Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

The African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) as a Carrier of Diseases on Barbados, by J. Baulu, C. O. R. Everard, & J. D. Everard ...... 2

Preliminary Comments on Pairing Unfamiliar Adult Female Rhesus Monkeys for the Purpose of Environmental Enrichment, by V. Reinhardt, D. Cowley, S. Eisele, R. Vertein, & D. Houser ...... 5

Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in West Africa ...... 9

B Virus (Herpesvirus simiae) Human Infection, by S. S. Kalter ...... 13

News, Information, and Announcements

Allan M. Schrier: 1930-1987 ...... 1

Associate Editor's Note ...... 1

Training Program for Captive Breeding of Endangered Species ...... 8

AAALAS Correspondence Course Offered ...... 10

Conference Announcements ...... 11

News Briefs ...... 12
. . . Good Prospects for Lion Tamarins; Universities Sued Over Animal Issues; Supreme Court Says "No" to Animal Activists

Donations Requested ...... 13

World Wildlife Fund Offers Education Kit ...... 26

ASP Annual Meeting Notice ...... 26


Recent Books and Articles ...... 14

* * *

Allan M. Schrier


Professor Allan M. Schrier, Editor and founder of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, died on March 27, 1987 at the age of 57, following a courageous fight with cancer. He also founded the Primate Behavior Laboratory at Brown University, where his research received support from the Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation continuously since 1958. His current research projects concerned the role of eye movements of stumptailed macaques during performance of visual tasks, and a longitudinal study of behavior of rhesus monkeys with neonatal hypoglycemia.

He was a Professor of Psychology at Brown University, where he had been involved in graduate and undergraduate courses in animal behavior and experimental psychology since 1958. He was elected Secretary General of the International Primatological Society for two four-year terms and helped organize meetings of the Society in Bangalore, India; Florence, Italy; Atlanta, GA; and Nairobi, Kenya.

Professor Schrier served on several advisory boards for the National Institutes of Health and the National Academy of Science, and was a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

After receiving his B. A. from New York University (University College) he received his M. S. and Ph. D. from the University of Wisconsin, where he worked with Professor Harry F. Harlow. He was a post-doctoral research fellow at the California Institute of Technology from 1956 to 1958, where he collaborated with Professor Roger Sperry.

His wife, Judith E. (Sanow) Schrier, the Associate Editor, has arranged for the publication of this issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. His mother, Jean (Scheinberg) Schrier, lives in Providence. His daughter, Marya E. Schrier, lives in Jefferson, NJ, with her husband, Anthony DeLuca. His son, Evan J. Schrier, is completing a B. S. in Computer Science at Brown University.

A Memorial Service was held in Manning Chapel on the Brown University campus on April 17. Plans are being made for an obituary to be published in the American Psychologist that will emphasize Allan Schrier's scholarly achievements. Knowing his interest in international travel, his friends and colleagues have established the "Allan M. Schrier Travel Fellowship." It will be awarded about once a year to enable a graduate student in the Department of Psychology at Brown to travel to a professional meeting to present a research report. Those who wish to contribute to this endowment can send a check to the "Allan M. Schrier Travel Fellowship" at the Department of Psychology, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.

* * *

Associate Editor's Note

Allan started the Laboratory Primate Newsletter early in 1962. Pregnant with our first child, I typed the first few issues at home. With funding assured, Allan hired a Managing Editor to handle the typing, bookkeeping, and mailing, and I retired to copy-edit, proofread, raise children, and draw a few cartoons.

I edited the current issue with help from the Consulting Editors, Morris L. Povar and James Harper. The immediate future of the Newsletter will depend on the flow of articles, announcements, and news to our office. I do not have the same resources as Allan had to generate such material myself.

A committee of distinguished Primatologists will meet to consider the long-term future of the Newsletter. Suggestions to this Committee should be sent to Russell M. Church, Acting Director, Primate Behavior Laboratory, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.

* * *

The African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) as a Carrier of Diseases on Barbados

J. Baulu, C. O. R. Everard, and J. D. Everard
Barbados Primate Research Center and Barbados Government Leptospira Laboratory


African green monkeys reached the Caribbean from West Africa in the mid-17th century with the slave trade, and in the 300 years that they have been in the region (Barbados, St. Kitts, and Nevis), these monkey populations have remained physically and genetically isolated from African populations and from each other. The vervet or green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) is the only nonhuman primate found wild on Barbados. The present population is estimated at between 5,000 and 10,000 animals. Their greatest numbers are in the many wooded gullies of the more central wetter areas, but they are also common on plantations and in gardens throughout the island. They are widely regarded as agricultural pests.

The Barbados Primate Research Center and Wildlife Reserve (BPRCWR) has developed a research and management program and traps monkeys for export to overseas laboratories, primarily for vaccine production. Nonhuman primates are well-known carriers of highly pathogenic viral diseases. The large population of Barbadian Cercopithecus in man's environment, and the interests of the purchasing laboratories, require the status of the Barbadian monkey as a carrier of disease to be constantly monitored. We report here on our findings to date.


Monkeys are captured live, usually in large wire-mesh traps, but occasionally by using remote-controlled shooting nets. They are immobilized with 25 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride, taken to the BPRCWR, processed while still sedated, and retained in captivity. Processing includes recording sex, approximate age, and locality of capture, and examination for gross signs of disease or injury. All animals are bled at capture, and after centrifugation the sera are stored at -20deg C. Eventually, the majority of the monkeys are exported. From time to time batches of sera are sent to specialized laboratories to be tested for a variety of microbial agents. Additionally, overseas laboratories perform their own tests on the monkeys they purchase. The pharmaceutical companies and other importing firms which buy monkeys for vaccine production and research purposes are understandably cautious about releasing information on the tests which they carry out. Despite the cooperation which we have received, we are not always given detailed results, and much of our data is therefore limited.



Several overseas specialists and laboratories have tested Barbadian monkeys for viruses or viral antibodies. Negative results were obtained for varicella, measles, yellow fever, dengue fever, western equine encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, snowshoe hare (California group) virus, St. Louis encephalitis, and Herpesvirus simiae (B virus). Antibody tests for herpesviruses are not very specific. SA8 is a herpesvirus very closely related antigenically to herpes simplex and B virus. Therefore, when testing for this virus, animals with Herpes simplex or B virus antibody will usually give a positive result. Obviously the reverse is also true--when testing for B virus or simplex, an animal with SA8 antibody will generally be positive to those viruses. Since Barbadian monkeys are consistently negative when tested for B virus, it is assumed that they are negative for SA8.

At least four institutions have tested Barbadian monkeys for AIDS and SAIDS using a variety of techniques. Three of the instutions (including that of Blakeslee et al., 1985) found that all of the sera were negative for HTLV-I, -II, and -III, and for STLV-I and -III. The fourth institution (Pedersen et al., 1986) tested sera from 50 species of Old World primates for antibodies to HTLV-I, HTLV-III, and SRV-I, and found many to be positive by ELISA. However, further testing by Western blotting showed that the ELISA gave many false-positive results. Between 47% and 52% of 116 Cercopithecus from a variety of sources were positive by the ELISA, but only 4% were positive by Western blot. All of these latter animals were from East Africa and none from the Caribbean.

In one series of tests for Marburg virus antibodies, a positive rate of approximately 30% was obtained by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Agglutination at 1:4 dilution. However, the worker involved has found large numbers of Cercopithecus species from other places to be positive, including those from St. Kitts, and he states the possibility of a nonspecific reaction. Tests performed by another institution have found Barbadian monkeys to be negative for Marburg virus antibodies.

Barbadian monkeys are sometimes positive for the nonpathogenic foamy virus (Types I, II, and III). The seropositivity rate increases with age from <10% in animals under one year of age to >90% in aged adults.


Leptospira has been recognized as an important human pathogen on Barbados since the late 1930's. Because Barbadian monkeys are common in an agricultural environment which favors leptospiral transmission to man, their status as a carrier of this disease is of interest. Agglutinins to Leptospira were found at titers of >/= 1:100 in 150 of 501 (29.9%) animals bled within one month of capture, but despite this high rate of seropositivity, overt leptospirosis has not been seen. The major infecting serogroups were Ballum (61%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (16%), and Autumnalis (15%). Ballum is the infecting serogroup in only 6% of severe human hospital cases of leptospirosis, and other groups of animals examined so far (e.g. dogs, cattle, rodents) are infected mainly with serogroups Autumnalis and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Barbadian monkeys are thus transmitting leptospiral infection among themselves independently of other groups of animals, and they are not a major source of human leptospirosis (Baulu et al., 1987).

Clinical signs of advanced tetanus have been observed in some monkeys, and Salmonella has been recorded. All purchasing laboratories and zoos test monkeys for tuberculosis, and in some cases they also require the BPRCWR to perform these tests. All tests for tuberculosis have given negative results.

During the course of handling several thousand wild-caught monkeys, we observed at least 1000 adults with moderate to severe oral problems. These included periodontitis with marked gingival pockets and red, infected, crescent-shaped rings at the gum and tooth margin. In some individuals there was advanced chronic periodontitis, and gingival hyperplasia which was sometimes so severe as to almost entirely obscure the incisors. In the most severe form of the disease there were also missing, loose, and misplaced teeth, gum denudation to the roots, and black, malodorous, gangrenous tissue. The disease was occasionally fatal. So far, erosion of the facial tissues has not been seen. Examination of the buccal organisms has shown the presence of fusiforms and treponemes; as a general observation, treponemes are very much more proponderant in the gingival pockets in severe disease.


Little work has been done on the endoparasites of Barbadian C. aethiops, but they are prone to hookworm, especially during the wet season. Some animals have also been found with tapeworms and other unspecified intestinal parasites.


Between 1980 and 1986 the BPRCWR exported nearly 3,000 monkeys to North America and Europe in 111 shipments, and only 23 animals (<1%) were dead on arrival. Losses among captive animals through disease were few, and good health is almost certainly a factor in the increase in the monkey population which has taken place in recent decades. To the best of our knowledge the Barbadian monkey has never been incriminated as a source of human disease, although it might have been involved in the yellow fever epidemics of historical times.

We are investigating the possibility that the oral condition discussed above may be Vincent's disease, acute ulcerative necrotizing gingivitis (which is probably a mild form of noma or cancrum oris observed in other monkeys and humans), or a disease caused by Bacteroides. The stress caused by manipulation and captivity, the introduction to a commercial pelleted animal feed and citrus fruits, and the possible lack of some vitamins and proteins may contribute to the rather rapid deterioration of the gum condition in captivity.

There is no rabies in Barbados, and an extremely limited chance of importing this disease. Dogs and other carnivores can be brought in only from the United Kingdom, and the importation of exotic species is very strictly controlled. This strict policy is likely to be continued, and will go a long way to prevent not only the importation of rabies but other exotic illnesses which could infect the monkey population. However, tourism plays a major role in the economies of many Caribbean islands. Barbados, for example, receives 350 thousand visitors per year to augment the resident population of 250 thousand, and these visitors certainly play a role in the epidemiology of disease on the island. Not only can they contract illness locally, but they can bring disease with them and transmit it. The possibility that the monkey may become a reservoir for an exotic pathogen has therefore to be borne in mind, and its status as a carrier of disease should continue to be monitored.

Other islands should also be aware of the dangers which their wild monkey populations might pose. These populations include C. aethiops in St. Kitts, Nevis, and a small area of St. Maarten; the rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and patas (Erythrocebus patas) monkeys in Puerto Rico; C. mona in Grenada; and two New World monkey species in Trinidad (Alouatta seniculus insularis, the Red Howler, and Cebus albifrons trinitatis, a Capuchin). Aloutta has been incriminated in the sylvatic yellow fever epidemics of recent times in Trinidad. All these monkey populations should be monitored for disease.


Baulu, J., Everard, C. O. R., & Everard, J. D. (1987). Leptospires in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) on Barbados. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 23[1], 60-66.

Blakeslee, J. R., Sowder, W. G., & Baulu, J. (1985). Wild african green monkeys of Barbados are HTLV negative. Lancet, 8427, 525.

Pedersen, N. C., Lowenstein, L., Marx, P., Higgins, J., Baulu, J., McGuire, M., & Gardner, M. B. (1986). The causes of false-positives encountered during the screening of Old-World primates for antibodies to human and simian retroviruses by ELISA. Journal of Virological Methods, 14, 213-228.


First author's address: Barbados Primate Research Center and Wildlife Reserve, Farley Hill, St. Peter, Barbados.

We are grateful to the following individuals and institutions for providing much of the information on which this paper is based: Connaught Laboratories, Canada; Lederle Laboratories (Cyanamid), USA; Hazleton Laboratories, USA; Delta Regional Primate Research Center, USA; Gulf South Institute, USA; Sclavo Laboratories, Italy; US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, USA; Smith-Kline-RIT, Belgium; Institut Merieux, France; Caribbean Primate Research Center, Puerto Rico; Charles River Research Primates, USA; J. R. Blakeslee, Ohio State University, USA; P. Kanki, Harvard School of Public Health, USA; N. C. Pedersen, Regional Primate Research Center, University of California, USA; S. S. Kalter, WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Simian Viruses, USA; B. Hull, Caribbean Epidemiology Centre, Trinidad; L. Spence, Toronto General Hospital, Canada; Zoological Gardens in Germany, Canada, USA, Trinidad, St Lucia, and South Korea; Prof. W. Sims, University College, London; Dr. Kenneth S. Kornman, University of Texas Health Science Center, USA; and Dr. Bentley Storey, Barbados. We should also like to thank the technical staff of the MRC/Barbados Government Leptospira Laboratory for their participation in the work on leptospirosis and gum disease.


* * *

Preliminary Comments on Pairing Unfamiliar Adult Female Rhesus Monkeys for the Purpose of Environmental Enrichment

Viktor Reinhardt, Douglas Cowley, Stephen Eisele, Russell Vertein, and Dan Houser
University of Wisconsin


We have recently described a simple but effective method of enriching the environment of individually caged rhesus monkeys by providing them with a deciduous tree branch (Reinhardt, et al., 1987a). We have extended our investigations in an attempt to provide not only inanimate but also animate stimulation to caged subjects. Pairing singly housed adults with unfamiliar 1 to 1-and-1/2 year old infants proved to be one possible way to achieve this goal (Reinhardt, et al., 1987b). A second strategy, tried in the present study, was based on the assumption that adult, unrelated animals that had never lived together could become compatible partners living in the same double cage. It was hypothesized that compatibility could be achieved by noncontact familiarization of potential partners, followed by pairing them in an environment new to both animals.


Thirty female rhesus monkeys that had lived in single cages for more than 1 year were placed pairwise in 15 double cages, with partners being separated from each other by a partition made of wire grating that permitted visual, olfactory, and auditory communication (Figure 1). Each half of the double cage had a volume of 70x75x77 cm, and was provided with a deciduous tree branch. Partners were unrelated, and they had never lived together in the same cage or pen. Animals were kept as neighbors for 7 days and were observed 3 times daily for 5 minutes each. If they were never seen threatening each other, but sat as close as possible to each other (Figure 1) on at least one occasion, they were transferred into a different double cage with two new branches but without a partition on day 8 at 11 a.m. The pairing was done in an environment that was new to both animals to avoid intolerance resulting from territorial antagonism.

Figure 1: Vicky and Anne (Table I, Pair No. 2) were often seen sitting as close as possible to each other during the pre-pairing time; note the partition permitting noncontact communication.

All interactions were recorded during the first 90 minutes of pairing. Six further 5-minute observations were made during the following 8 hours. The pair was observed three times daily for 5 minutes each after the first day. The authors were aware of the potential risk involved in pairing adult rhesus monkeys that had never lived together, and so had decided to separate partners at the very first sign of serious biting injury, i.e. wounds that required medical attendance.

Partners were considered to be compatible if they inflicted no serious injuries on each other, and neither animal showed signs of depression (reduced alertness and a lack of interest in otherwise favored food for more than 12 hours). Compatible pairs were observed during a follow-up period of 1 to 2 months.


The animals of 5 potential pairs were observed threatening each other during the 7 days of noncontact familiarization; actual pairing of these animals was not attempted. The animals of the other 10 potential pairs were never seen threatening each other during the familiarization period, and they were therefore paired. Compatibility was obvious in 7 (70%) of these 10 pairs. Biting was never witnessed nor were signs of biting ever noticed in 4 pairs and the partners groomed each other regularly beginning with the first day of pair formation (Table I, Pairs No. 1-4; Figure 2). The partners of the three other compatible pairs did bite each other during the first (Pairs No. 5-6) or 26th (Pair No. 7) day of pairing. They inflicted minor bruises on each other, but none of them showed signs of depression. These disputes were only temporary and partners regularly engaged in social grooming during the rest of the follow-up observations.

Figure 1:

Figure 2. Vicky grooms Anne 72 minutes after the animals were paired in a double cage that is new to both of them.

Pair Partners'    Signs of  Serious  Follow-up     Are
No.  Name   Age  depression injuries observation partners
                   noticed? noticed? period     compatible?
1   Vera   14 yr     no        no     31 days       yes
    Olly   13 yr     no        no
2   Vicky  14 yr     no        no     35 days       yes
    Ann    10 yr     no        no
3   Rose   17 yr     no        no     36 days       yes
    Chimp  10 yr     no        no
4   Cha     7 yr     no        no     61 days       yes
    Chip    6 yr     no        no
5   Ni     15 yr     no        no     39 days       yes
    Si     16 yr     no        no
6   Roni   10 yr     no        no     52 days       yes
    Rici     7 yr     no        no
7   Schi   15 yr     no        no     53 days       yes
    Pi      9 yr     no        no
8   Ae     10 yr     no        no      4 days        no
    Redbrow 9 yr     yes       no
9   Mama   13 yr     yes       no      5 days        no
    Mimi   14 yr     no        no
10  Jessy  18 yr     no        yes    15 days        no
    Zora   11 yr     no        no

Table I. Compatibility evaluation of adult rhesus monkey females paired in a new double cage after one week of noncontact familiarization.

There were three (30% of 10) incompatible pairs (Pairs No. 8-10). In two cases the partners repeatedly bit each other during the first few days of pair formation (Pairs No. 8-9). No serious injuries were noticed, but one animal of each pair showed signs of depression by day 3 or 4. Signs of depression were still apparent on the following day; it was therefore decided to separate both pairs. The partners of the last pair got along well with each other during the first two weeks (Pair No. 10); they never bit and they frequently groomed each other. On day 15, however, an unexpected fight occurred, in which one animal inflicted a serious wound on the tail of the other. The pair was separated on the same day.


The present paper describes a simple, inexpensive method of socializing unrelated adult rhesus females that had previously lived alone. The preliminary findings are encouraging because they show that there is relatively little risk involved in socializing such animals. Biting occurred in 60% of pairs but there was only one incidence of a serious injury. The partners of 70% of all pairs were compatible; they never showed signs of depression and groomed each other regularly. The observations suggest that the method described has practical value since it provides the caged subject with an adequate object for the expression of a hitherto inhibited basic need: the need for a companion and for social interaction. Follow-up observations are being continued to check the long-term compatibility of established pairs. At the same time we are pairing more individually-caged females and plan on doing the same with adult males.


Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Cowley, E., & Champoux, M. (1987a). Preliminary comments on environmental enrichment with branches for individually caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26[1], 1-3.

Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Eisele, S. G., & Champoux, M. (1987b). Social enrichment of the environment for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology, (in press).


Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299.

We wish to thank Mr. John Wolf for providing valuable comments on this article, and Mrs. Jackie Kinney for typing it.

The project was supported by NIH grant RR00167 to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.


* * *

Training Program for Captive Breeding of Endangered Species

The Wildlife Preservation Trust, an international nonprofit organization dedicated to the support of captive breeding of endangered species, supports projects in captive breeding, field surveys, reintroduction, research, and education. The zoological facility for the Trust's work is located on the island of Jersey, Channel Islands, British Isles. This facility is both a zoo and breeding/research facility for endangered species, and has a collection of over 100 species of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The International Training Center for the Captive Breeding of Endangered Species is an educational facility for training in captive breeding and species conservation; it combines dormitory, classroom, and research facilities for students, staff, and visiting scientists.

The training program's purpose is to train individuals in the techniques of captive breeding of a variety of endangered animal species so that they can advance the cause of wildlife preservation in their respective countries. It consists of 16, 10, or 6 weeks of intensive work in all divisions of the zoo. Trainees work in close contact with zoo staff in all phases of animal keeping and breeding. Each trainee spends two weeks in each section and a final two weeks on an independent project. Daily duties are supplemented with weekly seminars on a variety of topics. The program is flexible in terms of length and focus.

The program is designed for individuals with previous practical experience with animals: zoo and animal center staff and postgraduates in conservation-related fields. Applications may be obtained from the address below. Selection is made in August of each year. Applications should be submitted by June 1 for training beginning in the following year. Starting date is by arrangement. Tuition is 75 pounds (approximately $113). Full room and board costs are 65 pounds (approximately $98) per week. Trainees are responsible for air fare to and from Jersey, Channel Islands, as well as personal expenses.

For application and further information write or call: Training Program, Wildlife Preservation Trust International, 34th Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104 [Telephone: 215-222-3636]. Deadline for application for 1988 positions is June 1, 1987.

* * *

Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in West Africa

On May 27, 1986, a 50-year-old American helicopter mechanic traveled to Enugu, a city in the eastern state of Anambra, Nigeria. While in Nigeria, he took chloroquine 300 mg base weekly for malaria chemoprophylaxis and continued this regimen after returning to the United States via Lagos on December 6. He traveled only in eastern Nigeria and did not travel to other malarious countries. On December 9, he developed fever, chills, and headache, and was hospitalized in California on December 18. On December 20, a peripheral blood smear revealed that 0.5% of red blood cells were infected with asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites, and treatment with chloroquine 1500 mg base was administered over a 3-day period. He became afebrile on December 22, and a peripheral blood smear on December 23 showed rare trophozoites. On December 27, he again became febrile, and a blood smear on December 31 revealed a parasitemia of 1.0%. A whole-blood specimen collected on December 31 was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (Patchen et al., 1983) and contained 151 ng of chloroquine/ml, indicating that the treatment dosage of chloroquine had been adequately absorbed.

A parasite isolate collected on December 31 was assayed by the 48-hour in vitro test of Nguyen-Dinh and Trager (1980) and found to be resistant to chloroquine: parasite multiplication was inhibited only at 0.3 micro-mol of chloroquine/liter of medium, a concentration higher than the accepted limit of in vitro chloroquine resistance (0.06 micro-mol/L). The patient responded promptly to treatment with quinine (650 mg three times daily for 3 days) and tetracycline (250 mg four times daily for 7 days) and has remained well.

Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum was first confirmed in Africa in 1979 when a P. falciparum infection in a traveler returning from Tanzania was not cured by a standard treatment regimen of chloroquine, and the infecting parasite was found to be resistant to chloroquine in vitro (Campbell et al., 1979). Subsequently, chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum has spread throughout East and Central Africa and, in 1985, was reported from as far west as Cameroon (Sansonetti et al.). A recent report from Benin (Le Bras et al., 1986) and the case from Nigeria presented here indicate that chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum is now present in West Africa.

These reports of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum malaria have serious public health implications since malaria transmission in much of West Africa is intense and perennial. In Nigeria, the most populous nation on the African continent, a change in the efficacy of chloroquine, the most widely used anti-malarial drug, could affect many of the country's estimated 80-100 million residents. Since chloroquine-resistance can extend rapidly after it is first observed in a geographic region, the efficacy of chloroquine will need to be systematically monitored by health care personnel throughout West Africa.

In accordance with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommendations for short-term travelers to chloroquine-resistant areas, travelers to Nigeria and Benin should take weekly chloroquine prophylaxis and should also carry pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar®) to be taken in the event of a fever or flu-like illness when medical attention is not readily available (CDC, 1986). Additionally, since P. falciparum infections that are chloroquine prophylaxis failures may respond poorly to full treatment dosages of chloroquine (Weniger et al., 1982), they should be treated with antimalarial medications that are effective against chloroquine-resistant infections.

The Malaria Branch/CDC is currently assisting in the investigation of additional cases of possible chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum malaria acquired elsewhere in West Africa. CDC will update malaria prophylaxis recommendations as further information regarding the geographic extent of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum becomes available. Physicians treating patients with P. falciparum infections that were acquired in West Africa and that may represent chloroquine prophylaxis or treatment failures are encouraged to report these cases promptly to their local or state health departments and to the Malaria Branch/CDC (telephone: weekdays 404-452-4046, nights and weekends 404-329-2888).-- [From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 36, 1987, 13-14.]


Patchen, L. C., Mount, D. L., Schwartz, I. K., & Churchill, F. C. (1983). Analysis of filter-paper-absorbed, finger-stick blood samples for chloroquine and its major metabolite using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Journal of Chromatography, 278, 81-89.

Nguyen-Dinh, P. & Trager, W. (1980). Plasmodium falciparum in vitro: determination of chloroquine sensitivity of three new strains by a modified 48-hour test. American Journal of Tropical Medical Hygiene, 29, 339-342.

Campbell, C. C., Chin, W., Collins, W. E., Teutsch, S. M., & Moss, D. M. (1979). Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum from East Africa: cultivation and drug sensitivity of the Tanzanian I/CDC strain from an American tourist. Lancet, 8153, 1151-1154.

Sansonetti, P. J., Lebras, C., Verdier, F., Charmot, G., Dupont, B., & Lapresle, C. (1985). Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cameroon [Letter], Lancet, 8438, 1154-1155.

Le Bras, J., Hatin, I., Bouree, P., et al. (1986). Chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in Benin. Lancet, 8514, 1043-1044.

CDC (1986). Health Information for International Travel. Atlanta, GA: Public Health Service. DHHS publication no. (CDC) 86-8280.

Weniger, B. G., Blumberg, R. S., Campbell, C. C., Jones, T. C., Mount, D. L., & Friedman, S. M. (1982). High-level chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired in Kenya. New England Journal of Medicine, 307, 1560-1562.

* * *

AAALAS Correspondence Course Offered

A continuing education correspondence course and other self study materials in laboratory animal science are again being made available through the New York Metropolitan Branch of the American Association of Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS).

The correspondence course is designed primarily for those who are studying for AALAS technologist certification, although it also has been used as an instructor's guide for AALAS training courses. The program is offered nationally and takes one year to complete. Those wishing to use the course materials as the basis of an instructor's course plan can receive a complete set of the latest study guides, supplemental articles, text list and exams at a reduced rate in a single mailing. Mailings will include up-to-date study materials, study outlines and examinations. Registration is limited to the first fifty applicants and will close on June 15, 1987. The course will begin in September of 1987.

Two self testing programs based on the AALAS Manual for Assistant Laboratory Animal Technicians (84-1) and the Manual for Laboratory Animal Technicians (84-2) are also available to instructors or technicians preparing for assistant and technician certification. These sample exams are designed to evaluate your comprehension of 84-1 and 84-2 text materials. Additional study materials and suggestions based on the corrected examinations are also available as part of these self-testing programs.

For more information, interested persons should send a stamped self-addressed envelope to: Dr. D. M. Stark, Box 23A, 500 E. 63rd Street, New York, N. Y. 10021.

* * *

Conference Announcements

Comparative Reproduction

The National Centre for Research in Reproduction of Kenya is hosting a conference on Comparative Reproduction in Mammals and Man in Nairobi from November 23-26, 1987. The specific theme of the conference will be "Natural and Artificial Methods of Fertility Regulation" and will be directed toward researchers working in this area. Emphasis will be placed on recent findings as they relate to the manipulation of fertility in humans and their models, agriculturally important mammals, and other mammals.

The scientific program will include plenary sessions, symposia, contributed papers, poster sessions, films, and videos. Proposals for symposia are invited and should be directed to the organizer. The language of the conference will be English. Abstracts will be published prior to the conference and proceedings of symposia will be published afterwards. Pertinent scientific and industrial exhibits of books, laboratory equipment, and pharmaceuticals will be organized.

Registration fees for full, guest, and student registrants, respectively, will be $150, $75, and $50, if received prior to June 1, 1987, and $200, $100, and $75, if received later. Full registrants, as well as bona fide students who are studying in reproduction or related areas, will receive copies of the program and abstracts and are entitled to entry to all scientific sessions and functions of the social program. Guests will receive the program and be entitled to participate in all social functions as well as the opening plenary session.

If you are interested in receiving further information on the conference and would like to be placed on the mailing list for future announcements, write to Dr. R. Eley, NCRR Conference Office, Institute of Primate Research, P. O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya [Telephone: 882471/3; Telex: 22892].

Well-Being of Laboratory Animals

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, in cooperation with the University of Chicago, will hold a conference on "Well-being of laboratory animals: How to comply with the new regulations." It will be held from June 3 to 5, 1987, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Chicago.

The purpose of this conference is to convey new information and to provide a forum for discussion of challenging issues surrounding animal experiments. Revised public policy, effective in 1986 and 1987, makes new demands on scientists and research institutions that conduct animal experiments. Practical advice on how to comply with new policies of Public Health Service and the Federal Animal Welfare Act regarding Animal Care and Use Committees, protocol review, and training of laboratory personnel will be given. Up-to-date information on new national policies of well-being of primates, exercise of dogs, and the new guidelines governing agricultural animals will be announced. Varying viewpoints on the issues surrounding all new policies will be given. A faculty of experts will address important philosophical, ethical, and social issues regarding use of animals in research, testing, and education.

Animal researchers from academia and industry, administrators, members of institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, veterinarians, educators, ethicists, in-house counsel, community members, and all others who are concerned with the social ethical, legal, and practical aspects of animal research should find this conference useful.

Registration forms, which must be sent in by May 29, 1987, can be obtained from the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814.

* * *

News Briefs

Good Prospects for Lion Tamarins

Brighter days may lie ahead for the golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). The National Zoo in Washington recorded the first birth last month in a captive breeding program established to restore numbers of the endangered species.

Golden-headed lion tamarins have recently been the object of a worldwide conservation effort (see Nature, 1986, 322, 586.) The Washington infant's parents are themselves well travelled. They were part of a group of 16 golden-headed lion tamarins imported by a Belgian animal dealer in the winter of 1983 just before Belgium signed the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. The animals were ultimately repatriated to Brazil in November, 1985 but were not released into the wild. Instead, an International Recovery and Management Committee for the tamarins, co-chaired by Jeremy J. C. Mallinson of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust and Adelmar Coimbra-Filho of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center, decided that the animals should be included in a captive breeding program to be conducted both in Brazil and at several locations in North America.

Last March, a total of 20 golden-headed lion tamarins, including the 16 recovered from Belgium, were sent to the National Zoo in Washington and the Los Angeles Zoo. The National Zoo subsequently sent four animals to the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago. Under the terms of the breeding program, all the U. S. animals remain the property of Brazil, and may some day be included in a program to reintroduce them to their natural habitat.

Devra Kleiman of the National Zoo, who is a member of the international management committee, says that until there is a better monitoring program for wild golden-headed lion tamarins, it would be a mistake to release the captive population. In addition to the one birth, two other tamarins at the National Zoo appear to be pregnant. "Consider these as genes in the bank", says Kleiman.--Joseph Palca. [From the NEWS section of Nature, 323, 1986, 7.]

Universities Sued Over Animal Issues

A King County (State of Washington) court has granted a preliminary injunction sought by the Progressive Animal Welfare Society (PAWS) against the University of Washington. The court ruled that meetings of the University's Animal Care Committee must be open to the public. According to the court, the four committee meetings a year come under the state's Public Meetings Act and public attendance cannot be prohibited. WSU contends that the Animal Care Committee is an advisory committee that is not covered by the Open Meetings Act. A trial date for a permanent ruling is pending. The next meeting of the Animal Care Committee is scheduled for April 27.

The University of Pennsylvania and the Dean of Veterinary Medicine, Robert Marshak, are being sued by two third-year veterinary students according to the Philadelphia Inquirer. Penn law school professor and animal rights activist Gary Francione said, "The reason this lawsuit was brought was to keep the school from expelling these students - they were faced with expulsion very quickly if they did not start killing dogs in 'practice' surgery." The suit charges Marshak with refusal to consider alternatives to surgery, including use of cadaver animals and long term treatment programs for injured animals, which the students say were agreed upon by the surgical faculty. The two students said in the suit that practicing surgery on healthy animals "was morally repugnant."

Supreme Court Says "No" to Animal Activists

The United States Supreme Court, without comment in an April 6, 1987 order, refused to hear animal rights groups' appeal in their suit to get custody of laboratory animals and prevent the animals' return to their owner. The International Primate Protection League, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, and others first filed in 1981 to gain ownership of fifteen non-human primates belonging to the Institute for Behavioral Resources (IBR), a recipient of NIH research funds. With the Supreme Court's action, the last legal remedy in the case has been exhausted. The decision of lower courts, that the groups lacked standing to bring the suit, will stand (See July and October, 1986, and January, 1987, issues of this Newsletter for background).

The Washington Post commented in an April 7 editorial, "Private citizens have the right to work on behalf of any legal course, and those with strong concerns about animals will continue to do so. But the advancement of science and the humane treatment of animals are not mutually inconsistent goals. It remains the government's obligation to work to ensure that both are achieved without the intervention of private litigants."

* * *

Donations Requested

The Primate Center of Rio de Janeiro, in existence for some seven years, has been working hard to establish a base for primatology studies in Brazil. Interest in this area has been increasing yearly in this country, which has the largest number of monkey species in the world. The Center has been creating a library that can serve as a resource for research and teaching of primatology in Brazil. However, the economic situation of Brazil, compared to countries such as in North America and Europe, leaves large gaps in the collection. The Director of the Center, Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, and Visiting Researcher Charles Weisbard are soliciting contributions from libraries or individuals who have duplicate, or unneeded, journals, books, or other material in primatology, to the Library of the Primate Center of Rio de Janeiro. Should the library already contain material donated, the Center will distribute these items to other centers of learning and research in Brazil. This material can be sent to the following address, or brought and contributed personally by participants in the XIIth Congress of the International Primatology Society, to be held in Brasilia July 24-29, 1988. Mailing address: Biblioteca, Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, FEEMA, Rua Fonseca Teles, 121/16 andar, São Cristovão, Rio de Janeiro, R.J., CEP 20940, Brazil.

* * *

B Virus (Herpesvirus simiae) Human Infection

S. S. Kalter
Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research

Once again we urge all investigators utilizing nonhuman primates in their research to observe extreme caution in the handling of these animals. A recent occurrence of B virus infection in animal handlers unfortunately stresses the need to maintain appropriate husbandry procedures at all times. Activation of B virus in its natural host occurs spontaneously and may take place without overt evidence of infection.

Serologic screening of animals for B virus antibody can provide information regarding the status of the animal. Sero-positive animals are potential virus shedders throughout their lifetimes. Inasmuch as adult rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) colonies may exhibit 100% prevalence of B virus infection, human avoidance is best provided by strict adherence to the use of protective garments and appropriate masks. Laboratory studies are in progress on patients and animals involved in the recent outbreak.

The NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses provides serologic testing for the detection of B virus antibody, as well as the capability for isolation of viruses from suspected specimens. Consultation services also provide support for epidemiological studies as well as reviewing procedures used for maintaining colonies and husbandry practices in order to minimize infectious disease outbreaks.


The author is Director of the NIH and WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses, West Loop 410 at Military Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284.


* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. Proceedings of the Symposium held at the American Museum of Natural History April 6-10, 1984 to mark the opening of the exhibition "Ancestors: Four Million Years of Humanity". Eric Delson (Ed.). New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. 366 pp. [Price: $49.50]
. . .Contents: I. The "Ancestors" project: An expurgated history, by I. Tattersall, J. A. Van Couvering, and E. Delson. The role of the American Museum of Natural History in 20th century paleoanthropology, by H. L. Shapiro. II. Catarrhine evolution, by E. Delson. Family group systematics and evolution among catarrhine primates, by P. Andrews. The paleobiology of catarrhines, by J. G. Fleagle and R. F. Kay. Origins and characteristics of the first hominoids, by E. L. Simons. The early and middle Miocene land connection of the Afro-Arabian plate and Asia: A major event for hominoid dispersal? by H. Thomas. Patterns of hominoid evolution, by D. Pilbeam. III. Paleoenvironments, stratigraphy, and taphonomy in the African Pliocene and Early Pleistocene, by A. K. Behrensmeyer and H. B. S. Cooke. Ecological and adaptive changes associated with early hominid evolution, by E. S. Vrba. Cultural and taphonomic comparisons of hominids from Swartkrans and Sterkfontein, by C. K. Brain. Age and paleoecology of the upper Laetolil Beds, Laetoli, Tanzania, by J. M. Harris. An integrated Plio-Pleistocene chronology for the Turkana Basin, by F. H. Brown, I. McDougall, T. Davies and R. Maier. IV. Pliocene hominids, by M. H. Day. Single characters and the total morphological pattern redefined: The sorting effected by a selection of morphological features of the early hominids, by P. V. Tobias. Cranial morphology and systematics of the Hadar Formation hominids and "Australopithecus" africanus, by T. R. Olson. Craniodental morphology of the hominids from Hadar and Laetoli: Evidence of "Paranthropus" and Homo in the Mid-Pliocene of Eastern Africa? by W. H. Kimbel, T. D. White and D. C. Johanson. The hominids of Hadar and Laetoli: An element-by-element comparison of the dental samples, by T. D. White. Australopithecine evolution: The deciduous dental evidence, by F. E. Grine. Systematic and functional implications of the facial morphology of Australopithecus and early Homo, by Y. Rak. Australopithecus and early Homo in Southern Africa, by R. J. Clarke. Implications of postcanine megadontia for the origin of Homo, by H. M. McHenry. Locomotor adaptations in the Hadar hominids, by R. L. Susman, J. T. Stern, Jr. and W. L. Jungers. Functional aspects of Plio-Pleistocene hominid limb bones: Implications for taxonomy and phylogeny, by B. Senut and C. Tardieu. V. Early and Early Middle Pleistocene hominids from Asia and Africa, by M. H. Wolpoff and A. Nkini. Early Homo in Kenya, and its systematic relationships, by B. Wood. Faunal stratigraphy and correlation of the Indonesian hominid sites, by J. de Vos. What is "Pithecanthropus dubius Koenigswald, 1950!"!? by J. L. Franzen. New Chinese Homo erectus and recent work at Zhoudoudian, by W. Rukang. The phylogenetic position of Olduvai Hominid 9, especially as determined from basicranial evidence, by W. O. Maier and A. T. Nkini. The tempo of change in the evolution of Mid-Pleistocene Homo, by G. P. Rightmire. VI. Later Middle Pleistocene hominids, by J. T. Laitman. A review of recent research on Heidelberg Man, Homo erectus heidelbergensis, by R. Kraatz. The chronological and systematic position of the Steinheim skull, by K. D. Adam. A late Rissian deposit in Rome: Rebibbia-Casal de'Pazzi, by A. Bietti. Human fossils from the North African Middle Pleistocene and the origin of Homo sapiens, by J. J. Hublin. Middle Pleistocene hominid variability and the origin of Late Pleistocene humans, by C. B. Stringer. VII. Late Pleistocene human fossils and evolutionary relationships, by E. Delson. A new reconstruction of the Florisbad cranium, with notes on the site, by R. J. Clarke. The origin of the Neandertals, by B. Vandermeersch. Neanderthals and their contemporaries, by J. Radovcic. The poor brain of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis: See what you please, by R. L. Holloway. The fate of the Neandertals, by E. Trinkaus and F. H. Smith. Early Homo from Narmada Valley, India, by A. Sonakia. VIII. Problems of paleoanthropological research in Pakistan, by S. M. I. Shah and S. M. Raza. Ancestors for us all: Towards broadening international participation in paleoanthropological research, by G. L. Isaac.


Sex Hormones and Behavior in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1980-1986. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. 14 pp. [Price: $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]

Facial Expressions in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1976-1986. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. 18 pp. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]

Semen Evaluation, Electroejaculation, and Artificial Insemination in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1965-1986. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1986. 13 pp. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]


IPR Report 84-85. Nairobi, Kenya: Institute of Primate Research, Box 24481 Karen, 1986. 48 pp.
. . .A report on the facilities, personnel and activities of the Institute.

Primate Report, No. 15, December, 1986. [Published in cooperation with the German Primate Center (DPZ).] [Price: $8.00]
. . .This issue includes some of the Proceedings of the XIth Congress of the International Primate Society, 20-25 July, 1986, Göttingen, FRG. The papers published here are: Natural infection with STLV-I and STLV-III in African green monkeys at the indoor breeding colony of Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, NIH, Japan, by S. Honjo; Multiple forms of pituitary luteinizing hormone and relative changes in amount of each component during menstrual cycle in cynomolgus monkeys, by T. Yoshida, K. Suzuki, F. Cho and S. Honjo; A comparative anatomical study of the lymph apparatus in primates. 1. Findings in PEYER's patches, by T. Hayakawa, T. Morita, T. Furusawa, H. Yamashita and M. Iwamoto; The development of mating relationships in a small group of Macaca mulatta, by R. Boonratana and C. J. Edwin; Winter movement and spacial distribution of Japanese monkeys in Nikko, Japan, by M. Koganezawa; Studies on social behaviour of aging rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta), by H. Heydecke, M. Schwibbe and W. Kaumanns; and Socialization of artificially reared cotton-top tamarins in a peer-group and in an age-structured group, by H. Gerlach.


Sensory, motor, and postganglionic sympathetic neurons forming the ulnar and radial nerves of two macaque species: Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis. Leong, S. K., Wong, W. C. and Tay, S. W. (Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 0511.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 141-163.
. . .The motor, sensory, and postganglionic sympathetic neurons forming the left ulnar and right radial nerves of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were localized by the horseradish peroxidase method of tracing neuronal connections.

Animal Models

Erythrocytes and erythrocyte morphologies of healthy and colony-born owl monkeys (Aotus lemurinus griseimembra). Mrema, J. E. K., Caldwell, C. W., Stogsdill, P. L., Kelley, S. T. and Green, T. J. (Dept. of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia MO 65211.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 13-25.
. . .Inadequate availability of hematological reference data seriously restricts optimal utilization of the owl monkey as an experimental model. The current study investigated erythrocytic morphology in peripheral blood of healthy, colony-born owl monkeys. The blood of the subjects contained discoid erythrocytes, poikilocytes, and showed considerable anisocytosis. Also observed were nucleated erythrocytes, erythrocytes with Howell-Jolly bodies, and reticulocyte types I, II, and III. Heinz bodies were not detected.

Baboon (Papio ursinus) model to study deep vein thrombosis using 111-indium-labeled autologous platelets. Dormehl, I. C., Jacobs, D. J., Pretorius, J. P., Maree, M. and Franz, R. C. (AEC Institute of Life Sciences, PO Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 27-38.
. . .This study evaluates the chacma baboon as a model for investigations on deep vein thrombosis (DVT). There is a good correlation of the baboon and human thrombelastographic parameters (r-time, k-time, ma). Investigation on the diagnostic efficacy of 111-In-labeled platelets as an imaging agent for DVT cast considerable doubt on the procedure, owing to the age of the thrombus.


Sentinel behaviour in vervet monkeys: Who sees whom first? Horrocks, J. A. and Hunte, W. (Bellairs Research Institute of McGill University, St. James, Barbados, West Indies.) Animal Behaviour, 1986, 34, 1566-1568.
. . .Sentinel behaviour was observed on 28 occasions in nine feral troops during a 6-year study of vervets in Barbados.

Parental division of labour and differentiation of attachments in a monogamous primate (Callicebus moloch). Mendoza, S. P. and Mason, W. A. (California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.) Animal Behaviour, 1986, 34, 1336-1347.
. . .Callicebus is one of several species of New World primates in which males and females share in caring for infants. We investigated the contributions of the mother, father and infant to the development of this relationship, as reflected in the strength and differentiation of social preferences and emotional bonds. The results indicate that the male begins to carry the infant most of the time in the first week of life if the parents are experienced, and somewhat later if they are not.

Diurnal and climatic influences on allogrooming behaviour in a captive group of Java monkeys. Troisi, A. and Schino, G. (Cattedra di Clinica Psichiatrica, II Università di Roma, Viale di Villa Massimo, 47, 00161 Rome, Italy.) Animal Behaviour, 1986, 34, 1420-1426.
. . . Allogrooming showed a definite diurnal cycle similar to those previously reported for other Macaca species. Climatic factors were shown to influence allogrooming: more allogrooming was done under conditions of high temperature and low relative humidity. On the basis of the discrepancy between this latter finding and that previously reported for Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living under similar conditions, it is suggested that the sensitivity of Java monkeys to climatic factors may be a species-specific trait.

Changes in the rhesus mother-infant relationship through the first four months of life. Simpson, M. J. A., Simpson, A. E. and Howe, S. (MRC Unit on the Development and Integration of Behaviour, University Sub-department of Animal Behaviour, High Street, Madingley, Cambridge, CB3 8AA, U.K.) Animal Behaviour, 1986, 34, 1528-1539.
. . .Measurements of the course of interactions between rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta) and their mothers during the infant's first 16 weeks showed changes in the tendencies of both partners to be together and apart. Referring only to the partner who was primarily responsible for an age-related change, by using a single index of responsibility for contact or proximity, was found to be an oversimplification. Similarities between the time courses of the time spent apart from their mothers by rhesus infants in this study and in field studies are pointed out.

Mirror-mediated finding of hidden food by monkeys (Macaca tonkeana and M. fascicularis) Anderson, J. R. (Laboratory of Psychophysiology, Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, France.) Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1986, 100, 237-242.
. . .In contrast to some of the great apes, monkeys have consistently failed to show clear signs of self-recognition in situations of mirror-image stimulation. This suggests a restricted distribution of self-awareness among primates, with very few species being self-aware. Chimpanzees can also use their reflection, or televised images of their hands, to guide their reaching movements toward otherwise invisible targets, and it has been said that such performance may be beyond the ability of monkeys. Here, the spontaneous development of mirror use to direct manual searches for otherwise invisible targets is reported in macaque monkeys.

Early social experience and responses to visual social stimuli in young monkeys. Anderson, J. R. and Chamove, A. S. (Psychology Primate Unit, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, Current Psychological Research and Reviews, 1984, 3, 32-45.
. . .Juvenile stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) were given preference tests in which they could approach an empty chamber, a mirror, a familiar conspecific, or an unfamiliar conspecific. The results suggest that early visual social stimulation is important in the development of aggression and other social behaviors, and that novelty and complexity are important aspects of social stimuli that interact with effects of early experience.

Infant stumptailed macaques reared with mirrors or peers: Social responsiveness, attachment, and adjustment. Anderson, J. R. and Chamove, A. S. (Dept. of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.) Primates, 1986, 27, 63-82.
. . .Comparisons of activity toward mirrors and peers in infant macaques being reared with one of these stimuli as the primary rearing partner revealed markedly greater social responsiveness to a fully accessible cagemate than to one's own reflection. Measures of exploration, aggression, and especially play all revealed the cagemate to be the more potent social stimulus. Mirror-rearing appeared to reduce the tendency toward 'isolation syndrome' behaviors compared to alone-rearing, and these behaviors appear to be less common in stumptailed than in rhesus macaques.

Stone handling by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Implications for tool use of stone. Huffman, M. A. and Quiatt, D. (Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606 Japan. Primates, 1986, 27, 413-423.
. . .Stone-play, a newly innovated cultural behavior, has been observed among the free-ranging Arashiyama B troop Japanese macaques near Kyoto, Japan since 1979. Conditions in which the nonpurposeful handling of stones might possibly give rise to tool behavior are discussed.

Social relationships between adult male and immature rhesus macaques. Hill, D. A. (Sub-department of Animal Behaviour, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.) Primates, 1986, 27, 425-440.
. . .Social relationships of adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were studied over a period of 14 months. Immatures were defined as infants, yearlings and 2-year-olds. There was a tendency for males to spend more time in proximity to immatures in the birth seasons than in the mating season. Time spent in proximity to immatures was correlated with male dominance rank. Several male-immature dyads had persistent relationships and nine were apparent throughout the study period. Most of the latter involved the top-ranking males. Two ways were found in which immatures could benefit from these relationships. Protection and agonistic aiding of immatures by adult males were rare, but occurred exclusively in dyads with persistent relationships. In addition, immatures apparently gained greater access to food resources as a result of their relationships with adult males. There was no clear evidence of adult males benefiting from these relationships.

Posture, microclimate, and thermoregulation in yellow baboons. Stelzner, J. K. and Hausfater, G. (University of California, San Diego, Physics Dept. B-019, La Jolla, CA 92093.) Primates, 1986, 27, 449-463.
. . .This report describes thermoregulatory behavior of free-ranging yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in Amboseli, Kenya. While resting in trees during early morning hours, baboons are directly exposed to thermal effects of wind and sun. The results of this study indicate that air temperature, solar radiation, and wind velocity interact in their effect on behavior. The most salient cue for trunk orientation choice is wind direction, while posture is primarily influenced by air temperature. Our results clearly demonstrate that when baboons are unable to minimize thermal stress by selecting a more favorable microenvironment, they do so by altering their posture.

Voiceprint identification and its application to sociological studies of wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui). Mitani, M. (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan.) Primates, 1986, 27, 397-412.
. . .Japanese monkeys often exchange the particular vocal sound, "coo," especially when they feed or move as a group. The "coo" sound exchange network among the adult members of a troop was drawn on the basis of voiceprint identification. The network showed three characteristics as follows: (1) matriarchs of the kin-groups frequently exchanged "coo" sounds with each other; (2) the other females exchanged "coo" sounds mostly within their own kin-groups; and (3) males seldom participated in the "coo" sound exchange. This suggests that "coo" sound exchange plays a central role for the matriarch of kin-groups in binding each kin-group and, ultimately, in binding all members together into an organized troop.

Summation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Rumbaugh, D. M., Savage-Rumbaugh, S. and Hegel, M. T. (Language Research Center, Dept. of Psychology, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303.) Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1987, 13, 107-115.
. . .In this research, we asked whether 2 chimpanzee subjects could reliably sum across pairs of quantities to select the greater total. Subjects were allowed to choose between two trays of chocolates. Each tray contained two food wells. To select the tray containing the greater number of chocolates, it was necessary to sum the contents of the food wells on each tray. In all experiments, subjects reliably chose the greater sum, even though on many trials a food well on the "incorrect" tray held more chocolates than either single well on the "correct" tray. It was concluded that without any known ability to count, these chimpanzees used some process of summation to combine spatially separated quantities. Speculation regarding the basis for summation includes consideration of perceptual fusion of pairs of quantities and subitization.

Categorization of natural stimuli by monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Effects of stimulus set size and modification of exemplars. Schrier, A. M. and Brady, P. M. (Dept. of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.) Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1987, 13, 136-143.
. . .The concept humans was studied in two experiments on rhesus monkeys, in each of which a two-choice simultaneous discrimination procedure was used. Possible reasons for the differences in results of category learning tests with pigeons and monkeys are discussed as are the implications of the probe tests for a concept interpretation of these results.

Simian scribbles: A reappraisal of drawing in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Boysen, S. T., Berntson, G. G. and Prentice, J. (Primate Cognition Project, Rm. 48, Ohio State University, Townshend Hall, 1885 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1222.) Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1987, 101, 82-89.
. . .Three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were provided with 18 different stimulus pages for drawing. The resulting 618 drawings were coded for drawn marks, and results were compared with early reports on ape drawings (Morris, 1962; Schiller, 1951) and with more recent systematic studies (Smith, 1973). The present results agree with earlier findings that chimpanzees will engage in drawing activities without training or reinforcement, and this behavior may reflect their intrinsic interest in exploratory and manipulative play.

Oblique saccadic eye movements of primates. King, W. M., Lisberger, S. G. and Fuchs, A. F. (A. F. Fuchs, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, Health Sciences Building, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.) Journal of Neurophysiology, 1986, 56, 769-784.
. . .The objective of these experiments was to determine whether the trajectories of the horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in primates were coupled. Human and monkey eye movements were recorded during a visual tracking task that jumped a small visible target spot to different locations on a tangent screen.

The influence of help in contests on dominance rank in primates: Hints from gorillas. Harcourt, A. H. and Stewart, K. J. (Dept. of Applied Biology, Pembroke St., Cambridge CB2 3DX, U.K.) Animal Behavior, 1987, 35, 182-190.
. . .In a number of primate species, daughters have a dominance rank adjacent to their mother's, and younger sisters dominate older ones. The acquisition of a dominance rank largely independent of body size has been related to the reception of help in contests. Since such help is far more commonly seen among primates than nonprimates, it is possible that it was a main selection pressure in the evolution of primate intelligence.

Similarities in the rate-altering effects of white noise and cocaine. Howell, L. L., Byrd, L. D. and Marr, M. J. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.) Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1986, 46, 381-394.
. . .The effects of white noise and cocaine on squirrel monkeys' fixed-interval responding were compared to determine whether the presentation of an exteroceptive stimulus could produce rate-altering effects of the type typically observed following drug administration. The results suggest that rate-altering drug effects may be, in part, a result of the ability of drugs to produce nonspecific stimulus effects similar to those observed for exteroceptive stimuli.

Selective interference in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) intragroup agonistic episodes by age-sex class. Bernstein, I. S. and Ehardt, C. L. (Dept. of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.) Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1986, 100, 380-384.
. . .Adult male interference in agonistic episodes is strongly biased against adolescent and adult male participants, whereas adult female interference is biased in favor of kin and in support of younger animals against older animals. Although natal males also are biased in favor of their kin, their selective targeting of sexually mature males is independent of kinship. Adolescent males target adult males, but only in defense of kin. This selective interference against adolescent and adult males by adult males has the potential to profoundly modify male agonistic participation in intragroup encounters after puberty. Because female support is influenced primarily by kinship, females less consistently interfere against male agonistic participants. Adult males may therefore play an important role in the socialization of male agonistic expression.

Differences between Saimiri sciureus and Callicebus moloch in physiological responsiveness: Implications for behavior. Cubicciotti, D. D., III, Mendoza, S. P., Mason, W. A. and Sassenrath, E. N. (S. P. Mendoza, California Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616.) Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1986, 100, 385-391.
. . .The New World primates Callicebus moloch and Saimiri sciureus differ markedly in life modes. Physiological responsiveness (heart rate, cortisol) of these related taxa was compared in two situations that differed in the presumed degree of stress imposed, exposure to a novel environment and physical restraint. The results indicate that the species differ with respect to organization of physiological regulatory systems in a manner consistent with behavioral contrasts between them.

Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch): Performance on choice tasks in near space. Fragaszy, D. M. (Psychology Dept., Washington State University, Pullman, WA 919164-4830.) Journal of Comparative Psychology 1986, 100, 392-400.
. . .Squirrel monkeys and titi monkeys were studied in tasks involving reaching for food in near space (arm's reach). Although performance by monkeys of the two species differed in several ways familiar from previous studies, the species did not differ in the tendency to adopt an habitual position or limb during reaching. The findings contrast with previous work on spatial preferences in these species in tasks involving movement of the whole body. Together with the results of previous studies on movement patterns in these two species, the findings are placed in a comparative psychological framework of the proximate sources of use of space in nature.

Stage 6 object concept in nonhuman primate cognition: A comparison between gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata). Natale, F., Antinucci, F., Spinozzi, G. and Poti, P. (Istituto di Psicologia Comparata, Via Aldrovandi, 16b, 00197 Rome, Italy.) Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1986, 100, 335-339.
. . .In the developmental sequence of sensorimotor intelligence, achievement of the last stage, Stage 6, marks a very important step in cognitive development. Stage 6, in fact, is characterized by the appearance of representational cognition in contrast to the presentational cognition typical of the first five stages of sensorimotor intelligence.
. . .Several investigators have reported the achievement of Stage 6 object concept in a number of species of nonhuman primates. Because Stage 6 object concept implies a capacity for mental representation, such an achievement would demonstrate the presence of a crucial capacity in nonhuman primate cognition. There are, however, problems in the way nonhuman primates have been tested for Stage 6 object concept, namely, that the tasks employed could be solved in nonrepresentational ways. The aim of the set of experiments reported is to differentiate between representational and nonrepresentational responses in the typical task used for testing Stage 6 object concept, that is, following the invisible displacements of an object. The performance of two 22-month-old subjects, an Old World monkey (Japanese macaque) and an ape (gorilla), was compared. It was found that only the gorilla solved the task with the use of mental representation. The macaque consistently tried to solve the task by employing practical, nonrepresentational strategies.

Manipulation of objects in a captive group of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). Westergaard, G. C. and Lindquist, T. (CDMRC, WJ-10, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 231-234.
. . .The purpose of this study was to investigate the manipulative propensities of a captive group of lion-tailed macaques. Simple natural objects (browse and bamboo poles) were provided regularly in the home cage. Findings indicate richness in the frequency and form of manipulative activities, with juvenile males manipulating the test objects more frequently and exhibiting more goal-directed manipulative activity than adult females. A variety of goal-directed manipulative activities (use of objects to act as ladders, to apply leverage, and to create perches) occurred spontaneously, with some instances involving joint action or social use. These data are consistent with the hypotheses that macaques possess extensive capacities for object exploration and social facilitation, and that an evolutionary history of omnivorous foraging habits correlates positively with the expression of anomalous sensorimotor skills.


Failure of the prostaglandin F2alpha analogue, cloprostenol, to induce functional luteolysis in the olive baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis). Eley, R. M., Summers, P. M. and Hearn, J. P. (Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 1-12.
. . .. The protaglandin F2alpha analogue, cloprostenol, which is an effective luteolytic agent in the common marmoset, was administered intramuscularly to olive baboons to determine if it possessed luteolytic properties in this species. The results showed that functional luteolysis was not induced when cloprostenol was administered during the mid- to late luteal phase or during early pregnancy.

Concentrations of steroids in the utero-ovarian vein blood, serially collected from the two sides of individual baboons, during the follicullar phase. Shaikh, A. A., Gbur, E. E. and Shaikh, S. A. (Dept. Veterinary Physiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843.) Primates, 1986, 27, 493-506.
. . .The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the follicular phase steroid hormone secretion into the utero-ovarian vein by the ovary with a dominant follicle and the contralateral ovary in the same baboon. Serial utero-ovarian vein blood from both sides was collected in 25 baboons by the use of a laparoscope on alternate days, starting on day 1 or 3 of the cycle and continuing through 2 to 3 days post-ovulation. Approximately 3 to 4 days before the day of expected ovulation, samples were collected at 8-hr intervals. Steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) were measured in all utero-ovarian vein plasma by radioimmunoassay. In the peripheral plasma, E2, P, LH, and FSH measurements were carried out. Concentrations of steroids were significantly higher on the side of the ovulating ovary by day 5 before ovulation. Individual plots however, indicated that some baboons may establish the dominant side as early as day 11 before ovulation. The pre-ovulatory gonadotropins had a differential effect on the two ovaries. For example, E2 values on the ovulatory side ovary declined after increases in LH/FSH, whereas on the contralateral side these values had increased. Both sides showed increases in the level of P with the increases in LH. The mean interval from E2 peak to LH peak was 24 hrs and LH peak to ovulation was 24 hrs.

A case of unusually early postpartum resumption of estrous cycling in a young female chimpanzee in the wild. Takasaki, H., Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., Takahata, Y., Byrne, R. W. and Kano, T. (Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606 Japan.) Primates, 1986, 27, 517-519.
. . .A case of unusually early postpartum resumption of estrous cycling (<7 months) was recorded for a young, presumably primiparous female in the M group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Mahale Mountains National Park, western Tanzania. The female showed estrous cycling while lactating her infant, and mated with young and low-ranking males as well as with the alpha male.

Urinary gonadotropin and estrogen excretion during the postpartum estrus, conception, and pregnancy in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Ziegler, T. E., Bridson, W. E., Snowden, C. T. and Eman, S. (Dept. Psychology, 1202 W. Johnson St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12 127-140.
. . .Hormonal profiles during postpartum estrus, time of conception, and pregnancy were determined in urine samples from six cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Noninvasive collection techniques permitted daily sampling throughout lactation and pregnancy. Urinary estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and both bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) measures revealed an interval of 19 +/- 2.07 (S E M) days between parturition and the postpartum ovulatory LH peak. An increase in both E1 and E2 was seen prior to the LH peak; however, E1 and E2 continued to increase to their highest concentrations after the LH peak. Since postpartum ovulations resulted in pregnancy, neither postpartum estrus nor conception was suppressed by lactation. The length of gestation (measured from the LH peak to parturition) was l83.7 +/- 1.14 (S E M) days, which is at least 30 days longer than that previously reported for other callitrichid species. Both E1 and E2 reached their maximum levels during midpregnancy but showed a rapid decline at parturition. Gestational levels of CG were first detectable approximately 20 days after the LH peak and continued to be elevated for approximately 80 days. The Sub-Human Primate Tube Test (SHPTT) for pregnancy did not detect the LH Peak and was less sensitive than other methods in detecting CG. Two RIA methods and a bioassay technique could not distinguish between LH and CG. It was concluded that monitoring both estrogen and LH concentration was needed to determine when ovulation occurs in the cotton-top tamarin, since peak values of estrogen are seen after the ovulatory LH peak. Also, these tamarins were pregnant the majority of the time, indicating an unusually high fertility rate in contrast to most noncallitrichid primate species.

Male rank and reproductive activity in savanna baboons. Berkovitch, F. B. (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 533-550.
. . .Access to sexually receptive baboon females has been linked to male dominance rank. An intensive 19-month field study of mate choice and mate competition among savanna baboons was undertaken in order to elucidate those factors influencing mating success. During this study, male agonistic rank was not correlated with male mating success among adult males. However, the inclusion of adolescent males into the analysis yielded significant correlations between rank and mating success. Examination of prior fieldwork revealed that no baboon field study has conclusively demonstrated a significant correlation between male rank and reproduction among adult males. Most studies reporting a correlation between male rank and reproduction have included subadult males in the analysis. It is concluded that male rank is an unreliable predictor of male reproductive activity among adult male baboons. A low agonistic rank need not reduce male mating success because adult male baboons utilize a variety of reproductive tactics in gaining access to consort females.

Female weight and reproductive condition in a population of olive baboons (Papio anubis). Bercovitch, F. B. (University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI (53715-1229.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12 189-195.
. . .The study reported here tested Altmann's prediction that lactating female baboons endure a weight loss. Data from 64 adult female olive baboons residing in six troops in Kenya revealed that reproductive condition was related to weight. Lactating females weighed less and pregnant females weighed more than cycling females. There was a negative correlation between the weight of cycling females and the number of months postweighing to their next conception. These results indicate that lactation in wild baboons imposes energy costs that result in lost weight. It is suggested that female baboons may have to surpass a minimum weight threshold prior to resumption of postlactational cycling and that nutritional status is more influential than rank in affecting female reproductive success.

Eating for two: Behavioral and environmental correlates of gestation length among free-ranging baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Silk, J. B. (Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 583-602.
. . .Variation in environmental conditions during pregnancy and differences in the feeding behavior of females during pregnancy were consistently associated with variation in gestation length among free-ranging yellow baboons in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Females whose pregnancies ended during the wet season gave birth after shorter pregnancies than females whose pregnancies ended during the dry season. When rainfall is held constant, another source of variation in gestation length emerges. Females that spent progressively less time feeding over the course of their pregnancies gave birth after longer pregnancies than females that spent progressively more time feeding over the course of their pregnancies. These two factors, which provide rough indices of maternal nutritional status, accounted for a substantial fraction of the observed variation in gestation length among these female baboons.

Pregnancy outcome in free-ranging vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Turner, T. R., Whitten, P. L., Jolly, C. J. and Else, J. G. (Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 5320l.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 1997-203.
. . .A preliminary assessment of individual female differences in conception rate and fetal wastage has been determined for a population of wild vervet monkeys. One of three troops of vervet monkeys, the subjects of a long-term behavioral study, was trapped and blood was obtained for electrophoretic analysis. Pregnant females exhibited a distinctive serum aminopeptidase phenotype allowing a conclusive determination of pregnancy. Of the seven females diagnosed as pregnant, three later gave birth. Of the females that aborted, two were nulliparous and one was very old. Studies of captive animals have indicated that age and rank may affect a female's ability to carry a fetus to term. These factors, rather than the trapping procedure, may have been responsible for most of the fetal loss in the trapped troop. A comparison of all three troops for a 3-year period indicated that there were fluctuations in yearly birth success of individual females, as well as a relatively high miscarriage rate. The results of this study indicate the advantages of obtaining joint behavioral and biological data.

Direct measurements of urinary estrone conjugates during the normal menstrual cycle of the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). Czekala, N. M., Mitchell, W. R. and Lasley, B. L. (Research Dept., San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 223-229.
. . .A direct immunoassay for urinary estrone conjugates (estrone sulfate and estrone glucuronide) was used to assess the preovulatory estrogen rise in normal gorilla menstrual cycles. Immunoreactive estrone conjugates in samples concomitantly assessed for total estrogen immunoreactivity reflected similar profiles throughout the cycle; however, the speed and resolution of the direct assay for conjugates indicate this method to be more accurate in monitoring ovulation than the measurement of total immunoreactive estrogens. In a single conceptive ovarian cycle, urinary estrone conjugate continued to rise in the luteal phase, indicating that this test may also be useful for detecting early pregnancy. The application of this technique provides clear profile of ovarian function in gorillas as well as in other primate species.


A possible role of plantations for primate conservation in Madagascar. Ganzhorn, J. U. (Abt. Verhaltensphysiologie, Beim Kupferhammer 8, 7400 TuAmerican Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 205-215.
. . .The utilization of eucalyptus plantations by seven sympatric species of prosimians was studied in the eastern rainforest of Madagascar. The species were Avahi laniger, Cheirogaleus major, Hapalemur griseus, Indri indri, Lemur fulvus, Lepilemur mustelinus, and Microcebus rufus. None of the lemurs was ever found in young eucalyptus plantations with little undergrowth. This was mainly due to the lack of travel opportunities within the shrub layer and between the shrubs and the canopy. Food (mainly berries) is seasonally available in the shrub layer but cannot be exploited because frugivorous lemurs cannot reach it. Old eucalyptus plantations with dense undergrowth are used by all prosimian species. They provide food as well as travel and resting facilities. Mixed tree plantations in the western part of Madagascar were used by groups of Lemur fulvus, Lepilemur mustelinus and Propithecus verreauxi. According to these results, old eucalyptus plantations and mixed tree species plantations could be used to provide firewood and construction wood for the human population. They also might extend the habitat for lemurs and serve as buffers against human disturbance.


Spontaneous cryptococcosis of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in French Guyana. Roussilhon, C., Postal, J-M. and Ravisse, P. (Institut Pasteur de Cayenne, 97306 Cayenne cedex, French Guyana.) Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 39-47.
. . .An old female squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) with a tumor-like growth of the lower jaw died in shock after 2 months of illness. Histological studies of different tissue samples demonstrated that the pathological agent was Cryptococcus. Multiple foci of fungus existed in the thoracic cavity with essentially pulmonary and glandular localizations.

Bovine tuberculosis in a baboon colony. Suleman, M. A., Tarara, R., Kamunyi, R. G., & Runyenje, R. N. (Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 24481, Nairobi, Kenya.) The Kenya Veterinarian, 1983, 7, 1-2.
. . .Tuberculosis was suspected in a newly acquired baboon tested intrapalpebrally with mammalian old tuberculin. The animal was euthanized and autopsy performed. Gross pathology showed lesions typical of tuberculosis in the left cardiac lobe of lung, tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and liver. Specimen culture of Mycobaterium and histopathology were collected. Culture of the material was confirmed as Mycobacterium bovis.


Somatometrical features of Japanese monkeys in the Koshima Islet: In viewpoint of somatometry, growth, and sexual maturation. Hamada, Y. Iwamoto, M. and Watanabe, T. (Japan Monkey Centre, Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan.) Primates, 1986, 27, 471-484.
. . .The Japanese monkeys inhabiting Koshima islet were investigated morphologically, and compared with those living in other areas of Japan.

Seed dispersal by pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus): A preliminary report. Idani, G. (Laboratory of Human Ecology, University of the Ryukyus, Aza-Uehara, Nishihara-cho, Nakagami-gun, Okinawa, 903-01 Japan.) Primates, 1986, 27, 441-447.
. . .The role in seed dispersal played by the pygmy chimpanzees inhabiting Wamba, Republic of Zaïre, was studied. Germination was tested for seeds of 17 plant species recovered from the feces of pygmy chimpanzees at Wamba. The fecal seeds of 13 species germinated, and in six of the species the germination rate for the fecal seeds was higher than that of control seeds. Pygmy chimpanzees may play an important role in the seed dispersal of fruit plant species at Wamba.

The socioecology of the black mangabey (Cercocebus aterrimus) near Lake Tumba, Zaire. Horn, A. D. (Dept. of Anthropology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins CO 80523.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 165-180.
. . .Socioecological data were gathered in a two-year study of black mangabey monkeys in a secondary forest on the west bank of Lake Tumba, Zaire. The mangabeys of the study area lived in multi-male, multi-female groups numbering between 14 and 19 individuals. They were completely arboreal, fed mostly on fruit and nuts, and frequently were associated with other species of arboreal monkeys. Their predators were human hunters and the crowned hawk-eagle. The primary vocalizations of black mangabeys were analyzed and their social contexts compared with those of closely related grey-cheeked mangabeys, to which they were found to be very similar.

Selection of secondary growth areas by vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Chapman, C. A. (Depts. of Anthropology and Zoology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 217-221.
. . .Habitat selection by a group of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) living on the savanna peninsula of St. Kitts was investigated by the intensive sampling of 12 transects. The vervets exhibited nonrandom use of habitats. Examination of 20 ecological variables in each of the habitat types revealed that the vervets preferentially used areas of secondary growth characterized by high density and diversity of tall food plants. It is suggested that the preferential use of secondary growth habitat can be attributed to the fact that these areas have high levels of plant productivity available for consumption.

Ecology of Japanese monkeys, 1950-1982. Kawai, M. and Ohsawa, H. (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama City, Japan.) Recent Progress of Natural Sciences in Japan, 1983, 8, Anthropology, 95-108.
. . .A brief history is given for each of several subject areas within ecology, and the results in each area are discussed.


Coagulation assays and platelet aggregation patterns in human, baboon, and canine blood. Feingold, H. M., Pivacek, L. E., Melaragno, A. J. and Valeri, C. R. (Naval Blood Research Laboratory, Boston University School of Medicine, 615 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118.) American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1986, 47, 2197-2199.
. . .Baboon RBC and platelets can be collected, isolated, and preserved, using the same techniques as those used in man. Baboon plasma proteins are similar to human proteins. Baboons have been subjected to repeated IV infusions of human albumin and human fibrinogen without becoming immunized to them. The blood clotting system of the baboon closely resembles that of man. The purpose of this study was to assess the coagulation assays and platelet-aggregation patterns in human, baboon, and canine blood and to determine which species had patterns most comparable with those of man.

The effect of relative humidity on osmoregulation in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Friedl, K. E. and Holmes, W. N. (Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106.) Primates, 1986, 27, 465-470.
. . .Osmoregulatory balance was studied in four young, tamed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus, Columbia) after acclimatization to relative humidities (rh) commonly used in laboratories (30% and 50%) and to higher humidities representative of the dry and wet seasons in their natural environment (75% and 95%). Water consumption and urine flow rates increased at each higher humidity from 30%rh to 75%rh and then decreased at 95%rh (p < 0.05). Fecal water loss was greater with higher humidity (p < 0.05). Evaporative water loss remained relatively constant until a break between 75% and 95%rh, at which point it decreased dramatically (p < 0.05). Expressed relative to total water intake, evaporative water loss demonstrated a progressive decrease with increasing humidity: 65%, 56%, 5l%, and 42%, at 30%, 50%, 75%, and 95%rh. Potassium/sodium excretion ratios were relatively constant at 30%, 50%, and 95%rh but decreased significantly at 75%rh (p < 0.05). As a reflection of adrenocorticosteroid activity, this suggests that at 25deg C, 75%rh is an optimal humidity in the maintenance of squirrel monkeys. The significant osmoregulatory alteration occurring between 75% and 95%rh provides further evidence that relative humidity may be an important factor in the seasonal physiological cycles of the squirrel monkey.

Effects of naloxone on renal responses to noxious stimuli in the cynomolgus monkey. Kirby, D. A. and Herd, J. A. (Harvard Medical School, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772.) Primates, 1986, 27, 507-515.
. . .Behavioral influences on excretion of Na+ and H2O were studied during saline diuresis in three unanesthetized adult female cynomolgus monkeys. During control infusions of isotonic saline, the average rates of urine and Na+ excretion were 210 microl/kg/min and 36.1 microl/kg/min, respectively, and the average rate of inulin clearance was 4.6 ml/kg/min. Intermittent exposure to an electrical stimulus applied to the monkey's tail for 30-min period modestly reduced rates of excretion of Na + and H2O; these reductions were 58% and 56% of baseline values respectively during the first 10 min, but excretion rates returned to baseline values or exceeded them by the end of the 30-min period. The effects of naloxone hydrochloride (10 mg/kg), an opiate antagonist, were studied by administering the drug immediately before the period of electrical-stimulus delivery. After naloxone, the electrical-stimulus markedly reduced the rates of Na + and H2O excretion to 29% and 31% of baseline values during the first 10 min, and delayed the return to baseline values. Inulin clearance was not altered significantly by the electrical stimulus in the absence of naloxone, but was decreased to 32% of the baseline rate during the first 10 min of exposure to the electric stimulus in the presence of naloxone. Naloxone had similar effects on rates of Na + and urine excretion in response to 30 min of 108 dBA noise. These results show that renal responses to noxious environmental stimuli (electrical stimulus or noise) can be altered by naloxone.

Purine metabolites in serum of higher primates, including man. Schreiber, G., Tiemeyer, W., Flurer, C. I. and Zucker, H. (Institut für Physiologie, Physiologische Chemie und Ernährungsphysiologie, Universität München, München, West Germany). International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 521-531.
. . .Using a new method for simultaneous quantification of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, and allantoin by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography, purine metabolites of 18 species of higher primates, including man, have been determined. The data thus produced indicate that the serum concentrations of purine metabolites in primates are influenced by nutrition, sexual hormones, and the procedures used in catching the animals for venipuncture. In the Callitrichidae examined, serum concentrations of purines differ significantly from species to species. The results of a nutritional test show that Callithrix jacchus possesses an efficient system for degradation of dietary purines.

Biomechanical scaling of mandibular dimensions in New World monkeys. Bouvier, M. (Dept. of Anatomy, LSU Dental School, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70119.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 551-567.
. . .Previous studies show that folivorous Old World monkeys have shorter, deeper mandibles and shorter, wider condyles than frugivorous ones. These morphologies have been related to leaf mastication in colobines and ingestion of large, tough fruits in cercopithecines. This study examines New World monkeys in order to determine whether they exhibit similar adaptations to diet. A biomechanical interpretation of craniofacial scaling patterns suggests that the mandibles of New World monkeys are subjected to lower condylar loads and considerably less twisting of the mandibular corpus than those of comparable Old World monkeys.


Taxonomy and evolution of the Sinica group of macaques: 5. Overview of natural history. Fooden, J. (Div. of Mammals, Dept. of Zoology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605.) Fieldiana: Zoology, 1986, n.s.29, 1-22.
. . .This paper is a contribution in celebration of the distinguished scholarship of Robert F. Inger.
. . .The sinica group of macaques includes four species: Macaca sinica, M. radiata, M. assamensis, and M. thibetana. The geographic ranges of these species extend from tropical Sri Lanka (M. sinica) to subtropical east-central China (M. thibetana). In this review of the natural history of the sinica group, these species are compared with respect to habitat, arboreality/terrestriality, food, predators and parasites, seasonal migration, troop size and composition, home range, male emigration, seasonal breeding, mating behavior, life history, and geographic and ecological relationships with other primates.

Chromosomes of the Cercopithecus aethiops species group: C. aethiops (Linnaeus, 1758, C. cynosuru (Scopoli, 1786), C. pygerythrus (Cuvier, 1821), and C. sabaeus (Linnaeus, 1766). Sineo, L., Stanyon, R. and Chiarelli, B. (Institute of Anthropology, University of Florence, via del Proconsolo 12, 50122 Firenze, Italy.) International Journal of Primatology, 1986, 7, 569-582.
. . .The banded karyotypes of 34 monkeys of known geographic origin and belonging to the Cercopithecus aethiops group of species (C. aethiops, C. pygerythrus, C. cynosurus, C. sabaeus) show that chromosome evolution in this group is highly conservative. All species have 2n = 60 chromosomes with very similar chromosome banding. However, differences were found both within and between species. A polymorphism of the NOR area of the "marked" chromosome pairs was found in all taxa (9 of 34 animals). All individuals referred to C. sabaeus, from both West Africa and the Barbados, are characterized by having highly positive G- and C-banded terminal sequences on chromosomes 7, 10, 12, and 14. Outgroup comparisons with other primates and a parsimony analysis suggest that these terminal bands are derived and are probably good taxonomic and phylogenetic indicators. Moreover, chromosome 18 is variable both between and within species in G banding and in short-arm length. The existence of within-species variation in karyotypes suggests that karyological comparisons must be based on adequate samples that include specimens coming from all the major geographic populations of the species concerned.

Taxonomic assessment of the allopatric gray-cheeked mangabey (Cercocebus albigena) and black mangabey (C. aterrimus): Comparative socioecological data and the species concept. Horn, A. D. (Dept. of Anthropology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523.) American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 12, 181-187.
. . .A brief review of past taxonomic assessments of the allopatric gray-cheeked mangabey (Cercocebus albigena) and the black mangabey C. aterrimus) is presented. On the basis of pelage, cranial, and biomolecular morphology, aterrimus and albigena have been lumped together in the same species-group, superspecies, subgenus, or species by various systematists over the years. A comparison of the available socioecological data on the two forms supports their close taxonomic association, as they are found to be very similar in socioecological traits. After a brief review of current species concepts, the author, on the basis of the socioecological commonalities, tentatively supports Groves' [1978] conspecific designation of albigena and aterrimus and suggests further tests for this proposal and for the species concept, from the points of view of both taxonmomic and evolutionary theory.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.


* * *

World Wildlife Fund Offers Education Kit

TRAFFIC(U.S.A.), the wildlife trade monitoring program of the World Wildlife Fund, has compiled a complete education kit on wildlife trade. It includes: an 80-slide show and script entitled "Wildlife Trade: The Poacher, the Law, and the Consumer," highlighting the facts and facets of wildlife trade; an educator's guide that includes a wildlife trade quiz, suggested activities, glossary, bibliography, and guide to wildlife one should avoid purchasing; factsheets on trade in live parrots, primates, rhino products, and elephant ivory; and a full-color poster of 23 endangered neotropical primates protected from trade by the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

This kit is available for $40.00. To order, write to TRAFFIC(U.S.A.), World Wildlife Fund, 1255 23rd St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20037, or telephone 202-293-4800.

* * *


ASP Annual Meeting Notice

The tenth annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, hosted by the University of Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center at Madison, will be held June 13-16, 1987. The paper sessions, symposia, posters, exhibits, and business meetings will take place at the Wisconsin Center (702 N. Langdon Street), a convention facility located on the edge of campus and overlooking Lake Mendota. For registration forms and further information contact: Dr. Sally P. Mendoza, California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Phone 916-752-1988).

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.

We are grateful to Linda Straw Coelho of San Antonio, Texas for providing the cover drawing of a ringtailed lemur, Lemur catta.

Dr. James Harper, Director of the Brown University Animal Care Facility, is now acting as an additional Consulting Editor on matters of laboratory animal science.

Copyright @1987 by Brown University

Editor: Allan M. Schrier
Associate Editor: Judith E. Schrier
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar
Managing Editor: Millicent Moverman