 4) adoption of a second "twin" while still nursing a biological infant (TA)--77 cases. Adoption was defined as successful if the mother nursed the foster infants for at least 7 days. Success rates were 47.6% for SAW, 75 for SAS, 100 for SAF, and 74 for TAS. Success was affected by the postbirth stage of foster mothers at adoption by not by foster infant age or sex.
Infant survival and litter size in primigravid and multigravid
Galagos. Izard, M. K. & Simons, E. L. (Duke University Primate
Center, 3705 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705.) Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1986, 15, 27-35.
. . . 18 years of birth records for three species of Galago at the Duke University Primate Center were examined to determine the effect of gravidity status on neonatal mortality and litter size. Multiparous Galago senegalensis moholi and G. crassicaudatus, but not G. garnettii, had significantly higher infant survival rates. Gravidity status had no effect on the percentage of multiple births for any of the three species of Galalgo.
Monitoring ovulation and implantation in the cynomolgus macaque
(Macaca fascicularis) through evaluations of urinary estrone
conjugates and progesterone metabolites: A technique for the routine
evaluation of reproductive parameters. Monfort, S. L., Jayaramann,
S., Shideler, S. E., Lasley, B. L., & Hendrickx, A. G. (Dr. A. G.
Hendrickx, California Primate Research Center, University of California,
Davis, CA 95616.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15,
. . . Investigations were undertaken to determine the applicability of recently reported specific radioimmunoassays for urinary estrone conjugates and progesterone metabolites for monitoring ovarian function in the cynomolgus macaque and other macaque species. Mean estrone conjugate measurements appear to accurately reflect the preovulatory estrogen peak in both conceptive (n = 5) and nonconceptive (n = 6) cycles, as well as to indicate early pregnancy through increases which are significantly elevated by Day + 15 (p< 0.049) post estrone conjugates peak. The mean luteal phase levels of these progesterone metabolites are significantly elevated by Day + 14 (p< 0.012) in conceptive cycles when compared to the mean values for nonconceptive cycles.
Induction of AIDS-like disease in Macaque monkeys with t-cell tropic
retrovirus STLV-III. N. L. Letvin, M. D. Daniel, P. K. Sehgal, R. C.
Desrosiers, R. D. Hunt, L. M. Waldron, J. J. MacKey, D. K. Schmidt, L.
V. Chalifoux, & N. W. King. (New England Regional Primate Research
Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, MA 01772.) Science,
1985, 230, 71-73.
. . . The T-cell tropic retrovirus of macaque monkeys STLV-III has morphologic, growth, and antigenic properties indicating that it is related to HTLV-III/LAV, the etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Four of six rhesus monkeys died within 160 days of STLV-III inoculation with a wasting syndrome, opportunistic infections, a primary retroviral encephalitis, and immunologic abnormalities including a decrease in T4+ peripheral blood lymphocytes. These data show that an immunodeficiency syndrome can be produced experimentally in a nonhuman primate by an agent from the HTLV-III/LAV group of retroviruses. The STLV-III-macaque system will thus provide a useful model for the study of antiviral agents and vaccine development for human AIDS.
Instruments and Techniques
Security in the research laboratory. Part 1: Perimeter and internal
control. Green, K. A., Clifford, D. H. (Division of Laboratory Animal
Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, C.S. 10008, Toledo, OH 43699.)
Laboratory Animals, 1986, 15(2), 22-236.
. . . The first of a two part article deals with the physical aspects of security. The second part will deal with operational aspects. This first article has a section on perimeter security and one on internal security and control. The first section covers the parking lot, building approach and steps, and yards, docks, and delivery areas. The second section covers entrance, waiting room, and reception area office; internal surveillance, sensors, and alarms; locks and keys; door closers; doors, elevators; windows; sound control and monitoring; and lighting.
A visual exploration apparatus for infant monkeys. Levin, E. D., Boehm,
K. M., Hagquist, W. W., & Bowman, R. E. (Dept. of Psychology,
University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024.) American
Journal of Primatology, 1986, 10, 195-199.
. . . The apparatus consisted of an enclosed two-chamber box with a peephole at each end. The floor was made of stainless steel bars, and the walls and top were made of Plexiglas covered with Masonite. The peepholes were recessed in alcoves. An infrared photobeam crossed the alcoves in from of each peephole so that whenever the monkey looked out its head broke the photobeam. Slides of complex scenes were projected on back-lit frosted plexiglas screens. The monkey's position in the box was monitored by its resistance across the floor bars. Whenever the monkey went from one side of the box to the other, a new slide was projected on the side just entered. The session progressed until either 40 slides had been displayed on each side or 30 minutes had elapsed. The primary behavioral measures taken were session length, number of slides displayed, time spent looking, number of looks, and time spent looking at the first slide on each side. Several other performance measures were derived from these basic measures; time looked/slide, number of looks/slide, and average length of look (time looked/number of looks). The monkeys readily performed in this apparatus, looking out through the peepholes for an average of about 14% of each session with attentional episodes of just under 3 seconds.
Physiology and Behavior
Space or novelty?: Effects of altered cage size on Galago
behavior. Nash, L. T. and Chilton, S.-H. (Dept. of Anthropology,
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85278.) American Journal of
Primatology, 1986, 10, 37-49.
. . . The influences of cage size and novelty on the behavior of Galago senegalensis braccatus were examined in two captive groups (five adults and one immature per group) having similarly furnished but unequally sized cages. One group experienced expansion, and the other experience contraction of space. Each group experienced the novelty of a new cage and return to its old cage. Exploration, nonsocial activity, and social sniffing behaviors were most frequent in both groups during the novelty phase independent of cage size. These behaviors remained elevated after return to the original cage. This pattern indicated that novelty, not space, was responsible for these behavioral changes. The increase in social sniffing indicated that group members may use olfactory cues to recognize each other, especially when the setting is novel. In both groups, frequencies of displacements and chases were highest in the smaller space. Group differences in behavior prior to cage changes also influenced a group's response to change.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
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The following two species have been proposed by the Fish and Wildlife Service for listing as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (10-25-85): The buff tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus aurita) and the southern bearded sake ( Chiropotes satanas satanas). The marmoset is found in very low numbers in an extremely small area in southeastern Brazil. This primate depends entirely on forest habitat, nearly all of which already has been cleared for agriculture, logging, and industrial purposes. The subspecies of saki is found south of the Amazon River in east-central Brazil. It depends on tropical rain forests, and seems partial to undisturbed habitat. Due to the region's rapidly growing human population, the saki's range is disappearing. Exploitation is another threat to this species; historically, primates have been heavily exploited for commercial and scientific purposes. Further, the tail of the southern bearded saki is used by some people as a duster, and was being commonly sold in the city of Belem, Brazil in the late 1970's.
The listing proposal was based upon data gathered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), whose Conservation Monitoring Centre in the United Kingdom draws upon authorities from around the world. The two species are already classified as endangered in The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book.
If the listing proposal becomes final, these animals will receive the protection authorized for foreign animals under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. It is illegal for any person under U.S. jurisdiction to take, import or export, or engage in international or interstate trade in endangered species without an FWS permit. Further, it is illegal to possess, sell or transport any such wildlife that has been taken in violation of the Act. [As reported in the January 1986 issue of Endangered Species (Technical Bulletin Reprint from the Wildlife Management Center, School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan.)]
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Niles Bernick, Science Policy Branch, NIMH, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm 6C 15, Rockville, MD 20857.
Pierre A. Conti, Research Animal Facility (M.S. 436), Hahnemann University, Broad & Vine Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19102-1192.
U. M. Cowgill, P.O. Box 2047, Midland, MI 48641-2047.
J. James Cunningham, 91 Clearview, Daly City, CA 94015.
Ardith A. Eudey, 164 Dayton Street, Upland, CA 91786.
Linda Hermann, Center for Disease Control, P.O. Box 363, Lawrenceville, GA 30245.
Greysolynne Hyman, 4029 Bamburgh Lane, Apex, NC 27502.
Irving W. McConnell, Schering-Plough Corp., P.O. Box 32, Lafayette, NJ 07848.
Robert W. Summers, Box 1322, Cave Junction, OR 97523-1322.
Stanley N. Wampler, 1800 N.E. Savanna Rd., Jensem Beach, FL 33457.
William, R. Voss, U.T.S.C.C. Science Park, Vet. Res. Div., Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602-9735.
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NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
We are grateful to Linda Straw Coelho of San Antonio, Texas, for providing the cover drawing of a slow loris, Nycticebus coucang.
Copyright @1986 by Brown University
Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor: Janice E. Viticonte