VOLUME 27 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1988
Articles and Notes
The Ape in Stateroom 10, by Kenneth A. R. Kennedy & John C. Whittaker ...... 1
Guidelines for Prevention of Herpesvirus simiae (B Virus) Infection in Monkey Handlers...... 9
Pairing Compatible Female Rhesus Monkeys for Cage Enrichment Has No Negative Impact on Body Weight, by V. Reinhardt, D. Cowley, S. Eisele, R. Vertein, & D. Houser ...... 13
The Raisin Board as an Environmental Enrichment Tool for Laboratory Primates, by T. C. Moazed & Axel V. Wolff ...... 16
Gorilla Facility Survey Results, by Lisa Espey ...... 25
News, Information, and Announcements
Fyssen Foundation 1988-1989 Fellowships and 1988 International Prize ...... 6
Editor's Note ...... 7
AFIP Comparative Pathology Course ...... 7
ASP Annual Meeting Notice ...... 12
Environmental Enrichment Slide Set ...... 15
NABR Conference Announcement ...... 15
Nonhuman Primates as Models in Virus Research ...... 17
. . AIDS Research; Herpesvirus Vector Developed for Use in Genetic Studies
News Briefs ...... 18
. . Scientists Fret Over Monkey Incursion; Adoption Announcement; Houston is New APHIS Head
Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1988) ...... 19
Address Changes ...... 7
Recent Books and Articles ...... 29
* * *
Kenneth A. R. Kennedy and John C. Whittaker
The young passenger's sneezes and coughs competed in volume with the foghorns sounding off the banks of Newfoundland as the S. S. Pavonia steered a course through choppy waters and heavy mists. It was the steamer's spring voyage from Liverpool to Boston. When the ship reached port on May 2, 1897, the focus of attention on board was the welfare of the sickly youth in stateroom 10. Several eminent Boston physicians were called in to treat him, his respiratory difficulties having advanced to an acute state of pneumonia. Quinine had been administered during the journey but without effecting any improvement in the patient's condition. The situation was becoming critical, for the patient was a VIP, or more properly, a VIG (very important gorilla), the first representative of this genus of anthropoid ape to be imported alive to the United States.
The gorilla's companion and nurse during the crossing was a Mr. Edwards, one of two brothers well known as "ape fanciers" because of their success in transporting live orangutans and chimpanzees to menageries in Europe and America. While in Liverpool, Edwards had heard that a gorilla had recently been brought to that city by a hand on an African trading ship. With the help of a local animal dealer then in possession of the creature, Edwards located the seaman, who enthusiastically recounted how he had acquired the gorilla, a prize that earned him 100 pounds sterling (about $500).
The gorilla had been brought down the Congo River by a party of native hunters who had found the six-month-old infant clinging to the body of its dead mother. According to this account, the mother had been killed "by a windfall that had fallen over the lower part of her, apparently as she was asleep." The weak and crying survivor of this tragedy was fed water and plantains, then taken to the hunters' village where he regained his health and was enjoyed as a pet. By the time he was a year old, he was traded to the sailor in exchange for a bolt of red cloth.
The new owner could not tell Edwards the exact location along the river where the gorilla had had his home, but he did provide the curious piece of information that the gorilla mother had measured 4 feet 8 inches in body length and was very broad across the chest. Since it is unlikely that the hunters would have made such a precise observation, the sailor himself had probably killed the adult gorilla for sport, thereby obtaining the infant, which he knew could be sold upon his return to England. Edwards decided to buy the animal.
Certainly Edwards's motives in owning the animal were as commercial as the sailor's, for the day after he had made his purchase, he turned down a generous offer from the director of a Paris zoo who attempted to negotiate a sale. Edwards speculated that the gorilla infant would be "worth thousands" once he was displayed at carnivals, on lecture tours, and in zoos throughout the United States and Canada. The American public had only seen large male baboons, which were misrepresented as gorillas by ignorant or unscrupulous keepers. By importing genuine chimpanzees from Africa, the Edwards brothers had enhanced the excitement of a visit to the Central Park Zoo in New York City. Hundreds of spectators came to see and enjoy the chimpanzees, who were affectionately known as Crowley, Chiko, Johanna, and Kitty. After their deaths, these apes were exhibited as mounted specimens in The American Museum of Natural History. The large Asiatic ape, the orangutan, was also seen in America before 1897, another contribution of the Edwards brothers.
The gorilla, however, was still a creature of mystery, and Edwards knew that the debut of his latest purchase in this country would be a sensational affair--one that would attract public interest and prove to be a sound financial investment as the animal matured into full adulthood. Within a few years the gorilla would weigh several hundred pounds, exercise tremendous physical strength, and acquire those impressive sexual characteristics of massive cranial crests and ridges that give the male gorilla its ferocious appearance. Even at twelve months of age Edwards's gorilla stood two feet high, had an arm span of three feet, and weighed fourteen and a half pounds. The stakes were high for Edwards as he enjoined the elite of Boston's medical profession to do all that was humanly possible to cure his precious charge.
More is involved in this story than merely a sentimental reflection on an ailing ape. The incident occupies a modest place in the history of science with respect to the importance accorded the anthropoid apes by nineteenth-century proponents of Darwinian evolutionary theory. The gorilla is the largest of the African apes and the primate most closely resembling man in stature and body size. In The Descent of Man, Charles Darwin suggested that our apeman progenitor must have evolved in Africa because the most nearly manlike apes inhabited that continent.
Apart from its popularity among evolutionary biologists, the huge creature was a source of fascination to all people for its power to incite awe, in short, its "monster appeal." Many years before King Kong roared across our movie screens, travelers' accounts, novels, and representational art had popularized tales of the gorilla's ferocity and its compulsion to abduct human maidens. But the primary source of the fervor for gorillas during the last century lay in the very novelty of the beast. Before the year 1847, the gorilla was unknown to scientists in Europe and America.
The circumstances that brought the existence of the gorilla to the attention of the Western world began with a visit by the American missionary Dr. Thomas S. Savage to the Reverend J. L. Wilson, senior missionary in West Africa. Their meeting took place in 1844 in the region of the Gabon River. The Reverend Mr. Wilson showed his visitor a large ape skull and told him that the beast was called enge-ena by local inhabitants. Savage promptly set about collecting some skeletal specimens of his own, engaging a famous native hunter to kill a male and female enge-ena for him. In time he possessed the skulls and some postcranial bones of males and females of different ages.
From his own observations and those of persons he deemed trustworthy, Savage compiled detailed notes on this unique ape's manner of expressing aggression, its nest-building habits, social interactions, and other behavioral data. These notes and his assemblage of osteological specimens were shown to Jeffries Wyman, professor of anatomy at Harvard University. In December 1847, Savage and Wyman published their study of gorilla anatomy and behavior in the Boston Journal of Natural History, under the title "Troglodytes gorilla, a New Species of Orang from the Gaboon River."
Today we would not refer to gorillas as a species of orang, but the distinction between the African ape and the large ape of Asia was not understood until a few years after the appearance of Savage and Wyman's study. The name gorilla was chosen to honor Hanno of Carthage, who may have encountered the largest of the African apes, which he called "gorillas," while exploring the West Coast of Africa in 470 B.C. Between that date and A.D. 1847, a number of other Western explorers may have observed gorillas in the African forests, but their reports were relegated to the realm of myth. The first live chimpanzee was brought to Europe in 1641, a gift to the Prince of Orange, and the orangutan was introduced a short time thereafter, but for the next two hundred years the gorilla's existence remained unsubstantiated.
Following the announcement of Savage's discovery there was an active effort to import gorillas into Europe, but the poor beasts often arrived dead or dying from the stresses of shipboard confinement. Some gorillas reached Europe preserved in spirits, usually rum, or already prepared as skeletons. Of the few that came into port alive, most died after a few months in captivity. In 1855 the first live gorilla, a female, was brought to England. She became the property of a showman, George Wombell, but ironically he mistook her for a chimpanzee. The young animal's life in Wombell's traveling circus was brief, and she died on tour to Warrington. Another captive gorilla was exhibited at the Berlin Aquarium in 1876, but that animal lived only a few months after reaching its new home. Replacements for this Berlin specimen were dispatched from Africa in 1881, 1883, and 1885.
In France, two preserved specimens of young gorillas were brought to the Paris Museum of Natural History in 1851. These treasured specimens were later exhibited at the international exposition in Paris in 1867. A gorilla skeleton reached Paris as early as 1849; others arrived in 1853, 1854, and 1855. The first published account of the natural history and anatomy of apes to include the gorilla appeared in 1854, the work of the French biologist Paul Gervais. A few years later the English published the work of Richard Owen, superintendent of the natural history department of the British Museum and a distinguished anatomist.
The first gorilla skeleton brought to America was procured in 1851 by the Academy of Sciences in Philadelphia through the offices of the medical missionary Henry A. Ford. Additional skeletal specimens, which came into this country soon afterward, found their way into the major osteological collections of museums and universities, including The American Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution, Case Western Reserve University, and Johns Hopkins University. Prior to 1897, however, only Americans who had visited certain zoological gardens or museums in Europe could describe to their countrymen the nature of the newly discovered ape.
Therefore, when Edwards brought the first live gorilla to this country some eighty [ninety] years ago, the curiosity over this "new ape" was still fresh, especially as little was known of the animal's behavior in its natural habitat. This situation is apparent in an announcement that appeared in the News Bulletin of the New York Zoological Society for October 1897. .in .3i;.ir .3i;
The gorilla is one of the rarest animals ever shown in zoological gardens. In captivity it is sullen and lymphatic, and its objection to exercise is so violent and deeply rooted as to suggest the line of descent whence has come that arch enemy of all labor--the American tramp. The gorilla's sullen disposition and pernicious inactivity predisposes the animal to indigestion, loss of appetite and an early death. Owing to the extreme infrequency with which gorillas are captured alive, and to their refusal to harmonize with their environment when caught, their months of life in captivity are, in every case, but few. ...Despite all the efforts of showmen exerted to obtain genuine gorillas, and also to palm off cheap and common old dog-faced baboons as genuine Troglodytes, no live gorilla has ever reached the American continent until the present year. .in 0;.ir 0;
The ape imported by Edwards was particularly appealing because of his tender age, small size, and demonstrations of affection to his handlers. At the prestigious studio of Elmer Chickering, in Boston, he sat for his photograph. In one pose he is walking on the knuckles of his forelimbs, the characteristic locomotor pattern of the African ape. Scientists observed the little gorilla's grooming behavior and his other activities, details of more than passing interest, for relatively little was known about gorilla behavior beyond what had been reported by Savage, visitors to certain European zoos, and readers of the sensational book by Paul Belloni Du Chaillu.
This eccentric French-born, United States explorer-author had been reared on the West Coast of Africa where his father was a trader in Gabon. From 1855 to 1965 he journeyed extensively throughout west Africa, hunting apes (some of his ape specimens were forwarded to Wyman who carefully examined their anatomy) and collecting data for his book, Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, published in 1861.
Du Chaillu's own accounts of gorilla behavior, however, were frequently exaggerated and, all too often, untrue. His lack of scientific training was obvious to reputable biologists who had seen his book. This flaw in his education might have been forgiven, but he was charged with gross distortion of data, tampering with exhibit specimens, and having such an insouciant disregard for objective observation that his narrations bordered on dishonesty. His book, dismissed by serious biologists as the work of an egomaniacal adventurer, nonetheless gained great popular support for its sensational treatment of the venerable theme of the ape's ferocity and sexual aggressiveness. A century was to elapse between the date of publication of Du Chaillu's book and the first exhaustive study of gorilla behavior in the wild, the work of American zoologist George Schaller, author of The Mountain Gorilla (1963).
In Boston, hopes for the recovery of the young gorilla were abandoned as the uncommon visitor grew weaker. While Edwards described him as "strong as a little lion [who] fought right up to the last," his ward died within five days of arrival in port. The body was purchased by Cornell University for $50. On May 21, 1897, when the ice-packed corpse arrived in Ithaca, the Ithaca Daily Journal reported that the brain was removed at once and found to be perfectly preserved. A specially satisfactory observation was made as to the existence of the metapore, or foramen of Magendie, an orifice in the membranous root of the fourth ventricle. This is usually regarded as peculiar to man, but Professor Wilder demonstrated its existence in the orang four years ago, and believes that it exists also in the chimpanzee and in certain monkeys. All parts of the viscera, and indeed the entire body, will be preserved. Among other interesting organs is the appendix of the cecum, which occurs in no other monkeys excepting the four tailless apes; the gorilla, chimpanzee, orang and gibbon. These four apes therefore enjoy with man the doubtful privilege of liability to appendicitis.
On the gala occasion of the gorilla's arrival in Ithaca, a select company of Cornell University savants greeted it. Among them was the institution's president, Dr. Jacob Schurman, who had been Susan E. Linn Professor of Christian Ethics and Mental Philosophy before assuming his administrative duties in 1892. At the time Schurman inspected the gorilla he was negotiating the establishment of the Cornell Medical College; hence his interest in the specimen was as pertinent to the matter of establishing collections for anatomy classes as it was directed philosophically to the issue of the gorilla's anatomical differentiation from man.
The most dynamic member of the company at the gorilla's reception party was Burt Green Wilder. To have succeeded in convincing the university's board of trustees to allocate $50 for a dead gorilla might seem sufficient cause for fame, but Wilder had other distinctions. During the Civil War, he was a distinguished surgeon with the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry, a black regiment; he was a graduate of Harvard Medical College; a scholar praised by naturalist Louis Agassiz as his most outstanding student; and the scientist appointed in 1867 by Cornell's first president, Andrew Dickson White, to be professor of comparative anatomy and natural history.
Wilder's interest in the gorilla brain relates to a preoccupation of certain nineteenth-century anatomists, who hoped that an inspection of ape brains would reveal significant structural differences that would distinguish humans from apes in a more definitive way than earlier comparative studies of nonneurological organs and philosophical debates had done. Some advocates of this position went so far as to suggest that the defective mental functions of human idiots had their counterparts in specific anatomical features that were encountered in the brains of normal apes.
But the Cornell professor had little patience with such ideas, siding instead with those of his colleagues who were supportive of Darwinian evolution and who recognized that upon careful comparative analysis, anatomical features of human and ape brains always turn out to be continuous variables, never isolated traits unique to one kind of primate and totally missing in the other.
Wilder's passion for brain anatomy bordered on the obsessive. In stocking a study collection, he once distributed copies of his specially printed Brain Bequest Forms to fellow scientists attending a banquet. The postmortem contributions of those people he influenced came in time to lie beside the bottled brains of sages and sinners, two-headed calves, and fossils of Pleiosaurus, all proud furnishings of the Natural History Museum in Cornell's McGraw Hall. In the basement of that venerable building also lived the howling cats whose destiny it was to be chloroformed and pressed into service in Wilder's laboratories in comparative anatomy.
Generations of Cornell undergraduates were influenced by Wilder, whose career at the university extended from 1867 through his retirement in 1911 and for many years beyond that date. The students were delighted with the gossip about his unruly menagerie, which legend says once contained a bear; his unabashed lectures to freshmen on hygiene and what every young gentleman should know; his efforts to bring about reforms to insure civil liberties for black people; his ardent support of the temperance movement and concern with the vices of rum; and his fruitless pleas to the administrative officers of his institution to abolish intercollegiate sports because of the time they absorbed in the lives of true scholars. Wilder's classes on comparative anatomy were extremely popular, and his pupils could always count on being shown the latest acquisitions of the Natural History Museum.
Wilder's diary for 1897 conveys his excitement at procuring Edwards's gorilla. Between May 21 and May 28 he removed the brain and made the observations reported in the local newspaper. The brain was found to have a volume of 322 cc and to be about 5 percent of the animal's total body weight. (For a mature gorilla brain, body weight ratios are about 1:300. For an adult human male the ratio is closer to 1:45.) Wilder set the commercial value of the carcass at $125. The skin was prepared for mounting, the viscera were removed and parts preserved in bottles, and the skeleton was set aside for maceration.
During that same week, Wilder lectured to the Cornell community, comparing the brain of the young gorilla to that of an adult brain of one of his donors. The latter might well have been the gift of a certain "Dr. B.," whose cerebral presence is noted, along with the newly acquired gorilla brain, among the entries in Wilder's diary for that hectic week in May. Perhaps these lectures stimulated certain members of his audiences to consider following in the footsteps of the generous Dr. B., but this detail remains unknown to us today. For many years the stuffed gorilla sat perched on Wilder's lecture table in his laboratory; it can be recognized in Cornell yearbooks dating well into the present century. The animal was posed in the manner assumed in one of the pictures taken in Boston.
Although Wilder does not seem to have published a description of his new acquisition, his interest in gorilla anatomy continued through the years. In 1906 and again in 1911 he wrote letters to the New York Tribune correcting their statements about gorillas and proudly asserting that his was the first gorilla to arrive in the United States. He was interested in advances of primate behavioral research, and had he lived to see the progress made by psychologists Robert and Ada Yerkes with primate colonies at Yale University and at Orange Park, Florida, or the work of their German colleague Wolfgang Köhler in the Canary Islands and Southwest Africa, his enthusiasm would have known no bounds. He was aware of the discovery in 1902 of a new variety of Gorilla in the volcanic highlands of Uganda-- G. gorilla beringei--distinct in various ways from the western lowland G. gorilla gorilla of Savage and Wyman and the G. gorilla manyema of the eastern lowlands.
Wilder may also have discussed with the young Henry Cushier Raven the latter's prospects for a field reconaissance of gorilla distribution in Africa, which Raven later undertook and described in his monumental study of gorillas published in 1944. Raven must have been acquainted with Wilder's gorilla when he was at Cornell in 1918 and 1919, holding the position of curator of the Natural History Museum and the Department of Zoology. The collections that Raven assembled for The American Museum of Natural History and Columbia University constitute the core of the gorilla materials available for scholarly research today.
What has happened to the baby gorilla whose place in the history of science we have been considering? Curiously, the specimen is not mentioned in the works of Raven, although the Yerkeses had heard about it in 1928 through a communication from W. Reid Blair, director of the New York Zoological Park. But since Blair's narration of how and when the Edwards's gorilla was acquired is incomplete and inaccurate, the facts of the matter are not properly represented in the Yerkeses' famous book, The Great Apes. Nor is the specimen noted in the records of any major osteological collection in this country or abroad. Perhaps the skeleton, the bottled organs, and the mounted figure lie in some dark corner of an ancient building, maybe they grace the shelves of a private collector, or possibly they have been destroyed.
But one vestige of the baby gorilla has survived--the complete cerebellum and the right hemisphere of its brain. This bottled specimen bears the original Cornell University catalog number of 3561, the only name by which the little gorilla is known to us, although he must have been given pet names by his various owners and by Wilder's students, who saw the mounted specimen every day in his laboratory.
The brain now rests in its stoppered glass bottle in the company of the preserved heart of P. T. Barnum's circus elephant Jumbo, the grotesque teratological monsters, the brain of a man who slew his wife in a moment of pique, the brain of a highly moral professor emeritus of mathematics, and nearby the cerebral member of the founder of the collection, Burt Green Wilder himself. To this professor and his gorilla, American scholars can trace the beginnings of gorilla research on this continent.
. . First author's address: Dept. of Ecology and Systematics, Corson
Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853-2701.
. . Reprinted with permission from Natural History, 1976, 85, 48-53, Copyright the American Museum of Natural History, 1976.
* * *
Fellowships will be given to French scientists wishing to work abroad and to foreign scientists wishing to work in French laboratories. Study grants will normally be granted for one year but may be extended up to three.
Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, which will include: a curriculum vitae; a list of publications of the applicant; the names of two senior scientists whom the applicant has asked to send testimonials to the Secretariat of the Foundation by the date indicated below; a letter of acceptance of the inviting laboratory.
15 copies of the completed information should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194 rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is April 1, 1988.
A substantial International Scientific Prize shall be given for a major contribution to the progress of knowledge in the fields of research supported by the Foundation. It was awarded to Professor Andre Leroi-Gourhan in 1980, to Professor William H. Thorpe in 1981, to Professor Vernon B. Mountcastle in 1982, to Professor Harold C. Conklin in 1983, to Professor Roger W. Brown in 1984, to Professor P. Buser in 1985, and to Professor David Pilbeam in 1986. Discipline considered for the 1988 prize: Epistemology -- logic of knowledge. The nominations should include a curriculum vitae of the nominee; a list of his publications; a summary (four pages maximum) of the research work upon which the nomination is based. 15 copies of the nominations for the 1988 prize of the Fyssen Foundation should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation at the above address. Deadline for receipt of nominations is September 15, 1988.
* * *
We would like to remind our readers that the Newsletter is mailed "Return Postage Guaranteed". It only costs us a few cents to mail each domestic copy, but we must pay nearly a dollar for a copy that is returned because the addressee has not sent us a change of address. Thus, the Newsletter will not be forwarded, and you will be removed from our mailing list.
* * *
Application forms to attend the course may be obtained by contacting the Associate Director for Education, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP-EDZ), Washington, D.C. 20306-6000 (202-576-2939). Completed application forms should be returned by April 11, 1988. Non-federal civilians and foreign nationals are required to submit a $125 fee, payable to the Treasurer of the United States.
Military and federal service employees in the medical, veterinary, and other medical fields are requested to consult respective agency regulations for appropriate procedures. Civilian physicians, veterinarians, and allied scientists are invited to apply. All applications will be considered on a space available basis.
* * *
M. B. Ballinger, Chief, Vet. Div., AAMRL/VS, Area B, Bldg 838, WrightPatterson AFB, Ohio 45433-6573.
J. R. Blakeslee, Jr., Dept. Vet. Pathobiology, Ohio State Univ., 1925 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1092.
Carsten Bresch, Kreuzkopfsteige 1A, D-7800 Freiburg i.Br., D.F.R.
Connie Cantrell, Division of Animal Resources, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., MCV Box 630, Richmond, VA 23298.
Mario S. Caba-Vinagre, A. P. 57, Catemaco 95870, Veracruz, Mexico.
Anthony M. Coelho, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284.
Robin H. Crompton, Dept. of Anatomy, Univ. of Liverpool, P. 0. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3SX, England.
J. James Cunningham, 945 San Ildefonso Dr., #58, Los Alamos, NM 87544.
Louis DeTolla, Merck, Sharp & Dome Res. Lab., R 8OA31 N, Box 2000 Rahway, NJ 07065.
J. G. Else, Nat. Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya.
* * *
The report of a case of encephalitis caused by B virus in a monkey handler in 1932 indicated that B virus can be highly pathogenic for humans (Sabin & Wright, 1934). Seventeen additional cases of B virus infection in humans were described through 1973 (Palmer, 1987)**(footnote) and four cases, including the first known case of person-to-person transmission of the virus, occurred in Pensacola, FL (CDC, 1987). Twenty of the 22 cases resulted in encephalitis; 15 of those patients died. This extreme degree of morbidity and mortality has given the impression that B virus infection in humans nearly always results in severe or fatal disease. The frequency of mild or asymptomatic B virus infection, however, has never been adequately assessed.
The occurrence of the four 1987 cases of B virus infection prompted CDC to convene a working group to discuss guidelines for preventing B virus infection in monkey handlers. In formulating these guidelines, the working group recognizes that other methods of caring for nonhuman primates and preventing transmission of pathogenic agents from animal to human and from human to animal have been described (Fox, Newcomer, & Rozmiarek, 1984; Whitney, Johnson, & Cole, 1967). The purpose of the working group was to supplement existing methods with specific guidelines intended to minimize transmission of B virus infection from macaque monkeys to humans.
Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) is a member of the herpes group of viruses that is enzootic in rhesus (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus (M. fascicularis), and other Asiatic monkeys of the genus Macaca. As with herpes simplex virus I infection in humans, primary infection with B virus in macaques may result in gingivostomatitis with characteristic buccal mucosal lesions, but it probably occurs frequently without such signs. Subsequently, the virus remains latent in the host and may reactivate spontaneously or in times of stress, resulting in shedding of virus in saliva and/or genital secretions. In captivity, as well as in the wild, sexually mature macaques are more likely to have been exposed to the virus and more likely than immature animals to be shedding virus at any given time.
Although it is commonly believed that transmission to humans occurs by exposure to contaminated monkey saliva through bites or scratches, such exposure has not been consistently documented. Except for one instance of person-to-person transmission, however, all cases of B virus infection in humans have occurred in persons exposed to monkeys or monkey tissues.
B virus-related disease is characterized by a variety of symptoms, which generally occur within 1 month of exposure. These symptoms include vesicular skin lesions at or near the site of inoculation, localized neurologic symptoms, and ultimately, encephalitis.
A unique feature of the 1987 Pensacola cases was the occurrence of mild disease in two of the four patients (CDC, 1987). Both of these persons received acyclovir (9-[2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl]- guanine) in the early stages of disease. They became culture-negative, and their lesions healed during therapy. Whether their infections would have become more severe without therapy is not known. Both in vivo (Boulter, et al, 1980) and in vitro efficacy of acyclovir (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, unpublished data) against B virus has been demonstrated.
The working group recognizes that B virus infection may occur in persons not handling live macaques. One case of B virus infection occurred following the person's exposure to contaminated cell cultures of simian origin, and one case occurred after the patient had cleaned a monkey skull (Palmer, 1987). Although transmission of infection has not been documented for persons working with B virus in the laboratory, such work is potentially hazardous. Guidelines concerning appropriate biocontainment measures for working with B virus are published elsewhere (CDC, 1984). The guidelines described herein pertain only to the risk associated with the care and maintenance of living macaques.
This working group also recognizes that the paucity of information regarding the transmissibility of B virus, the efficacy of measures to prevent transmission, and the chemotherapy of B virus infection have rendered these guidelines difficult to formulate. These guidelines are therefore based on the available information, much of which is anecdotal and much of which is based on theoretical considerations from knowledge of other herpes viruses.
The risk of acquiring B virus infection from macaques appears to be very low. Persons who have handled macaques since B virus infection was first reported in humans number in the thousands, yet only 22 well-documented cases of infection have been described. The reasons for such an apparently low rate of transmission may include infrequent B virus shedding by macaques, cross-reactive immunity against B virus stimulated by herpes simplex virus infection (Cabasso, et al, 1967; Van Hoosier & Melnick, 1961), and undetected asymptomatic infection. Nevertheless, the consequences of symptomatic infection are such that these guidelines are warranted, especially since such infections appear preventable.
Boulter, E. A., Thornton, B., Bauer, D. J., & Bye, A. (1980). Successful treatment of experimental B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) infection with acyclovir. British Medical Journal, 280, 681-683.
CDC (1973). Herpes B encephalitis California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 22, 333-334.
CDC, National Institutes of Health (1984). Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories. Bethesda, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. DHHS publication no. (CDC)84-8395. [Reprinted July 1986.]
CDC (1987). B-virus infection in humans -- Pensacola, Florida. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 36, 289-290, 295-296. [Reprinted in Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 2-4.]
Cabasso, V. J., Chappell, W. A., Avampato, J. E., & Bittle, J. L. (1967). Correlation of B virus and herpes simplex virus antibodies in human sera. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 70, 170-178.
Fox, J. G., Newcomer, C. E., & Rozmiarek, H. (1984). Selected zoonoses and other health hazards. In J. G. Fox, B. J. Cohen, & F. M. Loew (Eds.), Laboratory Animal Medicine (pp. 619-620). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Palmer, A. E. (1987). B virus, Herpes simiae: historical perspective. Journal of Medical Primatology, 16, 99-130.
Sabin, A. B. & Wright, A. M. (1934). Acute ascending myelitis following a monkey bite, with the isolation of a virus capable of reproducing the disease. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 59, 115-136.
Stones, P. B. Cited in O. Graham-Jones (Ed.), Some diseases of animals communicable to man in Britain (pp. 200-201). London: Pergamon Press.
Van Hoosier, G. L., Jr. & Melnick, J. L. (1961). Neutralizing antibodies in human sera to Herpesvirus simiae. Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine, 19, 376-380.
Whitney, R. A., Johnson, D. J., & Cole, W. C. (1967). The subhuman primate: a guide for the veterinarian. Edgewood Arsenal, MD: Dept. of the Army, Edgewood Arsenal Medical Research Laboratory. Edgewood Arsenal Special Publication No. (EASP) 100-26.
** In his review, Palmer reports a total of 24 cases from 1932 to 1973, citing a reference from CDC (1973). Documentation of B virus infection, however, was established in only 17 of these cases; an 18th case, which occurred in 1958 (Stones, 1968), was omitted in Palmer's review.
* * *
The eleventh meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, hosted by Loyola and Tulane Universities, will be held June 2-5, l988. The paper sessions, symposia, posters, exhibits, and business meetings will take place on the campus of Loyola University, located on historic St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans. Committee meetings, including the Executive Committee meeting, are scheduled for Thursday afternoon, June 2. An evening reception for all registrants will follow. Scientific paper presentations will begin Friday morning, with the final session ending at noon on Sunday, June 5. The annual business meeting is scheduled for early Sunday afternoon. The deadline for abstracts is February 1, 1988. For registration forms and further information contact: Dr. Sally P. Mendoza, California Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (Phone 916-752-1988).
* * *
Viktor Reinhardt, Douglas Cowley, Stephen Eisele,
Russell Vertein, and Dan Houser
University of Wisconsin
We have recently described a simple method of pairing singly caged adult female rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment (Reinhardt et al, 1987). Compatibility of companions was assessed according to behavioral reactions (Reinhardt et al, 1988). The animals were assigned to research or breeding projects, which made it imperative that the well-being of paired partners was ensured not only psychologically (i.e., no signs of stress; expression of social drive) but also physically.
It is a common practice in nonhuman primate husbandry to weigh the animals routinely for health-control reasons. The present study, therefore, re-evaluated the well-being of partners by analyzing the possible impact of the pairing on the animals' body weight.
Fourteen pairs of compatible female rhesus monkeys, 6-23 years old, were the object of this investigation, which was carried out between December 1986 and July 1987. Each pair was housed in a double cage that had a volume of .82m&S'3.. The animals were fed a standard diet of Purina Monkey Chow twice a day, supplemented with fruit. The 28 females were all healthy and none of them were pregnant or nursing during the time of this study. The respective partners had established stable dominance-subordination relationships, with rank-indicative behaviors being shown in strictly unidirectional fashion (Reinhardt et al, 1988). Body weight records were taken at the following occasions:
a) 5 weeks before pairing (bw1),
b) 1 week before pairing (bw2),
c) 3 weeks after pairing (bw3),
d) 7 weeks after pairing (bw4).
-------------------------------------------------- Partner Body Weight (kg) Pairs 5 weeks 1 week 3 weeks 7 weeks before before before before ID Name pairing pairing pairing pairing -------------------------------------------------- rh1437 Helga 7.70 7.70 7.98 7.88 r80165 Jimie 4.47 4.74 4.49 4.57 r80064 Donna 5.79 5.79 5.95 5.83 471971 Kathy 5.13 5.13 5.01 5.10 r79107 Zap 7.17 7.05 7.79 7.93 4h1880 Zip 5.84 5.90 5.45 5.90 rh-v64 Vicky 7.08 6.56 6.38 6.50 rhaf24 Ann 6.21 5.73 6.11 6.53 rh1711 Rose 6.38 6.21 6.32 6.74 rhae42 Chimp 6.17 6.17 5.92 6.45 rh-s34 Sissi 7.25 7.42 7.25 7.25 rh-s72 Ninni 10.52 10.62 10.21 9.80 rh1838 Roni 5.52 5.27 4.99 5.06 r80061 Rici 5.32 5.32 5.50 5.50 rh-s63 Schi 4.52 4.38 4.66 4.75 r78099 Pi 7.91 7.91 7.00 7.22 rh-z44 Beta 5.65 5.90 5.58 5.52 r79161 Little 6.20 6.04 6.42 6.42 rh-x53 Xantha 5.97 5.97 6.05 6.35 rh1870 Fox 5.78 5.50 5.72 5.72 rh1868 Wanda 5.35 5.64 5.87 5.68 rh1872 Dora 6.89 6.64 6.64 6.71 rh1876 Olga 6.22 6.06 6.26 6.78 rh1864 Alma 5.24 5.24 5.32 5.73 r79184 Edi 5.22 5.22 5.63 5.28 rh1875 Elli 8.39 8.80 7.97 8.19 rh1879 Irma 6.00 6.56 6.26 6.40 rh1873 Bluff 6.46 6.26 6.32 6.95 --------------------------------------------------
Table I. Body weights of 28adult rhesus monkey females before and after being paired with compatible companions. In each pair, the dominant animal is listed first.
Body weight balances (BWB's), differences in weight between successive occasions, were calculated as percentage in the following ways:
BWB, month before pairing = (bw2 - bw1) x 100 / bw1 %BWB's were used as indicators of the animals' weight development before and after the pairing.
BWB, first month after pairing = bw3 - bw2) x 100 / bw2 %
BWB, second month after pairing = (bw4 - bw3) x 100 / bw3 %
Differences between means were tested with Student's t-test (Conover, 1971).
The 28 females maintained fairly constant body weights (BWB's between +9.0% and -7.7%) in the month before pairing (mean x = -0.3 +/- 3.9%; Table I) . The situation was almost identical in the first month after pairing (mean x = -0.3 +/- 5.1%; range +10.5% to -11.5%; Table I). The animals showed a marked weight increase in the second month after pairing (Figure 1) ; BWB's ranged from +10.0% to -6.3% with a mean of +2.3 +/- 4.1% (Table I) that was higher (p < 0.05) than that of the other two months.
Figure 1: Body weight of compatible partners tends to increase, rather than decrease, after pairing.
BWB's of dominant partners did not show significant differences from those of subordinate counterparts (p always > 0.1; Tables I, II), though both categories of animals tended to respond differently to being paired. Whereas dominant monkeys had slight but insignificant (p always > 0.1) body weight increases in the first and second month after pairing, subordinates exhibited an insignificant decrease in weight in the first month after pairing (Table II). This, however, was followed by a significant (p < 0.025) increase in weight in the second month. Compared with the pre-pairing situation, body weights of both dominant and subordinate animals tended to be higher rather than lower in the second month of pairing (Tables I, II).
------------------------------------------------------------ Rank Status Body Weight Balance Month First Month Second Month Before Pairing After Pairing After Pairing ------------------------------------------------------------ dominant mx= 0.0 +/- 4.3% mx=+1.5 +/- 5.0% mx=+1.4 +/- 3.7% subordinate mx=-0.6 +/- 3.6% mx=-1.5 +/- 5.7% mx=+3.4 +/- 4.2% ------------------------------------------------------------
Table II. Body weight balances of dominant vs subordinate compatible partners before and after being paired with each other.
The present study clearly indicates that pairing compatible adult rhesus monkey females for the purpose of cage enrichment has no negative impact on the animals' body weight. This suggests that pairing does not impair the general health of the animals. Body weight tended to increase, rather than decrease, after pairing. This is a time-series study, not an experimental investigation. It is therefore difficult to determine whether this gain in body weight would have also occurred in unpaired animals or whether facilitated socialization had a stimulating effect on the paired partners' food consumption.
Figure 2: Roni and Rici (Table I) are sharing food in the second month after pairing.
Rank status had no significant effect on BWB. The tendency of subordinate partners, however, to experience a slight weight loss in the first month, but to gain substantial weight in the second month, suggests that there was minor food competition during the first month, with subordinates having some disadvantage over their dominant counterparts. Food competition, apparently, played no role thereafter and partners had become used to sharing food with each other (Figure 2).
Our finding supports the conclusion that keeping singly housed adult female rhesus monkeys in compatible pairs for the purpose of cage enrichment does not affect the animals' general health status as reflected by body weight.
Conover, W. J. (1971). Practical nonparametric statistics. New York: John Wiley.
Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., Vertein, R., & Houser, D. (1987). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar adult female rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 5-8.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Eisele, S., Cowley, D., & Vertein, R. (1988). Behavior responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of cage enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, in press.
Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center,
1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
. . We are very grateful to Mr. John Wolf and Mrs. Jackie Kinney for editing this manuscript, to Ms. Linda Endlich for preparing Figure 1 and to Mr. Robert Dodsworth for preparing Figure 2. Thanks are also due to an anonymous reviewer for providing helpful comments on this paper.
. . The project was supported by NIH grant RR00167 to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
* * *
Dr. Viktor Reinhardt and Bob Dodsworth from the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center have produced a set of slides to accompany the series of articles which recently appeared in the Laboratory Primate Newsletter (see 26[1,3,4], 1987). This set of slides, entitled "Environmental Enrichment for Individually Caged Macaques," illustrates the methods he and his colleagues have used to enhance the environment and psychological well-being of captive primates. The slides can be borrowed from: Audio-visual Services, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Library, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715 [608-263-3512].
* * *
The National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) will hold a conference on "The U.S. Congress and Animals in Research, Education, and Product Safety Testing," from Sunday evening, February 21, to Tuesday evening, February 23. The conference will begin at the Marriot Crystal Gateway Hotel, Crystal City, VA, and will move to Washington, D.C. for visits to members of Congress and a Congressional staff panel discussion. Senator John Melcher (D-MT), author of the 1985 Animal Welfare Act Amendment on psychological well-being of primates, Representative Charlie Rose (D-NC), architect of the bill to permit private citizens to sue USDA for enforcement of the Animal Welfare Act, and Representative Barbara Boxer (D-CA), author of the Consumer Product Safety Testing Act, will present their views and discuss issues. In addition, there will be a session on "How to Lobby," outlining the information Congress needs from the research community and that being received from other constituents, and addresses by representatives from academic, industry, practitioner, voluntary health and other patient groups on the subject of coalition building. This conference is open to official representatives from NABR member institutions. For more information, contact NABR at 818 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006 [202-857-0540].
* * *
T. C. Moazed and Axel V. Wolff
North Carolina State University and National Neurological Institute
The endorsement by Congress of the new amendments to the Animal Welfare Act advocate "a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates." This state of well-being is difficult to define, but one approach has been to provide singly housed primates with a wider range of activities which do not interfere with cage sanitation or manipulation (Line, 1987). Since one of the major activities performed by primates in the wild is foraging for food, an activity which mimics foraging might provide them with a diversion which is both familiar and productive.
An environmental enrichment device, known as a raisin or puzzle board, ** (footnote) was tried on a variety of Old and New World monkeys housed at the National Institutes of Health facility in Frederick, MD. Many of these monkeys are subjects of long-term slow virus studies. The board, composed of USDA approved polypropylene, measured 3-1/2 x 12 x 1 in., and has 19 8 mm-diameter holes drilled at 25 mm intervals through the depth of the board. Raisins are inserted into the holes from either side. The filled board is placed on the floor of the animal's cage.
Reactions to the board were as varied as the different species tested. Unless the monkeys had prior experience with raisins by direct feeding, there was no positive reaction to the raisin board. It was kept in all cages for 20 to 30 minutes or until all of the raisins were eaten, whichever occurred first. Initially all monkeys viewed the board with apprehension, but in most cases this was overcome within 5 to 10 minutes. A rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), a cynomolgus monkey (M. fascicularis), and an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) responded rapidly by picking raisins out of the board, turning the board over to get raisins from the other side, carrying the board, and chewing on its edges. The rhesus monkey was slower in picking out the raisins, but seemed to learn by watching the cynomolgus monkey across the room. The African green monkey was the quickest to accept the raisin board and the most efficient at picking out raisins. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), housed in groups of three or four, responded rapidly to the board but, due to its size and weight, could not turn it over. Once the board was turned by the investigator, the raisins were quickly eaten. The board was placed with three different species of singly-housed capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.). Some were so frightened by the board that they never approached it, while others accepted it immediately and were eating raisins within seconds. The different responses could be attributed to different methods of rearing; hand-reared capuchins were less apprehensive.
The suitability of the raisin board in a primate facility is open to further discussion and more rigorous observation. The board is of significant weight, making it difficult for smaller monkeys to manipulate. While a possible solution would be to suspend the board from the top of the cage, this could be hazardous. Preparing the board by filling the holes with raisins, and cleaning it following use are time consuming, but it can be sent through a cage washer. Time and patience must be used when introducing not only the board, but also raisins, to the monkeys. The board could not be left in cages with larger primates for long periods due to the damage caused by long-term chewing. A motivated caretaker or technician who is willing to devote the time and effort to use the raisin board effectively is, of course, necessary.
Line, S. W. (1987). Environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 190, 854-859.
. . First author's address: North Carolina State University University
School of Veterinary Medicine, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC
** Raisin board, J. P. Company, 711 Orchard Court, Duncanville, TX 75138. $12.50 each.
* * *
For several years, six of the seven regional primate research centers (PRC's) have had active immune deficiency and retrovirus disease projects. The seventh center, the Wisconsin PRC in Madison, is now beginning an AIDS program. Much of the work is being done with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which is very similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes the human disease. In addition, scientists continue to work with disease produced by the type D retrovirus. The immune deficiency syndromes associated with type D retrovirus and SIV are similar and both share features with AIDS.
It is not clear how type D viruses cause immune defects. They infect multiple cell types in the immune cell population, in contrast to the lentiviruses SIV and HIV, which are relatively specific for cells with CD4 epitopes, predominantly the T-4 helper lymphocytes and, additionally, a population of monocytes. Dr. Preston Marx, research virologist at the California PRC in Davis, estimates that animals infected with type D number in the hundreds, as opposed to perhaps 20 cases of naturally occurring SIV immune deficiency.
Chimpanzees, macaques, and baboons have been infected with various strains of HIV, but have not become ill. A primary application of the AIDS animal models is in vaccine development and testing. Last November scientists at the California PRC reported the successful testing of a vaccine against a type D retrovirus, while a test of a recombinant AIDS vaccine on chimpanzees at the Yerkes PRC was not successful. Attempts to immunize macaques against SIV at the New England PRC have proved frustrating. The animals have generated antibody to the vaccine, but still became infected upon challenge.
Illnesses induced by inoculation of primates with isolates of SIV have turned out to have striking parallels with human AIDS. The monkeys develop abnormalities of the immune system, including imbalances between T-4 helper and T-8 suppressor lymphocytes. They become susceptible to opportunistic infections and to cancers, such as lymphomas. They also fall prey to a wasting syndrome. Recently some animals infected with SIV have been found to develop brain lesions very much like those seen in AIDS patients. Particularly important is the finding that SIV infections can persist in macaques, as HIV does in humans. A carrier state persists in the face of an apparently vigorous immunological response by the host.--[Excerpted from Research Resources Reporter, 1987, 9, 13-18.]
Herpesvirus Vector Developed for Use in Genetic Studies
Researchers in a collaborative study at the New England PRC in Southborough, MA, and at Case Western Reserve University School of Medi- cine in Cleveland, OH, have reported that the large genome of Herpesvirus saimiri, a nonhuman strain that attacks the lymphoid cells of New World monkeys, allows them to insert a sizable strand of exogenous DNA to code for bovine growth hormone (bGH). They made the vector nononcogenic by deleting the gene controlling formation of lymphomas and T cell transformation. In its place they inserted the gene for bGH, putting an exogenous viral promoter called simian virus 40 in front of it to direct synthesis and secretion of the pituitary hormone. Monkeys inoculated with the engineered herpesvirus vector initially produced bGH and developed an antibody response to bGH 5 to 10 weeks later. In people with certain inborn defects, the gene coding for a specific product such as an enzyme may be totally missing or mutated, so the person may produce an inappropriate amount of the gene product, an abnormal product, or none at all. The purpose of gene therapy is to correct the defect by introducing a normal gene into the person.
It is suggested that, since the disease-coding portion of the large herpesvirus DNA can be effectively removed, such human strains as Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex, and cytomegalovirus might be used safely as vectors. Prolonged antibody production to the viral associated bGH was an unexpected finding. These persistant nonpathogenic viruses may prove to be effective vectors for presenting an antigen to the immune system for prolonged periods, as in vaccination.--[Excerpted from an article by Andrea J. Clark in Research Resources Reporter, 1987, 9, 1-5.]
* * *
AOMORI--A band of Taiwanese monkeys who escaped from an abandoned zoo are threatening to move into a Japanese monkey habitat on the Shimokita Peninsula, Aorori-ken. Researchers fear that the Taiwanese monkeys will breed with the Japanese variety. Japanese monkeys are designated as an endangered species and the Shimokita Peninsula is their northernmost habitat. Local researchers plan to ask for permission to hold a Taiwanese monkey roundup to prevent the two species from mixing.
Japanese monkeys, at about 50-60 cm tall, are slightly larger than Taiwanese monkeys. Taiwanese monkeys have a tail about 40 cm long while the Japanese variety has a very short tail. Both have brown fur.
Researchers estimate that there are about 260 Japanese monkeys in the villages of Wakino and Sai on the western side of the peninsula. Ten years ago a small zoo in the town of Nobejimachi went out of business and the Taiwanese monkeys living there were abandoned. Since then, researchers say, the monkeys returned to the wild and multiplied. Last May, four monkeys were spotted south of Mutsu, about 40 km from the Japanese monkey habitat. Kinzo Takahashi, a monkey researcher in Wakinosawa village, and other researchers believe that these four monkeys were Taiwanese monkeys moving north from Nobejimachi.
While the invaders are still quite a distance from their Japanese cousins, it's only a matter of time until they meet, Takahashi said. Monkeys can travel three or four km a day, he said. Researchers have said they plan to ask the Japan Primatology Society, local municipalities, and the Aomori-ken government to take action to protect the Japanese monkeys. Currently there are some legal obstacles to catching the encroaching Tawainese primates. A spokesman for the Aomori-ken nature preservation department said permits to capture monkeys are usually only issued if monkeys are damaging crops.--[From The Daily Yomiyuri, 27 September, 1987]
Sarah T. Boysen and Gary G. Berntson, of the Primate Cognition Project, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University have announced the arrival of Sarah (née Premack), who joins chimpanzees Sheba, Darrell, and Kermit in their laboratory.
Houston is New APHIS Head
Donald Houston, D.V.M., was named the new administrator of the Animal and Plant Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture on October 2. Dr. Houston formerly headed the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service, the agency responsible for federal meat and poultry inspection. Bert Hawkins, who was administrator of APHIS, will now be a special assistant to Agriculture Secretary Richard E. Lyng. The USDA assistant secretary for marketing and inspection services, Kenneth Gilles, said in his announcement, "Dr. Houston brings to his new job many years of experience as an outstanding manager of a federal regulatory agency, a veterinarian and a scientist. Secretary Lyng and I have long held Dr. Houston and his abilities in high regard and expect his considerable skill to bring an added dimension to the agency. The role of science has become increasingly important in our efforts to design more effective and efficient systems of inspection."
APHIS is the agency within the USDA charged with administering the federal Animal Welfare Act along with other major programs related to animal and plant health and quarantine; and the control and eradication of pests and diseases.
* * *
Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. in Anthropology. Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional anatomy, and primate evolution. Facilities include a breeding colony of Galago senegalensis, extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, and a variety of specimens for dissection. Faculty interests are in relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, functional anatomy and locomotion. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, galagos, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (physical anthropology, primate anatomy, paleoanthropology, human evolution).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Leanne T. Nash, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402. (Phone: 602-965-4812, 602-965-6213)
University of Arizona, Department of Psychology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: The Department of Psychology offers a Ph.D. program in biopsychology with a possible specialization in comparative psychology and primate behavior.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Sigmund Hsiao (brain behavior relationships, consummatory behavior, primate aging); James E. King (complex learning and retention, primate social behavior, primate aging).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (for general description of doctoral program and application forms). Dr. James E. King (for specific information about the primate behavior program).
University of California, Berkeley, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Primate Studies Program. A comprehensive program in primate studies emphasizing anatomy, behavior, and ecology and focused on primate species as integrated systems.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Phyllis Dolhinow (development and behavior of human and nonhuman primates); Katharine Milton (energetics, feeding ecology and digestive anatomy of human and nonhuman primates).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: P. Dolhinow, Dept. of Anthropology, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
University of California, Davis, Psychology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Comparative Psychology is a specialization within the Psychobiology program.
. . FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Richard G. Coss (social and antipredator behavior, developmental neuropsychology, behavioral development, evolution); William A. Mason (primate social behavior, development, responses to stress, hormonal correlates of behavior); G. Mitchell (primate behavior, comparative psychology, sex differences); Robert M. Murphy (genetic correlates of behavior, bovid behavior, psychopathology); Donald H. Owings (antipredator behavior and communication by ground squirrels); Sally P. Mendoza (hormonal correlates of behavior, responses to stress, primate behavior, physiological psychology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
University of Florida, Psychology Department
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology); E. F. Malagodi (experimental analysis of behavior).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
Emory University, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Behavior and Biology of Primates Training Program: Postdoctoral training is available in several sciences that contribute to our understanding of the behavior and biology of primates. These include: primate behavior, including learning, memory, cognition, communication, social behavior and psycho- pharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrinology; neurobiology, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and psychophysics, particularly as related to visual processes; pathology and primate models of human diseases. Training facilities: Training facilities of the Yerkes Center including its Field Station and Language Research Center as well as a wide variety of other laboratories are available. Funding for Research Associates and Research Fellows generally is derived from individual research grants at the center or fellowships assigned by public and private agencies.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Director, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
University of Georgia, Athens, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Graduate program in anthropology, specialty in primate behavior and evolution. M. A. and Ph.D. programs current.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Carolyn L. Ehardt (primate social organization, socialization); Ben G. Blount (primate communication, socialization); Charles R. Peters (primate ecology, paleoecology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Anthropology and Linguistics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (404) 542-3922.
University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Biopsychology, with a specialty area in primatology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Irwin S. Bernstein (dominance, aggression, primate social organization); Bradford N. Bunnell (limbic system, neuroendocrine response to stress); Daniel Q. Estep (reproductive behavior); Walter Isaac (arousal mechanisms); Roger K. Thomas (conceptual behavior). We also enjoy full cooperation with other departments and universities within the University of Georgia System, as well as collaboration with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Irwin Bernstein, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
University of Chicago, Depts. of Anthropology &
Biology, Committee on Evolutionary Biology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Doctoral programs, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anthropology, Department of Biology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Stuart Altmann (Biology, Evolutionary Biology: behavioral ecology of primates, especially foraging); Jeanne Altmann (Biology, Evolutionary Biology: social behavior, especially maternal behavior and infant development); Martha McClintock (Evolutionary Biology, Human Development: menstrual synchrony, pheromonal communication); Russell Tuttle (Anthropology, Evolutionary Biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior). Russell S. Lande (Evolutionary Biology, Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Leigh Van Valen (Biology, Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Michael J. Wade (Biology, Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above at Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 1025 E. 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637.
The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Functional anatomy & evolution. Offers graduate training for the Ph.D. in functional anatomy with an evolutionary perspective. Students are required to take the first year courses of the M.D. program (cell biology, human gross anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, neuroanatomy). Other course work is arranged at the School of Medicine or on the Homewood Campus to suit the requirements and interests of the student. Our graduate program is small and offers individualized attention for each student. Opportunities are available for graduate teaching assistantships in human anatomy and for paleontological field work in western North America and East Africa. Our department houses a large collection of comparative cases of fossil primates. Research is further facilitated by access to the extensive collections of recent and fossil vertebrates at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), which is only an hour away.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Alan C. Walker (functional anatomy and evolution of Old World Primates); Joan T. Richtsmeier (finite element scaling analysis applied to growth and development of the primate skull); Kenneth D. Rose (evolution and functional anatomy of early Tertiary mammals); Christopher B. Ruff (bioengineering theory to issues of skeletal adaptation and functional anatomy of the primate postcranial skeleton); Pat Shipman (field and experimental studies of taphonomic agents); and Mark F. Teaford (mammalian functional morphology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Walker, Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (30l-955-3173).
Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy. The Department of Anatomy offers a Ph.D. in anatomy. In addition there is an active post-doctoral training program, with emphasis on neuroanatomy. While a variety of species is utilized in the research projects conducted within the department, a number of members of the faculty (Drs. Pandya, Rosene, Moss, and Vogt) focus their programs entirely on on the rhesus monkey. In addition, a number of faculty have projects included in a Program project concerned with aging in the rhesus monkey. The principal investigator on the Program project is Dr. Peters, and participants are Drs. Rosene, Moss, Feldman, and Vaughn.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: D. N. Pandya (the organization and thalamocortical relations of the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys); D. L. Rosene (organization of the limbic system in the rhesus monkey, particularly the connections and histochemistry of the hippocampus and amygdala); M. B. Moss (neuronal plasticity and neurobiology of memory); A. Peters (the intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of area 17 and aging changes in monkey cerebral cortex); B. A. Vogt (connections and receptor binding characteristics of monkey cingulate cortex); M. F. Feldman (aging in brain stem auditory nuclei and cochlea of rhesus monkey); D. W. Vaughn (aging in the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and muscles of the rhesus monkey).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Peters, Chairman, Department of Anatomy, Boston Univ. Sch. of Med., Boston, MA 02118.
University of New Mexico
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Doctoral study in primatology through the Biological Division of the Department of Anthropology. Program focus is on either primate genetics and biology or primate socioecology and the evolution of behavior.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jeffery W. Froehlich (primate evolution and behavior, human variation, quantitative genetics; Melanesia, Central America); Jane B. Lancaster (primate social behavior, evolution of human behavior, parental investment theory).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Secretary, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131. 505-277-4524.
City University of New York, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Evolutionary primatology and biological anthropology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Eric Delson (paleoanthropology, catarrhine primate evolution and systematics); Robert DiBennardo (biometrics and human variation); Warren Kinzey (primate anatomy, ecology, and behavior; field studies in South America); John Oates (behavioral, ecological and evolutionary studies of tropical rainforest primates); Todd R. Olson (hominid paleontology, primate systematics, comparative anatomy); Frank Spencer (biological and medical anthropology, history of anthropology); Sara Stinson (growth and development; human ecological adaptations); Frederick S. Szalay (primate evolutionary history, with an emphasis on the fossil record).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Executive Officer, Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, Graduate Center, CUNY, 33 West 42 St., New York, NY 10036. 212-790-4617.
Cornell University, Ecology and Systematics Section in the
Division of Biological Sciences
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Human Biology Program: Primate studies appear in Cornell University's Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Ecology and Systematics. The primate studies are in both the Human Biology Program for undergraduates and in the graduate program. There are courses and labs in comparative primate anatomy and primate evolution. A new course on primate behavior is offered in the anthropology department by Marquisa LaVelle.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (primate comparative anatomy and paleontology/evolution). We curate teaching collections and research collections of primate skeletons. There are faculty members in the Department of Psychology at Cornell University who have had research programs and teaching programs in primate studies. (The person to contact for further information is: Dr. Barbara Finlay, Dept. of Psychology, Uris Hall, Cornell University).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Ecology and Systematics, Division of Biological Sciences, Corson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. 607-255-6582.
Kent State University, Psychology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Experimental psychology
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: F. Robert Treichler (primate learning and retention mechanisms; retention of concurrently learned tasks; interference effects in complex retention).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Psychology, Kent State Univ., Kent, OH 44242.
The Ohio State University, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Graduate work in primatology is part of the specialization of the Ph.D. program in physical anthropology. Students are expected to receive training in primate ethology, primate anatomy, primate evolution and primate conservation.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frank E. Poirier (primate ethology, particularly socialization; conservation of endangered species; primate evolution); Paul Sciulli (primate dentition; primate evolution; primate genetics). Additionally, students are advised to take courses in the departments of psychology and zoology, both of which have faculty interested in primatology. Students have an opportunity for an internship at the Columbia Zoo, which is famous for its gorilla collection.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Frank E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, Lord Hall, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210
Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train pre- and postdoctoral students in using primates for biomedical research. The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center is one of seven federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health problems through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive physiology and behavior; neuroscience; perinatal physiology; reproductive behavior; and cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic diseases. The Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland is the host institution of the Center. It provides an academic affiliation, and many ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the OHSU School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 35 scientists with Ph.D., M.D., or D.V.M. degrees, as well as 130 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathology, electron microscopy, radioimmunoassays, flow cytometry, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, and medical illustration.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Center employs four full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care for 2,300 nonhuman primates and small laboratory animals.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006. (503) 645-1141.
Bucknell University, Psychology Department,
Program in Animal Behavior
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: M.A. or M.S. in Animal Behavior; M.A. or M.S. in Psychology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Nancy G. Caine (social development and vigilant behavior in callitrichids); Douglas K. Candland (perceptual organization in Macaca fuscata, Papio hamadryas, Saimiri sciureus and Saguinus labiatus).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Program in Animal Behavior, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837.
Pennsylvania State University, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: The Ph.D. programs in either biological or behavioral anthropology allow specialization in primatology. Students have conducted research on female strategies of competition among the rhesus macaques of Morgan Island, SC, and on the behavioral ecological adjustments to a severe drought and fire catastrophe that greatly affected the anthropoid primates at the Kutai Reserve in Indonesia. Other students are planning research on Old and New World primates. In addition, some students are working in the area of human sociobiology and behavioral ecology. the Department's graduate students are one of the means for active and stimulating collaborations between our faculty and those from Biology, Ecology, Genetics, and Human Development.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Stephen J. Beckerman (human ecology, behavioral ecology, South American Indians); Robert B. Eckhardt (primate and human evolution, human physiology, South America); Henry C. Harpending (population genetics, demography, sociobiology, Africa); Jeffrey A. Kurland (behavioral ecology, sociobiology, primates).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Jeffrey A. Kurland, Department of Anthropology, 416 Carpenter Building, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802, 814-865-9162/2509. Or perspective students might contact any of the other relevant faculty.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a Ph.D. in Anthropology with a specialty in Primatology. They will have an opportunity to familiarize themselves with theory and methods in Anthropology during their first year, and thereafter may specialize in the aspect of primatology that interests them. Courses in primate behavior, ecology, and anatomy are given within the Department, but students are encouraged to make use of the extensive resources available elsewhere in the University, in the Departments of Biology and Psychology, the Veterinary School, and the Medical School, as well as in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences and the Philadelphia Zoo.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dorothy L. Cheney (primate behavior, communication, and cognition); Robert S. O. Harding (primate ecology and behavior, human evolution); Alan Mann (primate anatomy and paleontology, human paleontology and evolution). Robert M. Seyfarth (Department of Psychology) may also participate in training.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Robert S. O. Harding, Department of Anthropology, University Museum F-l, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6398.
University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Biological Anthropology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Janice Crandlemire-Sacco (primate behavior, general ecology, evolutionary biology); Steven J. C. Gaulin (sociobiology, behavior, ecology, extant primates, neotropics); Mark P. Mooney (craniofacial biology, developmental and comparative anatomy, human physiology and adaptation, experimental morphology); Jeffrey H. Schwartz (evolution of the primates including Hominidae, dental development, evolutionary theory and systematics, comparative osteology); Michael I. Siegel (functional anatomy, cleft palate research, experimental morphology, primate biology, adaptation).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Nancy J. Stugan, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.
Vanderbilt University, Depts. of Psychology & Anatomy
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Neurobiology and behavior program. As part of the regular Ph.D. program in psychology or anatomy, it is possible to concentrate research activities on the behavioral, anatomical, or physiological studies of the visual or somatosensory systems in tree shrews, prosimians, New World monkeys, or Old World monkeys.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: V. A. Casagrande (behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology); R. Fox (behavior); J. H. Kaas (neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and behavior); J. A. McKanna (anatomy).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jon H. Kaas, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 134 Wesley Hall, Nashville, TN 37240.
University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Dept.
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, evolution, and behavior.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud A. Bramblett (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); Robert M. Malina (physical anthropology, child growth, human adaptability).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.
University of Washington, Department of Psychology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: The Animal Behavior Program at the University of Washington is dedicated to providing the best possible graduate training in scholarly knowledge, research techniques, theory and actual investigative work with animals both in the laboratory and in their natural habitat or zoos. The program leads to the Ph.D. in Psychology, with special training in animal behavior (including primate social behavior). It is administered by the core faculty in animal behavior, listed below. One of the great assets of the Animal Behavior Program is the interest and competence of faculty in departments other than Psychology. Cordial and cooperative relationships exist with behavior-oriented colleagues in Zoology, Sociology, Anthropology, Wildlife Science (College of Fisheries and Forest Resources), the Institute for Environmental Studies and the Regional Primate Research Center. Excellent relations and research potential also exist with the Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan S. Lockard (primate social behavior, human ethology, zoo animal behavior, neurobehavior); Michael D. Beecher, (animal communication, avian sociobiology and ecology); Gene P. Sackett (primate development and behavior); David P. Barash (sociobiology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior and evolution); Robert C. Bolles (animal behavior, learning, and motivation); Eliot A. Bremowitz (animal behavior, neuroethology, neuroendocrinology, animal communication).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joan S. Lockard, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology NI-25, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95.
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Psychology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Animal Behavior Area Group. The department has an extensive program of research and training in animal behavior. The Primate Laboratory carries out research with rhesus monkeys on the development of social behavior, complex learning, biochemical and immunological correlates of stress psychopharmacology, hormone function, and environmental behavioral toxicology. Additional research in these areas is conducted at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center adjacent to the Primate Laboratory. The Primate Center offers an opportunity for students in Psychology to interact with scientists in other disciplines: anthropology, ecology, biochemistry, and endocrinology. Facilities for research with two species of New World Primates are available in the Psychology Building. Seminars on animal learning, animal behavior, and comparative psychology including such areas as ethology, primate societies, animal models of psychopathology, and social development are offered by the staff. An interdisciplinary research seminar with zoology, entomology, and wildlife ecology meets biweekly.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Robert Bowman (behavioral toxicology, biochemical bases of behavior); Christopher Coe (behavioral, hormonal and cellular correlates of stress, psychoimmunology); Robert Goy (neuroendocrinology, social and sexual development); Charles Snowdon (animal communication social and reproductive behavior of endangered primates, field studies).
. . ADJUNCT FACULTY FROM PRIMATE CENTER: J. Stephen Gartlan (Field studies on primate ecology, primate conservation); Frans B. M. de Waal (aggression, dominance and reconciliation in apes and monkeys).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Charles Snowdon (for program information), Jane Fox-Anderson (for applications and admissions materials), Dept. of Psychology, 1202 West Johnson St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. Electrophoretic analysis of local populations of Cercopithecus aethiops, cercopithecus mitis, and Macaca silenus. Application of recombinant DNA technology and DNA fingerprinting to problems of paternity determination. More than 500 embalmed and skeletonized specimens of Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercocebus albigena, Papio cynocephalus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus albifrons, and Saguinus nigricollis. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Neil C. Tappen (primate anatomy, ecology and evolution, structure and function of bone and muscle); Trudy R. Turner (nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.
University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Although the Wisconsin Primate Center offers no formal graduate program, students may conduct research at the Center by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and by choosing a faculty advisor with Center affiliation. Appropriate departments for graduate students hoping to do research at the Center include Psychology, Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology, Pathology, Veterinary Science, and Meat and Animal Science, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program and the Neurosciences Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Ph.D. level staff (* indicates joint faculty appointment at UW-Madison). Barry Bavister* (reproductive physiology); William Bridson* (gonadotropic physiology); Philippa Claude (cellular response to trophic factors); Christopher Coe (psychobiology); Gary Davis (neurochemistry); Frans de Waal (social behavior); Donald Dierschke* (reproductive physiology); J. Stephen Gartlan (primate ecology); Thaddeus Golos (molecular reproductive endocrinology); Robert Goy* (behavioral endocrinology); Joseph Kemnitz (feeding and energy regulation); Robert Matteri (reproductive endocrinology); Samuel Sholl (reproductive endocrinology); Ei Terasawa (neuroendocrinology); Hideo Uno (experimental pathology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: R. W. Goy, Director, Wisconsin Primate Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Master of Arts in Anthropology. The Department gives an M. A. in Anthropology for primatology studies (in addition to more traditional fields). The orientation is towards behavioral ecology, but studies of purely behavioral approach or of anatomy are also acceptable. The basic program requires 3 full courses in anthropology, research work in the form of field work, and the preparation and defense of a thesis. Students in the department have conducted field research on howler monkeys in Mexico, on a large captive group of gorillas in England, and on gorilla mothers in various zoos, and on the structure of primate hair.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: James D. Paterson (behavior and ecology of New World arboreal and Old World terrestrial primates; allometry and bioenergetics; evolutionary theory; computer modelling and data acquisition systems); Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N lN4.
University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Primate studies are part of the program of the sub-field of Physical Anthropology. Undergraduate and graduate courses are taught in primate studies including social behavior, demography, ecology and anatomy. Ph.D. dissertations have dealt with Macaca spp; Cercopithecus, and Papio. Graduate students follow the regular M.A. program: four courses and a comprehensive exam and specialize thereafter.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frances D. Burton (primate behavior, ecology, demography; Macaca sylvanus; Cercopithecus spp.). Becky Sigmon (paleoanthropology, primate anatomy).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: F. D. Burton, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Toronto, St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1.
University of Zurich, Anthropological Institute
. . PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and postdoctoral research in biological anthropology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Robert D. Martin (evolutionary biology of primates, reproductive biology, allometric analysis); Dieter Glaser (sensory physiology, growth); Peter Schmid (functional morphology, hominid evolution); Wolfgang Scheffrahn (population genetics of primates, human population genetics).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Prof. Dr. R. D. Martin, Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich-Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
* * *
The Gorilla Foundation
The Gorilla Foundation is starting to design facilities that we hope will enrich the lives of the gorillas, provide an additional measure of security in the battle against the extinction of the species, and greatly add to the context of our interspecies communication research. Since a number of zoos have recently upgraded their gorilla compounds, we mailed a survey to the 33 U.S. and 80 foreign zoos housing gorillas worldwide.
The survey was addressed to the experts--curators and gorilla keepers--who know almost as much about the features of the facilities as the gorilla inhabitants. We asked questions about all aspects of gorilla husbandry and invited the respondents to share their ideas on the ideal captive environment for the gorilla. To date, 24 U.S. and 28 non-U.S. zoos have returned the fifteen-question survey--an excellent rate of response. We learned a great deal, especially from articles, photographs, and diagrams returned with the questionnaires.
Our question on gate systems elicited many detailed comments from our correspondents. Four types were described: manual, electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic. Manual guillotine and manual side opening gates are the most widely used, yet our survey results indicate that they pose significant safety and logistical problems (e.g. gorillas slamming doors back open and bedding materials collecting in tracks). In terms of ease, speed, and safety of operation, hydraulic gates that open vertically seem the most problem-free.
Most zoos utilize a combination of lighting sources, including fluorescent lights, skylights, mercury vapor, incandescent, quartz halogen, and spotlights. Natural lighting most closely matches the environment of feral gorillas, and indeed, 40% of the respondents said their exhibits utilized skylights. Clearly, captive conditions require supplemental lighting. Although fluorescent lighting is used by a majority of respondents, studies with humans indicate that this type of artificial lighting may cause negative physiological and psychological side effects.
Waste collection techniques were surveyed for ease of medical and hormonal analyses. We discovered that 29% collect samples directly from the floor, 14.5% utilize a gutter that runs into a catch container outside the cage, and 12.5% position a catch cup in the drain. The National Zoo in Washington, D.C., has a system much like our own where the gorillas use cement toilets with a pipe running out of the bottom of the toilet into a collection container.
Questions about medical equipment yielded surprising results. An unexpected finding was that the use of squeeze cages in medical examination and treatment can be so traumatic that respondents prefer to use a tranquilizer pistol or blowgun. An alternative method of restraint, reported in the April 1987 Animal Keepers' Forum by P. T. Robinson of the San Diego Zoo, involves the collaboration of keeper and veterinarian in hand-syringe injection of medication or tranquilizer. If practical to implement, this innovation offers many advantages. We were also surprised to learn that 79% of the zoos responding do not have scales incorporated into their facilities. However, many of the respondents indicated a need for such equipment in order to determine proper dosages of medication.
Respondents had developed a variety of stimulating activity devices for their gorillas. England's Twycross Zoo amuses its charges with color television; Kolmardens, in Sweden, offers a gorilla-controlled shower and a "honeycomb." The Copenhagen Zoo uses at least seven learning devices, providing the gorillas with an opportunity to manipulate objects and allowing them to solve simple problems: fruit slot machine, nut labyrinth, raisin block, epoxy "termite" mound (a bowl inside contains juice or yogurt), ape drum, a hollow fruit-baited "tree trunk," and a "shaking table" described as a maze-like table with holes at various places. Nuts are put in the maze and the gorillas move the table in such a way as to work the treats out of the holes and into their hands.
In response to our question regarding exercise/play apparatus, 47% of the zoos responding indicated that they have some sort of climbing structure made of wood or metal. However, comments indicated that these static structures may break up the available space in such a way that the gorillas can't run, and the structures frequently fall into disuse. Some zoos maintain interest in play apparatus by using rearrangeable components: ropes, cargo nets, tires, plastic barrels or crates, and platforms. Bedding and browse items included burlap or cloth, wood, wool, feed bags, hay or straw, and cut branches. Ten percent stated that no nesting material was available to the gorillas.
Sixty-nine percent of the zoos responding incorporate live vegetation into the display area. Two-thirds of these mentioned trees in the enclosure; thirteen percent need to employ electric fence around the trunks. Other significant vegetation available includes bamboo, grasses, and shrubs. At Columbus, a supplemental browse area was planted within arm's reach of the gorillas.
What was the respondents' concept of the ideal gorilla compound? Sixty-two percent cited a group size and constellation similar to free-living family groups. Allowing females to raise their infants from birth was important to 10% of the zoo keepers. A third of those surveyed envisioned much more spacious habitats, and 12% suggested that the gorillas should be free to move between indoor and outdoor areas at will. The gorilla facilities of the Columbus, Cincinnati, Lincoln Park, and Woodland Park Zoos were singled out for praise. Mike Lockyer, the animal manager at Howletts in England, suggested, "The ideal situation might be a colony established on an island in warm climate." (Sound familiar?)
A sincere and hearty thank-you to all of you who took the time to fill out and return our survey. We welcome any further information or ideas that you may have. Please write to us if you would like a more comprehensive report of the findings.
. . Author's address: The Gorilla Foundation, P.O. Box 620-530,
Woodside, CA 94062.
. . This report is reprinted from Gorilla, 10, 1987, 104.
* * *
* The Fertility of Captive Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1983-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (199 citations, primate & subjects indices) [Price: $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Ctr. SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
* The Complement System of Nonhuman Primates in Health and Disease: A Bibliography, 1965-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (115 citations, primate & subjects indices) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* Depression in Nonhuman Primates. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (116 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
Newsletters and Reports
* Action Plan for Asian Primate Conservation: 1987-91. Washington,
D.C.: World Wildlife Fund Primate Program, IUCN/SSC Primate
Specialist Group, and UNEP, 1987. 65 pp. [Price: $5. Order from
World Wildlife Fund, 1250 Twenty-fourth St. NW, Washington, DC 20037,
Attn: Pat Gilroy.]
. . This booklet, compiled by A. A. Eudey, is the second in a series of action plans to protect the world's threatened primate fauna. It presents a species list of Asian primates; assesses the degree of threat to each of these species, as well as noting distinctive subspecies and marginal populations that may be under threat; reviews the distribution of Asian primate communities in respect to biogeographical provinces, noting communities with high levels of species diversity or species endemism; lists projects needed to better conserve threatened primate species and communities, with an estimate of cost; and establishes priorities among these projects, based on the number of primate species involved, their taxonomic uniqueness, and the degree to which they are endangered.
* Primate Report, No. 17, June, 1987. (Annual Scientific Report
of the German Primate Center (DPZ).).
. . The issue includes the following articles: Localization of specific binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew and primate adrenal glands, by E. Fuchs, G. Flügge, K. Shigematzu, & J. M. Saavedra. Serological and structural comparison of HIV, SIVmac, SIVagm and SIVsm, four primate lentiviruses, by J. Schneider, E. Jurkiewicz, M. Hayami, R. Desrosiers, P. Marx, & G. Hunsmann. Some communicatory functions of scent marking in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), by G. Epple, I. Küderling, & A. Belcher. Determinants of feeding behaviour of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) in captivity, by W. Kaumanns, T. Olfenbüttel, V. Pudel, G. Schwibbe, & A. Wolf. Behaviour and communication of moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax mystax (Primates: Callitrichidae), in an outdoor enclosure. I. The physical structure of long calls of the moustached tamarins, by G. Heymann. Keeping primates at the German Primate Center: Diets, by T. Tomiczek & H. Klensang.
Special Journal Issues
* 1988 Buyers' Guide.
Lab Animal, 1987, 16.
. . Listings of products, such as animals, housing, and diets, and various services. Suppliers will send information to readers who return the service cards included.
* Handbook: Animal Models of Human Disease
C. C. Capen, T. C. Jones, & G. Migaki (Board of Editors). Washington,
DC: Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of
. . Sixteen new studies and four supplemental updates from The American Journal of Pathology and the Comparative Pathology Bulletin with a cumulative index, supplementing the fascicles published from 1972-1986. Three of the new studies deal with monkeys. the 16th Fascicle can be purchased in a 3-ring vinyl binder large enough to hold 3 Fascicles for $10 per copy or unbound for $7. A Special Library Edition of the first 7 Fascicles may be purchased in a binder for $30. Individual unbound Fascicles 1-15 are available at $5 each. All prices include postage. Orders must be prepaid, with a check or money order made payable to UAREP and sent to Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306.
* Relation between the dominance rank of female rhesus monkeys and
their access to males. Zumpe, D. & Michael, R. P. (R. P. Michael, Dept.
of Psychiatry, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, P.O. Box AF, Atlanta, GA
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 155-169.
. . Systematic observations were made on 12 measures of the sexual, aggressive, and social interactions of 24 male-female pairs of rhesus monkeys in six social groups, each consisting of one male and four ovariectomized females tested in a large room. Each female in a group was treated in turn first with estradiol alone and then with estradiol and progesterone in combination. When hormone-treated, the female was also observed during pair tests with the male in the same large observation room. In all six groups, the most dominant female virtually monopolized the male, and the subordinate females' interactions with the male, assessed during pair tests, were almost completely suppressed during group tests. This "dominant female effect" depended solely on female dominance rank, independent of the identity and hormonal status of females and of the social preferences of males as expressed in pair tests.
* Learning set formation in thick-tailed bush babies
(Galago crassicaudatus) and comparison of learning ability among
four species. Ohta, H., Ishida, H., & Matano, S. (Dept. of Biological
Anthropology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan).
Folia Primatologica, 1987, 48, 1-8.
. . Following studies on Nycticebus coucang, Lemur catta, and Tupaia glis, the Visual Discrimination Learning Set was tested on the nocturnal prosimian thick-tailed bush babies. Their performance occupied a position between that of Lemur and Tupaia, and was almost the same as that of Nycticebus. Hypothesis behavior analysis was made on the performance of the 4 species. Species differences in performance showed a strong relationship with degree of neocortex development and eco-ethological characteristics.
* Tactics of care for young infants by forest-living ruffed lemurs
(Varecia variegata variegata): Ground nests, parking, and
biparental guarding. Pereira, M. E., Klepper, A., & Simons, E. L. (Duke
Univ. Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Rd., Durham, NC 27705).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 129-144.
. . Two major modes of neonate care in Varecia seem to exist: serial use of multiple ground nests and "parking" of infants high in trees. Advance preparation of several nest sites, relative lack of large predators, alternate maternal and paternal guarding of infants, infant immobility during absence of mother, and rapid infant development make this tactic of care for neonates plausible.
* Fatal intragroup kidnapping in yellow baboons. Shopland, J. M. &
Altmann, J. (J. Altmann, Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 61-65.
. . The fatal kidnapping of a 5-day-old baboon (Papio cynocephalus) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, is described. The mother, a healthy, primiparous female, did not retrieve the infant from the kidnapper, a higher-ranking juvenile female of the same group, until he died 3 days later, presumably from starvation or dehydration. This incident is compared with other fatal intragroup kidnappings in nonhuman primates and related to adaptive interpretations.
* What's your diagnosis? Recumbent Rhesus. Davis, Judith A. (Dept. of
Lab. Animal Med., Room M154, Medical Sciences Bldg., Univ. of Missouri,
Columbia, MO 65212).
Lab Animal, 1987, 16, 12-14.
. . Description of a case of spontaneous endometriosis, with background information on the condition.
* Treatment of nonspecific diarrhea with metronidazole in rhesus
macaques. Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Sadoff, D. A., Scheffler, J.,
Eisele, S. G., & Hempel, M. J. (Wisconsin Regional Primate Res. Center,
1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 311-316.
. . Nonspecific diarrhea was successfully treated with metronidazole in 76% (13/17) of cases in adult rhesus macaques. Effective treatment was achieved by oral administration of metronidazole at daily doses of 240 mg for at least eight days or at daily doses of 500-1500 mg for one to four days. Minimal effective total dose was 1500 mg. Apart from occasional vomiting, no side effects were seen.
* Fatal pneumococcal meningitis in a colony-born monkey
(Macaca fascicularis). Gilbert, S. G., Reuhl, K. R., Wong, J. H., &
Rice, D. C. (Toxicology Res. Div., Sir Frederick G. Banting Res. Center,
Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 333-338.
. . The clinical course and pathological findings in a four-year-old male cynomolgus monkey which succumbed to fulminant pneumococcal meningitis. The extremely rapid course of this infection emphasizes the importance of early recognition of the clinical manifestations of meningitis in the correct diagnosis and rapid treatment of the condition.
* Adrenal myelolipoma in the cottontop tamarin
(Saguinus o. oedipus). Pearson, G. R., Kirkwood, J. K., & Scullion,
F. (Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Bristol, School of Vet. Science,
Langford House, Langford, Bristol BS18 7DU, England).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 203-206.
. . Two cases of myelolipoma in the cottontop tamarin were found unequivocally within the adrenal gland, supporting an earlier suggestion that the adrenal gland was the possible origin of a juxtarenal myelolipoma in the same species.
* Do line-transect surveys systematically underestimate primate
densities in logged forests? Skorupa, J. P. (Dept. of Anthropology,
Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 1-9.
. . Available evidence suggests that line-transect density estimates or similarly transformed encounter rates usually provide reliable comparative results within the limits of a particular study's resolution. In contrast, conclusions drawn directly from comparative raw encounter rates (without transforming them into density estimates) are more prone to error.
* Amniotic Band Syndrome in a rhesus monkey: A case report. Tarantal,
A. F. & Hendrickx, A. G. (California Primate Research Center, Univ. of
California, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 291-299.
. . A rhesus monkey fetus was examined by ultrasound at 110, 111, and 113 gestational days and showed features suggestive of Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS). These included an unusual craniofacial configuration, cortical distortion, asymmetrical hydrocephalus, a right occipital porencephalic cyst, and hydropic membranes with several free strands attached to the fetal head, neck, and scapular regions. The fetus remained fixed in the same position with the head retroflexed during each consecutive exam. A hysterotomy was performed and ABS was confirmed.
Instruments and Techniques
* A backpack system for long-term osmotic minipump infusions into
unrestrained marmoset monkeys. Ruiz de Elvira, M.-C. & Abbott, D. H.
(MRC/AFRC Comparative Physiology Res. Group, Inst. of Zoology, Regent's
Park, London NW1 4RY, UK).
Laboratory Animals, 1986, 20, 329-334.
. . A backpack system is described whereby osmotic minipumps are used to infuse gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) subcutaneously in a pulsatile manner into infertile socially subordinate female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). This procedure enables long-term infusion of GnRH without repeated subcutaneous implantation of pumps and GnRH reservoirs. The backpack and cannulae system is inexpensive and can be constructed from commonly available materials. The GnRH treatment successfully overcame the suppression of pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion imposed by the low social status of the female marmosets.
* Visualization and biopsy of the colon in tamarins and marmosets by
endoscopy. Clapp, N. K., McArthur, A. H., Carson, R. L., Henke, M. A.,
Peck, O. C., & Wood, J. D. (Marmoset Research Center, Oak Ridge Assoc.
Univ., Oak Ridge, TN 37831).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 217-219.
. . Endoscopic visualization and biopsy have been performed under anesthesia in more than 65 tamarins and marmosets to study the pathogenesis of colitis and cancer of the colon. This allows examination of the large bowel from the anus to the cecum and has been repeated at 2-6 month intervals with few complications. However, care must be exercised not to perforate the colon. Successful use of this technique will permit study of the pathogenesis of colonic diseases throughout the life of the animal and should provide cause-effect information about colitis and colon cancer that may apply to the human diseases.
Pharmacology and Anesthesia
* Effects of anesthetic agents on the adrenocortical system of female
baboons. Walker, M. L., Pepe, G. J., Garnett, N. L., & Albrecht, E. D.
(E. D. Albrecht, Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Univ. of Maryland
School of Medicine, 655 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 325-332.
. . Invasive surgical procedures are often used to study the reproductive and adrenocortical endocrine systems in primates. Anesthetic agents must, therefore, be used that have the least confounding effects on these systems. Female baboons (Papio anubis) were each treated for 120 minutes with an infusion of ketamine HCl in 5% dextrose in water, a combination of ketamine and acetylpromazine in 5% dextrose in water, or inhalation of vaporized halothane. Blood samples were collected through out the treatment period, and serum was assayed for prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cortisol. The data indicate that ketamine is best suited for the collection of biological samples when deep analgesia is not required, but that halothane is preferable if it is.
* "Normal" blood pressure in chimpanzees. Eichberg, J. W. & Shade, R.
E. (Dept. of Virology & Immunology, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical
Res., P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1987, 16, 317-321.
. . During routine physical examination under ketamine sedation, 140 blood pressure measurements from male and 170 from female chimpanzees were derived over a period of 3 years. Statistical analysis revealed generally no differences between the sexes but significant increases of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing age. The data obtained may constitute a useful management tool with which to identify hypertensive chimpanzees and suggests that this species could be a model for hypertension research.
* Body mass and growth rates in a wild primate population. Altmann, J.
& Alberts, S. (Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637).
Oecologia, 1987, 72, 15-20.
. . Data on body mass and growth rates for the immature members of two groups of wild baboons in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, were collected without feeding, trapping, or handling. For animals less than three years old, body mass was well-predicted from age by a linear model. Differences based on social group membership were small but consistent, and their origins are discussed. No differences in body mass based on sex or on maternal dominance rank were detected. For those three to seven years of age, a better fit was obtained from log of mass than by mass in a linear model. Growth rate values for wild baboons are consistently one-half to one-third lower than those for well-provisioned captive baboons and equivalent to captive baboons fed a low-protein diet.
* Effects of age, rearing, and separation stress on immunoglobulin
levels in rhesus monkeys. Scanlan, J. M., Coe, C. L., Latts, A., &
Suomi, S. J. (Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, 22 N.
Charter St., Madison, WI 53715).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 11-22.
. . 24 rhesus neonates were placed in one of the three following rearing conditions: Separated from their mothers and reared in the laboratory nursery; kept with their biological mothers; or removed at birth from their biological mothers and cross-fostered to adoptive rhesus mothers. Neither rearing nor diet affected IG levels. IgG levels were highest at birth and decreased progressively for the first 30 days, suggesting that placental transfer of maternal IgG is the critical determinant of IgG levels in primate infants as in humans. IgM changes were also similar to those in human infants: Low levels at birth, a significant increase from birth to day 15, and a moderate decline from days 15-30. When IgG levels and IgM levels were correlated across the first month, many significant correlations were found which were consistent with human data relating both infant IgG and IgM levels to infant maturation. 11 of the previously tested nursery infants were subjected to four consecutive social separations from peer groups at 6 months of age. Plasma samples were obtained before and after the first and fourth weeks of separation and tested for IgG and IgM levels. Small but significant decreases in both were detected after 4 days of separation, particularly on the fourth week.
* Sexual dimorphism, mating system, and effect of phylogeny in De
(Cercopithecus neglectus). Leutenegger, W. & Lubach, G. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 171-179.
. . It is postulated that 1) De Brazza's monkeys are not strictly monogamous, but exhibit interpopulational variation in their mating system, from facultative monogamy to mild polygyny; 2) marked sexual dimorphism most likely reflects the effect of the historical-phylogenetic factor; i.e., it represents a holdover of a degree of dimorphism established earlier in evolutionary history when the degree of polygyny was higher; and 3) lessening in the degree of polygyny and a tendency toward monogamy represents a consequence of selection toward small group size. Small group size, a unique antipredator strategy, and failure to form polyspecific associations are ultimately most likely the result of intragroup and interspecific competition and predation pressure.
* Excessive ovarian follicular development in pregnant pigtailed
(Macaca nemestrina). Chandrashekar, V., Dierschke, D. J., & Wolf,
R. C. (Dept. of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southern Illinois Univ.,
Carbondale, IL 62901).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 145-153.
.tr ` FC
. . Circulating levels of estrone (E1), estradiol-17-beta (E2), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured throughout gestation in both intact and ovariectomized pregnant pigtailed monkeys. From an additional group of pregnant monkeys, ovaries were obtained at late gestation (on day 150 or 159 of pregnancy) for histological studies. Circulating concentrations of E1 and E2 increased on day 13 and remained elevated for about 10 days, then declined and reached low levels on day 32 of gestation. After day 60 there were gradual but smaller increases in estrogen levels to day 140, after which both E1 and E2 levels increased significantly, reaching maximum levels at the end of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of FSH showed only minor fluctuations during pregnancy but were similar to those found during early follicular phase of cycling pigtailed monkeys. The data suggest that FSH may initiate ovarian follicular growth during gestation.
* Sexual and social behavior of adult saddle-back tamarins
(Saguinus fuscicollis), castrated as neonates. Epple, G., Alveario,
M. C., & St. Andre, E. (Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market St.,
Philadelphia, PA 19104).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 37-49.
. . The behavior of four adult males castrated as neonates was compared with that of three neonatally sham-castrated males and two untreated males serving as controls. Two males castrated as sexually experienced adults served as additional controls. It is concluded that castration during neonatal life prevents the display of male copulatory behavior in adulthood and selectively affects the display of a number of other behaviors in adulthood. It is not possible at this point to decide whether these results are due to hormonal deficiencies on an organizational or activational level or both. However, data from studies currently in progress suggest that organizational processes might be responsible for part of the effect.
* Temporal and endocrine sequelae of aspirating follicular contents in
rhesus monkeys. Hutz, R. J., Dierschke, D. J. & Wolf, R. C. (D. J.
Dierschke, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Captial
Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 195-202.
. . The present study investigates alterations in the temporal and endocrine characteristics of menstrual cycles following aspiration of contents of the dominant preovulatory follicle (DF) on day 10 of the cycle in normal rhesus monkeys. When aspiration was performed prior to the preovulatory surge of lutenizing hormone (LH), cycle length was extended. Mean and maximal amounts of progesterone (P) in the luteal phase and the number of days in which P-values were > 1 ng/ml were significantly greater when aspiration was performed prior to the surge of LH than for aspiration after this event. Laparoscopic observations made in the midluteal phase in animals of the former group demonstrated that the corpus Luteum (CL) was derived from a follicle other than the original DF which had been aspriated on day 10 of the menstrual cycle; observations in the latter group of animals indicated that the CL was derived from the DF.
* A benign method for maintaining ovulatory estrogen levels in cycling
rhesus macaques. Bercovitch, F. B., Goy, R. W., Scheffler, G., Wittwer,
D. J., & Hempel, M. (Wisconsin Regional Primate Res. Center, Univ. of
Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 67-72.
. . Eleven intact cycling rhesus macaques were given weekly injections of estradiol cypionate in an effort to obtain weekly levels which approximated ovulatory levels. A dose of 500 microg generated weekly estrogen values averaging 370 +/- 18 pg/ml. This method is a satisfactory alternative to more traditional techniques. It involves no surgical procedures, it is relatively nonintrusive, it does not terminate a female's reproductive career, and it is not as time-consuming as daily injections. Female cycle state can be altered with a minimum of manipulation for studies involving the behavior of estrous females.
* Baculum length and copulatory behavior in primates. Dixson, A. F.
(MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37
Chalmers' St. Edinburgh, EH3 9EW, England).
American Journal of Primatology, 1987, 13, 51-60.
. . The length of the baculum (os penis) was measured in 74 adult males representing 46 primate species. A comparison of baculum length relative to body weight was made in 34 species for which detailed information on copulatory behavior was available. The presence of an elongated baculum was shown to correlate with copulatory patterns involving prolonged intromission and/or the maintenance of intromission during the postejaculatory interval (e.g., Galago crassicaudatus, Loris tardigradus, M. arctoides). The evolutionary significance of these observations is discussed and it is suggested that similar copulatory patterns may occur in species with elongated bacula (eg, Daubentonia, Perodicticus) for which behavioral data are lacking at present. The same hypothesis also applies to an extinct adapid primate which possessed a very large baculum.
* Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences
Miyamoto, M. M., Slightom, J. L. & Goodman, M. (Dept. of Anatomy and
Cell Biology, Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201).
Science, 1987, 238, 369-373.
. . Sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking DNA regions of the psi-eta-globin locus in Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, closest living relative to Homo, Pan, and Gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes. These newly sequenced orthologs were combined with published psi-eta-gene sequences and then compared to the same orthologous stretch available for humans. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences by the parsimony method indicated (i) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than either is to gorilla and (ii) that the slowdown in the rate of sequence evolution evident in higher primates is especially pronounced in humans. These results indicate that features (e.g. knuckle-walking) unique to African apes (but not to humans) are primitive and that even local molecular clocks should be applied with caution.
* My close cousin the chimpanzee. Lewin, R.
Science, 1987, 238, 273-275.
. . A "Research News" article surveying recent work and opinion about man's family tree.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
We are grateful to the Duke News Service/Jim Wallace for providing the cover photograph of Mandarin, a female infant Philipine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta.
Copyright @1991 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Managing Editor: Janice Viticonte
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.