VOLUME 27 NUMBER 3 JULY 1988
Articles and Notes
Infant Adoption and Reintroduction in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), by L. M. Watson & A. J. Petto...... 1
PVC Pipes Effectively Enrich the Environment of Caged Rhesus Monkeys, by V. Reinhardt & M. D. Smith...... 4
Food Choices in Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), by A. J. Petto & M. Devin...... 7
'Silver Spring' Monkeys at the San Diego Zoo, by A. S. Clarke...... 10
Possible Correlation Between Aging and Plantar Depigmentation in Patas Monkeys, by J. Loy & P. August...... 12
News, Information, and Announcements
Animal Care Courses Offered...... 3
New Policy for JCP...... 6
Survey on Departures from Monogamy in Callithrix jacchus...... 6
Pathology of Laboratory Animals Course...... 6
Conference on Psychological Well-Being...... 9
Editor's Note...... 11
Cayo Santiago Anniversary Meeting...... 11
Letters: Handling Monkeys...... 13
News Briefs...... 14
. . Tuberculosis in San Diego Zoo; Grogan Retires from ILAR; Ecuador Reports Dengue Fever; Glosser Made Head of APHIS; New Editor for A.J.P.
Grants Available...... 15
Address Changes...... 5
Positions Available...... 15
Recent Books and Articles...... 16
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Lyna M. Watson and Andrew J. Petto
New England Regional Primate Research Center
Captive callitrichid infants hand reared or socialized in peer groups are considerably less successful as breeders and parents in captive colonies than those that are reared in extended families (Johnson et al., 1986; Snowdon et al., 1985). In our colony of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) , exposure to younger animals during maturation was especially important for the future fecundity and parenting success of colony-born males. For infants not reared by their biological parents, an alternative program of foster parenting has been successful at other institutions (Snowdon et al., 1985).
In our colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), we have begun a program of introducing orphans to foster parents and reintroducing rejected or abused infants to their natal groups. To date we have placed three subjects successfully; one orphan was given foster parents, and a set of twins was returned to their natal family.
All introductions were based on gradually increasing contact between the infants and the parents. At each step we marked the subjects' progress in terms of activity levels, type and amount of interaction with other animals, and body weights. Prior to any actual introduction, characteristics we considered were: ages, experience and success of parents, amount of time parents have been together as a mated pair, the individual temperaments of the animals to be united, the mechanics of transporting the infant to the parents, and appropriate housing and apparatus for the introductory process. The animal's progress is monitored continually and, if necessary, the procedure is modified, e.g., lengthening or shortening of animals' exposure time. This experience has become the basis for an ongoing placement program.
In the future, the re-introduction program will include measurements of activity levels and interactions in the foster parents and adoptive offspring before and after the introduction. For control purposes an age-matched infant that has remained with its natal family will be used to study the progress of the adoptive infant before and after it has been united with its foster family.
An unusual series of circumstances provided our first opportunities for infant adoption. A single orphan Callithrix jacchus (Wewok, ID 23787) came to the primate nursery because his mother had died shortly after giving birth. His weaning coincided with an adult female's hospitalization after an emergency Caesarian section that produced no live infants. This female and her mate were chosen as foster parents for this orphaned infant.
This introduction took place in two stages. In the first stage, Wewok was introduced to his foster mother during her recovery from surgery. To establish a visual and olfactory communication, Wewok, with a security blanket, visited inside a 27x14x18 cm plexiglass transfer box (Figure 1) in the hospital cage adjacent to female 7186 for one hour daily for the first three days. Both the infant and the adult showed initial interest, with female 7186 marking her cage vigorously.
Figure 1: Plexiglass transfer box with top and front sliding doors.
On the fourth day, Wewok's box was opened, and he explored the cage. Both animals spent time observing each other, but Wewok retreated quickly to his box when frightened. After one week, both animals moved around their cages freely, and Wewok seldom took refuge in his box.
Next we placed the transfer box containing Wewok inside female 7186's cage with the sliding doors closed. Both animals expressed a great deal of interest in each other. The female scented the box liberally and tried repeatedly to reach Wewok through the feeding holes in the back of the box. Wewok alternately tried to touch and smell the female or hide behind his blanket in the box.
Figure 2: Wewok being placed in the cage adjacent to his foster parents' cage. The two cages are connected by a plexiglass tunnel with a guillotine door.
On the next day we allowed the top door of the box to remain open. For the next three days, both animals were very active in the cage. Female 7186 showed significant piloerection, marked vigorously, and entered all areas of the cage. Wewok also explored to an extent limited by his small size and locomotor development. The female did not threaten or attack the infant at all, so the visits were gradually lengthened to seven hours over the next two and one half weeks. During this time the animals engaged in numerous grooming and play bouts, and the infant was seen begging and stealing food from the adult. This stage ended when female 7186's sutures were removed, and she was ready to return to her mate.
In the second stage, Wewok was introduced to the mated pair, several days after the pair had been reunited. We placed Wewok in an adjacent cage connected by a plexiglass tunnel with a guillotine door (Figure 2). For the first three days, the animals' reactions were observed closely. On the fourth day, Wewok's box and blanket were removed.
Before the barrier in the tunnel was removed, Wewok was rubbed on the back and neck with fluid taken from freshly scent-marked areas in the foster parents' cage. The first time the tunnel was opened, the adults approached Wewok and briefly touched and smelled him. Wewok frequently swatted the adults as they passed him in the tunnel, though the adults generally ignored him. There was a small amount of shoving and soft biting for the first three days. Wewok and female 7186 also engaged in numerous rough and tumble play bouts during this time. Under close observation these daily visits lasted from one to five hours.
By the third day the infant was sitting next to both parents, who groomed or shared food with him. He followed them around the cage and imitated the scent-marking stance of the adult male. Until now Wewok spent the night alone in the adjacent cage, but on the fifth day the foster parents allowed Wewok to enter the nest box with them, so he was not separated from them at night.
After seven months, this family group continues together without incident. Recently, 7186 gave birth to triplets. Two of the infants survived. Wewok has been observed sitting next to his foster mother while she had the infants on her back, and even carrying one of them himself. These behaviors indicate that Wewok has been completely accepted by his foster parents.
Returning Abused Twins
The second adoption occurred after a reorganization of cages in one room of the C. jacchus colony. An adult pair with recently-born twins increased its agonistic behaviors toward animals in a neighboring cage. The father was redirecting some of this aggression toward his own infants. These infants were removed and treated, and the view between the cages was obstructed. After the agonistic situation was resolved, we began to reintroduce the twins to their natal family. The decision to return the abused twins to their parents was made because the male who had attacked the infants had been an excellent parent until the reorganization of the room.
Phase one lasted four days. During this time, the twins were shown to the parents in the transfer box in front of the parents' cage. The parents marked vigorously and threatened the observers during these visits. On the fifth day, when the closed box was placed in the cage with the parents, the animals slid open the top door and retrieved the twins.
The infants were groomed, carried, and allowed in the nest box with the parents. During feeding, the parents allowed the infants to take food from their hands and mouths. It was not possible to separate the adults from the infants at this point, so the twins were left with the parents. There has been no incident in over three months, but this family will be watched closely during upcoming cage changes.
Foster parenting and reintroduction of abused or neglected infants can be a successful strategy in management of a captive colony of Callithrix jacchus. The introduction is considered successful when three events occur. First, the infant is observed eating and drinking alongside the parents with no interference. Food stealing by the young is also a positive indication. Second, the infant is not always pushed off or left alone in the cage by the parents. Third, the infant is allowed into the nest box with the parents during the day and at night.
Johnson, L. D., Petto, A. J., Boy, D. S., Sehgal, P. K., & Beland, M. E. (1986). The effect of perinatal and juvenile mortality on colony-born production at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. In K. Benirschke (Ed.), Primates: The road to self-sustaining populations (pp. 771-779). New York: Springer Press.
Snowdon, C., Savage, A., & McConnell, P. (1985). A breeding colony of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Laboratory Animal Science, 35, 477-480.
Authors' address: Harvard Medical School, New England
Regional Primate Research Center, Primate Ethology Unit, 1 Pine Hill
Drive, Southborough, MA 01772.
. . The authors gratefully acknowledge information received from Dr. Suzette Tardif of the Marmoset Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN, and Dr. Charles Snowdon of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. This work was supported in part by Division of Research Resources (NIH) grant No. RR00168 to New England Regional Primate Research Center.
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The Hunterian Institute of the Royal College of Surgeons of England offers animal care courses in London and Kent. Many of the courses are suitable for scientists and technicians from a wide range of disciplines, and some are particularly appropriate to veterinary surgeons. On October 12, 1988, a course will be given at the Kent location, on Management of Captive Primates, designed as an introduction to working with primates. It is particularly intended for those involved in research projects, but should also prove of value to animal technicians and other personnel responsible for the care of monkeys in scientific and educational establishments. The emphasis will be on the need for a professional and humane approach to the handling, restraint, and management of these animals. The fee for this course is 60 pounds, including lunch. Attendance is restricted to 15, so early application is advised.
For more information on this or other courses, or to apply, write to the Institute Office, The Hunterian Institute, Royal College of Surgeons of England, 35-43 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PN, U.K.
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Viktor Reinhardt and Matthew D. Smith
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
Deciduous tree branches have been shown to enrich the environment of caged macaques effectively (Reinhardt et al, 1987). Properly installed, branches not only facilitate the expression of species-typical activities, such as perching and gnawing, but also increase the usable cage space (Reinhardt, l987). Some people, however, have expressed reservations about the use of branches, assuming that any unsealed material is bound to result in hygienic and health problems for the animals. Our own experiences, in which 75 singly caged rhesus monkeys were each provided with a deciduous tree branch for 15 months, do not substantiate these theoretical objections (Reinhardt et al, 1988). However, acknowledging the concerns of those who doubt the utility of branches as objects for environmental enrichment, we have tested the usefulness of a branch-substitute that would meet conventional hygienic requirements.
The cages of 9 randomly selected laboratory-born female (n = 6) and pseudohermaphrodite (n = 3) rhesus monkeys, 6 to 14 years old, were provided with gray, smooth, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, 100 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter. The cages had a floor space of 72 x 75 cm and a height of 77 cm. Drop pans were flushed automatically with pressurized water. Each PVC pipe was attached at one end with a chain and padlock on the front of the cage in such a way that the animal could use the whole floor for walking and sitting while having the option to perch (sit and/or stand) at any place along the pipe. The pipe was cleaned and disinfected in the same way as the cage and did not have to be removed during sanitation procedures. The cost per pipe, including attachment equipment, was about $4. Each monkey was observed for 4 weeks, Monday through Friday, during daily 5-minute sessions at 10:30 am, 12:30 pm, and 3 pm. The flushing system was turned off on these occasions. During the fourth week extra recordings were made daily at 1 pm and 3:30 pm, when the flushing system was turned on for 20 seconds.
|----------------------------------------------------------| | At times when drop pan is not flushed |At flushing| |----------------------------------------------------------| |Animal|1st week |2nd week |3rd week |4th week | 4th week | | |(15 obs.)|(15 obs.)|(15 obs.)|(15 obs.)| (10 obs.) | -----------------------------------------------------------| |r79132| 93% | 93% | 93% | 87% | 100% | |r81147| 73% | 93% | 87% | 80% | 100% | |r78102| 100% | 93% | 80% | 100% | 100% | |r80029| 13% | 13% | 40% | 73% | 100% | |rh-v96| 0% | 13% | 40% | 40% | 60% | |r79095| 0% | 40% | 87% | 73% | 100% | |r79038| 0% | 0% | 73% | 47% | 90% | |r79169| 0% | 13% | 100% | 80% | 100% | |rh-x29| 0% | 0% | 0% | 0% | 30% | |----------------------------------------------------------|
Table I: Proportion of 5-minute observations during which animals were seen sitting and/or standing on their PVC pipes.
As Table 1 shows, the PVC pipes were used as perches by 8 of the 9 monkeys when the pans were not being flushed. Three animals started perching on the first day of pipe installation, and they were seen doing so routinely throughout the 4 weeks. Five other animals started to perch with similar regularity after a few days or after 2 weeks. Only one animal was never seen perching on the pipe when the pans were not being flushed. All of the animals tended to use their PVC pipe for perching specifically when the pans were being flushed. Even the one that was never seen perching during routine observations sat on her pipe occasionally during flushing.
The present study shows that PVC pipes effectively enrich the barren environment of caged rhesus monkeys by enabling the animals to perform a species-typical behavior, i.e. perching, that was previously inhibited due to lack of an appropriate object. Like tree branches, the pipes were used readily by almost all monkeys. On the average, perching was recorded in 50% of cases during 5-minute observations in the morning, at noon, and in the afternoon. This suggests that the animals spent a major portion of the day on their pipes. Perhaps sitting in an elevated position increased the monkeys' feeling of security by providing them a better visual control over the environment outside their cages. The pipes were particularly attractive at times of flushing, probably because they offered a dry and comfortable place to sit while the floor of the cage was sprayed with water.
Unlike branches, PVC pipes are inadequate for gnawing, but they are equally useful as perches and hence can be recommended as branch-substitutes in those cases where special stipulations prohibit unsealed materials in cages.
Reinhardt, V. (1987). Improved installation method for branches that are used as cage enrichment for macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 1.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Cowley, D., & Champoux, M. (1987). Preliminary comments on environmental enrichment with branches for individually caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 1-3.
Reinhardt, V., Eisele, S., & Houser, D. (1988). Environmental enrichment program for caged macaques at the Wisconsin Primate Research Center: A review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27, 5-7.
Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
. . We are thankful to Dr. Dan Houser, Mrs. Annie Reinhardt, and Mr. John Wolf for critically reading this manuscript. Their constructive comments are very much appreciated.
. . This project was supported by NIH grant RR0167 to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
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Douglas M. Bowden, Director, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
J. J. Cunningham, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, 6608 Fannin, Suite 1503, Houston, TX 77030.
Cpt. Judith A. Davis, 613 Pear Tree Circle, Columbia, MO 65203.
Ginette Hemley, Director, Traffic (USA), W.W.F., 1250 24th St. N.W., Washington, DC 20037-3444.
Billy W. Howard, 7314 Eden Brook Dr. #125, Columbia, MD 21046.
Lee Krulisch, Coordinator, Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 4805 St. Elmo Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814.
William Montagna, ORPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006.
Gerald P. Murphy, Chief Med. Officer, Amer. Cancer Soc., Tower Place, 22nd Floor, 3340 Peachtree Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA 30026.
Douglas K. Obeck, Director, Animal Care Center, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550.
Barbara Orlans, 7106 Laverock Lane, Bethesda, MD 20817.
M. G. Pachero, Reg. Advisor in Biologics, PAHO, 525 23rd St. NW, Washington, DC 20037.
Michael J. Parnell, Div. of Veterinary Services (HFT-240), National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079.
Louis J. Pierro, Assoc. Dir., Storrs Agr. Exp. Stn., 1376 Storrs Rd., Rm 215, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268.
Rosalind Ribnick, 915 L Street, Eureka, CA 95501.
Conrad B. Richter, Dir., Div. Lab. Animal Res., Box 3180, Duke Univ. Med. Center, Durham, NC 27710.
Nancy Kraft Schreyer, 210 Alexander Dr., Lynwood, NJ 08221.
Daniel R. Schwartz, ICI Americas, Inc., Agricultural Products Environmental Health Center, 400 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06032.
Meredith F. Small, Dept. of Anthropology, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853.
W. C. Stewart, USDA, APHIS, VS, 6505 Belcrest Rd., Federal Center Bldg., Hyattsville, MD 20728.
Steven K. Stringer, Animal Colony Supervisor, NASA Ames Res. Center, Mail Stop 261-1, Moffett Field, CA 94035.
Axel V. Wolff, Frederick Cancer Res. Lab., NINDS 376, Fort Dietrick, Frederick, MD 21701.
Thomas L. Wolfle, Director, ILAR, National Res. Council, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW - MH 372, Washington, DC 20418.
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The Journal of Comparative Psychology, published by the American Psychological Association, has recently undergone several changes. The focus of the Journal is on the behavior of different species (including humans), as it relates to evolution, cognition, ecology, adaptation, and development. Distinctions between field studies and laboratory-based research are no longer made, nor are distinctions between papers based on a single study as opposed to those reporting multiple experiments. Scientific merit will be the deciding factor in all cases. Review articles and theoretical papers will also be considered for publication on an occasional basis. Send manuscripts in quadruplicate to the editor-elect, Gordon G. Gallup, Jr., Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12222.
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Recent field observations on tamarins and marmosets show evidence that some of these animals may not be monogamous in the wild. In 1987 W. C. McGrew and E. C. Price started a cooperative enterprise to collect data on departures from monogamy in captive cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). With their permission, Hartmut Rothe and Andreas König have sent questionnaires to various researchers around the world, asking them to collect data for Callithrix jacchus, and to examine possible differences in marmosets and tamarins. Being uncertain if their questionnaires have reached all institutions which keep or have kept C. jacchus, they invite those who have not received one and who would like to participate in the survey to contact: Hartmut Rothe and Andreas König, Institute of Anthropology, University of Göttingen, Bürgerstrasse 50, 3400 Göttingen.
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Veterinarians and other scientists interested in the pathology of laboratory animals are encouraged to attend a course given August 8-12, 1988, at the Holiday Inn in Bethesda, MD, by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The registration fee is $175, payable to the American Registry of Pathology, and must be paid by civilians not employed by the Federal Government. Military and Federal Service employees in the veterinary and other medical service fields should consult their agency regulations for appropriate application procedures.
Application forms and hotel information may be obtained from: The Director, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Attn: AFIP-EDE, Washington, D.C. 20306-6000 [Telephone 202-576-2939]. Completed forms and applicable fees must be received by July 30.
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Andrew J. Petto and Miranda Devin
New England Regional Primate Research Center
In captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), chronic protein deficiency has caused high mortality from marmoset wasting syndrome (Lewis et al., 1987; Clapp & Tardif, 1985). Several commercial diets exist for marmosets but require supplementation. The inclusion of supplemental foods can alter the consumption of the commercial diet, and clinical signs of poor nutrition such as weight loss and anemia have been observed in some of our common marmosets at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. Here we report the results of a pilot study of food preferences and consumption patterns of common marmosets to help assess dietary intake in socially-housed animals.
Materials and Methods
From August to November, 1987, we observed four study groups, including two groups of paired adults, one adult pair with one set of offspring, and one adult pair with two litters. Each adult pair lived in a stainless steel cage measuring 0.4 sq-m floor space and at least 66 cm high. The adult couple with a single pair of offspring shared two cages connected by a clear lucite tunnel. The family of six lived in a cage 1.114 sq-m and 168 cm high.
Each cage contained a minimum of one metal perch bar, wooden or metal nest box, feeding bowl, and 500 cc water bottle. Another feeding bowl was added for every two additional animals. The animal rooms are on a 12 hour light/dark cycle with indirect exposure to outdoor light from an adjacent hallway. The temperature is maintained above 26degC and humidity above 50%.
Feeding occurred daily around midday. The base diet was Zu/Preem Marmoset Diet (Hill's Pet Products, Inc., Topeka, KS), 50 g/monkey/day. Supplements included peeled slices of orange (10g), apple (20g), and banana (15g), and two grapes per animal. A daily protein supplement contained crickets, wax worms, quail egg, yogurt, raw hamburger, cottage cheese, or peanuts. Other foods were added occasionally, including vanilla custard pudding (1 tsp), raisins, and sunflower seeds.
Oranges provided Vitamin C missing from ZuPreem. Other foods added dietary variety only and served to stimulate different feeding behaviors (Epple, 1970, p. 59). Twice weekly a 1% solution of ViSorbin and ViDaylin replaced plain water. Since we did not wish to add new variables, we followed the general feeding routine in our colony. All foods were presented in one bowl and the supplemental foods rested on top of the commercial diet.
We observed feeding behaviors four consecutive days each week from directly in front of the cages. Using absolute frequency counts, scoring began as soon as the food bowl was in place and for the next hour. A random number table determined the selection of the day's subjects.
In ten minute focal animal samples we completed two hours of observation for each animal in the study. For each feeding behavior, we noted the food consumed, the location of the feeding, and food thefts and sharing. We also recorded other behaviors including threats and fighting, vocalizations, carrying food, defending food or the bowl, marking, and positional and postural behaviors.
Our chief goal was to identify the order and frequency of food choices for the individual subjects. The feeding preferences of individuals were ranked for order and frequency of selection of specific foods, and the time spent with each food. Food preference ranks were based on how often a food was chosen, adjusted for the frequency of presentation. Feeding order ranks were based on the consistency of the food's rank order of consumption.
Observations made immediately after the introduction of food demonstrated sex differences in food intake. During the first 10 minutes, mean feeding time for three females was 9.4 minutes and for four males, 6.8 minutes. Females showed feeding dominance measured by feeding time, access to preferred foods, and variety of foods eaten.
The female also controlled access to important cage features. She spent nearly 75% of her feeding time in contact with or in arm's reach of the food bowl, compared to only 50% for the male.
The male fed in various locations, expecially on the cage floor eating items dropped or rejected by the female. His approach to the bowl was slow and tentative compared to the female. The female could control her mate's access to food from any cage location by visual or vocal threats. Often she blocked his way physically, or chased him from the bowl.
The male defended cage features and threatened only toward the young. This is because the young did not eat directly from the bowl, but stole most of their food from him. These findings corroborate Epple's (1970, p. 72) observations that "infants almost entirely depend on the food they actively take away from other group members, and take only minimal amounts from the food dish..." In no case did a male defend or try to steal food from his mate. All females, however, stole from males, especially when a preferred item was gone from the food bowl. The frequency of stealing varied considerably among groups.
When there was more than one food bowl, adult males increased the types and frequency of foods handled. This was especially true in the larger social group, but the increase in food handling time was not related to more time spent eating. Many of the food items chosen by the male were stolen by offspring.
|------------------|--------------|--------------|-----------| | ITEM | FEMALES | MALES | OVERALL | |------------------|--------------|--------------|-----------| | Cage|C2 C3 B1/2 | C2 C3 B1/2 |Score(Rank)| |------------------|--------------|--------------|-----------| |Crickets (K)|1 3 1 | 1 1 1 |1.35 (1) | |Worms (W)|1 1.75 1.24| 1 1.5 2 |1.4 (2) | |Egg (E)|1.3 1 1 | 2.5 1.7 1.2|1.45 (3) | |Burger (B)|1 1.2 1.3 | 5 1 1 |1.75 (4) | |Sunflower Seeds(S)|2.3 1.2 2 | 3 7 5 |3.4 (5) | |Cottage Cheese (C)|1 1 1 | 1 2 20 |4.35 (6) | |Grapes (G)|1 6 1 | 1 20 1.2|5 (7) | |Yogurt (Y)|1 1 20 | 5 3 1 |5.15 (8) | |Banana (N)|3.6 2.4 1.4 |20 2.3 2.7|5.4 (9) | |Raisins (R)|1 20 4 | 2.5 20 1 |8 (10) | |Zu/Preem (Z)|20 3.3 20 |19 8.5 20 |15.1 (11) | |Orange (J)|9.5 20 20 |19 20 20 |18.1 (12) | |Apple (A)|20 20 20 |20 20 20 |20 (13) | |------------------|--------------|--------------|-----------|
Table 1: Food Preference: Male and Female Average Rank. Food choices by rank of adults in cages C2, C3, and B1/B2, respectively. Each score is number of times a food is available divided by number of times that food is chosen. 1 is highest score, 20 is never chosen during observation.
Males and females exhibited slight differences in the foods eaten (Table 1). Whenever both cottage cheese and insects were offered, males ate insects while females ate the cheese. Likewise, when worms and eggs were both present, the females chose eggs, and the males worms. Adult females chose yogurt first more often than any other food, and males chose crickets.
It is important to remember, however, that the male consumption patterns are affected by the preferences of his mate. He will eat first those items ignored or discarded by her. His access to palatable foods is dictated by her being occupied with some other item, or being unable to defend the bowl where he feeds.
We did not observe the feeding behavior of males housed alone, but Tardif and Richter (1981) report that sex differences in feeding behavior disappear when competition for the food is removed. They conclude "inequalities in consumption appear to be the result of competition among group members, rather than the result of preference differences" (p.55). In keeping with these findings, sex differences in the order of food choices were not observed indicating that, in general, males and females found the same foods most palatable (Table 2).
|--------------------------------------| | FEMALE | MALE | OVERALL | |--------------------------------------| |1: Y 67%|1: K 81%|1: K | |2: E 64%|2: B 67%|2: E | |3: C 56%|3: E 37%|3: B | |4: K 53%|4: G 35%|4: Y | |5: G 39%|5: W 33%|5: G | |6: W 26%|6: Y 22%|6: C | |7: B 25%|7: C 8%|7: W | |8: R 8%|8: R 7%|8: R | |9.5: N,S 6%|9.5: N,J 2%|9: N | |12: Z,J,A 0%|12: S,Z,A 0%|10: S | | | |11: J | | | |12.5: Z,A| |--------------------------------------|
Table 2: Ranks of Food Item Chosen First. Foods are identified by initial in Table 1.
We found no sex differences in afternoon feeding behavior. By this time, most of the preferred foods have been consumed. Of what remains, banana, then apple, will be eaten before any other food. Most apple slices were consumed by the following day. The animals eat small amounts of Zu/Preem and oranges. These two lowest ranking foods are the only foods that must be consumed for a complete diet.
This study examined the patterns of feeding behavior in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Various supplemental foods were added to a commercial diet to maintain the animals' interest and to provide variety. Rates of consumption varied among cages. These animals showed a clear preference for the supplements. During this study, 80-90% of the Zu/Preem by dry weight was discarded uneaten each morning. While Zu/Preem and orange are the items which are consumed the least, in combination only they provide a nutritionally complete diet.
We observed differences by sex in patterns of food choices, but not in food preferences. Because females consume more supplemental items, the males may be forced to consume a more nutritionally complete diet.
Clapp, N. K. & Tardif, S. D. (1985). Marmoset husbandry and nutrition. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 30[12 Supplement], 17S-23S.
Epple, G. (1970). Maintenance, breeding and development of marmoset monkeys (Callitricidae) in captivity. Folia Primatologica, 12, 56-76.
Lewis, D. H., Stein, F. J., Sis, R. F. & McMurray, D. N. (1987). Fecal microflora of marmosets with wasting marmoset syndrome. Lab Animal Science, 37, 103-105.
Tardif, S. D. & Richter, C. B. (1981). Competition for a desired food in family groups of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Lab Animal Science, 31, 51-55.
Authors' address: Harvard Medical School, New England Regional
Primate Research Center, One Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, MA 01772.
. . This research was supported by grant number DRR (NIH) 00168 to NERPRC. We wish to thank Dr. Lynne Ausmann and Elaine Roberts of the Primate Nutrition Unit and Pauline Sprague of Animal Care for their assistance in this project.
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The New England Regional Primate Research Center (Harvard Medical School), Tufts University, and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst will cosponsor a conference entitled: The Psychological Well-Being of Captive Primates. The purpose of the conference is to bring together psychologists and anthropologists studying the social behavior of nonhuman primates, biopsychologists, and biomedical researchers using nonhuman primates as subjects, and veterinarians and USDA officials who will have to interpret and enforce the new regulations.
The conference will be held from 16-18 September, 1988, at the Medical Education Center of Harvard Medical School in Boston. Four plenary sessions will examine 1) developing definitions and assessing psychological well-being in nonhuman primates; 2) procedures and techniques that may promote psychological well-being; 3) regulations and interpretations by veterinarians and USDA officials; and 4) addressing the concerns of the public about primate research. The meeting site is geared toward informal discussions, and posters are encouraged.
To register, write to Department of Continuing Education, Harvard Medical School, 641 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115. For general information, contact Dr. Andrew Petto, Harvard Medical School/NERPRC, 1 Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, MA 01772 (Bitnet: PETTO@HUSC3; Compuserve (MCIMAIL): 73537, 3006; FAX: 617-460-1209). For information on posters, contact Dr. Melinda Novak, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (413-545-0167). Registration closes 15 August 1988. This conference was made possible by a matching grant from the American Psychological Association.
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A. S. Clarke
Zoological Society of San Diego
Readers may recall the "Silver Spring monkeys," who were the subjects of frequent reports in this Newsletter several years ago. Since 1981, these animals have been the subject of both public and legal controversy. The present report briefly recounts their history and provides an update on their status.
The "Silver Spring monkeys" originally consisted of 16 adult male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and one female rhesus macaque (M. mulatta). These animals formerly were the subjects of a neuroscience experiment investigating sensory nerve loss. The research was conducted by Dr. Edward Taub at the Institute for Behavior Research (IBR) in Silver Spring, MD. Ten animals had one or more forelimbs deafferented to serve as experimental subjects, and seven animals (including the rhesus) served as the control (intact) group. The origin of the animals is uncertain, but most are believed to be wild-born.
In September, 1981, they were removed from the IBR following charges of improper veterinary care (see Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 1981, 20, 7-11) and placed in the custody of NIH. Both Taub and the animals became the subjects of lengthy court battles. Taub received several animal cruelty convictions, which were all eventually overturned for technical reasons of jurisdiction. However, Taub's grant support was revoked by NIH for noncompliance with federal animal care standards. Several animal rights organizations sued NIH and IBR for custody of the monkeys, but two lower courts ruled that the plaintiffs lacked standing, and the Supreme Court refused to hear the case.
While final litigation was pending, the animals were maintained at NIH. During this time, pressure mounted from members of the public, Congress, and animal rights groups to have the monkeys moved to a private, nonresearch facility. As an interim measure, the monkeys were transferred to the Delta Primate Research Center (DPRC) in Covington, LA, in 1986. NIH recommended that all of the animals be exempted from any further invasive research, and that they be "resocialized," i.e. adapted to group living, to the extent possible for each individual. To this end, a panel of primatologists and veterinarians convened at the DPRC in 1986 to evaluate each of the animals medically and behaviorally. At that time, 14 of the original 17 animals remained (one control and three experimental monkeys had died since 1981). It was subsequently agreed that the remaining five intact cynomolgus monkeys would be transferred to the San Diego Zoo for resocialization under the direction of Dr. Don Lindburg and this author.
Disposition of the remaining deafferented animals is still under consideration. Because of spinal fusion at the lesion site, and varying degrees of deterioration of the deafferented limbs, these animals are at risk for injury if placed in social groups or if given the opportunity to climb or rapidly locomote. These monkeys require close observation and frequent veterinary attention, and thus are currently housed in individual Harford cages at DPRC. A social housing situation is being sought for the intact rhesus female.
The five intact cynomolgus males were transferred to the San Diego Zoo in September, 1987. Following a six-week quarantine period, the animals were moved to adjacent large outdoor runs (2 x 3 x 3.3m) in an off-exhibit facility at the Zoo's Research Department. This facility also houses the largest captive population of rare lion-tailed macaques, M. silenus. In these cages the monkeys presently have visual contact with single- and group-caged lion-tailed macaques but not with each other. The cages are equipped with nest boxes, perches, branches, and hay-covered floors. The monkeys receive a diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, nuts, browse, and monkey chow. Rice and sunflower seeds are scattered in the hay substrate to encourage foraging activity.
As part of their own resocialization, the cynomolgus have become part of a comparative study of resocialization of adult male macaques. The cynomolgus are being directly compared with five adult male lion-tailed macaques at each stage in the resocialization process. The lion-tailed males are either reproductively dysfunctional or are "surplus" to propagation efforts (i.e. genetically overrepresented in the captive population). They have also had limited social experience and show some abnormal behavior, and thus would benefit from resocialization. The resocialization study consists of collecting data across conditions in which the monkeys are exposed to increasingly complex social stimuli. The conditions include baseline data on single-caged animals, presentation of a mirror, pairwise social introductions among conspecifics (via windows between adjacent cages), and ultimately, conspecific group formation. At this writing, pairwise social introductions are scheduled to begin shortly.
In their current housing, the behavior of the cynomolgus appears essentially normal. Some monkeys exhibit low levels of nondestructive stereotyped behavior (i.e. circling or pacing) when excited, and one animal overgrooms a chronic superficial lesion. Some resocialization of the animals has already occurred simply by virtue of being exposed to socially housed macaques (a large group of lion-tails housed nearby). During their first month here, the cynomolgus males showed virtually no response to loud and visible agonistic episodes in the lion-tail group or to threats from the group's adult male. They now direct frequent attention to this group, exhibiting threat and/or alarm calls during group disturbances and returning threats from the group male. They have also shown dramatic increases in orienting toward the group cage when lion-tail females are in estrus. Intermittently, the cynomolgus males are able to view each other when placed in portable metabolism cages while their run cages are cleaned. All show considerable interest in their conspecifics, directing greeting and appeasement gestures to them. No aggressive gestures have been observed in these circumstances, and it appears that these monkeys readily enter the metabolism cages primarily for social reinforcement, i.e., to see conspecifics normally out of view. These early indicators provide encouragement for their successful resocialization.
Author's address: Research Department and Center for Reproduction
of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, P. O. Box 551,
San Diego, CA 92112.
. . Editor's Note: Thanks to Dr. Clarke, whom we asked to share this material with our readers when we visited the San Diego Zoo this winter.
* * *
We are pleased with the response to our Mailing List Renewal Notice and Questionnaire, included in the April issue. There will be a discussion of the responses in the October issue. Many readers, however, still have not returned the form. This is the last issue of the Newsletter they will receive, unless they return those forms promptly. If you have misplaced the form, please send a note to the Editor, Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Box 1853, Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02912, indicating that you want to continue to receive the Newsletter.
* * *
The Caribbean Primate Research Center has planned a meeting to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaque Colony. The meeting will be held December 5 to 7, 1988, at the Hotel El Convento, Old San Juan, Puerto Rico. For a tentative program and further information, please write to Cayo Santiago Meeting, Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749.
* * *
James Loy and Peter August
University of Rhode Island
Humans often show age-related changes of the skin, including the development of brown "age spots" (lentigo senilis) and possibly the loss of epidermal melanocytes (Andrew, 1971; Selmanowitz, Rizer, & Orentreich, 1977; Whitbourne, 1985). Recent observations on captive patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) suggest that they, too, may show age-related changes of the skin surface. In this paper, we report our findings in patas monkeys because of their potential interest to medical researchers, and because other readers may have seen similar changes in their own patas colonies.
All data reported here come from the patas colony at the University of Rhode Island (URI). The URI monkeys live year-round in a large indoor gang-cage constructed of chainlink fencing upon a concrete floor. The cage is equipped with numerous perches. The animals' room is maintained at a relatively uniform temperature of about 21-22&S'o.C. The floor of the gang-cage is probably somewhat colder than the air temperature, especially after daily washing. The monkeys do not go outdoors, and they are provided with 12-13 hours of fluorescent light daily. The URI monkeys are provided with commercial monkey chow and water ad libitum, and fruits and vegetables are given irregularly as dietary supplements.
In February, 1986, all of the monkeys (N = 12, ages from less than one year to about 16 years) were caught, sedated with ketamine hydrochloride, and given annual physical examinations and TB tests. During the examinations, white depigmented spots were noticed on the feet of some animals. Color photographs were made of all of the monkeys' plantar surfaces. For analysis of depigmentation, the area from the heel to and including the interdigital pads was examined, and only on the right foot. The outlines of the foot and depigmented spots were digitized directly from the photographs using a Calcomp 9100 digitizer (Calcomp, Anaheim, CA). The software package ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA) was used to calculate total area of the plantar surface and total area of depigmentation for each foot. The percentage of the plantar surface that was depigmented was then calculated.
Figure 1: Female Emma, 1.75 years old.
Depigmented spots were not found on the feet of any of the eight monkeys seven years old or younger (Figure 1). The 8-year-old adult male of the group (Rabbit) showed 2.0% pigment loss, while a 13.75-year-old female (AE) showed 2.2% depigmentation. Two old females (R and N), who were both at least 16 years of age, showed the greatest pigment loss, 4.0% and 17.5%, respectively (Figure 2). The only depigmented area common to all animals with white spots was along the outer edge of the foot near the base of the fifth metatarsal.
Figure 2: Female N, about 16 years old.
All of the monkeys who showed white spots had lived in cages with concrete floors for 3-10 years. Although wear cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor, three things suggest that wear was not primarily responsible for the white spots. First, the depigmented areas did not appear unusually worn. Second, some of female N's pigment loss occurred in the creases between her interdigital pads. Third, although Rabbit had only lived on concrete for about three years, he showed some depigmentation while four younger animals who had equal or greater time on concrete showed no white spots.
These results suggest a progressive loss of plantar pigmentation with increasing age in patas monkeys. Obviously, this conclusion is tentative due to the small number of animals studied and the fact that all data came from one indoor colony of animals. Data from other patas groups, including wild animals or captive monkeys held outdoors, are needed to determine if plantar depigmentation is a general feature of aging in this species.
Andrew, W. (1971). The anatomy of aging in man and animals. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Selmanowitz, V. J., Rizer, R. L., & Orentreich, N. (1977). Aging of the skin and its appendages. In C. E. Finch & L. Hayflick (Eds.), Handbook of the biology of aging (pp. 496-509). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Whitbourne, S. K. (1985). The aging body. New York: Springer-Verlag.
First author's address: Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881.
* * *
It came as somewhat of a surprise to me to see that a photograph on page 14 in the January, 1988, issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter (Volume 27) was published. I am referring to Figure 2, "Roni and Rici are sharing food in the second month after pairing," in "Pairing Compatible Female Rhesus Monkeys for Cage Enrichment Has No Negative Impact on Body Weight," by Reinhardt, et al.
This photograph of two unrestrained rhesus monkeys in an open cage taking food directly from a person's ungloved hand is in direct contradiction to the preceding article, "Guidelines for Prevention of Herpesvirus Simiae (B Virus) Infection in Monkey Handlers," and other well-accepted documents describing how to minimize one's exposure to Herpesvirus simiae. The possibility of these monkeys being very well trained and/or B-virus free does not justify the apparent casual manner of the handler. --Roland A. W. Scott, D.V.M., Chief Resident, Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine, and the Vivarium, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642.
Dr. Reinhardt replies: Dr. Scott is certainly right. The two monkeys Roni and Rici associated gloves with negative experiences and it was impossible to make them take food from my gloved hands. --Dr. Viktor Reinhardt, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI 53715-1299.
Associate Editor's comment: The photo and Herpes article both serve to remind us all that complacency can have serious consequences. At times some of us do not practice the procedures we worked so hard to institute. Last year's Herpes cases, the first in thirteen years, should remind everyone handling monkeys that the zoonotic threat is real.
* * *
Tuberculosis in San Diego Zoo
Six rare Tibetan macaques (Macaca speciosa thibetans) arrived from an Asian zoo for quarantine at the San Diego Zoo in March of 1987. One animal had a positive reaction to an intradermal palpebral tuberculin test, and a second animal in the group converted 30 days after arrival. Comparative abdominal tuberculin tests showed minimal reactions. Acid-fast cultures taken from gastric and tracheal washes were negative. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The two reactors were isolated from the others in quarantine. These two animals developed disseminated tuberculosis 5 months after their arrival. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from one animal and M. bovis from the other. One animal was euthanatized and the other died during a follow-up examination. A third animal was euthanatized due to suspicious masses seen on the thoracic radiographs. This animal did not have tuberculosis. The remaining 3 animals were isolated for 11 months and treated with a 4-month course of isoniazid. None of the 3 converted to positive tuberculin status.
Most zoos attempt to determine if positive tuberculin reactions in rare primates are non-specific or are due to pathogenic mycobacteria by comparative tuberculin testing, acid-fast cultures, and thoracic radiographs. The significance of this outbreak is that these tests were not helpful in discriminating non-specific reactions from true positive tuberculin reactions early in the course of the disease.-- D. Janssen, Director, Veterinary Medicine Department, Zoological Society of San Diego, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.
Grogan Retires from ILAR
Earl Wayne Grogan, D.V.M., retired as director of the National Research Council's (NRC) Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) on May 11, 1987. He had served in the position since 1975, following 29 years of government service, for a total professional career of 41 years. During his 11 1/2 years as director, ILAR continued to serve its important role as the NRC's principal center of expertise on the use of laboratory animals in biomedical research and testing. The National Institutes of Health document, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, was updated by ILAR committees twice during that time, and numerous other documents and reports providing information and guidance on laboratory animal matters were developed. Dr. Thomas L. Wolfle has left the Division of Research Services of NIH to replace Grogan at ILAR. --From ILARNEWS, 1988, 30.
Ecuador Reports Dengue Fever
An epidemic of dengue fever, heretofore found mainly in the Caribbean, has been reported for the first time on the Pacific coast of South America, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, according to the State Department. Travelers there should use insect repellent to prevent bites from the aedes aegypti mosquito, a carrier of dengue fever, the department said. Health officials in Ecuador say the worst of the epidemic should be over by July, but precautions should still be taken after then. Dengue fever is characterized by high fever, aching joints, and general malaise. In its most serious form, the fever can be fatal.-- From the New York Times, June 12, 1988.
Glosser Made Head of APHIS
Dr. James W. Glosser has been named Administrator of the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). He has been serving in that capacity since the death of Dr. Donald L. Houston in February. Dr. Glosser announced an APHIS reorganization affecting chiefly the Washington headquarters. Animal welfare will have increased visibility and priority, as well as its own staffing, and no longer will share resources with programs having different priorities and objectives. An agency steering committee, appointed by the new administration, is working on implementing the new organizational structure. Their goal is to have the changes operational by October 1.-- From the NABR Update, May 5, 1988.
New Editor for A.J.P.
Horst D. Steklis, Ph.D., will become Editor of the American Journal of Primatology effective with Volume 16, Number 1 (1988). Contributors are asked to submit manuscripts to Dr. Horst D. Steklis, Editor, American Journal of Primatology, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903.
* * *
A competitive grant program, announced May 6, 1988, by the Division of Research Resources (DRR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), supports projects to upgrade animal facilities, obtain equipment such as animal cages and cage washers, and centralize animal care programs at biomedical research and educational institutions. Nearly $12 million is expected to be available for fiscal 1989 grants, to be divided among 30 to 40 awards. Laboratory alteration and renovation projects are limited to a maximum of $500,000, and a dollar-for-dollar match is required. Projects are supported for one year. These grants will not provide support for general operations, such as personnel, supply, and routine animal care costs, nor for new construction. Public and primate institutions with one or more PHS grants are eligible. Deadlines for application are August 8 and December 1. Contact Leo Whitehair, Laboratory Animal Sciences Program, DRR, NIH, Bldg. 31, Rm. 5B59, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5175].
* * *
The Caribbean Primate Research Center, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, has two openings, for a clinical veterinarian and for a behavioral scientist at the Sebana Seca Field Station. Candidates for the clinical veterinarian position should have at least two years' experience with preventative medicine programs, colony management, and gross necropsy techniques. An interest in biomedical or behavioral research and a knowledge of conversational Spanish are desirable, but not required. Salary will be commensurate with training, experience, and publication record.
Candidates for the position of behavioral scientist must hold a Ph.D. The successful candidate will be expected to develop and submit for funding a research grant application focusing on the behavior and biology of patas monkeys. Salary and rank will be commensurate with training, experience, and publication record.
To apply for these positions, please send a cover letter, c.v., and the names of three references to the Caribbean Primate Research Center, Reference: [Veterinary Position/Behaviorist], P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749.
The Primate Foundation of Arizona, in association with Arizona State University, has available internships for the study of chimpanzee behavior. Two annual internships are offered for 12 months each; non-taxable award amount is $9,000. Deadlines for application submittal are: 30 September for 12 month period beginning 1 January, and 31 March for 12 month period beginning 1 July.
The Foundation's general aim with the awarding of the Internships is to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into the behaviors of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The Internships are meant for the training and support of pre-doctoral students working in disciplines relevant to the aims and policies of the Foundation. The Foundation is primarily interested in studies of the reproductive and mothering behaviors of captive born chimpanzees and studies germane to the Foundation's long-term goals of improving the quality of life and reproductive potential for all captive chimpanzees. All work is done on-site at the Foundation.
There are approximately 55 chimpanzees in the colony, ranging in age from 3 months to 29 years. For the most part, this number will remain stable, but some animals do temporarily cycle out of the colony and others will cycle back in. Infants remain with their mothers for periods of up to 24 months and longer.
Send letter of inquiry to: Ms. Jo Fritz, Administrative Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P. O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85281.
* * *
* Behavioral Observations of Feral and Free-Ranging Guenons and Vervets (Cercopithecus). 1980-1987. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (145 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
* Distribution of the Apes (Pongidae and Hylobates), 1977-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (138 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* Distribution of the Cercopithecinae, 1977-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (209 citations, primate and geographic indices) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* Distribution of Colobinae (Leaf-Eating Monkeys), 1977-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (132 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* Distribution of New World Primates, 1977-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (187 citations, primate and geographic indices) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* Museum Collections of Nonhuman Primate Specimens: A Selected Bibliography, 1969-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (75 citations, primate index) [Price: $5.50. Ordering information same as above.]
* The Wildlife Trade and CITES. An Annotated Bibliography for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Mark Trexler & Laura Kosloff. Washington: TRAFFIC(U.S.A.). (2300 citations) [Price: $25. Send order to WWF, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037]
Magazines, Newsletters and Reports
* Primate Report, No. 19, February, 1988. [Published in
cooperation with the German Primate Center (DPZ).][Price: $8]
. . This issue includes some of the Proceedings of the XIth Congress of the International Primate Society, 20-25 July, 1986, Göttingen, FRG. Congress papers are: Assessment of the early appearance of behavioural gender differences in infant rhesus, by C. J. Edwin; A preliminary ethogram and study of social behavior in captive drills, Mandrillus leucophaeus, by G. W. Hearn, E. C. Weikel, & C. D. Schaaf; Social play interactions in a group of captive infant gorillas, by J. C. Gómez; Tool-use and communication as alternative strategies of problem-solving in the gorilla, by J. C. Gómez; Western lowland gorillas feeding in streams and on savannas, by E. A. Williamson, C. E. G. Tutin, & M. Fernandez; Density estimate of monkeys of Jaipur, India, by R. Mathur & A. Lobo. Other papers are: Observation of birth and postnatal phase in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) at the Zoologischer Garten Leipzig, by H. J. Adler; The importance of census of threatened primates in captivity. A tabular summary from 1975-1984, by M. Winterberg; History of the Rousset upon Avon station, by B. Pallaud.
* Primate Report, No. 20, May, 1988. [Publishing information as
. . The Annual Scientific Report for 1987 of the DPZ. Articles included are: Atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in primate kidneys, by A. Brucksch, G. Flügge, M. Brack, & E. Fuchs; The volatile components of scent material from the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus o. oedipus) . A chemical and behavioral study, by A. Belcher, G. Epple, I. Küderling, & A. B. Smith III; Observations on predatory behaviour of a young saki monkey Pithecia hirsuta (Platyrrhini cebidae), by U. Bartecki & E. W. Heymann.
* Primate Conservation: The Newsletter and Journal of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Number 8, September, 1987.
[Subscription: $15, payable to World Wildlife Fund. Order from WWF
Primate Program, Dept. of Anatomical Sciences, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY
. . This issue contains sections of Announcements, News from the Field, News from Captivity, articles on conservation in various parts of the world, and the Proceedings of the Conservation Symposium at the XIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 1987.
* Primate News, 1988, Volume 22 . (Published by the Oregon
Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR
. . The issue includes an article on the crested black macaque of Sulawesi, by J. Erwin, and one by C. F. Howard on using those macaques for diabetes research.
* Humane Innovations and Alternatives in Animal Experimentation:
A Notebook, 1987, Volume 1. (Published by PsyETA, Box 87, New
Gloucester, ME 14260.)
. . The issue includes the following articles: Enriching the lives of primates in captivity, by P. O'Neill; Caging of laboratory monkeys: Alternative to isolation housing in small cages, by E. Segal; Food reinforcement: alternative to motivating subjects by weight reduction, by E. Segal.
Special Journal Issues
* American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14.
. . Contains the program of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, June 2-5, 1988, held at Loyola University and Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, as pages 385-461.
* Management of Patients with Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic Fever.
Centers for Disease Control. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report, 1988, 37 (Suppl. S-3).
. . Viral hemorrhagic fevers include Marburg hemorrhagic fever, which has been transmitted by African green monkeys.
* 1988 Agent Summary Statement for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Report on Laboratory-Acquired Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Centers for Disease Control. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1988, 37 (Suppl. S-4).
* Primate models to study eccrine sweating. Elizondo, R. S. (College
of Science, Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968-059).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 265-276.
. . Results indicate that the patas monkey, because of its high sweating capacity and other similarities with the human eccrine system, is a most appropriate animal model for comparative studies of eccrine sweat gland function in primates in general.
* Quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation from chacma baboons
(Papio ursinus). Bornman, M. S., van Vuuren, M., Meltzer, D. G. A.,
van der Merwe, C. A., & v. Rensburg, S. J. (Roodeplaat Research Labs
Ltd, PO Box 13873, Sinoville 0129, South Africa).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 57-61.
. . Fifty-four baboons were subjected to an electroejaculation procedure that yielded 683 useable ejaculates in 705 attempts. Quality evaluations by usual human spermiogram methods were applicable with only minor modifications to the procedures. By human criteria these wild baboons remained fertile after capture, and their use as a fertility model in pharacological studies appeared to be appropriate.
* Spontaneous hypertension and its sequelae in woolly monkeys
(Lagothrix lagotricha). Giddens, W. E. Jr., Combs, C. A., Smith, O.
A., & Kline, E. C. (Div. Animal Medicine, SB-42, Univ. of Washington
School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 750-756.
. . Arteriolar nephrosclerosis was observed at necropsy in 26 of 38 woolly monkeys. This lesion is the earliest histologic change associated with hypertension in humans. 17 of the monkeys had died of congestive heart failure, renal failure, or acute cardiovascular accident, complications similar to those seen in human hypertension. Physiologic, clinical, and pathologic studies suggest that woolly monkeys develop hypertension spontaneously and could be a useful model for the study of human hypertension.
* Primate model for onchocerciasis research. Greene, B. M. (Dept. of
Medicine, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, University
Hospitals, Cleveland, OH 44106).
Filariasis. Ciba Foundation Symposium 127 (pp.236-243). New York:
. . A major impediment to progress in research in onchocerciasis, one of the principal causes of blindness in humans and a major parasitic disease problem in equatorial Africa and parts of Latin America, has been the lack of a suitable animal model. However, chimpanzees can be reliably infected by injection of living third-stage larvae of Onchocerca volvulus, and develop a pattern of infection that closely resembles that seen in humans. Ocular lesions resembling those in humans have not been observed in animals studied so far, but this may reflect in part the low intensity of infection and the limited time of observation.
* Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in African green and squirrel
monkeys: Comparison of pathologic effects. Blanchard, J. L., Soike, K.,
& Baskin, G. B. (Delta Regional Primate Research Center, Three Rivers
Road, Covington, LA 70433).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 635-639.
. . This study compared the pathological effects of experimental encephalomyocarditis virus infection in African green monkeys and squirrel monkeys. African green monkeys died within 5 days post-inoculation and significant changes were limited to moderate to severe multifocal nonsuppurative necrotizing myocarditis. Squirrel monkeys were less severely affected and died or were euthanized 4 to 41 days post-inoculation. Myocardial and central nervous system changes in squirrel monkeys were minimal to moderate and variable in distribution, while pancreatic changes were more severe and included multifocal necrosis, subacute inflammation, and atrophy of exocrine cells.
* Macaque studies of a sexually transmitted disease. Proujan, B. J.
(Research Resources Information Center, 1601 Research Blvd., Rockville,
Research Resources Reporter, 1988, 12, 1-4.
. . A technique for performing simultaneously several practically painless experiments that do not affect the animal's lifespan.
* Opinions on animal research: Scientists vs. the public? Takooshian,
H. (Social Science Div., Fordham Univ., New York, NY 10023).
PsyETA Bulletin, 1988, 7, 5, 8-9.
. . Results of a survey made by university students from 1979-1981 show no discernible opposition between the public and the scientific community on the issue of vivisection. They also indicate that one's attitude toward vivisection is far more related to one's opinion towards animals than faith in science.
* Sociosexual development, pair bond formation, and mechanisms of
fertility suppression in female Cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Savage, A., Ziegler, T. E., & Snowdon,
C. T. (Dept. of Psychology, 1202 W. Johnson St., Univ. of Wisconsin,
Madison, WI 53706).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 345-359.
. . Behavioral observations and hormonal samples were collected on young females while they were living with their families, isolated from conspecifics, and paired with an unrelated male. While living with the family, all females showed a suppression of fertility and low frequencies of sociosexual behavior. Following removal from the family, isolated females displayed an increase in rate of scent marking and an increase in hormonal levels. After pairing, hormonal levels increased dramatically, and ovarian cyclicity began. An increase in sociosexual behavior and elevated levels of scent marking accompanied this physiological change.
* Wounding patterns in three species of captive macaques. Ruehlmann,
T. E., Bernstein, I. S., Gordon, T. P., & Balcaen, P. (Dept. of Zoology,
Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 125-134.
. . The incidence of wounding in captive groups of rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pigtail (M. nemestrina), and stumptail (M. arctoides) macaques was studied for 21 months. Records were kept on the age, sex, and species of the recipient, along with the type and location of wound. In each species, adult males incurred the highest frequency of wounds and multiple wounds of any age-sex class. Wounding frequencies do not necessarily correspond with behavioral measures of aggression. Inhibition of aggression directed toward infants and the selective avoidance of bites directed to vital body regions are possible mechanisms that modify intragroup aggression.
* Descriptive accounts of the behavior of breeding and nonbreeding
pairs of golden-bellied mangabeys
(Cercocebus galeritus chrysogaster). Mitchell, G., Soteriou, S.,
Towers, S., Kenney, L., & Schumer, C. (Psychology Dept., Univ. of
California, Davis, CA 95616).
Zoo Biology, 1987, 6, 391-399.
. . Four adult heterosexual pairs of golden-bellied mangabeys were observed at the Sacramento Zoo. The behaviors of the pairs differed with the histories of the individuals involved, degrees of swelling of the females, presence of offspring in their cages, and the nature of distractions near their enclosures. To reduce stress in these and other relatively aggressive primate species, careful attention should be paid to housing location, social history, stage of estrus, and presence of offspring.
* Sex differences in behavior of endangered mangabeys
(Cercocebus galeritus chrysogaster). Mitchell, G., Towers, S.,
Soteriou, S., Schumer, C., Kenney, L., Gusé, K., & Dillin, L.
(Psychology Dept., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Primates, 1988, 29, 129-134.
. . Six adult golden-bellied mangabeys displayed sex differences in aggression, grooming, and vocalization. These sex differences persisted across different current living conditions, time in captivity, rearing coditions, presence of offspring, and active mating conditions.
* Weaning variability in semi-free-ranging Japanese macaques
(Macaca fuscata). Collinge, N. E. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. T6G 2H4, Canada).
Folia Primatologica, 48, 1987, 137-150.
. . An investigation of variability in the weaning behaviors of Japanese macaque mothers and their infants and an attempt to define factors contributing to this variability. The oestrous state of the mother was the one factor which could be used to predict a significant increase in the level of maternal rejection, and different behavioral tendencies in the infants.
* Sociological study on the troop fission of wild Japanese monkeys
(Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Oi, T. (Primate
Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan).
Primates, 1988, 29, 1-19.
. . Observations on the whole process of troop fission in a troop of wild "non-provisioned" Japanese monkeys. Individual monkeys could be identified, and important data on inter-individual social relations were collected.
* Management and husbandry of ruffed lemurs,
Varecia variegata, at the San Diego Zoo. I. Captive population, San
Diego Zoo housing and diet. Brockman, D. K., Willis, M. S., & Karesh, W.
B. (San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112).
Zoo Biology, 1987, 6, 341-347.
. . The captive history of the ruffed lemur is presented with concentration on taxonomy, captive population, and husbandry of the San Diego Zoo population. Housing specifications are presented for the off-exhibit 96-unit breeding facility, describing enclosure size, material, nest box composition, and enclosure furniture. The diet, which emphasizes high-protein, high-fiber foods and leaves, is described.
* Management and husbandry of ruffed lemurs,
Varecia variegata, at the San Diego Zoo. II. Reproduction,
pregnancy, parturition, litter size, infant care, and reintroduction of
hand-raised infants. Brockman, D. K., Willis, M. S., & Karesh, W.
B. (San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112).
Zoo Biology, 1987, 6, 349-363.
. . Detailed descriptions of ruffed lemur reproductive biology and behavior are presented.
* Tropical rain forest conversion and perspectives in the
conservation of wild primates
(Alouatta and Ateles) in Mexico. Estrada, A. & Coates-Estrada, R.
(Apartado Postal 176, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 315-327.
. . The original distribution of the tropical rain forest and of the populations of Alouatta palliata, Al. pigra, and the two subspecies of Ateles geoffroyi in southern Mexico have been reduced by at least 90% in the last 40 years as a result of conversion of natural habitat to pasture and agriculture. This dramatic conversion has been caused mainly by the rapid growth of the human population in the southern states of the country. Today the distribution of the three primate species in Mexico is intensively and extensively fragmented, and only five potential foci for conservation exist in the country. Urgent action is required to protect the primate populations in the region of Los Tuxtlas and the other four foci, as some of these populations may disappear by 1995.
* Leptospiral agglutinins in the Cayo Santiago macaques. Kessler, M.
J. & Everard, C. O. R. (Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box
1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 369-373.
. . The colony of free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago was surveyed for leptospiral agglutinins. Despite contact with rats and ingestion of stagnant water, the serological evidence, the excellent clinical condition, low mortality, and high reproductive rates of the animals indicate that leptospirosis is not a health problem in this colony.
* Enzootic hepatitis A infection in cynomolgus monkeys
(Macaca fascicularis). Slighter, R. G., Kimball, J. P., Barbolt, T.
A., Sherer, A. D., & Drobeck, H. P. (Sterling-Winthrop Research Inst.,
Columbia Turnpike, Rensselaer, NY 12144).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 73-81.
. . During a toxicology study in cynomolgus monkeys, a randomly distributed incidence of significantly increased hepatic enzyme activity was observed. A drug-related effect was considered unlikely. Good correlation was subsequently established between increased hepatic enzyme activity, active hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and histomorphologic confirmation of hepatitis (chronic periportal inflammation). The characterization of an enzootic HAV infection in incoming monkeys posed a significant risk for the primate colony and handlers. Rigorous sanitation, isolation, and quarantine procedures, including personnel training and additional protective clothing for personnel working in the primate colony, reduced the potential for transmission and arrested the outbreak. Experimenters should be cautious in ascribing toxicity to a test article based solely on increased hepatic enzyme activity associated with chronic periportal inflammation.
* Enteric trichomonads of squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri sp): Natural infestation and treatment. Brady, A. G.,
Pindak, F. F., Abee, C. R., & Gardner, W. A. Jr. (Dept. of Comparative
Medicine, 1040 Medical Sciences Bldg., College of Medicine, Univ. of
South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 65-71.
. . A large breeding colony of squirrel monkeys showed apparently universal infestation of adult animals with enteric trichomonads. Age of natural infestation was determined from results of microscopic examination and culture of fecal samples from infants of different ages. An effective regimen for treatment of adult monkeys was determined to be 25 mg/kg body weight of metronidazole given orally, twice daily for 5 days.
* Recommendations for the prevention of malaria in travelers. Centers
for Disease Control (Atlanta, GA 30333).
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1988, 37, 277-284.
. . A review of risks, prophylaxis, and treatment. CDC will soon print Health Information for International Travel, 1988, with detailed recommendations for each country, which will be available from the Superintendent of Documents, US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, as DHHS Publ. No. (CDC)88-8280.
* Rabies vaccination of captive white-handed gibbons potentially
exposed to wild rabies virus. Smith, R. E., Pirie, G. J., & England, J.
J. (Dept. of Epidemiology & Community Health, Louisiana State Univ.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 668-669.
. . A three-dose schedule of Imrab vaccine, followed by a booster dose, was administered to four gibbons which had been exposed to, but not bitten by, a rabid bat. The vaccine stimulated a significant antibody response. Rather than euthanasia, the authors would seriously consider a similar immunization schedule for valuable confined, non-human primates exposed to rabies virus, maintaining the animals in isolation for 90-180 days and observing the animal(s) for the development of any signs suggestive of rabies.
* Chronic fatal disease in gorillas seropositive for simian
T-lymphotropic virus I antibodies. Blakeslee, J. R. Jr., McClure, H. M.,
Anderson, D. C., Bauer, R. M. Huff, L. Y., & Olsen, R. G. (Dept. of
Veterinary Pathobiology, A100S Sisson Hall, 1900 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH
Cancer Letters, 1987, 37, 1-6.
. . Sera from 10 gorillas were tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay, Western blotting, and ELISA to Human T-lymphotropic viruses for cross-reacting with antibodies to Simian T-lymphotropic virus I (STLV-I). Four were antibody positive. Of the 4 seropositive gorillas, one has remained healthy, while 3 have died with similar disease problems as reconstructed from clinical records. It is not known whether a causal relationship exists between these diseases and STLV-I retrovirus infection.
* Chronic colitis in common marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (Saquinus oedipus).
Sainsbury, A. W., Kirkwood, J. K., & Appleby, E. C. (Royal College of
Surgeons of England Research Estab., Downe, Kent BR6 7JJ, U.K.).
Veterinary Record, 1987, 121, 329-330.
. . A retrospective study to determine the prevalence of chronic colitis in the common marmoset and cotton-top tamarin colonies maintained at the Institute of Zoology in London. Histological sections of the colon or caecum were taken from 16 of 40 animals examined post mortem in 1985, including 10 that had had histories of diarrhea. There is evidence of colitis in these colonies, as 12 of the 16 cases show some of the lesions described by Chalifoux and others. Marmosets and tamarins are successfully bred and maintained in many zoological collections and research establishments. The reason for the widespread occurrence of colitis in colonies both in the USA and Europe still remains unclear. Identification of a colony in which colitis is rare or does not occur would be of interest.
* The role of squirrels in sustaining monkeypox virus transmission.
Khodakevich, L., Szczeniowski, M., Manbu-ma-Disu, Jezek, Z.,
Marennikova, S., Nakano, J., & Messinger, D. (Smallpox Eradication Unit,
WHO, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland).
Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 1987, 39, 115-122.
. . Three groups of animals have been considered priority candidates for maintenance of monkeypox virus circulation in nature because of their relatively high population density: terrestrial rodents, squirrels, and gregarious bats. A survey was carried out in Bumba zone of Zaïre in 1986. No antibodies were found in 233 terrestrial rodents tested. A high prevalence of monkeypox-specific antibodies (24.7%) found in 320 squirrels suggested that these animals sustain virus transmission in the areas surrounding human settlements. Out of 39 primates collected during the survey from the primary forest, three were found seropositive for monkeypox. At the moment, however, it is difficult to say whether the primates play an important role in sustaining virus transmission in nature, or (like humans) that they are an occasional host of the virus.
* Population densities and geographic distribution of night monkeys
(Aotus nancymai and Aotus vociferans) (Cebidae: Primates) in
northeastern Peru. Aquino, R. & Encarnación, F. (IVITA, P.O. Box 575,
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 375-381.
. . Using transect census methods, densities of Aotus nancymai were approximatly 46.3 and 24.2 individuals/km&S'2 in lowland and highland forests. For Aotus vociferans respective densities were 33.0 and 7.9 individuals/km&S'2..
* The behavioral ecology of mountain baboons. Whiten, A., Byrne, R.
W., & Henzi, S. P. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of St. Andrews, St.
Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 367-388.
. . Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) were studied in a mountain habitat where the effects of high altitude and latitude combine to produce conditions as harsh as those experienced by the desert or hamadryas baboon (P. hamadryas). The population density was as low as that of hamadryas baboons. Mountain baboons may represent a significant southern highland population which does not fit into the neat socioecological dichotomy of desert versus savannah baboons.
* Habitat quality, population dynamics, and group composition in
(Colobus guereza) . Dunbar, R. I. M. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ.
College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 299-329.
. . Data from an Ethiopian population of Colobus guereza show that territory size is fixed by the high density of the population. Groups undergo fission when their size results in fewer than 10 trees per individual within the group's territory. Mean territory size is inversely related to population density and that density, in turn, is a function of the size of the forest block. Since both group size and reproductive rates can be shown to be positively correlated with type of forest, it is concluded that this relationship reflects the fact that local population densities reach their ceiling more rapidly in small forest blocks because the animals' access to alternative territories is limited. The number of males in a colobus group is shown to be a function of the number of females in it. Multimale groups have lower reproductive rates than one-male groups.
* Identification and phyletic distribution of the plasma esterases of
some anthropoid primates. Breed, R. T. & Jolly, C. J. (Dept. of
Anthropology, New York Univ., New York, NY 10012).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 331-350.
. . Using electrophoresis, specific staining, and selective inhibition, the authors examined and identified esterase components in the plasma of 13 anthropoid species: 5 hominoids, 7 cercopithecoids, and 1 platyrrhine. The most parsimonious interpretation of the distribution found reinforces the notion of a Pan-Gorilla-Homo clade sororally related to Pongo. In general plasma esterases are an underexploited source of genetic markers in primates.
Instruments and Techniques
* Combining scientific experimentation with conventional housing: A
pilot study with rhesus monkeys. Preilowski, B., Reger, M., & Engele, H.
(Univ. of Tübingen, Weissenau Field Station, Rasthalde 3, D-7980
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 223-234.
. . In search of a method to increase the validity of experimental data and simultaneously counteract the negative consequences of restricted laboratory environments, a pilot study was run with three rhesus monkeys, which were trained and tested with a laboratory-type task in the animal housing facility. The testing apparatus was made available to individual animals 24 hours/day at their living cage and was connected to a computer that controlled the test and the distribution of regular monkey chow as reward. The animals were thus able to work whenever they wanted, for whatever period of time they chose, in their accustomed home environment. Besides furnishing data on the distribution of activity and performance over extended periods of time, the study provided more data than those obtained previously when animals were tested each day for only a limited time in an isolated test chamber. It was also found that the self-initiated manipulatory activity required by the test considerably reduced the number of motor stereotypies.
* Three BASIC programs for recording, storing, and handling
behavioral data. López-Luján, A. X. & Mondragón, R. (R.
Mondragón, Lab. de Psicobiología y Conducta, Div. de Neurociencas,
Inst. Mexicano de Psiquiatría, Antiguo Camino a Xochimilco 101, Tlalpan
14370, México, D.F.).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 361-367.
. . Software was created to allow the collection of a library of unabridged sampling sessions. The data-handling programs were designed so that users can effortlessly extract specific information without disturbing the original recordings. The programs can be easily translated to any BASIC dialect, so their use is not limited to a particular machine.
* An instrument using variation of resistance to aid in needle tip
insertion in epidural block in monkeys. Young, S.-T., Chan, K.-H., &
Chen, C.-F. (Inst. of Medical Engineering, National Yang-Ming Medical
College, 155 Section 2, Li-Nung St., Shih-Pai, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC 112).
Medical Instrumentation, 1987, 21, 266-268.
. . Measuring the changes in electric resistance during the insertion of the needle through different tissues in the interspinal space can help anesthesiologists judge whether and when the needle has entered the epidural space. Electric resistance of tissues in the interspinal space vary from 1.57 +/- 1.22 k-ohm to 2.93 +/- 1.14 k-ohm, while resistance of the epidural space varied from 9.00 +/- 1.12 k-ohm to 14.64 +/- 1.25 k-ohm. .pf
* Magnetic resonance imaging of the placenta in rhesus monkeys,
Macaca mulatta. Panigel, M., Wolf, G., & Zeleznick, A. (4, Villa
Patrice Boudard, 75016 Paris, France).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 3-18.
. . Magnetic resonance imaging of the uterus of rhesus monkeys was performed at different stages of pregnancy. Spin-echo sequences localized the placental discs before and after gadolinium enhancement. Fast-scan sequences provided semiquantitative appreciation of placental hemodynamics. The paramagnetic agent enhanced the placenta, crossed into the fetal circulation, and was excreted in the fetal urinary bladder. Gd DTPA was also used to contrast the external contours of the fetus.
* Alternatives to chronic restraint of nonhuman primates. Morton, W.
R., Knitter, G. H., Smith, P. M., Susor, T. G., & Schmitt, K. (Regional
Primate Research Center, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195).
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1987,
. . Descriptions and discussions of tether restraint systems that permit use of chronically implanted instruments for collection of data, and a convertible cage permitting temporary chair restraint.
* Identification of the main gestagen metabolite in marmoset
(Callithrix jacchus) urine by NMR and MS spectroscopy. Heger, W.,
Hoyer, G.-A., & Neubert, D. (Inst. für Toxikologie u.
Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin, Garystr. 5, D-1000, Berlin 33,
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 19-29.
. . Hydroxypregnanolone is the most abundant progesterone metabolite in the urine of marmoset monkeys. The substance is excreted as conjugate. The concentration of this steroid may be monitored by high performance, thin layer chromatography and postchromatographic derivatization. hydroxypregnanolone was purified and subsequently identified by NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy.
* An apparatus and procedure for studying the choice component of
foraging in a captive group of chimpanzees
(Pan troglodytes). Gust, D. A., Swenson, R. B., Smith, M. B., &
Sikes, J. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ.,
Atlanta, GA 30322).
Primates, 1988, 29, 139-143.
. . An apparatus is described which was used to investigate the choice component of foraging in a captive group of chimpanzees maintained in a large, outdoor compound. The utilization of more than one apparatus would allow the investigation of other ecological and psychological concepts in nonhuman primates housed under semi-natural conditions.
* Ovum recovery and in vitro fertilization in crab-eating monkeys
(Macaca fascicularis). Ida, K., Noda, Y., Yano, J., Fukuda, A.,
Matsumoto, H. & Mori, T. (Dept. of Gynecology & Obstetrics, Kyoto Univ.,
54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606 Japan).
Primates, 1988, 29, 107-116.
. . A total of 301 oocytes were recovered from crab-eating monkeys and subjected to insemination in vitro resulting in two fertilized ova. This is the first report of in vitro fertilized ova in nonhuman primates in Japan.
* Phenotype and age differences in blood gas charactistics,
electrolytes, hemoglobin, plasma glucose and cortisol in female squirrel
monkeys. Brizzee, K. R., Ordy, J. M., Dunlap, W. P., Kendrick, R., &
Wengenack, T. M. (Dept. of Neurobiology, Delta Regional Primate Research
Center, Covington, LA 70433).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 200-202.
. . This study compares differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.
* Normal serum IgE and IgG antibody levels in adult male cynomolgus
monkeys. Biagini, R. E., Moorman, W. J., Lal, J. B., Gallagher, J. S., &
Bernstein, I. L. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, PHS, Centers for
Disease Control, NIOSH, Div. of Biomedical and Behavioral Science,
Experimental Toxicology Br., Cincinnati, OH 45226).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 194-196.
. . The present study determines serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG and IgE) in cynomolgus monkey sera using methods commonly used to measure these immunoglobulins in human sera, and establish a baseline of these antibodies for use in future studies of the effects of toxic exposures on the immune status of monkeys.
* Lymphocyte subsets in chimpanzees. Eichberg, J. W., Montiel, M. M.,
Morale, B. A., King, D. E., Chanh, T. C., Kennedy, R. C., & Dreesman, G.
R. (Dept. of Virology and Immunology, Southwest Foundation for
Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78284).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 197-198.
. . Data involving only a few chimpanzees of undetermined age have been reported comparing the phylogeny of T and B cell epitopes in humans, apes, and monkeys. The present data on the ontogeny of lymphocyte subsets in chimpanzees of known ages may be helpful for other investigators pursuing research with this valuable animal species.
* Dental eruption schedules of wild and captive baboons.
Phillips-Conroy, J. E. & Jolly, C. J. (Dept. of Anatomy and
Neurobiology, Washington Univ. School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave.,
St. Louis, MO 63110).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 17-29.
. . This paper reports, for the first time, eruption schedules derived from wild baboons, Papio hamadryas cynocephalus of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, and compares these schedules with those of other baboon subspecies inhabiting both similar and dissimilar environments. Constancy of developmental schedules suggests that these data may reasonably be used as standards for other wild baboon populations and that acceleration of dental maturation, as well as maturation of other somatic systems in captivity, is another manifestation of the short-term adaptive plasticity of the baboon species as a whole.
* Multivariate analysis of hematological and serum biochemical values
in female cynomolgus monkeys
(Macaca fascicularis) aged less than one year. (Japanese with
English summary and tables) Yoshida, T., Ohtoh, K., Cho, F., & Goto, N.
(Tsukuba Primate Center for Med. Science, NIH, Hachimandai,
Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaragi-ken 305, Japan).
Experimental Animals, 1988, 39-44.
. . Hematological and serum biochemical data obtained from 91 laboratory-bred cynomolgus monkeys aged 11 to 362 days were analyzed by discriminant analysis. Items examined were: red blood cell count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, white blood cell count (WBC), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity, glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity, total protein concentration (TP), albumin concentration (ALB), albumin-globulin ratio (A/G), blood urea nitrogen, glucose concentration, total cholesterol concentration (TCHO), free cholesterol concentration (FCHO), triglyceride concentration (TG), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and calcium concentration. The animals were divided into 4 groups (A: less than 176 days old; B. C. D: 121-220 days, 221-280 days, and 281-362 days old). Discrimination was possible among these four groups. The infant group could be discriminated from the juvenile groups by the first canonical variate. Within the juvenile groups, age was highly correlated to the value of the second canonical variate. It can also be concluded that WBC, TP, ALB, A/G, TCHO, FCHO, TG, and ALP are important and useful for monitoring the physiological conditions of growing juvenile monkeys. A table is presented of all the variates for each age group.
* Macular degeneration in a community of rhesus monkeys:
Ultrastructural observations. Ulshafer, R. J., Engel, H. M., Dawson, W.
W., Allen, C. B., & Kessler, M. J. (Dept. of Ophthalmology, Box J-284,
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610).
Retina, 1987, 7, 198-203.
. . The eyes of 29 aged adult (mean age, 20 years) rhesus monkeys were examined for the presence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Approximately 75% of the animals examined had drusen in the posterior pole. The changes noted are consistent with those reported in human aging and AMD.
* Seasonal variations in sleep-wake cycle in
Microcebus murinus. Barre, V. & Petter-Rousseaux, A. (Muséum
National d'Histoire Naturelle, 55 rue Buffon, 75005, Paris France).
Primates, 1988, 19, 53-64.
. . Seasonal variations in the sleep-wake cycle of four captive Microcebus murinus were studied, using electroencephalography. Microcebus spends from three fourths to two thirds of the 24-hr cycle in sleep phase from September to January, but only one half in sleep phase in summer.
* Nutrition, fertility and maternal investment in primates. Lee, P.
C. (Sub-Dept. of Animal Behaviour, Univ. of Cambridge, Madingley,
Cambridge CB3 8AA, England).
Journal of Zoology, 1987, 213, 409-422.
. . Relations between suckling frequencies, time of weaning, survivorship of offspring, contraceptive effects of lactation, and quality of maternal diets are outlined. Energy transfer from mother to offspring in the form of milk is proposed as a measurable component of maternal investment, and the behavioral causes and consequences of lactational anoestrus are explored using data from free-ranging vervet monkeys. It is suggested that nutrition of the mother is most important during the early phase of rapid infant growth, because at that time the energetic requirements of lactation are high; and that a mother's ability to assess her infant's demands and needs for nutrition for growth leads to alterations in suckling frequencies which result in variation in female fertility.
* Congenital malformations and twinning in a breeding colony of Old
World monkeys. Jerome, C. P. (Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray
School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1987, 37, 624-630.
. . Clinical and necropsy records of malformations in Old World monkeys were compiled. The numbers of malformations and birth incidence rate for each species were: Macaca mulatta 3 (1.02%); M. fascicularis 11 (1.62%); M. arctoides 3 (1.55%); Cercopithecus aethiops 4 (1.5%). There was one pair of rhesus twins (twinning rate: .34%). Cardiovascular and CNS lesions accounted for 55% of all malformations. Only two of the malformations were in inbred infants. Nine of twenty-one colony-born malformed infants lived 24 hours or more.
* The status of Callitrichidae in Australia. Crook, G. (CSIRO Div. of
Human Nutrition, Glenthorne Labs, Majors Road, O'Halloran Hills, SA
Australian Primatology, 1987, 2, 8-9.
. . Tabulation of marmosets and tamarins kept in zoos and laboratories in Australia. Inbreeding is a potentially serious problem, and the author urges efforts to vary the breeding stock by importation.
* Breeding season influxes and the behaviour of adult male samango
(Cercopithecus mitis albogularis). Henzi, S. P. & Lawes, M.
(Psychology Dept., Univ. of Natal, King George Ave., Durban 4001, South
Folia Primatologica, 1987, 48, 125-136.
. . Troops comprising a high density population of samango monkeys in Natal province, SA, experienced an influx of adult males during the breeding season. Observation of one troop revealed that these males competed with one another and with two resident males for access to receptive females. Although both sexes initiated copulation, attempts to do so were more often successful if female-initiated. Males did not interact with non-receptive females and there were no recorded attempts at infanticide. Male-male interactions were agonistic in the presence of receptive females and neutral at other times. No ritualized displays of dominance and subordinance were seen. The significance of these observations for male reproductive strategy is discussed.
* International Douc Langur Studbook. L. K. Lippold. San Diego: San Diego State University, 1987. 25pp.
* Post-partum changes in hormones and sexual behaviour in captive
groups of marmosets
(Callithrix jacchus) . Dixson, A. F. & Lunn, S. F. (MRC Reproductive
Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive Biology, 37 Chalmers St.,
Edinburgh EH3 9EW, U.K.).
Physiology and Behaviour, 1987, 41, 577-583.
. . Video-tape recordings were made of behavioral interactions in eight family groups of marmosets for 24-30 days after parturition. Blood samples were collected from females for measurement of plasma lutenizing hormone and progesterone. In these captive marmoset groups, copulatory behavior during the post-partum period is stimulated by changes in non-behavioral cues from the female as well as by changes in her behavior.
* Polygyny in a group of pileated gibbons via a familial route.
Srikosamatara, S. & Brockelman, W. Y. (Center for Wildlife Research,
Faculty of Science, Mahidol Univ., Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400,
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 389-393.
. . During a study of the ecology and behavior of the pileated gibbon in southeastern Thailand, a group with two breeding females was discovered, of 12 groups investigated. This is the first carefully reported instance of polygamy for any species of hylobatid.
* Mother-infant relationships in vervet monkeys: Response to new
adult males. Fairbanks, L. A. & McGuire, M. T. (Dept. of Psychiatry &
Biobehavioral Sciences, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 351-366.
. . The reaction of mothers to replacement of breeding adult males was studied in two captive groups of vervet monkeys. Mother-infant behavior for 15 infants born in the season following the introduction of new males was compared to mother-infant behavior for 35 infants born with adult males that had been resident in the group for more than a year. The mothers responded to the presence of new males by being more protective toward their infants in the first 3 months, more rejecting after the infant's sixth month of life than mothers with long-term resident males. The rate of rejection was inversely correlated with the interbirth interval, and mothers with new males in the group conceived sooner and had significantly shorter interbirth intervals compared to mothers with long-term resident males.
* Successful artificial insemination in
Lemur fulvus mayottensis. Brun, B., Cranz, C., Ishak, B., Clavert,
A., Hugues, F., Leclerc, M., & Rumpler, Y. (Y. Rumpler, Faculté de
Médecine, Inst. d'Embryologie, 11, rue Humann, F67085 Strasbourg
Folia Primatologica, 1987, 48, 195-198.
. . A method is reported for collection of sperm by electrostimulation or prostatic massage in order to carry out artificial in utero insemination in Lemur fulvus mayottensis. Using fresh sperm, one success out of 7 attempts was obtained, although it was achieved with a vesiculectomized male.
* Mating patterns in squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri oerstedi) : Implications for seasonal sexual dimorphism.
Boinski, S. (Lab. of Comparative Ethology, NICHHD, NIH Animal Center,
Bldg. 112, Poolesville, MD 20837).
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1987, 21, 13-21.
. . The mating system of squirrel monkeys in Costa Rica was studied and used to develop a model to interpret the evolution of seasonal sexual dimorphism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp). Adult male body weights in captivity and the wild may increase more than 20% beginning approximately two months prior to and continuing through the annual two month breeding season. Female mate preference corresponded to a ranking based on relative male enlargement. Seasonal enlargement in males is suggested to be the result of both male intrasexual competition and female choice.
* Birth synchrony in squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri oerstedi) : A strategy to reduce neonatal predation.
Boinski, S. (Lab. of Comparative Ethology, NICHHD, NIH Animal Center,
Bldg. 112, Poolesville, MD 20837).
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1987, 21, 393-400.
. . The close within-troop birth synchrony (majority of births occurring within a week) is suggested to be advantageous because of intense predation pressure on neonate squirrel monkeys. Variable gestation length in squirrel monkeys may reflect a lability in the duration of gestation to allow coordination of the timing of births among females in a troop.
* A new species of
Hapalemur (Primates) from South East Madagascar. Meier, B.,
Albignac, R., Peyriéras, A., Rumpler, Y., & Wright, P. (Ruhr Univ.,
Bldg MA 0/41, Universitätstrasse, D-4630, Bochum, FRG).
Folia Primatologica, 1987, 48, 211-215.
. . A population of bamboo lemurs living sympatrically with H. griseus in the southeastern rain forest of Madagascar was thought to be an undescribed subspecies of H. simus. However subsequent field observations, which were later supplemented by further evidence, have revealed that it is in fact a new species of Hapalemur. Because of the unique golden facial coloring of this species, the authors have selected the name Hapalemur aureus.
* Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans.
Stringer, C. B. & Andrews, P. (Dept. of Palaeontology, British Museum
(Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD England).
Science, 1988, 239, 1263-1268.
. . Genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans. Both genetics and paleontology support a recent African origin for modern humans rather than a long period of multiregional evolution accompanied by gene flow.
* Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA types in
Macaca fascicularis. Harihara, S., Saitou, N., Hirai, M. Aoto, N.,
Terao, K., Cho, F., Honjo, S., & Omoto, K. (Dept. of Anthropology,
Faculty of Science, Univ. of Tokyo, 1-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113
Primates, 1988, 29, 117-127.
. . Restriction fragment length polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA of M. fascicularis from four geographical regions, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indochina, was analyzed. 21 types of mitochondrial DNA were detected using five restriction enzymes. In the phylogenetic tree for the four populations, two clusters were constructed, one for the continental populations and the other for the insular ones.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
We are grateful to the Duke News Service/Jim Wallace for providing the cover photograph of Mandarin, a female infant Philipine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta.
Copyright @1991 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Managing Editor: Janice Viticonte
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.