Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Preliminary Comments on Environmental Enrichment with Branches for Individually Caged Rhesus Monkeys, by V. Reinhardt, W. D. Houser, D. Cowley, & M. Champoux ...... 1

Simian AIDS Testing Available, by S. S. Kalter ...... 4

News, Information, and Announcements

Research Assistant Needed Immediately ...... 3

News Briefs ...... 5
. . . Federal Court Denies Activists' Petition for Rehearing: Supreme Court Petition Filed; Chimpanzees Stolen by Animal Liberationists; USDA Animal Welfare Regs Progressing

Fyssen Foundation 1987-1988 Fellowships and 1986 International Prize ...... 6

PHS Laboratory Animal Policy Revised ...... 7

NABR Conference Announcement ...... 8

ASP Annual Meeting Notice ...... 8

Positions Available ...... 9

AFIP Comparative Pathology Course ...... 9

Workshop Announcement ...... 10

Call for Chapters on Primate Wellbeing ...... 10

Esc-ape Artist Climbs Wall with Help of Male Gorilla ...... 11

Cartoon ...... 7


Recent Books and Articles ...... 12

Address Changes ...... 18

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Preliminary Comments on Environmental Enrichment with Branches for Individually Caged Rhesus Monkeys

Viktor Reinhardt, W. D. Houser, Douglas Cowley, and Maribeth Champoux
University of Wisconsin


Individually housed research macaques are generally subjected to an environment that offers no access to manipulable objects other than food and the grating of the cage. The barren housing is designed for ease of sanitation, but provides no stimulation for the subject. First steps to enrich the deprived cage environment have been made using mechanical or electrical manipulanda (Markowitz, 1979, 1982), nylon balls (Renquist & Judge, 1985), video displays (Spinelli & Markowitz, 1985) and food puzzles (S. Line, personal communication, October, 1986), but the practical value of such devices in institutions with large numbers of individually caged animals has not yet been tested.

The present study is a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of perches in enriching cages of a large number of singly housed rhesus monkeys. The study was based on the assumption that the animals' degree of boredom should be reduced by providing an object that elicits natural behavior patterns. Tree branches were chosen for that purpose because they are part of the natural environent of rhesus monkeys, and they are inexpensive and hence of particular value for facilities with large numbers of animals.


Subjects included 77 females and 9 males, 5-23 years old. The females were assigned to ongoing research projects, the males to a breeding program. Thirty-two animals were born in the wild, 54 were born in captivity. They had been living singly for more than one year with no access to manipulable objects other than the barren cage, a drinking nipple, commercial dry food fed in the morning and a fruit fed in the afternoon. They were kept at constant room temperature of 21deg with a 12-hour light cycle. The cages were of stainless steel and had volumes of 0.62 cu-m (0.85 x 0.85 x 0.86 m).

Branches of various deciduous trees were placed in the cages two months prior to the present assessment. Each animal was provided with one branch. Branches were obtained without charge from yards of private homes during time of pruning; cut to perches that had a length of 1.28 m and a diameter of 4-8 cm, they were installed diagonally without extra attachment (see Figure 1). Cages and branches were cleaned with warm water daily and disinfected once every two weeks. It was not necessary to remove the branches during these procedures.

Each monkey was observed on one occasion for 5 minutes between noon and 1 p.m. 2 months after the installation of the branch. After this brief observation the branch was examined for traces of wear


Fifty-four (63%) of the 86 monkeys were seen using their branch in the following ways during the 5-minute observation:

The branches showed signs of wear in all 54 instances, thus indicating regular usage (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Thirty-five percent of the animals were seen holding their branch during a 5-minute observation made 2 months after the installation of the branch. Note the diagonal installation of the branch which shows traces of wear.

The remaining 32 (37%) monkeys were not seen using their branch during the 5-minute observation, but the branches had traces of wear in 21 (24%) cases, showing that they had been used in the past. Usage of branches was thus evident in 87% (63% - 24%) of cases. The incidence was 87% (67/77) in females and 88% (8/9) in males; it was 94% (30/32) in wild-born animals and 83% (45/54) in captive-born animals.


The present preliminary findings suggest that tree branches may be valuable for enriching the barren cage environent for singly housed rhesus monkeys. The branches not only were attractive to the majority (87%) of animals but they were also inexpensive and easy to install and to clean. As sanitation and compliance with generally accepted procedures of animal care and husbandry are of utmost importance, a substantial amount of discussion preceded the introduction of branches into the cage environment. The problems of sanitizing unsealed wooden objects are obvious, but our experience has shown that branches do not become as soiled as the cage floor; there was no indication that any of the branches needed to be removed for hygienic reasons.

The monkeys were seen actively using their branches in 63% of cases during one 5-minute observtion made 2 months after their installation. It is very likely that these animals were using their branches not only on this occasion, but that they had been doing so regularly throughout the 2 months. In 24% of cases animals were not actually seen using their branches during the brief observation, but traces of wear gave evidence that they had done so in the past.

This pilot study will be extended. Long-term choice experiments with double cages will test whether monkeys--even those who seem to ignore their branch--prefer living in a cage which has a branch installed to one which is barren. Such a test will show objectively whether the animals prefer an empty or an enriched cage. The answer will serve as a guideline for objectively evaluating the adequacy of the conventional barren housing conditions of rhesus monkeys.


Markowitz, H. (1979). Environmental enrichment and behavioral engineering for captive primates. In J. Erwin, T. L. Maple, & G. Mitchell (Eds.), Captivity and behavior. Primates in breeding colonies, laboratories, and zoos (pp. 217-238). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Markowitz, H. (1982). Behavioral enrichment in zoo animals. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Renquist, D. M. & Judge, F. J. (1985). Use of nylon balls as behavioral modifiers for caged primates. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 24[4], 4.

Spinelli, J. S. & Markowitz, H. (1985). Prevention of cage-associated distress. Lab Animal, 14[8], 19-28.


Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Univeristy of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

We are grateful to Mr. John Wolf for critically reading this manuscript and to Mrs. Jackie Kinney and Mrs. Mary Schatz for typing it. Thanks are also due to Mr. Robert Dodsworth for preparing the figure.

The project was supported by NIH grant RR0067 to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.


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Research Assistant Needed Immediately

A Research Assistant is needed immediately to work directly with the Research Director of a chimpanzee colony. This person will be responsible for scheduling projects, maintaining records, and training observers, and will assist in the collection of behavioral data for on-going and scheduled research projects, and in entering raw data into computer files, as well as in performing some analyses. The job requires solid statistical background and the ability to work well with students and observers. An M.A. or Ph.D. (or possibly an A.B.) degree in psychology, anthropology, or zoology, is required. Experience in great ape behavioral research is preferred.

Send curriculum vitae and three letters of reference to: Jo Fritz, Administrative & Research Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85281.

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Simian AIDS Testing Available

S. S. Kalter
Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research

Increased recognition of virus diseases in nonhuman primates has prompted expansion of the diagnostic activities of the NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses. In our last communication (Kalter, 1986), we provided a listing of the various viruses commonly responsible for infection and/or disease in nonhuman primates, the specimens required for their diagnosis, and comments regarding the procedures used for diagnosis. We continue to offer these services, but in addition are prepared to test routinely for the presence of SAIDS in simian populations.

Serologic studies utilizing a dot-immunobinding assay (DIA) as recently described (Heberling & Kalter, 1986) provide a rapid, sensitive, and specific indication of the presence or absence of antibody to STLV-III, SRV-1, and SRV-2.

It is suggested that these three viruses will provide the necessary coverage of nonhuman primate infection with the disease SAIDS. SRV-1 and SRV-2 are the major sources of SAIDS; STLV-III, thus far, has been shown to be limited in causing natural disease. For those not familiar with the relationship of these viruses to the human disease AIDS, STLV-III is antigenically related to the human virus HTLV-III. Special requests for STLV-I testing may be accomodated. However, present indications are that STLV-I is not a major problem in primate colonies. Isolation of viral agents associated with SAIDS is also provided.

Our reports will continue to indicate only the presence (positive) or absence (negative) of antibody Titers are generally not given unless specifically requested. There is generally no need for titers except when following a case, when the rise and fall of antibody titers are meaningful. In this situation, multiple serum samples taken over a period of weeks are required.

We wish to emphasize that the presence of antibody simply means infection either currently or in the past. In order to establish a relationship to a disease process, serum samples obtained during the acute phase of the disease and again during convalescence (2-6 weeks post infection) are necessary. Antibody titers are then determined for these sera.

Virus isolations also need serologic support, as the mere presence of a virus in tissues need not be significant nor disease related. Current infection and/or disease due to a particular agent can be substantiated only by comparing antibody titers to the isolate in acute and convalescent serum specimens, showing an increase in titers.

Our previous communication gives detailed instructions for submitting specimens.


Heberling, R. L. & Kalter, S. S. (1986). Rapid dot-immunobinding as an assay on nitrocellulose for viral antibodies. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 23, 109-113.

Kalter, S. S. (1986). NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 25[1], 8-9.


Author's address: Virology & Imunology Dept., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284.


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News Briefs

Federal Court Denies Activists' Petition for Rehearing: Supreme Court Petition Filed

On October 7, 1986, the 4th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals denied a petition for rehearing filed by three animal rights organizations and seven named individuals seeking custody of fifteen nonhuman primates, now housed at the Delta Regional Primate Research Center. On September 4, 1986, the Court found that these appellants lack standing to bring a lawsuit against NIH and the Institute for Behavioral Resources (IBR), which owns the animals. (See July and October, 1986, issues of this Newsletter, for background). The petition presented the appellants' objections to this opinion and outlined the grounds on which reconsideration was urged. The opinion was written by Circuit Judge Harvie Wilkinson on behalf of the three-judge panel which heard oral argument of the case.

On January 5, 1987, the appellants requested the U.S. Supreme Court to hear their case. Their Petition for a Writ of Certiorari is a preliminary step in appealing to the nation's highest court. Before a case can be argued there, the Supreme Court must first decide whether it wishes to consider the matter. Basically, the Court will decide if there are significant issues of law or differing lower court opinions which should be resolved. The Supreme Court petition was filed on the last day of the ninety day period allowed. It is not known when or if the Court will hear the case.

Chimpanzees Stolen by Animal Liberationists

Representatives of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) announced on Sunday, December 7, that early the same morning "the animal liberation group, True Friends, removed four baby chimpanzees (market value $60,000)" from the laboratories of SEMA Incorporated in Rockville, Maryland. SEMA, a contractor of the National Institutes of Health, acquired the Maryland facility formerly known as "Meloy Labs" this year. The contract research performed by SEMA in Rockville is mainly related to carcinogens and infectious diseases such as hepatitis and AIDS. The company houses 600 to 700 nonhuman primates of a variety of species as well as guinea pigs and woodchucks.

At a PETA press conference held in Washington on Monday, a 10-15 minute videotape narrated by Ingrid Newkirk was shown. The tape, said to be taken as part of True Friends' surveillance activities, consisted of a tour through primate rooms (allegedly SEMA'S) conducted by two masked women. The narration focused on the animals' isolation and "expressions of insanity." An exhibit of still photographs, mostly of caged primates, was also shown at the press conference. The exhibit and other written materials were headed "Breaking the Species Barrier." True Friends are quoted as saying, "We must break the species barrier...these experiments are a horrendous crime that displays human arrogance and irresponsibility in its ugliest form."

The stolen chimpanzees were about a year and a half old. It is important to note that these animals had just been weaned and are highly susceptible to viruses of all kinds as well as other health hazards. PETA said they were due to be used in AIDS and hepatitis experiments. According to Alex Pacheco of PETA: "The differences between us and chimpanzees do not justify taking these highly intelligent individuals and infecting them with a disease they would never get, sentencing them to up to 50 years alone in a sealed, soundproof chamber. The chimps in the film have gone mad from the desperation of enduring living death."

Newkirk reported that True Friends had stolen many documents in addition to the. chimpanzees. She claimed the SEMA facility had a history of accidental primate deaths that were preventable and predicted PETA would be "sitting down with NIH" to discuss such charges once the documents were reviewed. Newkirk declined to answer questions concerning True Friends on the advice of legal counsel. She said the Federal Bureau of Investigation was now involved in the case.

Robert Schreiber, a spokesman for NIH in Bethesda, said that two of the chimps may be carriers of non-A non-B hepatitis, which their parents had been exposed to.

USDA Animal Welfare Regs Progressing

Proposed regulations to implement 1985 amendments to the federal Animal Welfare Act are in the final stages of pre-publication review. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection officials have reported the draft rules are now being looked at by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Earlier statements that OMB had the regs for review were evidently premature; the proposed document was forwarded only in the last week. The time required for OB review is unpredictable, but the proposed regulations could be in the Federal Register by the end of December.

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Fyssen Foundation 1987-1988 Fellowships and 1986 International Prize

The Fyssen Foundation's general aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, into their biological and cultural bases, and into their phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." For this purpose, the Foundation will award a certain number of fellowships. These fellowships are meant for the training and support of research scientists working in disciplines relevant to the aims of the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, epistomology, logic, and the neurosciences. The Foundation wishes to support, more particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes and of their embryonic and postnatal development, as well as the elementary mechanisms they involve. Anthropology-Ethnology: Study of cognitive foundations: a) of the representations of natural and cultural development, b) of the technical systems developed in the various form of social organization. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.

Fellowships will be given to French scientists wishing to work abroad and to foreign scientists wishing to work in French laboratories. Study grants will normally be granted for one year but may be extended up to three.

Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, which will include: a curriculum vitae; a list of publications of the applicant; the names of two senior scientists whom the applicant has asked to send testimonials to the Secretariat of the Foundation by the date indicated below; a letter of acceptance of the inviting laboratory.

15 copies of the completed information should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194 rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is April 1, 1987.

International Prize

A substantial International Scientific Prize shall be given for a major contribution to the progress of knowledge in the fields of research supported by the Foundation such as ethology, paleontology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, epistomology, logic, and the neurosciences. It was awarded to Professor Andre Leroi-Gourhan in 1980, to Professor William H. Thorpe in 1981, to Professor Vernon B. Mountcastle in 1982, to Professor Harold C. Conklin in 1983, to Professor Roger W. Brown in 1984, to Professor P. Buser in 1985, and to Professor David Pilbeam in 1986. Discipline considered for the 1987 prize: Ethology -- animal intelligence. The nominations should include a curriculum vitae of the nominee; a list of his publications; a summary (four pages maximum) of the research work upon which the nomination is based. 15 copies of the nominations for the 1986 prize of the Fyssen Foundation should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation at the above address. Deadline for receipt of nominations is September 1, 1987.

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PHS Laboratory Animal Policy Revised

The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) has published the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, revised as of September, 1986, incorporating the changes in the Public Health Service Act mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985.

In its summary of the Policy, OPRR states, "All applications and proposals for award, which are either submitted to the PHS on or after November 1, 1986, or being conducted on or after July 1, 1987, must meet the requirements of the PHS Policy as amended. Institutions which currently have an approved or provisionally-acceptable Animal Welfare Assurance on file with the OPRR must submit to OPRR by July 1, 1986, a document in the form of an appendix or amendment which states the changes that the institution has made to conform to the amended Public Health Service Policy."

As required by the new law, major revisions are: 1. The Policy will now apply to research that PHS conducts intramurally. 2. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) will be appointed by the chief executive officer of the institution. 3. The institution's assurance must include a synopsis of the training or instructions made available to scientists, animal technicians, and other personnel involved in animal care, treatment or use. 4. The IACUC now must inspect and prepare reports on all of the institution's animal programs and facilities (including satellite facilities) at least twice, instead of once, each year. The reports must be maintained by the institution and made available to OPRR upon request. AAALAC accredited facilities (Category 1) now must comply with this requirement since the law makes no distinction for them. 5. The IACUC, through the Instutional Official, must submit written annual reports to OPRR updating the institution's assurance. These reports now must include minority views filed by members of the committee.

The amended policy also contains several other editorial changes, including both technical and clarifying amendments to the original policy The new document will be mailed to research institutions in the near future. In the meantime, OPRR is taking telephone requests pending receipt of a full supply of copies.

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NABR Conference Announcement

The National Association for Biomedical Research will hold a conference on "Federal Animal Welfare Laws: The Rights and Responsibilities of Research Facilities," on Monday, March 6, 1987, from 9 am to 5 pm, with an opening reception at 8 pm on March 15. It will be held at the Crystal Gateway Marriott, near Washington National Airport.

It has been NABR's practice to hold special membership meetings and conferences when a specific need arises. Recent questions regarding U.S. Department of Agriculture animal welfare inspection practices have prompted the scheduling of such a special conference.

As a result of revisions in the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Lab Animals, amendments to the Animal Welfare Act, and the pending publication of regulations to implement changes in the Act, a great deal of confusion exists regarding what currently, and in the future, constitutes compliance with federal requirements.

NABR has received numerous reports of apparent changes in USDA procedures ranging from varying interpretations of veterinary care and animal housing standards to inspectors taking photographs in the facility or reviewing research protocols. Investigations of animal rights groups' complaints by USDA and/or NIH have also caused many questions.

The purpose of the NABR Conference is to help clarify compliance responsibilities of research facilities as well as their rights and protections under law.

Federal agency officials and legal experts will address: 1. New federal requirements under the Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 2. Enforcement policies and procedures of USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and the National Institutes of Health Office of Protection from Research Risks with emphasis on the inspection process and reporting requirements. 3. How federal agencies respond to complaints from the public. 4. Legal issues for research facilities, particularly their rights with respect to inspections and the Freedom of Information Act. 5. How research facilities can respond and meet compliance responsibilities without unacceptable consequences to research programs. Ample time for questions and group discussion will be provided.

The Conference is open only to representatives of NABR member institutions. Individuals responsible for compliance with federal animal welfare laws should attend, including research facility administrators, laboratory animal veterinarians, institutional animal care committee members, legal counsels, and public affairs representatives. Complete program, hotel information, registration fee, and other information will be sent to NABR members in early January.

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ASP Annual Meeting Notice

The tenth annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, hosted by the University of Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center at Madison, will be held June 13-16, 1987. The paper sessions, symposia, posters, exhibits, and business meetings will take place at the Wisconsin Center (702 N. Langdon Street), a convention facility located on the edge of campus and overlooking Lake Mendota. The deadline for abstracts is March 1, 1987. For registration forms and further information contact: Dr. Sally P. Mendoza, California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. (Phone 916-752-1988)

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Positions Available

A position is available with Dr. H. S. Terrace for a post-doctoral student who is interested in animal cognition, and who has experience in conducting behavioral experiments with monkeys. Experience in programming personal computers is also desirable.

This person's main responsibility would be to supervise research on the serial learning capacity of monkeys. There will also be opportunities to collaborate with Dr. Terrace in similar research he plans to conduct on pigeons and pre-verbal human infants. Ample provision will be made for the post-doc to pursue independent work so long as it is focused on relevant issues in the area of animal cognition.

The starting date of the position is flexible. Some time between March and July, 1987, would be ideal, but an earlier or (somewhat) later starting date as dictated by previous commitments can be considered. Whatever the starting date, there is support for a post-doctoral student for two years.

The starting salary would be $18,000 to $22,000, depending on qualifications. The post-doc will have access to a well-equipped laboratory that will have an ample supply of personal computers and state-of-the-art hardware and software for presenting virtually any kind of visual stimulus on a touch-sensitive screen (e.g., color photographs, and static and dynamic artificial stimuli). There also exist ample opportunities outside this laboratory to interact with other investigators interested in animal cognition. For example, the post-doc would be invited to participate in a University Seminar on the Psychobiology of Animal Cognition.

Interested candidates should send a copy of their vitae and, whenever possible, three letters of reference to H.. S. Terrace, Department of Psychology, Schermerhorn Hall, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027.

A position is also available for a technician (a BA or an MA) who has had experience in working with monkeys in behavioral paradigms. The technician's responsibilities would be similar to the post-doc's. In the case of the technician, however, much more supervision would be provided.

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AFIP Comparative Pathology Course

The 14th annual continuing education course on "Comparative Pathology" will be presented April 20-22, 1987, at the Holiday Inn, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD.

This course is especially designed to bring attention to disease processes in animals for which similar entities occur in man. Differences and similarities of pathologic lesions as well as the biologic behavior of specific entities will be compared in animals and man.

Application forms to attend the course may be obtained by contacting The Director, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, (AFIP-EDE), Washington, D.C. 20306 (Phone 202-576-2939). Completed application forms should be returned by March 31,1986. Non-federal civilians and foreign nationals are required to submit a $75.00 fee, payable to the Treasurer of the United States.

Military and federal service employees in the medical, veterinary, and other medical fields are requested to consult respective agency regulations for appropriate procedures. Civilian physicians, veterinarians, and allied scientists are invited to apply. All applications will be considered on a space available basis.

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Workshop Announcement

The Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, Seattle, will again host a national workshop titled "Applying Behavioral Research to Zoo Animal Management" with the assistance of an Institute of Museum Services Conservation Grant. The workshop will be held July 18-25, 1987, and is especially directed at curatorial, veterinary, and keeper staff from zoos, aquariums, and related facilities. Through lectures, discussions, and actual short research projects, participants will learn skills to conduct their own behavioral studies and to apply the results to specific management problems (e.g., enclosure design feeding procedures, breeding programs, and veterinary care). Additional activities include tours of Woodland Park Zoo, Point Defiance Zoo, Northwest Trek Wildlife Park, and the Seattle Aquarium.

The workshop will be organized and taught by Carolyn Crockett, Ph.D., University of Washington, Michael Hutchins, Ph.D., New York Zoological Society, and William Karesh, D.V.M., Woodland Park Zoological Gardens. Jill Mellen, Washington Park Zoo, a nationally-known keynote speaker, will give guest lectures. Enrollment will be limited to 40 participants. Registration fee for the 8-day workshop is $80 if paid before May 1st, and $100 thereafter. Priority will be given to employees of zoos and related facilities. Registration prior to May 1st will be limited to two applicants per institution based on the order of receipt of pre-paid applications. Overflow applicants will be placed on a waiting list. University of Washington college credit can be obtained for an additional fee. For more information and a registration form, write: William Karesh, D.V.M., Animal Health Department, Woodland Park Zoo, 5500 Phinney Ave. N., Seattle WA 98103.

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Call for Chapters on Primate Wellbeing

Patricia Scollay and Evalyn Segal, Psychology Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-0350, invite proposals of chapter topics for a book on the "psychological wellbeing" of laboratory and zoo primates. They seek data on the effects of various types of environmental changes and innovative experimental procedures, and conceptual contributions to the definition and assessment of "psychological wellbeing."

A recent amendment to the Animal Welfare Act directs the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture to draw up new regulations for the 'psychological wellbeing" of laboratory primates. The book is intended to assist investigators in implementing the new standards when they appear.

"We hope to clarify the conceptual and empirical problems in defining and assessing 'psychological wellbeing,' and to survey available findings on housing, care, handling, opportunities for activity, social groupings, and so on. We also hope the book will stimulate additional research on these topics."

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Esc-ape Artist Climbs Wall with Help of Male Gorilla

A wily female gorilla struck with wanderlust has been making monkeys of her keepers at the Los Angeles Zoo, escaping twice with the help of a young male gorilla, but zookeepers have modified her cage to put a stop to her wayfaring ways.

Evelyn, a 200-pound lowland gorilla born in captivity, spent 45 minutes on an afternoon stroll around the grounds November 19 after climbing on the shoulders of her accomplice, Leonel, and scaling a 12-foot wall designed to prevent such escapes. Startled patrons watched Evelyn's foray, which ended when keepers shot her with a tranquilizer dart and took her back to the enclosure. Workers raised the wall by several inches at one side of the exhibit, said Ed Alonso, the zoo's chief animal curator, but that wasn't an effective deterrent. Evelyn escaped again the next day with Leonel's help, this time climbing the wall at a spot where it hadn't been raised. "We didn't think she could get out there," Alonso said. Zookeepers' efforts to shoo her back into the enclosure failed, so she again was shot with a tranquilizer dart.

"The problem we have with these animals is that they have fairly high intelligence and are always curious and...if they can find a way to get out of their exhibit, they certainly will," Alonso said. Although Evelyn didn't do much more than wander around looking at people, zoo officials said, there was some danger. "She has a very powerful bite," said Robert Barnes, principal animal keeper at the zoo.

Keeper Jennifer Chatfield said Evelyn and Leonel "definitely communicate...I don't know about planning a break, but they definitely vocalize." The 10-year-old female "has learned to either coerce or persuade the young male to stand against the wall," Alonzo said. After the second escape, Evelyn was banished to the gorillas' night quarters until workers could raise the entire wall several inches. She returned to the outdoor exhibit Thanksgiving Day, and there haven't been any more escapes, Alonso said.

The most recent wanderings were not Evelyn's first. Alonso said she had escaped several times by using handholds left along the wall by workers who remodeled the exhibit about eight years ago. The handholds were later removed. Another gorilla, Cleo, escaped briefly last year before being captured, and two Capuchin monkeys were able to squeeze through the bars of their cage before it was fixed, Alonso said. "Most of the animals in the zoo can get out if they really try."

The San Diego Zoo has had similar problems with restive apes. Ken Allen, a 16-year-old orangutan, escaped twice from his enclosure in the summer of 1985. Both times he was lured back by keepers without incident.-- From the Providence, RI, Evening Bulletin, December 5, 1986.

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Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in July 1984: Volume 1. Primate evolution. James G. Else & Phyllis C. Lee (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, l986. 333 pp. [Price: paperbound, $19.95; clothbound, $59.50]

Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in July 1984: Volume 2. Primate ecology and conservation. James G. Else & Phyllis C. Lee (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, l986. 393 pp. [Price: paperbound, $19.95; clothbound, $59.50]

Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in July 1984: Volume 3. Primate ontogeny, cognition and social behaviour. James G. Else & Phyllis C. Lee (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, l986. 410 pp. [Price: paperbound, $19.95; clothbound, $59.50]

The Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models. Warren G. Kinzey (Ed.). Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987. 299 pp. [Price: paperbound, $14.95; clothbound, $39.50]
. . .Papers presented in Chicago at the 82nd annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, November 19, 1983, at a symposium sponsored by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Contents: Introduction, by W. G. Kinzey. I. Behavioral Innovations. 1. Gathering by females: The chimpanzee model revisited and the gathering hypothesis, by N. M. Tanner. 2. Transportation of resources: Reconstructions of early hominid socioecology: a critique of primate models, by R. Potts. II. Primate-derived Models. 3 African apes: The significance of African apes for reconstructing human social evolution, by R. W. Wrangham. 4. Chimpanzees: Pygmy chimpanzees and common chimpanzees: models for the behavioral ecology of the earliest hominids, by R. L. Susman. 5. Baboons: Baboon models and muddles, by S. C. Strum & W. Mitchell. 6. Monogamous primates: A primate model for human mating systems, by W G. Kinzey. 7. Howler monkeys: Diet, dimorphism, and demography: perspectives from howlers to hominids, by C. M. Crockett. III. Paleoecological Models. 8. Cytogenetic methods: Social and ecological aspects of primate cytogenetics, by J. Marks. 9. Morpho-physiological analysis of diets: Species-specific dietary patterns in primates and human dietary adaptations, by R. W. Sussman. IV. Theoretical Issues. 10. The reconstruction of hominid behavioral evolution through strategic modeling, by J. Tooby & I. DeVore.


Drug Metabolism in the Nonhuman Primate: Species Differences to Humans or Other Animals, A Bibliography, 1981-1986. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (239 citations, primate & selected indices) [Price: $10.00. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Ctr. SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]

Population Estimates of Feral and Free-Ranging New World Monkeys: A Bibliography, 1976-1986. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (126 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Population Estimates of Feral and Free-Ranging Old World Monkeys: A Bibliography, 1976-1986. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. (217 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Primatology: A Topical Bibliography of Books. L. E. Sponsel. (1986) (Dr. Leslie Sponsel, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822).


Primate Eye, No. 30, October, 1986. (Primate Society of Great Britain) [For price schedule write to: Ann MacLarnen, Treasurer, PSGB, Dept. of Anthropology, University College, London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT.]
. . .This issue includes: Reports from the XIth Congress of IPS; Conservation Working Party Report; Kinship Terms and Callitrichid Mating Patterns; Captive Breeding of Endangered Species.

Current Primate Field Studies. (D. J. Chivers, Ed.) Primate Eye, No. 30 (Suppl.), October, 1986. [Price: 4 pounds Sterling. Ordering address above.]
. . .A summary of current primate field studies, including country and locality, species, aims of study, starting date and duration, personnel, and correspondence address.

Animal Welfare

Democratic expression of public opinion on animal experimentation. Weber, H. (Sandoz, Ltd., Pharmaceutical Division, Preclinical Research, CH-4002 Basle, Switzerland.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 379-389.
. . .In December 1985, a very clear majority of 70% of the Swiss population rejected the proposal of adding an article to the constitution which would have brought animal experimentation to a complete halt in the country. Evidently, the extreme views of antivivisectionist groups are only shared by a minority of the population. It was possible to achieve this very clear result although a strong aversion to animal experiments and a critical attitude toward biological research exist in Switzerland, as well as in other European countries. The favorable outcome of the vote is due to a broad campaign of frank and comprehensible information provided by the research community, and to the willingness of the scientists to accept ethical restrictions to their work. It has been deemed important in Switzerland to continue with the basic information on biological research and its implications, since an informed public is obviously less prone to the influence of extreme groups.


Breeding vervet monkeys in a closed environment. Seier, J. V. (National Institute for Nutritional Diseases, South African Medical Research Council, P.O. Box 70, Tygerberg 7505, Republic of South Africa.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 339-349.
. . .A breeding group of vervet monkeys produced 95 offspring over five years. Fetal wastage for 114 pregnancies was 16.7%. Uterine sizes were recorded for 103 pregnancies in various stages of gestation. This enabled diagnosis of pregnancy, estimation of stage of gestation, and prediction of parturition to within two weeks. Detailed observations were made on dental eruption, pelage development, and growth of 57 infants.

Social stimulation and the resumption of copulation in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and stumptail (Macaca arctoides) macaques. Estep, D. Q., Gordon, T. P., Wilson, M. E., & Walker, M. L. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 507-517.
. . .Copulatory data derived from observations of social groups of rhesus and stumptail macaques were analyzed to test the hypothesis that pairs of animals would resume copulation significantly sooner if a second male copulated with the female shortly after the first male's ejaculation. Data from both groups supported the hypothesis. These results, extending previous studies in Macaca nemestrina, suggest that the shortening of copulatory intervals by social stimuli occurs in several species, both in social groups and in experimentally created triads. These findings also are consistent with the the hypothesis that socially mediated resuption of mating is related to intrasexual competition among males.

Reproduction in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethops) : II. Annual menstrual patterns and seasonality. Else, J. G., Eley, R. M., Wangula, C., Worthman, C., & Lequin, R. M. (Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, Box 24481 Karen, Nairobi, Kenya.) American Journal of Primatology, 1986, 11, 333-342.
. . .Menstrual patterns and progesterone levels were monitored for 5 years from a cohort of 28 female vervet monkeys that were individually caged indoors. Three distinct cycle types (short, normal, and prolonged) were defined according to cycle length. Mean length of the normal cycle (32.5 days) and menses duration (4.8 days) are in agreement with previous reports. Prolonged cycles (>50 days) contributed 20% of the total, with a decreased incidence during the natural peak breeding period. Weekly progesterone measurements indicated that many prolonged cycles were associated with an extended luteal phase, while others were probably due to lack of ovulation. From these data it would appear that the vervet monkey, although not strongly seasonal, does favor a particular time of year for breeding in a colony housed indoors.

Breeding performance of captive-born Cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) females: Proposed explanations for colony differences. Tardif, S. D, Carson, R. L., & Clapp, N. K. (Marmoset Research Center, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831.) American Journal of Primatology, 1986, 11, 271-275.
. . .Successful breeding by captive-born Saguinus oedipus females has now been reported from several colonies, but a marked parity effect (i.e., differences in infant survival with the number of litters produced) is usually observed; survival of infants of primiparous females is extremely low but increases with subsequent litters. This parity effect was not observed in the captive-born breeding females in the Oak Ridge Associated Universities colony, with survival of offspring of primiparous females at 58.6%. Two explanations are proposed for this difference: (1) pairing with a male having previous experience in siring and rearing offspring may improve infant survival for primiparous females; and (2) postponing mating to a later age may increase infant survival for primiparous mothers.

Infant cross-fostering in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulata) : A procedure for the long-term management of captive populations. Smith, S. (Division of Environmental Studies, University of California, Davis, CA 95916.) American Journal of Primatology, 1986, 11, 229-237.
. . .Because of the constraints of captivity, captive populations are generally closed to the introduction of unrelated individuals and may eventually experience inbreeding depression and its associated problems. As a means of increasing genetic diversity in established social groups of rhesus monkeys at the California Primate Research Center, 36 infants were used as subjects in a cross-fostering experiment in which 27 infants (75%) were successfully integrated into non-natal groups by fostering them onto unrelated females. These results have important practical implications for maintaining self-sustaining populations of captive rhesus monkeys and may eventually be extended to other captive species. Cross-fostering infants between captive social populations may be an important means of minimizing the higher mortality and morbidity and reduced fertility effects associated with inbreeding depression. Furthermore, this procedure causes a minimum of social disruption and reduces the chances that older animals introduced into new groups will be traumatized.

Reproductive cycles in Tarsius bancanus. Wright, P. C., Izard, M. K., & Simons, E. L. (Duke University Primate Center, Durham, NC 27705.) American Journal of Primatology, 1986, 11, 207-215.
. . .The reproductive condition of three pairs of Bornean tarsiers (Tarsius bancanus) was documented for 16 months. Each pair was housed separately under a constant photoperiod similar to that in their native habitat. Reproductive cycles of females were monitored visually for 6 months and were then monitored with vaginal smears and measurements of external genitalia for an additional 10 months. The data indicate that T. bancanus has estrous cycles similar to those of prosimian primates and some New World monkeys and that these cycles occur throughout the year under constant photoperiodic conditions.


Tachyarrhythmia in a baboon: A case report. Hayes, R. S. (LEMSIP, New York University Medical Center, Long Meadow Rd., Tuxedo, NY 10987.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 367-372.
. . .An adult baboon with multiple organ symptomatology and tachycardia was successfully treated with one-time electrical cardioversion. The case is presented to demonstrate the need to include ECG monitoring in diagnostic assessment of primate animals with nonspecific symptoms.

Sparganosis in a saddle-back tamarin: Another case of viral-induced proliferation? Gardiner, C. H. & Imes, G. D. Jr. (Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment, Lima, Peru, APO Miami, FL 34031.) Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 1986, 22, 437-439.
. . .A saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri Pucheran, 1845) maintained in Oak Ridge Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, for 6 years was found dead in its cage. Evidence from necropsy was consistent with a diagnosis of sparganosis.

Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in a baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis). Stokes, W. S. (Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96858-5000.) Laboratory Animal Science, 1986, 36, 529-533.
. . .Naturally-occurring spontaneous diabetes mellitus has been detected in many nonhuman primate species. Isolated cases have been observed in a pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), Formosan rock macaque (M. cyclopis), mandrill baboon (Papio leucophaeus) sacred baboon (P. hamadryas), and two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Numerous cases have been reported in rhesus (M. mulatta) , cynomolgus (M. fascicularis), bonnet (M. radiata), and celebes (M. nigra) macaques, as well as squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and tree shrews (Urogale everetti). The highest incidence has been observed in a colony of celebes macaques where over 50% of adults were affected. Diabetes mellitus was detected recently in an olive baboon, Papio cynocephalus anubis, at our facility after the animal exhibited unexpected physiologic responces during a research protocol. Since naturally-occurring diabetes has not been reported previously in the olive baboon, an evaluation of this case was conducted to characterize the disease.

Ecology & Field Studies

On the ecological status of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus L. in North Morocco: Habitat influences versus human inpact. Fa, J. E. (Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-233, 04510 Mexico, D.F.) Biological Conservation, 1986, 35, 215-258.
. . .This paper analyzes the ecological status of the Barbary macaque in the Djebala region of North Morocco. Results are presented of vegetation surveys and of preliminary studies on resource availability, diet, and habitat use of the Barbary macaque in the four main habitat types where the species occurs. An assessment is made of whether current monkey populations reflect real differences in the suitability of habitats or whether they are restricted purely by human interference. The latter term is defined both as direct predation and indirect action through modification of habitats via grazing of domestic stock, burning, and tree-felling.

Information on the distribution of Formosan monkeys (Macaca cyclopis). Masui, K., Narita, Y., & Tanaka, S. (Mahale Mountains Wildlife Research Centre, P.O. Box 1053, Kigoma, Tanzania.) Primates, 1986, 27, 383-392.
. . .The distribution of Formosan monkeys in Taiwan has been researched by the Macaque Research Group of Japan since 1967. In 1982, the Macaque Research Group of Japan conducted a questionnaire survey. From our past surveys, the answers to the questionnaire, and the 1982 survey, we were able to list 75 habitats of Formosan monkeys. The monkey population is more concentrated in southeast Taiwan than in other areas. This biased pattern of distribution may be attributed to the effect of forest destruction and regional development, rather than to the hunting activities by man. The density of monkey groups was estimated to be at least 0.1 group/sq-km. The range of the group of Formosan monkeys at Chihpen village, Taitung, was estimated to be about 2 sq-km. The size of this group is comparable to the average group size of Japanese monkeys.

Pharmacology & Anesthesia

The effects of ketamine anesthesia on hematological and serum biochemical values in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Yoshida, T., Suzuki, K., Shimizu, T., Cho, F., & Honjo, S. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, The National Institute of Health, Hachimandai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaragi-ken 305, Japan.) Experimental Animals, 1986, 35, 455-461.
. . .The effects of ketamine anesthesia (15 mg/kg body weight) on hematological and serum biochemical values were examined in six female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) who were born in the wild. As control, another six female cynomolgus monkeys of the same origin were injected with physiological saline. The white blood cell count, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, and calcium concentration decreased after the injection of ketamine, whereas the red blood cell count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin concentration, total cholesterol concentration, free cholesterol concentration, triglyceride concentration, transaminase activities (GOT, GPT), and alkaline phosphatase activity were not affected. A transient increase of the serum glucose level was observed within 10 minutes after ketamine injection. The relationship between these effects of ketamine anesthesia and serum cortisol levels measured by radioimmunoassay was discussed.

Respiration rate, heart rate, and body temperature values in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during barbiturate anesthesia. Zola-Morgan, S. & Micheletti, C. (Veterans' Administration Medical Center, V-116, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 399-408.
. . .Respiration rate, heart rate, and body temperature values were obtained from 14 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during neurosurgery under barbiturate anesthesia. Vital sign values markedly declined below baseline during the early stages of surgery, steadily increased as surgery progressed and neared completion, and finally returned to baseline by the end of the postsurgical recovery period. There was considerable variability among the 14 monkeys, but the ranking of each monkey relative to the others remained constant across the period of observation. The findings suggested that the cynomolgus monkey may be more sensitive to barbiturates than the rhesus monkey, and cynomolgus monkeys may exhibit considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to barbiturates.

Physiology & Behavior

Glycosylated haemoglobin (Hb A1 in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Srinivas, M., Ghosh, K., Shome, D. K, Virdi, J S., Kumar, S, Mohanty, D, & Das, K. C. (K. C. Das, Department of Haematology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandiagarh 160 012, India.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1986, 15, 361-366.
. . .Glycosylated haemoglobins were measured in 23 healthy juvenile rhesus monkeys by commercially available minicolumn chromatography (Quick Sep., Isolab Inc., Ohio) to establish the normal range. Values obtained (mean +/- 1 standard deviation (SD) 1.57 +/- 0.68%) were significantly lower than that of 17 adult healthy human volunteers by the same method of estimation (mean +/- 1 SD of 5.34 +/- 0.78%).

Reference range data base for serum chemistry and hematology values in laboratory animals. Wolford, S. T., Schroer, R. A., Gohs, F. X., Gallo, P. P., Brodeck, M., Falk, H. B., & Ruhren, R. (American Cyanamid Company, Middletown Road, Pearl River, NY 10965.) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1986, 18, 161-188.
. . .A reference range data base containing serum chemistry and hematology values on over 3000 animals is described. Data listed include the mean, standard deviation, and 10th and 90th percentiles for each of the following parameters. Serum chemistry: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, urea nitrogen, creatinine, total bilirubin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (monkey only), lactate dehydrogenase (dog only), and creatine kinase (dog only). Hematology: hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, reticulocytes, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin percent, platelets, white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and stabs. The species included are mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, beagle dog, and cynomolgus monkey. The use of the reference ranges in routine computerized data collection is discussed.

Behavior of Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) mothers and neonates at parturition. Negayama, K., Negayama, T., & Kondo, K. (Faculty of letters, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663, Japan.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 365-378.
. . .Parturitional behavior in 12 caged Macaca fuscata was analyzed. Wild-caught mothers showed adequate maternal behaviors immediately following the neonates' expulsion. Parity differences existed in the behaviors; primiparae were more idiosyncratic than were multiparae. Among multiparae, those with two or more offspring were uniformly adequate, but those with a single birth experience varied in the adequacy of the maternal care they provided at parturition. Placentophagy was correlated with the level of orality represented by maternal licking behaviors.

Adaptation of pregnant rhesus monkeys to short-term chair restraint. Golub, M. S. & Anderson, J. H. (California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.) Laboratory Animal Science, 1986, 36, 507-511.
. . .Heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and plasma corticosteroids were measured in pregnant rhesus monkeys during 23 successive 2-hr chair restraint periods beginning in midgestation. Heart rate (15%), blood pressure (13%), and plasma cortisol (23%) declined from first to last sessions. Reduction in physiological indicators of stress was most marked during the first three sessions, but continued in some animals over the 8-week period. Pulse rate and blood pressure were elevated at the beginning of each session and dropped to base-line levels during the second hour. In contrast, plasma cortisol consistently rose during the 2-hr session. Blood sampling and palpation were conducted at weekly intervals during the adaptation series. Immediate physiological responses to these manipulations did not diminish with repetition, although behavioral adaptation was observed. The data suggest that objective measurements of adaptation to chair restraint are important in determining the appropriateness of this procedure. Chair restraint is a valuable alternative to chemical or manual restraint in obtaining sequential evaluations in pregnant monkeys.

Genetic markers in the blood of three species of tamarins (Saguinus mystax, S. labiatus and S. oedipus). Nagai, A., Shimaoka, T., Lee, S. C., & Ikemoto, S. (Laboratory of Human Biology, Jichi Medical School, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Minamikawachi-machi Kawachi-gun, Tochigi 329-04, Japan.) Experimental Animals, 1986, 35, 375-380.
. . .The advantages of marmosets and tamarins (Family Callithricidae) in biomedical and pharmacological fields have been well known, and many breeding colonies have been established at different facilities. As these animals are experimental primates of high quality, genetic analysis is important for breeding and selecting the required characteristics and for clarifying biological characteristics. However, there are few reports in this field concerning marmosets and tamarins. Therefore, we have surveyed the genetic markers of tamarins. It is concluded that six polymorphic loci are useful as genetic markers for a species or individual.

Changes of hematologic values for 11 months after birth in the cynomolgus monkeys. Sugimoto, Y., Ohkubo, F., Ohtoh, H., & Honjo, S. (The Corporation for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates, The National Institute of Health, Hachiman-dai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaragi-ken, 305, Japan.) Experimental Animals, 1986, 35, 449-454.
. . .Changes in hematological values were studied with 131 healthy cynomolgus monkeys aged less than 11 months. The parameters measured were erythrocyte count (RBC), hematocrit value (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), total leucocyte count (WBC), and differential leucocyte count. No remarkable change was found with RBC during the whole period of this study. Relatively high values were obtained with Ht, MCV, and Hb in the newborns aged 0 to 7 days. These values continued to decrease until 3 months of age, after which the values increased again, attaining approximately adult levels at 11 months of age. WBC was very high at birth and then decreased to the minimum level at 3 days of age. It was followed by gradual increase until about 4 months of age, at which a nearly adult level was attained. Lymphocyte counts were smaller than neutrophil counts on the day of birth. However, this numerical relation was inverted 2 days after birth and the lymphocyte counts became markedly larger than the neutrophil counts about 1 week after birth. Additionally, the values obtained from the cord blood of 6 Cesarean-delivered newborns were compared with those from the blood taken 5 hours after Cesarean delivery.

Normal hematologic values in the cynomolgus monkeys aged from 1 to 18 years. Sugimoto, Y., Hanari, K., Narita, H., & Honjo, S. (The Corporation for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates, The National Institute of Health, Hachiman-dai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaragi-ken, 305, Japan.) Experimental Animals, 1986, 35, 443-447.
. . .Normal hematological values including erythrocyte count (RBC), hematocrit value (Ht), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), total leucocyte count (WBC), and differential leucocyte count were determined with 206 healthy cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) aged 1 to 18 years. These animals were born and reared at Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, NIH, Japan. Additionally, 32 cynomolgus monkeys of wild origin estimated to be 5 or more years old were examined for their hematology. The presence or absence of sex- and age-related differences in the values was statistically analysed. As regards infant and juvenile monkeys, there were no significant differences in RBC, Ht, and Hb between males and females. However, these values became significantly larger in males than in females after sexual maturation. Lymphocyte count was larger than neutrophil count until 3 to 4 years of age, but this relation was inverted in adult monkeys aged more than 5 years. Segmentation of the nucleus was a prominent finding in neutrophils. Neither sex- nor age-related difference in the number of nuclear segmentation was noted.


The nomenclature of the orangutan. Groves, C. P. & Holthuis, L. B. (Dept. of Prehistory and Anthropology, Australian National University, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601, Australia.) Zoologische Mededelingen, 1985, 59, 411-417.
. . .Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P. s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P. s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by RoPongo Lacépède, 1799, for the genus, P. p. pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760, for the Bornean subspecies, and P. p. abelii Lesson, 1827, for the Sumatran subspecies.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.


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Address Changes

Carsten Bresch, Kreuzkopfsteige 1A, D-7800 Freiburg i.Br., D.F.R.

Connie Cantrell, Division of Animal Resources, Virginia Commonwealth

Anthony M. Coelho, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284.

John E. Fa, Apartado Postal 22-027, Mexico 22 D.F.

Benjamin DeWitt Fremming, P.O. Box 350, Kendalia, TX 78027.

Albert M. Jonas, RFD #4, Ellsworth, ME 04605. Univ., MCV Box 630, Richmond, VA 23298.

Douglas K. Obeck, Clinical Invest. Facility, Wilford Hall Med. Center/SGS, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300.

Jacqueline Ogden, Exper. Education Unit, CDMRC, WJ-10, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.

John H. Olsen, Staff Veterinarian, Busch Gardens, P.O. Box 9158, Tampa, FL 33674.

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.

We are grateful to Linda Straw Coelho of San Antonio, Texas for providing the cover drawing of a ringtailed lemur, Lemur catta.

Dr. James Harper, Director of the Brown University Animal Care Facility, is now acting as an additional Consulting Editor on matters of laboratory animal science.

Copyright @1987 by Brown University

Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Associate Editor: Judith E. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor: Millicent Moverman