Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Current Conservation and Biomedical Research Status of Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), by N. K. Clapp & S. D. Tardif........1

News, Information, and Announcements

Letters: Range of Cercocebus albigena in Kenya........3

Symposium: Improving the Quality of Life of Laboratory Primates........4

Warning Regarding Anti-Malarials........6

Animal Research Information Source ........7

Animal Welfare Act Regulations Delayed........7

Primate Field Research Opportunities........7

Workshop on Habitat Breeding........7

News Briefs........8
. . . Support for National Chimpanzee Breeding and Research Program; Activists' Appeal Denied in Federal Court

Career Opportunity........9

AAALAC News........18


Recent Books and Articles ........10

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Current Conservation and Biomedical Research Status of Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)

Neal K. Clapp and Suzette D. Tardif
Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Recent information regarding the potential for flooding of the last remaining natural habitat of the cotton-top tamarin in northwestern Colombia (Cequera, 1985) emphasizes the dilemma of this species. On one hand, conservationists are justifiably concerned that the species could conceivably face extinction. With their concern for the preservation of as many endangered species as possible and with limited resources, the capacity for zoos to maintain a large, genetically diverse cotton-top tamarin population is limited. On the other hand, several large colonies (>100 animals) in captivity are associated with biomedical research programs. Certainly, the cotton-top offers rare biological models for the study of viral infectivity (Epstein Barr Virus), inflammatory bowel disease (colitis) and spontaneous colon cancer. However, another dilemma exists: the cotton-top tamarin is a satisfactory animal model for the study of diseases that may relate to human problems only if it is available in significant numbers. The endangered species status further restricts study of this animal model for disease because proposed invasive studies thus become infeasible.

However, the interest of biomedical researchers in this species may now aid in its conservation. The necessity for breeding the cotton-top tamarin in captivity has focused interest on breeding problems that have resulted in improved survival of colony-born young (survival in the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) colony was 50-70% of live births from 1976-1985). Other large colonies have experienced similar trends. More importantly, successful reproduction by captive-born animals has been reported from a number of colonies (Kirkwood et al., 1985; Snowdon, Savage, & McConnell, 1985; Tardif, Carson, & Clapp, in press). Thus, long-term successful breeding offers potential solutions to some problems, including improved survival due to the protected environment of research colonies and stable populations that can be used as founder stock for other colonies. Further, research colonies provide animals for studies that can address the unique biological susceptibilities of these nonhuman primates and that can ultimately control and/or eliminate the diseases that threaten the species' survival in captivity. The research colonies become a viable source for replacement breeding stock for smaller colonies (e.g., zoos) and a source of clinical, husbandry, nutritional, and behavioral knowledge that can be utilized by all colonies.

A long-range major concern involves developing a strategy for future breeding of the cotton-top tamarin in captivity: potentially disastrous inbreeding of small colony populations using limited numbers of founder stock must be avoided. One of us (SDT), in conjunction with Gerald Aquilina (Buffalo Zoo) and Rob Colley (Penscynor Wild Life Park), has successfully coordinated the establishment of an international studbook with genealogical information contributed by seven research colonies and about 50 zoos (Tardif, 1986). The endorsement of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the International Union of Directors of Zoological Gardens has merged both the conservation and biomedical research communities in working toward the common goal of preservation of this endangered species.

Several pertinent questions that were raised by W. R. Kingston (1986) about the cotton-top tamarin have been addressed in recent publications; others remain to be answered. Spontaneous colon cancer has now been reported in at least 8 different colonies, including two zoo populations (Clapp, unpublished information, 1986). These colonies operate with a wide variety of husbandry conditions, dietary regimens, and housing conditions (from individual housing to large family caging), and even exist on two different continents. From this evidence and a variety of published reports (Chalifoux & Bronson, 1981; Kirkwood, Pearson, & Epstein, in press; Clapp, Lushbaugh, Humason, Gangaware, Henke, & McArthur, 1985; Clapp, Lushbaugh, Humason, Gangaware, & Henke, 1985), the cotton-top tamarin, unlike two other tamarin and marmoset species (Saguinus fuscicollis and Callithrix jacchus) at ORAU, apparently has a hereditary component that makes it susceptible to colon cancer development at very high incidences (35% in the ORAU colony); the relative age of onset and the high susceptibility are comparable to the teenage and early adult susceptibility observed in the familial polyposis coli and cancer family syndromes in humans (Lynch et al., 1983). The lack of colon cancer in the two other callitrichid species that are housed in the same rooms under identical conditions at ORAU further point to a unique (and as yet unexplained) species susceptibility of the cotton-top. The incrimination of any environmental factor(s) lacks supportive evidence at this time. In addition, all three ORAU-housed species develop inflammatory bowel disease (colitis). Although some exchange of breeder loan animals is in place between the University of Wisconsin colony and the ORAU colony, most of the animals in the 8 different colonies have had no known contact since their importation from the wild.

In part, as a result of the ORAU-hosted workshop, "Is the Marmoset an Experimental Model for the Study of Gastrointestinal Disease?", as discussed by van Kruinigen (1984), a number of investigators are addressing the following questions: (1) What etiological relationship, if any, exists between colitis and colon cancer? (2) What factors affect the development of colitis (species, age, source of animal, colon cancer, etc.)? (3) Do physiological differences exist in the colon (e.g., mobility, innervation, etc.) that can explain the species differences? (4) Are markers identifiable that can be used prognostically to predict disease-susceptible individuals or the time of onset? (5) Can morphological and/or functional changes be identified in the susceptible tissues to predict or explain the expression of these diseases? (6) Is the entire cotton-top tamarin species at the same risk for colon cancer or are there familial traits that contribute to tumor expression? Many of these questions are being addressed by interdisciplinary collaborative efforts using the cotton-top tamarin; this information may also be used to better understand the similar diseases in humans and their ultimate control in both species. This is a situation wherein animal research to help humans will ultimately benefit the research animal whose life can then be saved or prolonged by research discoveries.

We would stress the need to unite our efforts to thwart the actions (both active and passive) that might lead to further reduction in numbers of the wild population of cotton-top tamarins. The pressures upon biomedical research to solve disease problems (both animal and human) combined with the concerted efforts of conservationists may prevent the annihilation of the unique habitat and ultimately of the species in the wild. We offer our efforts to such a combined venture.


Cerquera, J. R. (1985). S.O.S. for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Primate Conservation, No. 6, 17-19.

Chalifoux, L. V. & Bronson, R. T. (1981). Colonic adenocarcinoma associated with chronic colitis in cotton-top marmosets, Saguinus oedipus. Gastroenterology, 80, 942-946.

Clapp, N. K., Littlefield, L. G., & Lushbaugh, C. C. (1982). Colon carconoma in subhuman primates. Gastroenterology, 83, 519.

Clapp, N. K., Lushbaugh, C. C., Humason, G. L., Gangaware, B. L. & Henke, M. A. (1985). Natural history and pathology of colon cancer in Saguinus oedipus oedipus. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 30, 107S-113S.

Clapp, N. K., Lushbaugh, C. C., Humason, G. L., Gangaware, B. L., Henke, M. A., & McArthur, A. H. (1985). The marmoset as a model of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. In J. R. F. Ingall & A. Mastromarino (Eds.), Colorectal Cancer and Its Precursors (Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Vol. 186) (pp. 247-261). New York: Alan R. Liss.

Kingston, W. R. (1986). Cotton tops, colitis, colon cancer and conservation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 25[1], 1-3.

Kirkwood, J. K., Epstein, M. A., Terlecki, A. J., & Underwood, S. J. (1985). Rearing a second generation of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) in captivity. Laboratory Animals, 19, 269-272.

Kirkwood, J. K., Pearson, G. R., & Epstein, M. A. (in press). Adenocarcinoma of the large bowel and colitis in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus o. oedipus). Journal of Comparative Pathology.

Lynch, H. T., Lynch, P. M., Lynch, J. F., & Danes, B. S. (1983). What is hereditary colon cancer? In J. R. F. Ingall & A. J. Mastromarino (Eds.), Prevention of Hereditary Large Bowel Cancer (Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Vol. 15) (pp. 3-38). New York: Alan R. Liss.

Snowdon, C. T., Savage, A., & McConnell, P. B. (1985). A breeding colony of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Laboratory Animal Science, 35, 477-480.

Tardif, S. D. (1986). Status of the endangered cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) in captivity. Primate Report, 14, 241-242.

Tardif, S. D., Carson, R. L., & Clapp, N. K. (in press). Breeding performance of captive-born cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) females: Proposed explanations for colony differences. American Journal of Primatology.

van Kruinigen, H. J. (1984). Spontaneous disease of marmosets provides model for the study of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 23[2], 3-4.

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Authors' address: Marmoset Research Program, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117

This research was supported by NCI Contracts N01-CP-21004 and 51006, NIH Grant 2 S07 RR05746-12, a grant from National Foundation for Ileitis and Colitis, and Oak Ridge Associated Universities Corporation.

This manuscript was written by a contractor of the U.S. Government under Contract No. DE-AC05-76OR00033. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so for U.S. Government purposes.


Letters: Range of Cercocebus albigena in Kenya

On August 17, 1986, while traveling in the Oloololo region of the Masai Mara in Kenya, our party observed what we believe to be an authentic range extension for the black mangabey, Cercocebus albigena. We observed about two dozen black mangabeys cutting across a small valley in this part of the Mara which is in the western extremity and at about 6000 feet.

According to our perusal of the literature, this species has never been seen in Kenya, the nearest known range being approximately 150 miles away in the Bukoba district of northwestern Tanzania. The animals observed were ignoring nearby trees and making time across the surface of the ground. This is contrary to their usual arboreal habit, as reported in the literature. We had a good view of these animals, including the occipital crest and the strange unkempt appearance of the tail. There is no doubt in our minds that we were looking at Cercocebus albigena.

Perhaps the animals representing this range extension, which were first spotted by artist Ann Winterbotham of our party, and later by the rest of us, may represent a good sign concerning the success of this not very common species.

In an effort to ascertain whether others in the region might have observed this species, I asked a young Englishwoman who lives nearby if she had ever seen the animal. She said, yes, she had seen the "blue" or "purple" monkey. I asked was the animal she sighted a member of the genus Cercocebus. Her startling reply left me nonplussed. "How would I know, I'm not a homosexual."

Perhaps readers might be able to comment on their sightings of this animal. -- George R. Campbell, Chief Executive Officer, Land Use Ethics, Inc. P.O.Box 685, Sanibel, FL 33957.

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Symposium: Improving the Quality of Life of Laboratory Primates

A symposium on improving the quality of life of laboratory primates was held on August 25, 1986, as part of the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. It was sponsored by the Committee on Animal Research and Experimentation, and was organized by Evalyn F. Segal (Professor Emeritus, Psychology Dept., San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-0350).

The symposium presented empirical, data-based research on innovative ways to improve the quality of life of laboratory primates while furthering the research endeavor. Recently adopted ethical guidelines for animal research (APA, USPHS) reflect increased public concern over the handling, housing, and treatment of research animals. Psychological research has proved particularly a target of public criticism, largely because the public has a poor understanding of the potential and actual benefits of psychological research, relative to the overwhelmingly favorable press given to biomedical research. Within the area of animal behavior studies, primate research has been a favorite target of the "animal welfare community." Efforts to improve the quality of life of laboratory primates should go a long way to reassure the public (excepting extremists who are beyond the reach of reason) about the ethical commitment of psychologists to their primate subjects' welfare. Equally important, we can anticipate scientific benefits from changes in housing, handling, and experimental procedures that reduce stress and increase the reliability of data obtained in behavioral studies with laboratory primates. Research on alternate methodologies for primate behavior studies is proving to be itself a rich source of new knowledge and understanding about primate behavior. The following are abstracts of the papers presented.

The Interface Between Research and Environmental Enrichment

Two major points are offered for consideration in this paper. The first is that there is a clear need for careful documentation of the effects of attempts at environmental enrichment in terms of behavioral and physiological changes in the resident group of animals. While this is time-consuming and sometimes expensive work, it is essential that we search for methods that demonstrably improve the lives of animals in our care.

The second point to be addressed is that careful planning of enrichment activities may greatly enhance research in a number of ways. Animals that are active, rather than excessively sedentary, that are accustomed to exerting some control over their own life schedules, that have been challenged to solve problems, and that have had daily positive interactions with humans are almost always better research subjects than those that have lived under typical behaviorally impoverished caging conditions.

With a little care and planning, enrichment procedures can often be used as a form of pre-training, making the acquisition process during actual experimentation much less tedious for both researchers and subjects. For example, we are currently working in collaboration with one of the researchers in physiology to design devices with which the animals may entertain themselves in their home cages. These devices, which will allow the animals to deliver themselves juice treats whenever they wish, will also teach them how to respond to differential brightnesses in small stimuli. The researchers' work involves looking at brain stem and cerebellar responses during these visual responses.

We are dedicated to the idea that well-conceived basic research is essential and justifiable for enhancement of the lives of humans and other animals. We also believe that all of us have a responsibility to see that the animals used in such research are treated humanely, with respect to both protection from unnecessary injuries and protection from unnecessarily impoverished lives. -- Hal Markowitz (San Francisco State University) and Joseph S. Spinelli (University of California, San Francisco)

Enriching the Environment of Captively-Housed Primates: Issues and Problems

Over the last decade, researchers have become increasingly aware that the housing conditions in which a nonhuman primate is maintained can have a profound effect on that animal's development and behavior. This includes issues of lighting, cage construction, cage size, food provisioning, social grouping, environmental stimulation, and environmental control. With this recognition comes the task of determining what constitutes an "optimal" environment for a particular species of primate. Specifically, researchers must: 1. operationalize what is meant by "optimal" (this may vary depending upon research goals), 2. experimentally test environmental alterations (not just intuitively assume that an alteration is "better"), 3. establish an effective plan for assessing proposed changes in housing (this should include both behavioral and physiological measures which do not interfere with or mask the effects of the alteration itself), 4. determine how long such assessment is to be carried out (primates have both short- and long-term reactions to change), and 5. recognize that the effects of various alterations may not generalize to other species or to other social groups of the same species.

We examined four separate environmental alterations which we thought would enhance the well-being of captive, socially-housed rhesus monkeys. These were: 1. increasing pen space, 2. introducing lights which simulate the emission spectrum of the sun (Vita Lites), 3. varying the presence of manipulable objects, and 4. allowing monkeys to control the presentation of musical sounds. In each case, these alterations had both positive and negative consequences for the subjects as revealed by extensive behavioral and physiological measures. Given the broad scope of these manipulations, it is possible that other proposed changes will have both positive and negative features. This underscores the importance of using multiple assessment techniques and further suggests that researchers may have to weigh the benefits and drawbacks of various alterations and make choices. Finally, the generality of various environmental alterations across species and different groups within the same species needs to be examined further. -- Melinda A. Novak and Karla M. Drewsen (University of Massachusetts)

In the course of their evolution, nonhuman as well as human primates and all other animal forms have developed a number of strategic mechanisms with which they attempt to deal efficiently with varied demands of their feeding ecology. These ecological demand features include not only the total abundance of food and related resources, but their spatial and temporal distribution as well. Recent research on laboratory housed primates of several species, including bonnet and pigtail macaques and squirrel monkeys, indicates that subjects in each of these species make a variety of adjustments in their individual, maternal, and general social behavior in response to variations in the energetic costs of obtaining food. Individual meal patterns are adjusted in an economic manner, in terms of decreased wastage and reduction in the number of daily meals while meal size increases. Similarly, affiliative and agonistic social interactions may be more or less facilitated by appropriate manipulation of the pattern of food availability in the absence of any food deprivation. Careful assessment and manipulation of these parameters permit laboratory housed primates to utilize a variety of cognitive skills and to generate patterns of individual behavior and social interactions that more closely approximate the range of functions observed under wild conditions, enrich and enliven the daily lives of subjects, and serve and enhance the adaptive capacity of developing offspring. Thus these manipulations increase the psychological wellbeing of our primate subjects while humanely expanding the scope of meaningful research possibilities. -- Leonard A. Rosenblum (S.U.N.Y. Health Science Center at Brooklyn)

Outdoor Enclosures as Laboratory Environments for Macaque Monkeys

This paper examines the use of multi-acre outdoor enclosures as research settings for the study of biobehavioral development and social group dynamics in macaque monkey subjects. Rhesus monkeys and other macaque species have been studied extensively in numerous laboratory and field settings over the past 50 years, but each of these varied research environments has been associated with one or more major methodological challenges and practical limitations. For example, space restrictions almost always preclude complete reconstruction of species-normative social environments for studies in indoor laboratory settings, no matter how carefully the composition of the social group is selected and/or controlled or how ingenious the physical features of the environment might be. On the other hand, few field environments offer the researcher much opportunity to measure, let alone manipulate or control, the genetic pedigree of the subjects, the composition of their social group and its dynamics, and most physiological and cognitive processes that accompany everyday behavioral activities. An alternative approach is to utilize multi-acre outdoor enclosures that include provisioned shelter areas which allow experimenters access to individual subjects at preselected times. In such outdoor environments experimental manipulations and behavioral and physiological measurements can be carried out with the rigor and precision demanded of most laboratory studies on subjects who can experience the physical and social complexity provided by most feral environments while avoiding the problems of malnutrition, predation, and parasitic infection endemic in the wild. Ongoing research projects studying biobehavioral development, cognitive capabilities, communication patterns, and seasonal social dynamics in the new outdoor enclosures at the NICHD's Poolesville primate facilities will be presented as examples of the research opportunities available in settings attractive to primate subjects and experimenters alike. -- Stephen J. Suomi and Peggy O'Neill (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Following the papers, there was a discussion by Roger Fouts of Central Washington State University.

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Warning Regarding Anti-Malarials

Going to the tropics? Going to take anti-malarial tablets? Then beware! For a small proportion of people, quinine, quinine derivatives, and probably chloroquine are ototoxic: they "poison your hearing." Because this side-effect is rare, it is unknown to most physicians, including those that specialize in tropical medicine, but it is described in many standard medical textbooks on hearing. Two of us monkey-watchers have hearing damage that probably is due to anti-malarials.

Primary symptoms, which develop slowly over several years, are high-frequency hearing loss and "tinitis", a continuous buzzing or ringing sound.* Of course, each of these symptoms may have other causes. No cure is known and the damage seems to be permanent. In mild form, it may only interfere with music perception; in more severe form, with speech perception.

If you are going into a known malaria area, what can you do about this? There are several possibilities. (1) "Play the odds," i.e., take the usual chloroquine/primaquine tablets and count on the fact that very few people react adversely. (2) Take an anti-malarial that is not known to be ototoxic -- which is not to say that any are known not to be. Because most of the competition for quinine and chloroquine has not been used as long, unusual side-effects are not yet well-documented. Until recently, Fansidar was a possibility, but it often has other side-effects, sometimes quite severe, and warnings about its use have recently been issued by the Centers for Disease Control. Another prophylactic treatment, widely used in east Africa, consists of Maloprim (one tablet per week) plus Paludrine (one tablet daily). In any case many anti-malarials are not recommended for more than a year of continuous use. (3) A third possibility is to take anti-malarials only to cure malaria if you get it, not as a preventative. That is what most long-term residents in malarial areas do, but if you take this option, you should become very knowledgeable about the symptoms of malaria and should not hesitate to take anti-malarials when the symptoms appear: malaria is a killer!

Each option involves benefits and risks. Data on the latter has been changing rapidly in the last few years, and your choice of option should be based on the latest information. -- Stuart Altmann, Department of Biology, University of Chicago.


.*"The noise of cicadae is like having malaria and being full of quinine, an insane incessant shrilling noise that seems to come out of the ear drums. Soon one doesn't hear it, as one ceases to hear the fevered shrilling of quinine in the blood." -- Doris Lessing, The Golden Notebook.


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Animal Research Information Source

The Animal Strategy Group at the American Psychological Association's (APA) office in Washington, D.C. has compiled a significant amount of resource materials on animal research. This resource file is maintained by the Office of Scientific Affairs in consultation with the Office of Legislative Affairs and the Office of Public Affairs, and is consistent with the Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals. Resource materials have been assembled and categorized according to the needs of the general public, APA members, the media, legislators, and the scientific community. To obtain copies of any of the individual documents or packets of materials assembled by area of interest, please call William Bailey at 202-955-7742.

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Animal Welfare Act Regulations Delayed

Proposed rules implementing recent amendments to the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) have not yet appeared in the Federal Register. USDA originally expected draft revisions of Part 1 (Definitions) and Part 2 (Regulations) of existing AWA rules to be published this summer for public comment. However, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) staff now anticipate they will appear no sooner than early October. New requirements for exercise of dogs and the environment for nonhuman primates will not be included. As previously announced by APHIS, these provisions will be dealt with when the subsections on dogs and primates in Part 3 (Standards) of the current regulations are updated some time next year. When the proposed rules are published, a 60-day period for comments is expected.

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Primate Field Research Opportunities

Opportunities are available for field research on the behavior and ecology of yellow baboons in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Topics can be selected by the investigator, so long as they are compatable with ongoing and scheduled research by others. Investigators can be at any level: graduate, postdoctoral, or faculty. Some logistical support can be provided, but investigators must have independent financial resources for much of their research expenses and living costs. Because of scheduling restrictions, inquiries should be made as far in advance as possible. For a bibliography of previous research or further information about research opportunities, contact either Jeanne Altmann or Stuart Altmann, Department of Biology, University of Chicago, 940 E. 57th Street, Chicago IL 60637.

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Workshop on Habitat Breeding

A "Workshop on the Controlled and Natural Habitat Breeding of Nonhuman Primates" will be held at the Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) Center for Reproduction and Conservation of Nonhuman Primates in Iquitos, Peru, from 24-26 November, 1986.

The workshop is jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture of Peru, PAHO, the National Institutes of Health of the United States, and the Directors of Primate Centers of the United States. Part of the agenda of the workshop is the regular meeting of the Directors of Primate Centers.

After the opening ceremony, sessions will be held on the following: Breeding and Health; Semi-Captive Breeding; Laboratory; Natural Habitats; Benefits of the Projects on Rural Community Development; and Conservation Policy.

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News Briefs

Support for National Chimpanzee Breeding and Research Program

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has made 10 awards for cooperative agreements and research grants to support the national chimpanzee breeding and research program. Five awards for cooperative agreements, totalling about $4 million during the first year will be directed toward chimpanzee breeding and conservation in the United States. The five additional research grant awards will seek to improve the health, well-being, and productivity of captive chimpanzees that are critically needed for certain U.S. biomedical research and testing programs.

Awards for breeding projects were made to the University of Texas System Cancer Center's Science Park, Bastrop, TX; the Yerkes Regional Primate Center at Emory University, Atlanta, GA; The University of Southwestern Louisiana's New Iberia Research Center, New Iberia, LA; the Primate Foundation of Arizona, Tempe, AZ; and the New Mexico State University's Primate Research Institute, Holloman Air Force Base, Alamagordo, NM. Five research grants totalling about $500,000 were awarded to the University of Texas (2 awards), the University of Pittsburgh, the International Species Inventory System, and the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. The grants will support research in artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, genetics, cryopreservation of germ plasm, embryo transplantation, and improved colony management systems including husbandry, rearing, and geneological and demographic documentation.

The breeding projects are expected to produce about 60 infant chimpanzees each year, which will be used to meet future breeding and research needs. The projects must be in full compliance with the animal welfare policy of the United States Public Health Service and regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which administers provisions of the Animal Welfare Act. Chimpanzees in the projects will be bred in groups resembling their normal social structure in the wild, which is intended to provide optimal opportunities for full behavioral expression and development of offspring and assure their suitability as future breeders.

The chimpanzee is the only animal that can be infected with Human Immunosuppressive Virus (HIV or HTLV III), the virus that causes human AIDS. This makes the chimpanzee an irreplaceable human surrogate for developing and testing approaches, including the testing for safety and efficacy of experimental vaccines, that will be used to prevent and treat that disease. Many of the chimpanzees presently in the United States are approaching non-productive years, or have been used for research in ways that make them unsuitable for breeding. Furthermore, chimpanzees are considered a threatened species and have not been available from African countries of origin for research since 1973. Thus, the establishment of breeding projects was considered to be a "last chance" to assure that chimpanzees will continue to be available to meet AIDS, hepatitis, and other critical research needs of the future. The breeding and research awards represent the culmination of a nearly 10-year planning process involving U.S. government science sponsoring agencies and scientists, in which the need for chimpanzees and ways in which this need could be met for research and testing programs was carefully and extensively studied.

Individuals opposed to the use of animals in research have voiced objections to the chimpanzee breeding and research program in particular, asserting, incorrectly according to most knowledgeble scientists, that suitable non-animal models are available and that chimpanzees are not essential for research. It is not generally appreciated that such methods as cell and organ culture, the use of nonmammalian life forms, and mathematical and computer modeling are in common use. The use of such methods and models is a mainstay of research on AIDS along with the use of chimpanzees, other nonhuman primates, and other animals. NIH also commits significant funding toward the development of non-animal model systems. Each year about 25% of the total NIH grant awards are for research in which such methods are developed, refined, and used. This is because their use in many situations offers clear advantages over research on intact animals or complements such research. However, this work in isolation will not result in safe and effective applications in humans without the experimental use of chimpanzees and other mammalian species.

Activists' Appeal Denied in Federal Court

The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit on September 4, 1986 found that plaintiffs (three animal rights organizations and seven named individuals) lacked standing to bring a lawsuit against NIH and the Institute for Behavioral Resources (IBR) regarding the future of fifteen nonhuman primates owned by IBR (see July, 1986 issue of this Newsletter, p. 8). Therefore, the circuit court affirmed the judgment of the federal district court which dismissed the suit.

The twenty-page opinion written by Circuit Judge Wilkinson, on behalf of the three-judge panel which heard arguments, says in summary: "In this case we must decide whether a group of private individuals may challenge a medical researcher's compliance with federal standards for the care of laboratory animals. Because we find that the plaintiffs lack standing to bring such a lawsuit, we affirm the judgment of the district court in its dismissal of this action.

"To imply a cause of action in these plaintiffs might entail serious consequences. It might open the use of animals in biomedical research to the hazards and vicissitudes of courtroom litigation. It may draw judges into the supervision and regulation of laboratory research. It might unleash a spate of private lawsuits that would impede advances made by medical science in the alleviation of human suffering. To risk consequences of this magnitude in the absence of clear direction from the Congress would be ill-advised. In fact, we are persuaded that Congress intended that the independence of medical research be respected and that administrative enforcement govern the Animal Welfare Act."

The amicus curiae brief filed by sixty-nine organizations on behalf of the research community is cited in the written decision and the points it raised appear to have been well understood by the court. The opinion thoroughly rejects all arguments on which the activists' case was based. No dissent on the part of the panel of judges is referenced.

The only remaining legal remedy open to the plaintiffs is an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. Whether this last step will be taken is unknown at this time.

Meanwhile, the National Institutes of Health had moved the fifteen IBR primates from NIH's animal center to the Delta Regional Primate Research Center in Louisiana. The animals, with veterinarian and animal care staff escorts, arrived at the private facility associated with Tulane University on June 24.

This action did not change the fact of IBR's ownership. NIH remains the custodian of the animals with Delta assisting NIH in this role.

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Career Opportunity

Gorilla Keeper needed immediately to care for Koko and Michael, two lowland gorillas engaged in interspecies communication research. Experience with great apes, preferably gorillas, required. American Sign Language preferred. Career growth expected as The Gorilla Foundation pursues breeding programs and works to establish social colony on large gorilla preserve. Legitimate research purposes require female only. Contact: Dr. Francine Patterson, The Gorilla Foundation, Box 620-530, Woodside, CA 94062.

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Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


Use of Time and Resources by Provisioned Troops of Monkeys: Social Behaviour, Time and Energy in the Barbary Macaque Macaca Sylvanus L.) at Gibraltar (Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 23). John E. Fa. Basel: Karger, 1986. 377 pp. [Price: $86.50]
. . . Contents: I. Introduction. II. Background. III. Social Behaviour, Time and Energy in a Provisioned Troop of Monkeys. IV. Conclusions.

The Cayo Santiago Macaques: History, Behavior and Biology. Richard G. Rawlins & Matt J. Kessler (Eds.). Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986. 306 pp. [Price: paperbound, $14.95; clothbound, $39.50]
. . . This volume is based on a special symposium entitled "Recent Research on Cayo Santiago," held to commemorate the 45th anniversary of the founding of this first American colony of free-ranging rhesus monkeys. The papers were delivered at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists. Contents: The history of the Cayo Santiago colony, by R. G. Rawlins & M. J. Kessler. Demography of the free-ranging Cayo Santiago macaques (1976-1983), by R. G. Rawlins & M. J. Kessler. Maternal lineages as tools for understanding infant social development and social structure, by C. M. Berman. Social development in a congenitally blind infant rhesus macaque, by C. E. Scanlon. Vocal communication: A vehicle for the study of social relationships, by H. Gouzoules, S. Gouzoules, & P. Marler. Proximate causes of male emigration at puberty in rhesus monkeys, by J. D. Colvin. Seasonal differences in the spatial relations of adult male rhesus macaques, by D. A. Hill. Why do adult male and female rhesus monkeys affiliate during the birth season? by B. Chapais. Lineage-specific mating: Does it exist? by C. A. McMillan. Hair mineral content as an indicator of mineral intake in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by B. M. Marriott, J. C. Smith, Jr., R. M. Jacobs, A. O. Lee Jones, R. G. Rawlins, & M. J. Kessler. Age-dependent impairments of the rhesus monkey visual and musculoskeletal systems and apparent behavioral consequences, by C. J. DeRousseau, L. Z. Bito, & P. L. Kaufman. Joint mobility as a function of age in free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by J. E. Turnquist. The golden rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago, by M. J. Kessler, R. G. Rawlins, & P. L. Kaufman. An overview of blood group genetic studies on the Cayo Santiago rhesus monkeys, by C. R. Duggleby, P. A. Haseley, R. G. Rawlins, & M. J. Kessler. Cayo Santiago bibliography (1938-1985), by M. J. Kessler & R. G. Rawlins. Postscript--Cayo Santiago poem, by M. J. Kessler.

The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Jane Goodall. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986. 673 pp. [Price: $30]
. . . This book is a comprehensive summary of Jane Goodall's 26 years of studying chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. It contains photographs, maps, tables, graphs, and data samples, as well as anecdotes and descriptions. The chapter titles are: 1. The darkness lifts. 2. The mind of the chimpanzee. 3. Research at Gombe. 4. Who's who. 5. Demographic changes. 6. Communication. 7. A unique society. 8. Relationships. 9. Ranging patterns. 10. Feeding. 11. Hunting. 12. Aggression. 13. Friendly behavior. 14. Grooming. 15. Dominance. 16. Sexual behavior. 17. Territoriality. 18. Object manipulation. 19. Social awareness.

Gavagai! Or the Future History of the Animal Language Controversy. David Premack. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1986. 164 pp. [Price: $12.50]
. . . This book examines the complex skein of arguments, put forth since Darwin's time, over whether we are unique because we can talk. The book examines the arguments of the biologists interested in the evolutionary significance of "talking" chimpanzees, the problems confronted by linguists trying to determine what language is, and the theories entertained by psycholinguists and philosophers.

The Case for Animal Experimentation: An Evolutionary and Ethical Perspective. Michael Allen Fox. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. 262 pp. [Price: $18.95]
. . . The author attempts to apply the methods of philosophy to questions concerning the morality of animal experimentation.

Silent Partners: The Legacy of the Ape Language Experiments. Eugene Linden. New York: Times Books, 1986. 247 pp. [Price: $17.95]
. . . A discussion of the ape-language experiments, focusing on what was done with the subjects when the projects ended. The author questions the morality of raising animals in "culturally enriched" environments, then putting them into zoos, laboratories, or even natural or naturalistic environments.


Anesthesia and Sedation of Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography Selected for Colony Veterinarians, 1970-1985. 2nd ed. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (180 citations, primate index) [Price $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]

Cerebral Blood Flow--Physiologic, Pathologic & Pharmacologic Studies in the Nonhuman Primate: A Bibliography, 1976-1986. B. Caminiti & J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (392 citations, primate & selected subject indices) [Price: $10.00. Ordering information same as above.]

Enzymes of the Central Nervous System of Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1970-1986. B. Caminiti & J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (322 citations, primate & selected subject indices) [Price $8.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Hemodynamics (Non-cerebral) of the Conscious Nonhuman Primates: Physiologic, Pharmacologic, and Pathologic Studies: A Bibliography, 1965-1986. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (271 citations, primate & subject indices) [Price: $7.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Hemodynamics of the Conscious Nonhuman Primates: Conditioning and Behavioral Correlates: A Bibliography, 1965-1986. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (174 citations, primate & subject indices) [Price $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Nonhuman Primate Exposure to Hazardous Radionuclides: A Bibliography, 1940-1986. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (105 citations, primate & radionuclides indices) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Teeth and Periodontium of Nonhuman Primates, Spontaneous Diseases and Dental Health Management: A Bibliography, 1970-1986. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (133 citations, primate & subject indices) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Newsletters and Reports

Primate Conservation: The Newsletter and Journal of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, No. 7, April, 1986. (Subscription: $15, payable to World Wildlife Fund. Order from WWF Primate Program, Dept. of Anatomical Sciences, HSC, State Univ. New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794.)
. . . This issue includes sections on Announcements, News from the Field, News from Captivity, and articles dealing with conservation in various parts of the world.

Action Plan for African Primate Conservation: 1986-90. Washington, D.C.: World Wildlife Fund Primate Program and IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1986. 41 pp. [Price: $10 plus $1 postage. Order from Publications Dept--86, WWF, 1255 Twenty-third Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037.]
. . . This booklet, compiled by J. F. Oates and illustrated by S. D. Nash, establishes priorities for surveys and reserve management programs to protect African primates, which are critical to the ecosystem as well as to the study of human evolution. African primates are listed, the degree of endangerment to each species assessed, and the distribution of distinct primate communities reviewed. Projects to protect primates are then identified and ranked for the purpose of establishing priorities for action.

Primate Eye, No. 29, June 1986. (Primate Society of Great Britain).
. . . The issue includes, among other things: Abstracts from the Spring Scientific Meeting; Observations on a group of captive chimpanzees released into a natural environment, by A. Hannah; How high is a \'higher' primate? by S. K. Bearder; The British Library of Wildlife Sounds; The Digit Fund: Call for a research director and researchers for Karisoke Research Centre; and Ph.D. and M. Sc. thesis abstracts.

Primate Report, No. 14, July, 1986. (Published in cooperation with the German Primate Center (DPZ).) [Price: $8]
. . . This issue consists of abstracts of papers presented at the XIth. Congress of the International Primatological Society, 20-25 July, 1986, Göttingen, FRG. The editor for this issue was M. Schwibbe.

REP: Annual Report 1985. Rijswick, The Netherlands: Organization for Health Research TNO, 1986.
. . . This is the annual report of the REP Institutes, which stands for the Radiobiological Institue TNO, Institute for Experimental Gerontology TNO, and Primate Center TNO, Rijswick Z.H., The Netherlands. Of the many short notes describing the accomplishments of the organization, the following are concerned with primates: IMMUNOLOGY AND TRANSPLANTATION BIOLOGY. Susceptibility and resistance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and its treatment with monoclonal antibodies in the rhesus monkey, by R. van Lambalgen, M. Jonker, J. den Brok, & E. A. van der Linden. RhT3, a polymorphic CD3-like cell surface antigen expressed on rhesus monkey T lymphocytes, by F. J. M. Nooij. Immunodeficiency syndrome in rhesus monkeys induced by a type D retrovirus, by W. van Vreeswijk, M. C. Nort, H. Niphuis, L. J. Lowenstine, & A. A. van Es. ETHOLOGY. Regulation of nursing in chimpanzees, by H. Dienske & W. van Vreeswijk. Comparison of breeding performance between laboratory reared and feral rhesus monkeys, by A. Kortleven & C. Goosen. The influence of ethanol concentration on the drinking of alcoholic beverage by rhesus monkeys, by M. Kornet, C. Goosen, J. M. van Ree, & L. G. Ribbens.


Current Issues in Primate Conservation. M. F. Stevenson, D. J. Chivers, & J. C. Ingram (Eds.). Primate Eye, No. 29 (Suppl.), 1-67, June, 1986.
. . . The proceedings of a symposium held at the Zoological Society of London on 7th December, 1985. Contents: Introduction, by M. F. Stevenson; Ecological giants, conservation dwarfs and reconciling the irreconcilable? -- A comment on primate ecology, by J. E. Fa; Local attitudes to wildlife and conservation, by A. H. Harcourt & H. Pennington; Tourism and gorillas in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, by J. R. Wilson; Primate conservation in West Africa, by J. F. Oates & A. G. Davies; Primate conservation in Madagascar, by J. I. Pollock; The conservation status of Indonesian primates, by K. S. MacKinnon; Conservation status of Sarawak's primates, by E. L. Bennett, J. O. Caldecott, M. Kavanagh, & A. Sebastian; Current issues in Amazonian primate conservation, by A. D. Johns; Some aspects of social problems facing conservation in Brazil, by J. M. Ayres; A note on the successful breeding and reintroduction of Leontopithecus rosalia with special reference to an international recovery programme and management committee for Leontopithecus chrysomelas, by J. J. C. Mallinson; Captive breeding and conservation, by G. M. Mace; A survey of non-human primate stocks in the U.K.: Implications for conservation and research, by T. B. Poole & H. O. Box; Concluding discussion, by D. J. Chivers.

New Journals

Reichorui-Kenkyu [Primate Research]. Published twice a year, in June and December, by the Primate Society of Japan.
. . . This new journal, almost entirely in Japanese, has an overseas subscription rate of 6000 Yen for individuals or 11,000 Yen for institutions. Subscription orders should be addressed to: Treasurer, Primate Society of Japan, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi-484, Japan.
. . . The following articles, in Japanese and usually without abstracts in other languages, appeared in the first 2 issues (Vol. 1, No. 1-2): Birth of the Primate Society of Japan, by M. Kawai; Japanese primatology in retrospect and in prospect, by J. Itani; New frontier on brain research, by Y. Tsukada; A scientific and ethical view of the use of non-human primates for bio-medical experiment, by S. Honjo; On the start and background of the Primate Society of Japan, by Y. Sugiyama; Vernacular and scientific names of primates (Part 1: Macaques), by M. Iwamoto. The following appeared in Vol. 2, No. 1: A series of short articles under the general title "Molecular approach to phylogeny and evolution of primates", by O. Takenaka, et al.; Actual status of scientific uses of primates in Japan, by M. Minezawa, S. Gotoh, T. Matsuzawa, & S. Azuma; Japanese macaque: The present state of conservational policy for them, by M. Fujisaki, et al.; Vernacular and scientific names of primates (Part 2: Guenons, mangabeys and baboons), by M. Iwamoto; On the case of Dr. Edward Taub, by K. Kubota; A report on a symposium "Primates: The road to self-sustaining populations, 1985", by K. Hashiba; Window of nature conservation, by T. Nishida & H. Nigi.


The hormonal control of sexual behaviour in primates. Dixson, A. F. (Dept. of Reproduction, Inst. of Zoology, Wellcome Labs of Comparative Physiology, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, England.) Oxford Reviews of Reproductive Biology, 1983, 5, 131-219.
. . . Although the behavioral endocrinology of primates has received less attention than research on their anatomy, social organization, and ecology, there is now sufficient information to warrant a comparative review on the subject of hormones and primate sexual behavior. A figure is presented that summarizes the field and laboratory data on relationships between sexual behavior and reproductive endocrinology for the 51 genera of living primates. The majority of studies have involved Old World monkeys and the great apes. Knowledge of the colobine monkeys, lesser apes, New World primates, and prosimians is less complete, but particular species have been studied in some detail either in the field or in captivity. The purpose of this chapter is to review the evidence which relates to five major areas: (1) Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior in primates. (2) Hormonal effects upon proceptivity, receptivity, and female sexual attractiveness. (3) Hormonal effects upon behavior in the adult male. (4) Effects of sexual stimuli upon endocrine function in adult primates. (5) The neurotransmitter systems which control sexual behavior.
. . . The first section of the chapter deals with the patterns of sexual behavior themselves, how they are defined, and how they vary among prosimians, monkeys, and apes.

Studbook of gibbons held in the British Isles and Ireland. Badham, M. Atherstone, Warwicks., England: Twycross Zoo, 1985. 16 pp.

Survey of greater anthropoid apes in the British Isles and Ireland: Studbook of chimpanzees. Badham, M. Atherstone, Warwicks., England: Twycross Zoo, 1986. 37 pp.

Technique for hand-rearing and reintroducing rejected cotton-top tamarin infants. Dronzek, L. A., Savage, A., Snowdon, C. T., Whaling, C. S., & Ziegler, T. E. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.) Laboratory Animal Science, 1986, 36, 243-247.
. . . During a one year period, 7 rejected cotton-top tamarin infants were hand-reared. A hand-rearing program was developed which included the use of heated surrogates, a non-human primate infant formula, special nipples, and a systematic reintroduction into a family group. This regimen was quite successful. The hand-rearing process yielded a success rate of 75%, while the reintroduction process had a success rate of 80% for reintroduction into a family group and 100% survival rate.

Lactation and reproduction in non-human primates. Hearn, J. P. (Inst. of Zoology, Zoological Soc. of London, London NW1 4RY, England.) Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 1984, 51, 327-335.
. . . The primates have evolved a variety of reproductive strategies in order to maintain their populations in equilibrium with environmental constraints. Lactation is involved as the principal natural method of regulating fertility. Man has dispensed with natural constraints and now relies to a large part on artificial methods of fertility control. The great apes and other non-seasonal breeding Old World species maintain long interbirth intervals through lactation, extended by frequent, short suckling bouts. The rhesus monkey and other primates from more temperate zones are seasonal breeders, with the gestation and lactation periods synchronized to a one-year cycle under adequate environmental conditions, governed principally by photoperiod. The marmoset monkey and other non-seasonal New World species exhibit no suppression of fertility by lactation, but they have evolved an alternative system of regulating fertility by dominance--suppression of reproductive cyclicity in subordinate females.

The influence of birth timing upon infant growth and survival in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Small, M. F. & Smith, D. G. [Dept. of Anthropology and California Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616.] International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 289-304.
. . . Weights, growth rates, and mortality data of 815 captive-born Macaca mulatta infants were studied to determine if date of birth influences infant growth and survival. The 6 groups studied displayed a unimodal spring-summer birth season that has become systematically more restricted since 1977. Males exhibited higher rates of stillbirth and neonatal death and were more frequently born outside the normal birth season, when infant mortality was more common. Within the normal birth season, infant weight increased linearly with birth date, and infant growth rate declined linearly with birth date. Female infants with weights and growth rates near the developmental norm, especially those born in the middle of the birth season, have the greatest probability of survival. Males are more likely to survive if their weights and growth rates exceed the developmental norm, and thus male infants might be initially more costly to produce than female infants. These results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that offspring of high-ranking males, which are conceived predominantly in the first third of the breeding season, enjoy a selective advantage.

Female age: Male preference and reproductive success in primates. Anderson, C. M. (Anthropology Dept., 4 Yager Hall, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY 13820.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 305-326.
. . . A survey of the literature on male sexual preferences according to the age of the female partner supported the hypothesis that adult males should prefer older females of higher parity. Reproductive success was also surveyed by age and parity, and younger females of lower parity were universally found to have lower success than older females of higher parity. This appears to be true for either age or parity independently, as well as in combination. These findings are discussed and applied to human societies, where similar trends would be expected.


Intracardiac and aortic thrombi in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Kessler, M. J. & London, W. T. (Carribbean Primate Res. Ctr., P. O. Box 1053, Saba&ntilda;a Seca, PR 00749.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 259-266.
. . . Massive intracardiac or aortic mural thrombi, probably of septic origin, occurred in six capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and accounted for 26% of all adult deaths in a breeding group over a 4-yr period. Previous experimental innoculations with herpes simplex type 2 virus may have contributed to the development of these fatal lesions.

Evaluation of a ventricular septal defect in an orangutan: A case report. Cook, R. A., Sheppardson, P., McGinn, M., Roskop, M. L., & Wong, B. Y. (Animal Health Ctr., New York Zoo. Soc., Bronx, NY 10460.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 303-308.
. . . A 15-year-old male Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pymaeus abeli) with a history of an interventricular septal defect was evaluated with cardiac catheterization and two-dimensional echocardiography. Results demonstrated that by Homo sapiens standards the right heart pressures were normal. The oxygen saturations were consistent with a small ventricular septal defect. Echocardiography demonstrated a slight enlargement of the right ventricle.

Naturally occurring lesions in some endocrine glands of laboratory maintained baboons (Papio sp.). Skelton-Stroud, P. N. & Ishmael, J. (Ciba-Geigy Pharmaceuticals, Stamford Lodge, Altrincham Rd., Wilmslow, Cheshire, UK.) Veterinary Pathology, 1986, 23, 380-385.
. . . The pituitary gland was examined from 623 immature baboons (Papio cynocephalus and Papio anubis). Findings included microscopic cysts in the pars distalis (132), pars intermedia (two) and pars nervosa (one). In 641 necropsies five cases of unilateral thyroid glands were noted. Microscopic thyroid lesions included ectopic thymus (328), minor lymphocytic infiltrates (14) and cysts (two). Parathyroid lesions consisted of ectopic thymus (73) and cysts (24). Dilated capillaries in the islets of Langerhans was the only microscopic change seen in the endocrine pancreas. All lesions generally occurred in both untreated control and treated baboons at similar incidences. They were considered to be naturally occurring, a part of the "background" pathology of these endocrine glands in immature baboons.

Susceptibility of tamarin (Saguinus labiatus) red blood cell membrane lipids to oxidative stress: Implications for wasting marmoset syndrome. Gutteridge, J. M. C., Taffs, L. F., Hawkey, C. M., & Rice-Evans, C. (Natl. Inst. for Biol. Standards & Control, Holly Hill, Hampstead NW3 6RB, England.) Laboratory Animals, 1986, 20, 140-147.
. . . Captive Callitrichids frequently suffer a fatal wasting disease, wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS), of unexplained cause. This paper describes studies on the erythrocytes from animals in a breeding colony of tamarins in which deaths from anemia and wasting were occurring, to seek evidence for biochemical changes which could lead to oxidative damage and premature cell lysis. In only one animal of 33 studied did the red blood cell lipids show an increased susceptibility to oxidative damage. This animal, with some degree of certainty, could be diagnosed as having WMS. It was concluded that evidence for a primary deficiency of antioxidants as a cause of unexplained deaths, or WMS, in the colony could not at present be substantiated.

Rapid diagnosis and management of parainfluenza I virus infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Sutherland, S., Almeida, J. D., Gardner, P. S., Skarpa, M., & Stanton, J. (Wellcome Res. Labs, Langley Court, South Eden Park Rd., Beckenham, Kent BR3 3BS, England.) Laboratory Animals, 1986, 20, 121-126. (German summary)
. . . During 1983 a severe episode of respiratory infection occurred in a marmoset colony at these laboratories. Of 91 marmosets, 69 showed clinical signs of disease, one died and 9 were so ill that euthanasia was necessary. 8 were examined post mortem and all showed consolidation of the lungs. Laboratory studies revealed an interstitial pneumonia in seven animals examined histologically. Direct electron microscopy of nasal swabs and lung samples revealed the presence of a high titre of a paramyxovirus, and subsequent immunofluorescence studies established that the particular paramyxovirus involved was parainfluenza virus type I. Subsequent studies showed that surviving affected animals had seroconverted to parainfluenza I virus while animals that had not been implicated in the outbreak had not.

Control of Shigella flexneri in Celebes black macaques (Macaca nigra). Olson, L. C., Bergquist, D. Y., & Fitzgerald, D. L. (Oregon Regional Primate Research Ctr., 505 Northwest 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006.) Laboratory Animal Science, 1986, 36, 240-242.
. . . Stool specimens collected systematically from a group of Celebes black macaques with a high incidence of diarrhea were examined microbiologically. Numerous isolates of Shigella flexneri, Campylobacter jejuni and pathogenic Escherichia coli were recovered. Previous parasitology reports had revealed that the majority of the animals had Balantidium coli. Subsequently, the group was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, and tetracycline. After treatment, Shigella flexneri was not detected in the stool of any animal for 1 year, and the clinical condition of the group was improved. Reduced recovery rates were obtained with other enteric pathogens.

Nutritional deficiency anemias in nonhuman primates. Wixson, S. K., & Griffith, J. W. (Dept. of Comp. Medicine, Penn. State Univ., M. S. Hershey Med. Ctr., Hershey, PA 17033.) Laboratory Animal Science, 1986, 36, 231-236.
. . . A review of past studies in which anemias occurred spontaneously in nonhuman primates due to feeding inadequate diets or were induced by feeding diets deficient in a nutrient. Included is a review of anemias induced by deficiencies of iron, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, protein, riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol. The anemia induced by deficiency of each nutrient is discussed with emphasis on the major clinical signs as well as peripheral blood and bone marrow pathology. Results of supplementation of the diet following induction of deficiency states are discussed also. Whenever applicable, a discussion is included of the use of nonhuman primates as animal models for studies simulating parallel nutritional deficiencies in man.

Verminous vasculitis, pneumonia and pulmonary infarction in a cynomolgus monkey after treatment with ivermectin. Kornegay, R. W., Giddens, W. E. Jr., Morton, W. R., & Knitter, G. H. (Div. of Animal Medicine, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.) Laboratory Animal Science, 1986 36, 45-47.
. . . An apparently healthy cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) died 2 hours after routine inhalation anesthesia and implantation of a femoral catheter. Gross necropsy findings included patchy raised areas of severe pulmonary hemorrhage and consolidation. Filarioid nematodes (Edesonfilaria malayensis) were located in pulmonary blood vessels and in numerous 0.1-2 cm fibrous cysts on the pleural surfaces of the lungs, pericardium, diaphragm, retroperitoneum, and in the urinary bladder wall. Microscopic lesions included verminous vasculitis, pulmonary infarcts and pneumonia. Many of the nematodes were more necrotic than the surrounding host tissue. During quarantine, 17 days before surgery, the monkey had been given a single dose of ivermectin (200 microg/Kg, intramuscular) as an anthelminthic for gastrointestinal nematodes. It is postulated that many of the filarioid nematodes were killed by this treatment. These parasitic emboli caused pulmonary infarction and the severe inflammatory reaction. The resulting pulmonary disease compromised pulmonary function and contributed to death after anesthesia. This complication should be considered if monkeys possibly harboring filarioid nematodes are treated with ivermectin.

A case of nonimmune hydrops fetalis with a rare cardiac anomaly in a rhesus monkey. Cukierski, M. A., Tarantal, A. F., & Hendrickx, A. G. (A. G. Hendrickx, Calif. Primate Res. Ctr., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 227-234.
. . . A case of nonimmune hydrops fetalis in a rhesus monkey was identified by ultrasound. The 68-day fetus exhibited generalized edema, pleural effusion, and mild ascites. Intrauterine fetal demise occurred between 75 and 80 days gestation. Necropsy revealed marked anasarca and a rare cardiac anomaly characterized by aortic and left atrioventricular valve atresia, hypoplasia of the ascending aorta and arch, and absence of the left ventricle.

Incidence of trauma in a breeding and rearing colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Tanaka, Y., Ohkubo, F., Ohto, H., Ohkoshi, T., Suzuki, M. T. (Corp. for Production and Res. of Lab. Primates Hachimandai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki 305 Japan.) Experimental Animals, 1986, 35[3], 315-319. (In Japanese with English summary)
. . . A statistical survey was performed in 1982 to ascertain the incidence of various diseases, especially trauma, in the cynomolgus monkey colony at Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science. In total, 1029 cases of disease occured, of which 866 were surgical, 89 internal, and 74 reproductive disease cases. Among the 866 surgical cases, trauma (746 cases) was most often observed. It was shown that trauma occurred most frequently during the group feeding of juvenile monkeys. Analysis of the factors influencing the incidence of trauma during group feeding was carried out. As a result, it was revealed that the number of days after beginning group feeding and the age at which group feeding was begun had marked influences on the incidence of trauma. However, there was no significant relationship between the incidence of trauma and the number of animals per group or the sex-ratio in a group. From the present survey results, a prospective rearing system should be established to reduce the incidence of trauma in the cynomolgus breeding and rearing colony.

Ecology and Field Studies

Effects of selective logging on the behavioral ecology of West Malaysian primates. Johns, A. D. (Sub-Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.) Ecology, 1986, 67, 684-694.
. . . This study documents changes within a community of one nocturnal and five diurnal primate species in response to selective logging of their tropical rain-forest habitat. Groups of two diurnal primate species, Hylobates lar and Presbytis melalophos, were observed in the wild for 14 mo. before and 12 mo. after the onset of logging. Both species showed alterations in activity budgets following logging, spending more time resting and less time feeding and travelling. These changes may be attributable to the reduction in the availability of their preferred, more nutritious foods. Both H. lar and P. melalophos were territorial in primary forest in the study area, and there was remarkably little change in their home ranges following logging. Changes that were apparent were generally to conform to changes in habitat topography. The extent of range overlap between P. melalophos groups appeared to increase in older logged forest, however, as food resources changed from an even to a clumped distribution.
. . . The overall response of the studied primate community to selective logging appeared to be a reaction to reduced food availability and to fragmentation or other alterations of the habitat. An ability to adjust foraging strategies to cope with variations in habitat and food supply probably accounts for the continued survival of these primate populations in logged forest.

Distribution, abundance and putative ecological strategy of Macaca fascicularis on the island of Mauritius, southwestern Indian Ocean. Sussman, R. W. & Tattersall, I. (Dept. of Anthropology, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO 63130) Folia Primatologica, 1986, 46, 28-43.
. . . We estimate that between 25,000 and 35,000 long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, live on the island of Mauritius, 1865 km&S'2, in the western Indian Ocean, and we detail their distribution on the island. Probably introduced to Mauritius at some time in the 16th century, the macaques have been implicated by a succession of authors as agents both in the extinction of the bulk of the island's unique vertebrate fauna, and in the destruction of its indigenous vegetation. Some of them have gone so far as to suggest that in view of their depredations the macaques should be eradicated from Mauritius. However, studies of the behavior and ecology of the macaques in both degraded savanna and native forest habitats, supplemented by surveys around the island, cast doubt upon this putative destructive role. Macaque population densities in Mauritius range from a maximum of around 1.3 individuals/ha in degraded savanna formations, to a minimum of approximately 0.33 individuals/ha in indigenous forest, and reflect a clear preference among these primates for secondary environments. Thus the long-tailed macaques in Mauritius, as in their southeast Asian homeland, best fit the profile of a \'weed' species that has simply exploited the distrubance by humans of the indigenous vegetation. They do not at the present time appear to pose a major threat to what remains of the remarkable indigenous vertebrate fauna of Mauritius, although they may help to disperse the seeds of invading exotic plant species in what remains of the indigenous forests.

Instruments and Techniques

A stereotaxic brain atlas of the green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops). Contreras, C. M., Mexicano, G., & Guzman-Flores, C. (Dept. de Fisiología, Inst. de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Univ. Nac. Autónoma de México, México 04510, D. F.) Boletín de Estudios Médicos y Biológicos, 1981, 31, 383-428.
. . . Contents: 1. Introduction; 1.1 Natural history of the green monkey. 2. Sample. 3. Methods; 3.1 Perfusion and fixation; 3.2 Photography. 4. Procedure; 4.1 Stereotaxic zero; 4.2 Determination of average planes; 4.3 Critical planes; 4.4 Organization of the atlas. 5. References. 6. Acknowledgments. 7. Serial sections. 8. Critical planes of the diencephalon. 9. Index of major structures.

Collecting feral cynomolgus macaques. Houghton, P. (Primate Products, Inc., 16230 Skyline Blvd., Woodside, CA 94062.) Laboratory Animal, 1986, 15[5], 19-22.
. . . This article provides a brief description of the current trapping, conditioning, and shipping methods employed in connection with the export of Macaca fascicularis from the Phillippines and from Indonesia.

Physiology and Behavior

Body measurements, hematology, and serum chemistry values of the adult Cebus apella monkey. Rosner, J. M., Schinini, A., Rovira, T., Merlo, R., Bestard, R., & Maldonado, M. (Inst. de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud, Univ. Nac. de Asunción, Paraguay, P. O. Box 2511.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 285-302.
. . . Body measurements, hematology, and serum chemistry values were studied in 40 captured male and female Cebus apella monkeys. Some significant dimorphism with male predominance was found. Significant differences were also found for hemoglobin and red cell volume between males and females. Differential white blood cell counts indicated a marked predominance of lymphocytes and high values of gamma globulin in both sexes.

Radiographic determination of bone maturation as an aid in predicting chronologic age in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Cleveland, R. H., Hultsch, E. H., Kushner, D. C., Correia, J. A., & Peters, M. E. (Pediatric Radiology Sect., Mass. General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 147-167.
. . . The skeletal development of laboratory-bred owl monkeys ranging from 37 days to 58 mo. of age was examined radiographically. Femoral length, time of epiphyseal ossification, and fusion of various ossification centers were studied. Chronologic age can be predicted by femoral length determination up to 18 months. Initial ossification of calcaneal, tibial tuberosity, iliac crest, and ischial apophyses occurs between 5.5 and 14 months. Fusion of various secondary ossification centers allows age determination from 7.5 mo. to 58 mo.

Age-related changes of hematological and serum biochemical values in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) bred and reared using the indoor individually-caged system. Yoshida, T., Suzuki, K., Cho, F., & Honjo, S. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Med. Science, Natl. Inst. of Health, Japan.) Experimental Animals, 1986, 35[3], 329-338. (In Japanese with English summary)
. . . Blood samples were collected from 1000 or more apparently healthy cynomolgus monkeys of different ages. All the monkeys had been bred and reared under uniform environmental conditions at the Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, NIH, Japan. Biochemical and hematological data were determined with these samples. The calculated arithmetic means and standard deviations are listed for each item of measurement performed. The correlation between the obtained value and the age was analyzed using a statistical significance level of 0.1%. It was revealed that hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, albumin-globulin ratio, and triglyceride concentration increased with age, whereas red blood cell count and serum alkaline phosphatase activity decreased with age in both sexes.


Notes on the distribution and taxonomic status of some subspecies of Propithecus in Madagascar. Tatersall, I. (Dept. of Anthropology, Amer. Museum of Nat. History, Central Park West at 79th St., New York, NY 10024.) Folia Primatologica, 1986, 46, 51-63.
. . . The paper reviews the distributions of, and chromatic variation within, two subspecies pairs of the lemur species Propithecus diadema and P. verreauxi, in east-central and western Madagascar, respectively. On the basis of "new" distribution information, P. d. holomelas Günther (1875) is synonymized with P. d. edwardsi A. Grandidier (1871); evidence for the synonymy of P. v. coronatus Milne-Edwards (1871) with P. v. deckeni Peters (1870) is found to be strong but not yet compelling. Our inability to resolve this systematic question at present is primarily due to the dearth of precise distribution data. The lack of adequate information of this kind on almost all lemur species is the major stumbling-block to our understanding of the Malagasy primate fauna as a whole, and acquisition of such data should be a high priority. A new observation is reported which substantially extends the known range of P. v. coronatus.

Opinion 1329. Galago crassicaudatus E. Geoffroy, 1812 (Primates, Galigidae): Neotype designated. Melville, R. V. (Int. Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, c/o British Museum, London SW7 5BD, England.) Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 1985, 42, 226-227.
. . . Under the plenary powers of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, London, all designations of type specimen hitherto made for the nominal species Galago crassicaudatus E. Geoffroy, 1812 are hereby set aside and the specimen described by Olson (Olson, T. R., 1980, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 37, 182-183) is hereby designated as neotype of that species.
. . . The specific name crassicaudatus E. Geoffroy, 1812, as published in the binomen Galago crassicaudatus, and as defined by reference to the neotype designated under the plenary powers above, is hereby placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology with the Name Number 2981.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.


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The American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) reported that it is moving from New Lenox, Illinois, to Bethesda, Maryland, in October, 1986. AAALAC also announced the appointment of its first Executive Director, Dr. Albert E. New, effective October 1, 1986. Dr. New currently directs the Laboratory of Animal Science at the National Cancer Institute.

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NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.

We are grateful to Linda Straw Coelho of San Antonio, Texas, for providing the cover drawing of a slow loris, Nycticebus coucang.

Copyright @1986 by Brown University

Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor: Janice E. Viticonte