VOLUME 27 NUMBER 4 OCTOBER 1988
Articles and Notes
Preliminary Comments on Pairing Unfamiliar Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys for the Purpose of Environmental Enrichment, by Viktor Reinhardt ...... 1
Competent Maternal Behavior by a Hand-Reared, Resocialized, Primiparous Chimpanzee: A Case History, by B. Nankivell, J. Fritz, L. Nash, & P. Fritz ...... 5
Chimps and Research: Endangered? ...... 9
The Frankfurt Pan troglodytes verus Collection: Description and Research Agenda, by Reiner Protsch von Zieten & Robert B. Eckhardt ...... 13
A Liquid Dispenser for Caged Primates, by R. D. Bramblett & Claud A. Bramblett ...... 16
News, Information, and Announcements
Grants Available ...... 3
Environmental Enrichment Slides and Videotape ...... 4
Research Reports ...... 4
. . Model of Demyelinating Disorders, Bacterial Adherence
Request for Information: Hand-Reared Chimpanzee Mothers ...... 8
Status Reviews Initiated for Chimpanzees ...... 9
Information Available ...... 12
. . Malaria Prevention Information System, Animal Welfare Information Center, Transport Information, PSIC
Viral Reference Center Moves ...... 15
News Briefs ...... 17
. . EEC Developing Transport Regulations, APA's Animal Research Committee Visits Washington, New SCAW Executive Director, Geoffrey Bourne, 1909-1988, APHIS Oversight Hearings Held in House, Zoo in Madagascar, Chimpanzee Well-Being, Rift Valley Fever, Imported Human Rabies in Australia
Meeting Report: ASP in New Orleans ...... 20
Conference Announcements ...... 21
Editors' Notes ...... 22
Color Photographs Wanted ...... 34
A Cartoon! ...... 20
Address Changes ...... 21
Recent Books and Articles ...... 23
Contents of Volumes 25 - 27 appear at the end of this issue.
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University of Wisconsin
A simple and safe method has recently been described that permits the pairing of previously singly caged adult rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment (Reinhardt et al., 1987a, 1988). In discussions with numerous experts in primate ethology and management of laboratory rhesus monkeys, the author was repeatedly warned that what had turned out to be a practicable management improvement for female rhesus monkeys would most likely be disastrous when applied to males. Surprisingly, however, previously singly caged adult males have proven to be as affectionate with juvenile companions as adult females are (Reinhardt et al., 1987b). Moreover, the general notion of male rhesus monkeys being more aggressive than females has been shown to be incorrect (Reinhardt, 1987). Indeed, there are only assumptions, but no valid evidence to speak against a carefully planned pairing of adult rhesus monkey males.
The present pilot study, in which 5 compatible pairs were successfully established from 10 previously singly caged adult rhesus monkey males, was based on the following hypotheses: 1. Adult rhesus monkey males that have never lived together can safely be paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment, provided they are given the chance to establish a dominance-subordination relationship before being transferred into the same cage. 2. Compatible rhesus monkey males have little reason to fight with each other, provided that sex competition is not triggered by exposure to a receptive female.
The pairing procedure for female rhesus monkeys (Reinhardt et al., 1987a) has been slightly modified for males:
Like females, potential male companions were placed in double cages, with each animal separated from the other by a grated partition that permitted visual, olfactory, and auditory communication (Reinhardt et al., 1987a). Each half of the cage had a volume of 70x75x77 cm and was provided with a deciduous branch segment for gnawing (Champoux et al., 1987). Potential companions were kept as neighbors for 5 days and observed daily for 1 hour. Potential female companions are prone to fight with each other upon being paired if they have not established a dominance-subordination relationship during the period of non-contact familiarization (unpublished observations). Potential male companions, therefore, were paired on day 6 only if such a relationship was evidenced during the familiarization period, with fear grinning and/or avoiding occurring in a consistently unidirectional way. If neither of the two males showed submissive gestures during familiarization, the two were separated and re-familiarized with other potential companions. Partners who showed evidence of an established dominance relationship, however, were transferred on day 6 into a different double cage (to avoid territorial antagonism) without a partition. Upon pairing, the two males were observed for 1 hour and again daily for 1 hour during the following 4 days.
Paired males were considered to be compatible if they inflicted no serious wounds (requiring medical care) on each other and if neither of them showed signs of depression (reduced alertness and lack of interest in otherwise favored food for more than 12 hours). Compatibility was checked daily during follow-up periods of 1 to 4 months.
The 10 males of the study had an average age of 11 years with a range of 7-16 years (Table I). They shared a room with approximately 100 other female and male rhesus monkeys but they had visual contact only with males. Potential companions were unrelated and had never lived together. The 10 males were all assigned to research and/or breeding projects and had lived in single cages for more than one year. All of them had been raised in breeding troops and had thus developed "normal" social skills during early life. To avoid unnecessary risks, canines of all subjects were blunted before the beginning of the study.
--------------------------------------------------- Names and ages (in years) of male combinations which showed no clear-cut dominance relationship during familiarization, and which were not paired. Samson (16) and Aron (11) Xaver (14) and Klaus (8) -----------------------------------------------------
Names and ages (in years) of male combinations which showed clear-cut dominance relationship during familiarization, and which were paired. Moon (12) and Peter (11) Troll (16) and Klaus (8) Isar (9) and Franz (8) Samson (16) and Xaver (14) Aron (11) and Clark (7) -----------------------------------------------------
Table I. Pairing suitability of previously singly caged adult rhesus monkey males that have never lived together.
A total of 7 different male-male combinations had to be tested during the period of non-contact familiarization in order to obtain 5 dyads (10 males) in which the partners exhibited clear dominance-subordination relationships (Table I). Pairing the respective males with each other on day 6 in a different double cage did not result in fighting in any case. Dominance relationships, however, as evidenced during familiarization were confirmed by unidirectional avoiding (3 pairs) or fear grinning (2 pairs) on each occasion within the first 6 minutes. Throughout the 1 to 4 month follow-up periods, fighting occurred in only one case, on day 5 of pair formation. The respective partners inflicted no serious wounds on each other, and their momentarily tense relationship re-stabilized within the following week. Signs of depression were not witnessed in any of the 10 subjects, but social grooming was a regular interaction between the companions (Figure 1). Temporary separation (10 minutes to 24 hours) of a partner after the first month of pair formation had no adverse impact on the subsequent compatibility of the pair.
Figure 1: Social grooming is a regular event between 12-year-old Moon and 11-year-old Peter, who have provided companionship to each other for 4 months.
Compatibility of carefully preselected adult rhesus monkey males that had never lived together was 100%. This high intermale compatibility was unexpected and probably related to the fact that potential companions were put together only if they had established a clear dominance-subordination relationship during the time of non-contact familiarization. Under these circumstances, they apparently had no reason to fight over dominance upon pairing. When unfamiliar adult rhesus monkey males are paired they typically get involved in intense dominance-determining aggression (Maxim, 1976). Non-contact familiarization is apparently a safeguard against the risks involved in such encounters.
Given that rhesus monkeys are social animals with an inherent need for social contact and interaction, the present method offers a simple, inexpensive, yet safe way of optimal environmental enrichment for singly caged rhesus monkeys. The present pilot study tested only males that had never lived together; there is little doubt that pairing males who had lived in the same group in the past would involve even less risk.
This and previous (Reinhardt et al., 1987a, b) successful attempts to facilitate socialization of previously singly caged rhesus monkeys of both sexes indicate that the pending USDA regulations, requiring that nonhuman primates be housed with compatible conspecifics whenever possible, are realistic.
Champoux, M., Hempel, M., & Reinhardt, V. (1987). Environmental enrichment with sticks for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 5-7.
Maxim, P. E. (1976). An interval scale for studying and quantifying social relations in pairs of rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 123-147.
Reinhardt, V. (1987). Are male rhesus monkeys more aggressive than females? Primates, 28, 123-125.
Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., Vertein, R., & Houser, D. (1987a). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar female rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 5-8.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Eisele, S., Cowley, D., & Vertein, R. (1988). Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 14, 135-140.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Eisele, S., & Champoux, M. (1987b). Social enrichment of the environment for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology, 6, 365-371.
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center,
1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
Thanks are due to Mr. John Wolf for providing valuable comments on this manuscript. This project was supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC.
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The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) seeks grant applications on the effects of alcohol on endocrine and psychosexual development, normal growth, and brain function as they relate to endocrine function in adolescents. Research proposals are encouraged which will examine the consequences of adolescent alcohol consumption on endocrine development and functioning, and on the processes regulated by the endocrine system, including sexual maturation and reproductive functions, growth, and behavioral functions. Basic studies utilizing appropriate animal models may focus on endocrine development at the organ, cellular, and molecular levels with emphasis on progressive changes with age, from weaning to maturity.
Applications may be submitted by public or private nonprofit or profit-making organizations such as universities, colleges, hospitals, laboratories, research institutes and organizations, units of State or local governments, and eligible agencies of the Federal Government. Application dates are November 1, March 1, and July 1. Further information can be obtained from Dr. Helen M. Chao, Chief, Biomedical Research Branch, Division of Basic Research, NIAAA, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 14C-20, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-4223].
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) seeks research and research training on Cognitive Functioning and Aging. A new program announcement calls for research on the relations among external contextual influences (e.g. task characteristics, experience), internal influences (e.g., health status), and cognitive functioning in the middle and later years of life. Individual differences approaches and research into cognitive interventions--such as training--are also encouraged. Applications deadlines are February 1, June 1, and October 1. For additional information contact NIA, Behavioral & Social Research, Attention: Cognitive Functioning & Aging, Building 31C, Room 5C32, Bethesda, MD 20892.
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Dr. Viktor Reinhardt and Bob Dodsworth of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center have produced an updated version of their slide set on "Environmental Enrichment for Individually Caged Rhesus Monkeys at the WRPRC." The slide set (78 slides) illustrates methods developed to enrich the environment of caged rhesus monkeys used in research protocols. Both the use of inexpensive objects (branches, PVC pipes, wood for gnawing) and pairing of previously singly caged rhesus with infants or with other adults are shown. The videotape (VHS, 20 minutes in color), entitled "Facilitated Socialization of Previously Singly Caged Adult Rhesus Monkeys," focuses on methods for housing rhesus monkeys in pairs within the research setting. Explanatory notes accompany both items. The slide set and the videotape are available on loan from: Audiovisual Services, WRPRC Library, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-2513].
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Model of Demyelinating Disorders
Promising results of monoclonal antibody treatment of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in monkeys may have implications for the development of a treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), says Dr. Edward A. Clark, associate professor of immunology at the University of Washington and immunologist at the Washington Regional Primate Research Center (PRC) in Seattle. Both diseases involve central nervous system (CNS) degeneration.
Monkeys given a monoclonal antibody directed against a type of T lymphocytes--the immunologic cells believed to contribute to the inflammatory lesions that develop in the CNS of animals with the disease--survived longer and had fewer brain lesions than did untreated animals. "These studies were initiated to provide a basis for the development of immunologic strategies in the treatment of human demyelinating diseases such as MS," Dr. Clark explained. EAE is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys its own myelin nerve sheaths in the central nervous system. Myelin sheaths, which surround and insulate certain nerves, are important for maintaining the proper speed of nerve impulses.-- From a report by Ole Henriksen and Susan Flanagan in the Research Resources Reporter, July, 1988, 9 , 10-12.
Management and prevention of urinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tract infections by controlling bacterial attachment to epithelial cells may become a promising alternative to the use of bactericidal agents. Armed with an understanding of how bacteria adhere to and colonize host cell surfaces, researchers at the Delta PRC in Covington, LA, have been investigating strategies for interrupting this adherence and thereby reducing urinary tract infection.
Dr. James A. Roberts, head of the Delta PRC's department of urology, reported that cynomolgus monkeys that had been immunized with Escherichia coli surface material called fimbriae were protected against urinary tract infection by these bacteria. the antibodies produced by the monkeys in response to the immunization prevented the bacteria from adhering to the cells of the tract where they would have been able to proliferate.
The monkey is an ideally suited, unique animal for this type of study. Not only do monkeys contract chronic pyelonephritis even easier than do humans, but the bladder and urinary tract in monkeys develop and mature in the same way as do the human organs. In addition, Dr. Roberts and his colleagues at the Delta PRC demonstrated that nonhuman primates have the same type of receptor for P-fimbriated E. coli on uroepithelial and kidney cell surfaces as do humans, and that P-fimbriated E. coli almost always produce acute pyelonephritis when introduced into the ureter or bladder of monkeys.-- From a report by John W. Johnston in the Research Resources Reporter, August, 1988, 9 , 8-10.
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B. Nankivell, J. Fritz, L. Nash, and P. Fritz
Primate Foundation of Arizona and Arizona State University
In the U.S. population of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a substantial proportion of the current and maturing pool of potential breeders and mothers were captive-born and hand-reared. However, a recent detailed literature search revealed no documentation of a hand-reared, captive-born chimpanzee performing as a competent mother. As hand-rearing of some captive-born infants can never be entirely eliminated, this presents a significant problem for chimpanzee managers.
The detrimental effects of maternal deprivation on the subsequent maternal behavior of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) has been well documented (see Ruppenthal et al., 1976, for a summary). Both contact with conspecifics and contact with previous infants were shown to have positive effects on the maternal care shown by "motherless" macaques. However, interspecific differences in social organization may not permit one to extrapolate these data to the management of another species. For example, Nadler (1984) reported that abusive behavior by captive gorilla mothers toward their infants appeared to be caused not by previous social or maternal deprivation, but by social isolation following the birth of the infant.
Rogers & Davenport (1970) provide some data on the effects of maternal deprivation on later maternal behavior in chimpanzees. As reported for macaques, they found strong overall effects of maternal deprivation and of parity on subsequent mothering behavior. However, one female categorized as maternally deprived did show adequate mothering toward her first infant. This female was classified as deprived of maternal care because she spent "less than 18 months" with her mother. The lack of specific information on length of deprivation, as well as on contact with conspecifics or ages of social partners provides little information other managers can use.
Animals which are exceptions to the general rule, such as this one, demonstrate the importance of additional, as yet undefined, variables in the development of appropriate maternal behavior. More complete and detailed documentation of successes and failures at mothering by hand-reared chimpanzees, of their specific rearing histories, and of their social backgrounds is crucial if we are to improve chimpanzee management with the goal of developing good breeders and competent mothers. This social case history of a captive-born, hand-reared, primiparous chimpanzee, who has shown competent mothering toward her female infant in its first 21 months, is a beginning step.
Case History: Social Contacts
Bernadette was born in a laboratory facility and separated from her mother at birth. She had no contact with conspecifics until she was 4 months of age, when she was placed in a nursery with other chimpanzee infants. She was still single-caged there, but was given daily contact with other infants. At 9 months of age, Bernadette was shifted into a multi-peer group, where she remained until the end of her first year. She was placed on a research protocol at 12 months, again with no conspecific contact. However, she did have contact with humans, usually in the form of rough, hand slapping and grabbing play through the bars of her cage. She remained in this housing situation until she was 2 years and 7 months of age, when she was transferred to the Primate Foundation of Arizona.
The process of Bernadette's resocialization at the Primate Foundation's facility required maneuvering through a variety of social groupings. The methods have been described by Fritz & Fritz (1979) and Fritz (1986). She was initially introduced to peers 1 to 14 months younger. During this period, she encountered, in all, 3 females and 4 males. Frequent separations from these animals were necessary due to her rough and aggressive behavior. Ad libitum observations revealed that her extremely rough play bouts were often perceived by her cagemates as aggression. Upon their aggressive retaliation, she would escalate and perpetuate aggressive behaviors much longer than would be considered normal in chimpanzees her age.
During this period, extensive staff time was devoted toward modifying these overly rough behaviors, in the hope that what was exhibited toward humans would then be transferred to her conspecifics. The process was only partially successful. She became less rough with humans, and did not bite them, but this improved behavior was not transferred to conspecifics.
At 3.3 years of age, Bernadette's interactions with humans were discontinued, and she was gradually introduced to four older females (aged 6 to 13), and one male infant (aged 7 months). This was the first of 6 infants Bernadette would contact before the birth of her own. She was observed interacting with this first infant by carrying and playing with him.
During this period, Bernadette was also introduced to two adult males. She showed inappropriate aggression to each of these 10-year-old males. One was initially aggressive to her, and she responded with aggression, rather than submission or avoidance. In an incident with the other male, he presented to her and she briefly groomed him, then bit him in a very sensitive area. These were typical of her interactions with adults, and many rearrangements of cagemates were required to prevent injury to her.
Between 4.3 and 5.2 years of age, she was introduced to a second set of 5 adult females. Here, she had contact with a second male infant, aged 2 months. The mother of this infant was particularly casual with him, thus there were many opportunities for interaction between Bernadette and the infant. She was very interested in this infant, but her low status among the females in this group, and the presence of another female who allomothered to a high degree, combined to reduce Bernadette's contact with the infant. A study of allomothering recorded Bernadette touching and nuzzling, playing with, and carrying the infant (Abate, 1986). Nine months after Bernadette was introduced to this infant, he was removed due to illness.
At 5.2 years of age, Bernadette was reintroduced to 2 female and 3 male peers. A third mother and infant pair were housed adjacent to her. They were visible and contact was possible through the cage mesh. Bernadette began showing estrus swelling about this time, and was the target of male sexual interest. She was aggressive to one male in response to his overtures, but she presented to the other and copulated with him.
After approximately 12 months in peer groups, at age 7.2 years, Bernadette was moved back with familiar adults. Again she was tolerated, but held a very low rank. During this period, a female infant was born in an adjacent cage, and Bernadette had occasional contact with this fourth infant over a period of 4 months.
Several months later, Bernadette was reintroduced to a familiar mother/infant pair. Upon introduction, neither she nor the mother exhibited any aggression toward each other, and Bernadette was observed to groom both mother and infant. She was later observed in play with the infant, but the infant had to be removed after one month due to an unrelated injury.
Bernadette's next move, at age 7.8, was to a cage adjacent to familiar peers. She had periodic contact with some of these animals and copulated with one of the males. It should be noted again, all of these moves were necessary either to protect Bernadette's cagemates from her roughness, or to protect her from adults' aggression.
At age 8.2 years, Bernadette was reintroduced to a familiar adult male. Upon introduction, she again showed inappropriate aggression. She offered her hand to him and then bit him when he approached her. After this, relations were relatively peaceful, and copulations were observed. They were together 30 days, at which time the male was removed for other management considerations.
Bernadette was then moved into another adult group, with a familiar male and female, and an unfamiliar female. The familiar female was less aggressive to Bernadette than during the prior housing period. The other female exhibited little aggression toward her. This reduced aggression is possibly due to the presence of the male. Bernadette began copulating with the male within one day of being reintroduced to him and conceived soon afterward.
Bernadette was next briefly housed with a peer male, and then moved back with the adults of the previous group. The male in the group was removed soon thereafter, as all three females were pregnant. In October and November of 1986, the other two females gave birth in an adjacent cage. Shortly after the births, Bernadette was allowed access to these mothers and their infants. Again she was very curious about the infants. She was moved adjacent to this group prior to the birth of her infant, on 1 January 1987. Following the birth, the adjacent females became very aggressive toward her. She was once again moved to another room, adjacent to a familiar peer group. She has remained adjacent to peer groups for the past 20 months.
Case History: Specific Behaviors
From May 1983, when Bernadette was 5, through the present, she has been a subject in an ongoing quantitative study of juvenile social behavior. To briefly summarize the data on Bernadette: in peer groups she showed play, grooming, aggression and dominance behaviors, but she was not observed performing appropriate avoidance and fear behaviors. However, as previously noted, the form of the play and contexts of aggression often were unusual.
In contrast, when caged with adults and infants, she played only with the infants. She did groom adults, and eventually showed appropriate avoidance and fear responses. No aggression or dominance toward either adults or infants was recorded during these observation periods. Extreme and inappropriate aggression toward adults was seen before quantitative sampling began.
Bernadette has shown some stereotypies, specifically, self-sucking, self-depilation or over-grooming, and coprophagy. However, these behaviors were observed less frequently in Bernadette than in some of her peers.
Case History: Mothering
Bernadette's mothering has been exemplary. She was observed occasionally carrying her infant inappropriately; however this was associated with Bernadette's agitation as a result of aggression directed toward her, through the cage mesh, by the adjacent older females. The inappropriate carrying behavior ceased when she was moved to another room two weeks following the infant's birth. Bernadette depilated the infant within the first 48 hours, but this behavior also soon ceased. According to the rating scale used by Rogers & Davenport (1970), she would have received their highest rating for carrying the infant on her ventral surface, allowing the infant to grasp, and responding to the infant's vocalizations by readjusting, examining, or clasping it. The infant, Mischini (an O'Odham or Papago Indian word for "wild"), was a small but very vigorous infant. She began nursing within the first 12 hours.
Bernadette continues to be a good mother. With all of her behavioral faults, questions remain as to why this is so. Bernadette's encounters with a total of 6 infants prior to the birth of her own may have played an important role. This experience is similar to the wild, where most primiparous chimpanzee females have experience with infants, usually their siblings (Goodall, 1968; van Lawick-Goodall, 1967). At the least, these encounters may reduce the possibility of fear or avoidance behaviors toward their first infant. Rogers and Davenport (1970) suggest that appropriate maternal behavior is reinforced by the cessation of infant vocalizations and the initiation of suckling. In this manner, the mother learns appropriate care from her first and subsequent infants. Observation of other adults handling infants, along with actual contact with infants, could also contribute to learning appropriate maternal behavior. However, prior contact with infants has not proven sufficient to guarantee appropriate maternal behavior in either primiparous or multiparous females at the Primate Foundation. In Bernadette's case, we can at least state the contact was not detrimental.
Bernadette's behavior toward the adjacent peers is still excessively rough, although overall her social behavior has gradually improved. Bernadette appears to have difficulty interpreting social communication signals. Perhaps this difficulty is a result of the overly rough play she experienced with humans at ages 1 to 2.6 years, her only social contact during this developmental period. However, Bernadette frequently plays with her infant, and has never shown excessive roughness toward her. It is possible her own infant may act as a teacher in modifying her behavior further.
For the captive chimpanzee population to be self-sustaining, we must be able to recruit not only breeders, but also competent mothers, from among hand-reared, captive-born chimpanzees. To do this, we must document the histories of those hand-reared animals that are mothers. From these data we can learn how to improve our management methods. Bernadette's case history is the first in what we would hope would become a data base to be used by all chimpanzee holders.
Abate, A. (1986). Alloparenting in a colony of captive chimpanzees. Unpublished Master's thesis. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.
Fritz, J. (1986). Resocialization of asocial chimpanzees. In K. Benirschke (Ed.), Primates, the Road to Self-Sustaining Populations (pp. 351-369). New York: Springer Verlag.
Fritz, J. & Fritz, P. (1979). Resocialization of chimpanzees: Ten years of experience at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1, 202-221.
Goodall, J. (1968). The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Animal Behavior Monographs, 1, 161-311.
Nadler, R. D. (1984). Biological contributions to the maternal behavior of the great apes. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Beyond the Dyad (pp. 109-128). New York: Plenum.
Rogers, C. M. & Davenport, R. K. (1970). Chimpanzee maternal behavior. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), The Chimpanzee, Vol. 3 (pp. 183-220). Basel: S. Karger.
Ruppenthal, G. C., Arling, G. L., Harlow, H. F., Sackett, G. P., & Suomi, S. J. (1976). A 10-year perspective of motherless-mother monkey behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 341-349.
van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1967). Mother-offspring relationships in free-ranging chimpanzees. In D. Morris (Ed.), Primate Ethology (pp. 287-346). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Authors' address: Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O.
Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280.
This material was previously presented at the 11th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, New Orleans, LA, 2-5 June l988. The work was supported in part by NIH Grants No. RR-03602 and RR-03578 to the Primate Foundation of Arizona.
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The Primate Foundation of Arizona is requesting information on hand-reared, captive-born females that have become competent mothers. From these data, we will look for critical specifics, such as the age to begin resocialization efforts, the role of prior contact with infants, appropriate and inappropriate interactions with humans, and so on. The following information should be included: 1) methods of hand-rearing; 2) history of social experience (chimp and human); 3) resocialization efforts; 4) reproductive history; 5) quality of mothering shown.
All responses are appreciated. Include a self-addressed, stamped envelope for a preliminary summary of the information received. Address correspondence to: Becky Nankivell, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280.
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The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and pygmy chimpanzee (P. pansicus) are listed by the Fish and Wildlife Service as Threatened species. Pursuant to a petition filed by three wildlife conservation organizations, the Service initiated a status review for both species to determine whether or not they should be proposed for reclassification as Endangered.
The petition, submitted jointly by the Jane Goodall Institute, World Wildlife Fund, and Humane Society of the United States, was received by the Service on November 4, 1987. It contained information indicating that the status of P. troglodytes has deteriorated substantially since it was originally listed as Threatened in 1976. Among the threats this primate is said to face are massive habitat destruction, fragmentation of populations (and associated vulnerability to disease), excessive hunting and capture by people, and inadequate national and international controls. International trade in chimpanzee infants for the biomedical research market is also considered to have a significant impact on the species in the wild.
After examining the petition, the Service concluded that it contains "substantial information indicating that the requested action may be warranted." Accordingly, a status review was begun. Because the related pygmy chimpanzee also inhabits the tropical forests of Africa, it may face the same increased threats; therefore, the Service is including this species in the review. Comments, information, and questions were requested up to July 21, 1988. The Service will now decide whether or not to propose reclassification of both species from Threatened to Endangered.
A decision to reclassify the chimpanzee and/or the pygmy champanzee as Endangered would remove the applicability of the special rule for primates [50 Code of Federal Regulations 17.40(c)] to these chimpanzee species. Therefore, the Service is interested in what, if any, effect the removal of current trade exemptions might indirectly have on the wild populations of these chimpanzees. If the reclassification were warranted but removal of the special rule might impact the wild population, the Service would consider alternative procedures to alleviate restrictions adversely affecting the wild populations. --From the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, 1988, 13 , 5.
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How many chimpanzees live in the wilds of Equatorial Africa? No one knows, but it is a question that has put scientists in the biomedical and conservation communities at each other's throats, pitting the interests of laboratory workers clamoring for chimps for AIDS research against field biologists who are watching man's closest relative slip toward extinction. In the coming weeks, the federal government must decide whether or not chimpanzees deserve greater protection under the law.
Without more protection, conservationists fear the chimpanzee will soon become extinct in the wild, a victim of habitat destruction and exploitation by man. Other scientists warn that more restrictions on the use of the chimp will bury medical experimentation under a mountain of paper work. Or worse, biomedical research on chimpanzees could be outlawed all together.
Pity the bureaucrats in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who must now play King Solomon. The wildlife service was petitioned by the Humane Society of the United States, the World Wildlife Fund, and the Jane Goodall Institute to reclassify the chimpanzee from its current status of "threatened" to the more serious listing of "endangered." This would bring into play sweeping prohibitions on the taking, transporting, and use of these valuable animals. The government must rule on the conservationists' request by 4 November.
To make its job more interesting, the wildlife service received 54,250 comments on the proposed change. Only 6 letters opposed upgrading the chimp's status. Says Ron Nowak of the service: "I've never seen so many comments on reclassifying a species." Only about 50 letters contained substantial information on populations in Africa. Most of the comments were preprinted postcards supplied by the Humane Society.
According to a report compiled by Geza Teleki of the Committee for the Conservation and Care of Chimpanzees, a central mover behind the current petition, there are between 150,000 and 230,000 chimpanzees in the wilds of Africa, with the majority living in the jungles of Gabon and Zaire, and the rest scattered among 19 other African nations. These estimates, however, are crude. "Nobody really knows how many chimps are out there," says Jane Goodall, whose 28 years of work with chimps in Tanzania has greatly advanced our understanding of the social lives of primates.
All sides seem to agree that the chimpanzee's decline is caused by the farming, mining, and timber harvesting that are gobbling up habitat in Africa. Hunting pressure is also a factor, since many Africans consider chimpanzees an appropriate source of "bush meat." However, the conservationists have included another, more controversial, explanation for the decline they are witnessing. They charge that "the international biomedical trade is one of the greatest threats to the continued existence of wild chimpanzees." In his report, Teleki specifically mentions recent importations of chimps to Austria and Japan for research purposes. Goodall compares the practice to "the slave trade." She says that for every infant chimp captured alive, another six animals must be shot in the process, since adults will vigorously defend their young. Says Goodall: "It is a most cruel and wasteful thing."
The charge that biomedical research is playing a hand in the chimp's ruin rankles many scientists, particularly officials at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) who are responsible for overseeing the animals in government-supported facilities. "The allegations are absolutely untrue," says George Galasso of NIH, who is also chairman of the Public Health Service AIDS Animal Model Committee.
"The reality is that conservation in the wild has nothing to do with biomedical research... Loss of habitat is the issue," says Alfred Prince of the New York Blood Center, which maintains about 150 chimpanzees in Liberia. Prince adds that the number of chimpanzees depleted for biomedical use in the last few years has been "extremely modest." Nevertheless, Prince and Goodall wrote a letter to Nature which opposed relaxing regulations on the importation of chimps for research and which argued that current captive populations in the United States should be able to meet the needs of science, even during the dark days of AIDS. After a decade on the back burner, a national chimpanzee breeding program finally got underway in 1986. For years, most captive chimps were kept on birth control because of limited space, but last year 51 infants were born.
Galasso says that in the last 10 years no chimpanzees have been imported into the United States for research purposes. Neither will NIH support any research on chimps captured in the wild since 1986.
In the face of what they consider insufficient information, NIH officials are firmly against changing the chimpanzee's status. "Making them endangered would endanger our research," says Galasso. In a letter to the wildlife service, NIH director James Wyngaarden warns that reclassification could "significantly compromise our current ability to make selective use of chimpanzees in research to fight human disease."
Officials at NIH suspect that there may be more chimpanzees in Africa than the conservatists want to admit. They are particularly interested in so-called "urban chimpanzees," or animals kept as pets or impounded by governments which confiscate them from poachers and monkey smugglers.
"The day may come when there may be a need for more chimpanzees," says Galasso. To get numbers of its own, NIH wants to fund a survey of chimp populations in Equatorial Africa. But the project is being blocked by conservationists.
"I'm very suspicious of any survey where they know what they want to find before they start. It's bad science," says Susan Lieberman of the Humane Society. Lieberman views the survey as "a delay tactic." For his part, Galasso says he would hope the wildlife service would wait until the NIH survey is finished before they consider reclassifying the chimpanzee. The survey could take 4 years.
In any case, no announcement requesting the survey has been released. "It's in limbo until the chimpanzee politics comes to a head," says William Gay of the Division of Research Resources at NIH, who adds that he has been "writing and rewriting" the proposal since April. In interviews, NIH officials complain that they are being portrayed by the conservation community as monsters who are prepared to pluck baby chimps from their mothers' arms in Africa and bring them to the United States, where they would be loaded up with the AIDS virus. Says Gay: "We thought we were being helpful...but the rewards for trying to be helpful are limited at this point."
Yet NIH must take some of the blame for its bad public relations. Indeed, an early draft of the proposal to do the chimp survey mentions the possibility of working in Africa "where the use of chimpanzees remains relatively unrestricted." The document also refers to wild populations as "valuable renewable resources" that "provide a last resort reserve of animals that may be judiciously drawn upon to renew captive breeding programs." If NIH officials believed that someone like Goodall would not oppose such a plan, they were living in dreamland.
The whole affair is left up to the federal wildlife service. If the chimpanzee is reclassified as "endangered," the exemptions that allow for biomedical research will be revoked. Interstate commerce, even the shipping of blood samples, would require a permit. Says Richard Robinson of the wildlife service; "It's safe to say it would make life much more complicated for folks using chimps for biomedical research." The wildlife service might not even be able to issue permits to scientists to do any medical experiments on chimpanzees. The Endangered Species Act is very specific about what kind of exemptions it allows. If a permit is given, the scientific research must directly benefit the endangered species itself, says Robinson. No matter how broadly the laws are interpreted, injecting animals with AIDS vaccines would not fall under the heading of "benefits."
There is a way around the quagmire. Wildlife service officials mentioned the fact that the service could upgrade the wild populations of chimpanzees to an endangered listing, while leaving the captive populations at their current level of threatened. This population by population approach is not uncommon. The wolf, for example, is listed as endangered in all of the lower 48 states, except in Minnesota, where it is only listed as threatened. And wolves in Alaska are not listed at all. In a similar situation, Nile crocodiles that live on government farms in Zimbabwe were downlisted to threatened, while their fellow crocs in the wild remained endangered.
Currently about 950 chimps reside in facilities supported by the government. Of these, 350 have been put aside for breeding. Many of the remaining chimps were used during the development of a hepatitis vaccine, and some of these can be used to test promising AIDS vaccines and antiviral drugs. Whether there will be enough chimps is unknown. A lot will depend on the candidate vaccines and on how the chimps now infected with the AIDS virus fare. At present, researchers do not believe that infected chimpanzees will succumb to AIDS.
What will happen if biomedical researchers desperately plead for more animals? Frederick King of the Yerkes Primate Research Center at Emory University in Atlanta believes "species loyalty" may come into effect. "When the pandemic of AIDS becomes a truly frightening thing, humans will not stand by and watch their own species reduced while they protect animals that could help test vaccines and drugs...It's not a very popular thing to say, but I think it's true." --[A reprint of an article by William Booth in Science, 1988, 241, 777-778. Copyright 1988 by the AAAS.]
Editors' Request: Now that you have read the preceeding articles on the current status of chimpanzees, the primate community would like to know what its members recommend. We would like to publish a summary of comments received and excerpts of opinions expressed. We do not claim to know how to balance the human welfare vs animal welfare issues raised. Emotions will not solve the problems. The extreme weather conditions in the summer of 1988 serve to remind us of what may happen if we in the "industrialized" world continue our current practices of utilization and disposal of natural resources. Deforestation produces a little more paper, poor farmland for a few years, and permanent habitat loss. But how can we lament habitat loss if we do nothing actively to offer an alternative to the other primates--human and nonhuman alike? It is time to be silent no longer. Make time in your busy schedule. Express an idea, an opinion. Reprinted cards will overrun the political process only if we smugly sit and watch from the sidelines.
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Malaria Prevention Information System
Information for travellers on prevention of malaria is now available 24 hours a day by calling (404) 639-1610. The information system, which is a Centers for Disease Control pilot project, gives general information about malaria and malaria prevention and detailed recommendations on malaria prevention in specific geographic areas (Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, South America, China and Southeast Asia, and Oceania). Callers can select any one or all of the informational messages and should be prepared to write down the names and dosages of drugs. The information will be updated as needed.
Animal Welfare Information Center
The National Agricultural Library has established an Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) to provide proactive information services on current issues of concern to government and the public. This service was mandated by congressional amendments to the Animal Welfare Act of 1985.
Acquisitions will include practical and research materials focusing on humane care, treatment, and use of warm-blooded animals in biomedical research, testing, exhibition, and transportation, as well as alternatives to the use of live animals in research, such as in vitro methods and computer modeling. The identification of instructional training materials is being emphasized. These materials include course syllabi, tutorials, procedural manuals, audiovisuals, and computer software.
AWIC indexes books, articles, and audiovisual materials that describe laboratory procedures \"used or advocated for use in place of procedures requiring live animals" in AGRICOLA, an internationally available data base. For ease of retrieval, a new heading--\"Animal Testing Alternatives"--will be used. Search tips are available free of charge from AWIC. For further information, contact Jean Larson, Acting Director, AWIC, National Agricultural Library, Room 109C, NAL Building, Beltsville, MD 20705 [301-344-3704].
Information on the humane and healthful transport of wild mammals and birds to the United States can be obtained from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Management Authority, P.O. Box 27329, Central Station, Washington, DC 20038-7329.
Animal Welfare Information Center
The National Agricultural Library has established an Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) to provide proactive information services on current issues of concern to government and the public. This service was mandated by congressional amendments to the Animal Welfare Act of 1985.
Acquisitions will include practical and research materials focusing on humane care, treatment, and use of warm-blooded animals in biomedical research, testing, exhibition, and transportation, as well as alternatives to the use of live animals in research, such as in vitro methods and computer modeling. The identification of instructional training materials is being emphasized. These materials include course syllabi, tutorials, procedural manuals, audiovisuals, and computer software.
AWIC indexes books, articles, and audiovisual materials that describe laboratory procedures "used or advocated for use in place of procedures requiring live animals" in AGRICOLA, an internationally available data base. For ease of retrieval, a new heading--"Animal Testing Alternatives"--will be used. Search tips are available free of charge from AWIC. For further information, contact Jean Larson, Acting Director, AWIC, National Agricultural Library, Room 109C, NAL Building, Beltsville, MD 20705 [301-344-3704].
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Reiner Protsch von Zieten and Robert B. Eckhardt
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University and The Pennsylvania State University
The Anthropological Institute of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, holds a collection of 280 specimens of the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes verus. The material comprises 278 skulls, some with mandibles and others without, plus two mandibles unassociated with crania. There are no accompanying postcranial skeletal remains, a situation that is explained by the unusual manner in which the collection was assembled.
In 1949 Hans Himmelheber, a German ethnologist and physician, organized his country's first post-World War II anthropological research expedition to Liberia. He and his wife Ulrike spent three periods of field research (1949-1950, 1952-1953, and 1955-1956) in the northeast region of the central province of Liberia. This area is occupied chiefly by a tribe of farmers called the Dan, whose range extends across the border to include nearly half the neighboring territory of the Ivory Coast. A tiny portion of the territory covered by Himmelheber is occupied by the Kran, a related tribe whose range is also predominantly within the boundaries of the Ivory Coast (Himmelheber & Himmelheber, 1959).
At the time of Himmelheber's study, the Dan and Kran supplemented the crop yield of their cultivated plots by fishing and hunting. Their principal mammalian quarry included eight species of nonhuman primates, which were identified by Himmelheber as Cercopithecus diana diana, Cerc. mona campbelli, Cerc. nictitans Buttikoferi, Cerc. torquatus atys, Colobus polycomos polycomos, C. verus, C. badius badius, and Pan troglodytes verus. The animals were killed and butchered, a process which frequently entailed breaking or cutting open the basioccipital region of the skull to remove the brain for consumption. Afterward, the skulls commonly were hung on hut walls as hunting trophies, where they became fire-darkened and many crania were separated from their mandibles.
Most of the Pan troglodytes verus skulls in the Himmelheber collection were purchased from these hut-wall displays and show a full range of the types of damage that might be expected: holes from multiple shotgun pellets or single high-caliber bullets, often accompanied by wide slashes and deep cuts from machetes. Numerous skulls are marked with partially healed wounds of this sort (which provide some evidence that hunting pressure on the chimpanzees was quite severe) as well as the unhealed lesions that caused death. But in spite of all of these categories of damage, the specimens gathered by Himmelheber constitute a valuable resource for many branches of primatological research.
Part of the collection's inherent importance, apart from its substantial size, is due to the fact that all of its members were sampled from an area of known extent, one that is bounded chiefly by the Cess and St. John Rivers. There is consequently a reasonably high probability that a natural population is being sampled. Since the developmental range of the sample spans all age classes from young infants through late mature animals, it is likely that at least three generations are represented. One or more additional generations could be included as well, depending on the length of time that some of the skulls had been kept as trophies--an unknown factor.
The value of the collection has been enhanced for scientific research by its careful curation at the Frankfurt Anthropological Institute, and by the data bank that is growing steadily with each additional study of these materials. All of the specimens have been labeled in the basioccipital region with an accession number. These numbers are keyed to a card file containing data on each individual's sex and age categories, records of deciduous and permanent teeth present, descriptions of major traumas (such as fractures and abscesses) and unusual developmental factors (including persistently open metopic sutures in adults, supernumerary molars, etc.).
Sex was diagnosed on the basis of morphological characteristics of the skull (e.g., stronger development of the crista occipitalis transversa in males than in females) and dentition (e.g., shorter canines and smaller canine alveoli in females than in males), according to methods described by Dierbach (1980, 1986). In certain cases independent determination of sex could be made from the field notes of Himmelheber, who sometimes had been present when the chimpanzees were taken by the hunters. Among skulls of adults there are about 1.3 females for every male, with 48 individuals being too young for sex determination.
Age categorization was also done by Dierbach (1980, 1986), according to tooth eruption standards that had been developed by Nissen and Riessen (1945, 1964). The population was subdivided into five age classes (infantile, juvenile, subadult, adult, mature). All age classes are represented in the collection, with adult and mature specimens predominating heavily. It is not known how well this distribution reflects directly the composition of the living population, or to what extent the age distribution may have been biased--by preferences of the hunters for large animals, by greater destruction of the more fragile infant and juvenile skulls, or by accidental factors that are unknown.
A collection of the sort described briefly here has obvious utility for a broad range of primatological research. It has already been used by Dierbach (1986) to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in the Frankfurt Pan troglodytes verus sample as a basis for comparison with other hominoid primates; he found the magnitude of sex differences to be lower here than expected on the basis of data available from other chimpanzee populations described in the literature. In another project, Protsch et al. (1987) estimated cranial capacity on a subsample of the Frankfurt chimpanzees; they proved to have endocranial volumes similar to other adjacent West African populations classified as P. trog. troglodytes, and smaller than East African P. trog. schweinfurthii.
Large, well-documented collections from a single region and relatively narrow time-horizon also provide invaluable baseline documentation of the extent of intraspecific variation. Such standards of variation are needed for objective determination of the degree of taxonomic diversity that might be present in samples of hominoid fossils. For example, in several studies Olson (1978, 1985a, 1985b) described taxon-specific nasal bone patterns for Pongo, Pan, Gorilla, Homo, and Paranthropus. Then, because the early hominid sample from Hadar, Ethiopia, contained specimens with both his Homo and Paranthropus patterns, Olson proposed that two separate but contemporaneous lineages must have been present at Hadar. However, Eckhardt and Protsch (in preparation) have shown that of the 124 individuals in the Frankfurt collection in which the trait could be observed, 35 (28.2%) manifest Olson's "Paranthropus" pattern. Consequently in these chimpanzees nasal bone shape is polymorphic, and it is reasonable, even compelling, to suggest that the Hadar hominid sample might be polymorphic as well--rather than representing two sympatric higher taxa. There is scope for many further studies of this sort on other cranial and dental characteristics.
Because the Frankfurt collection includes substantial numbers of individuals in every age category from infants through older adults, it comprises a rather good cross-sectional sample for studies of craniofacial growth and development in a defined natural population. Hypotheses concerning age changes can be tested against materials of this sort as a preliminary step in deciding whether more invasive or time-consuming research should be undertaken in a longitudinal study. In this context Eckhardt and Protsch (in preparation) are also testing the hypothesis advanced by Olson (1985b) that nasal bone outlines and proportions do not change from infancy through adulthood. In the large Frankfurt collection it can be seen that younger and older age categories of chimpanzees clearly do differ from each other in ways that would be predicted from allometric growth of the adjacent frontal and maxillary bones. Against this background, a small-scale longitudinal study of the midfacial region probably would provide definitive confirmation of complex age changes.
Laboratory-based primatologists, particularly specialists in veterinary medicine and pathology, should find that the density and diversity of lesions on these skulls go far beyond what would be encountered in animals under management in zoos or primate colonies. The wounds seen in these Liberian chimpanzees are of unusual interest because their healing has taken place in the absence of medical treatment.
Research projects currently underway on this collection include studies of dental morphology, dental pathology, craniofacial growth and development, external craniometric measurements, internal pneumatization of the skull, and endocranial volume. Other investigators who would like to carry out additional research on the Frankfurt Pan troglodytes verus collection should contact the first author of this paper.
Dierbach, A. (1980). Craniologische Studien an Pan troglodytes verus aus Liberia mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des sexuellen Dimorphismus. Diploma thesis, Frankfurt/Main.
Dierbach, A. (1986). Intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism in the skull of Pan troglodytes verus. Human Evolution, 1, 41-50.
Eckhardt, R. B., & Protsch von Zieten, R. Nasal region polymorphism frequencies in the Frankfurt Pan troglodytes verus collection. In preparation.
Himmelheber, H., & Himmelheber, U. (1958). Die Dan, ein Bauernvolk im westafrikanischen Urwald. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Nissen, H. W., & Riessen, A. H. (1945). The deciduous dentition of chimpanzees. Growth, 9, 265-274.
Nissen, H. W., & Riessen, A. H. (1964). The eruption of the permanent dentition of chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 22, 46-50.
Olson, T. R. (1978). Hominid phylogenetics and the existence of Homo in Member I of the Swartkrans Formation, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 7, 159-178.
Olson, T. R. (1985a). Cranial morphology and systematics of the Hadar Formation hominids and "Australopithecus" africanus. In E. Delson (Ed.), Ancestors: The Hard Evidence (pp. 102-119). New York: Liss.
Olson, T. R. (1985b). Taxonomic affinities of the immature hominid crania from Hadar and Taung. Nature, 316, 539-540.
Protsch, R., Gunkel, F., & Welz, B. (1987). Cranial capacity estimations of the Frankfurt Pan troglodytes verus collection. Human Evolution, 2, 365-372.
First author's address: Institut der Anthropologie und Humangenetik für Biologen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Siesmayerstrasse 70, D-6000 Frankfurt am Main 11, West Germany.
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The WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research in Simian Viruses has moved from the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research to the Virus Reference Center, 7540 Louis Pasteur, Suite 202-203, San Antonio, TX 78229 [Telephone: 512-696-5510]. This move will not alter the program of the Virus Reference Center in providing viral laboratory diagnostic support to those investigators working with nonhuman primates. They will continue to provide viral serology and viral isolation studies as before at $30 per serum sample ($15 additional for hepatitis A) and $50 for viral isolation attempts. As in the past, serology tests include a number of viruses as requested by the investigator. The usual battery of tests, however, include B-virus, SA8 (for African Simians), SIV, SRV-1, and SRV-2. Other viruses may be requested for the same price. New World monkeys are generally examined for H. saimiri and H. tamarinus, in addition to viruses of concern.
Serology results are generally available within 24 hours following receipt of specimens. Inquiries should be directed to Dr. S. S. Kalter, Director.
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Robin D. Bramblett and Claud A. Bramblett
The University of Texas at Austin
The environment of most laboratory cages makes almost any addition a desirable source of diversity. PVC pipe plumbing components can be used to construct a very simple, inexpensive device that, when filled with a sticky, palatable fluid, stimulates hours of instrument manipulation by caged primates. The pump feeder (Figure 1) was devised to provide caged primates with a task that requires substantial amounts of time, yet is a pleasurable experience for the animal.
Figure 1: Dispenser Assembly.
The body of the pump feeder is constructed from 1.5 inch or 2 inch diameter PVC pipe permanently capped at one end with a removable, threaded cap at the other. A hole drilled in the center of the threaded cap accomodates a 0.4 inch diameter pipe that serves as the plunger. This hole must fit the plunger snugly to restrict sideways movement and breakage. Small notches cut in the side of the hole allow fluid to adhere to the plunger when it is raised. A cap at the end of the plunger inside the cylinder keeps the plunger from being pulled from the body during usage. The stock parts can be bought at any plumbing store and assembled in minutes. We recommend that the unthreaded parts be glued with an appropriate solvent to keep the primates from dismantling them. The device can be rapidly disassembled for cleaning.
The body is filled with a sticky fluid, such as frozen orange juice concentrate, and mounted on a vertical cage part with a radiator clamp. An animal quickly learns to push the plunger up and down and lick the small amount of juice that adheres to it. At first the plunger must be pushed down, since it naturally floats in the filled body. As liquid level drops, the animal must pull the plunger up to receive the reward. Since the volume of fluid delivered is small, it may take hours for even a few ounces to be depleted. If the apparatus is mounted high in the cage, it will remain as clean as the animal's hands.
The device can be designed to deliver a specified amount of liquid each day by varying pipe length. The plunger needs to extend an inch above the cap when fully depressed. Longer plungers are more likely to be broken. There is no loss or waste of liquid unless the pipe is overfilled. Enough air space must be left at the top of the body to allow the plunger to be depressed without overflowing the cap.
We use three pump feeders in a group cage of 20 guenons. It is important to provide more than one device per group, or it may be the focal point of aggression as some individuals try to restrict access of others.
The pump feeder is easily cleaned, fairly indestructible, and unobtrusive. It could effectively deliver diet supplements or flavored medication as well as have experimental value for studies as varied as status hierarchy determination, handedness, and taste preference. But from the point of view of the caged subject, the device is a dispenser that supplies a nutritious and tasty fluid on demand.
Authors' address: Department of Anthropology, The
University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.
This work was supported by the Department of Anthropology and the College of Liberal Arts at The University of Texas at Austin.
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EEC Developing Transport Regulations
The European Economic Community is in the process of developing uniform regulations regarding animal transportation, which are expected to have an impact far beyond Europe. The purpose of the regulations is to reduce confusion and facilitate trade with the EEC, while regulating the import and export of animals. The Animal Air Transport Association (AATA) has appointed a special committee to study and evaluate the consequences of the pending EEC legislation. The task of the AATA committee is to insure that the redrafted EEC regulations permit free movement of animals without unnecessary restrictions or delays and with minimal stress to the animals. --From the NABR Update, 1988, 9.
APA's Animal Research Committee Visits Washington
The American Psychological Association's Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CARE) has spent several months establishing stronger congressional and agency links on issues affecting the conduct of animal research. Committee members Melinda Novak and Leonard Rosenblum visited Capitol Hill just before CARE's March meeting to talk with key congressional staff of the House Agriculture and Senate Appropriations Committees handling topics related to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the Department of Agriculture, the agency responsible for enforcing the Animal Welfare Act. They stressed APA's concerns about the forthcoming regulations pursuant to the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act as well as the need for training inspectors. Funding needs for the animal welfare program of APHIS, particularly for the training of inspectors, were also emphasized.
James Glosser, head of APHIS, joined CARE (which includes Klaus Miczek (chair), Kathleen Chambers, Christopher Coe, and Lewis Seiden) at its meeting for discussion and dinner. He indicated that the agency is attempting to release the regulations in a timely fashion, but was unable to provide specifics. His approach to the regulations, and to the agency overall, was reassuring to the committee. A veterinarian, Glosser is committed to developing sound regulations based on available scientific knowledge--regulations that will ensure humane care and treatment of animals while allowing science to progress. He emphasized the agency's responsibility to provide improved education and training for inspectors.
The committee also met with Charles McCarthy, director of the Office for Protection from Research Risks of the NIH. McCarthy's office develops research policies for NIH, including the Guide for the Care and Treatment of Laboratory Animals. The committee spoke with McCarthy on a number of topics ranging from NIH's involvement in the crafting of the APHIS regulations to APA providing information about behavioral research to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees.
Rosenblum made two additional visits to Washington in April to present testimony before the Senate and House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittees, advocating enhancement of the APHIS animal welfare program. APA's statement emphasized the need for a quality inspection service operated by a credible inspection team that is well-grounded in laboratory animal medicine and animal behavior.
In recommending $10 million for the APHIS service, APA joined over 100 other scientific and animal welfare organizations to send the message to Congress that significantly more funds are required if APHIS is going to do its job in a manner consistent with the goals of animal welfare and science. --From APA's Science Agenda, 1988, 1 , 7-8.
New SCAW Executive Director
The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), an organization of scientists and others with a humane concern for animals being used in necessary biomedical and other research, announces the appointment of Gerald Schneider, Ph.D., as their new Executive Director. SCAW serves as a national resource for information on Animal Care and Use Committees, holds conferences on issues involving science and animals, provides consultant services, and publishes a quarterly newsletter.
Geoffrey Bourne, 1909-1988
Dr. Geoffrey Bourne, known best to the community of primatologists as director of the Yerkes Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, from 1962 to 1978, died on July 19, 1988, in New York City. Just prior to that responsibility he was Professor and Chairman of the Anatomy Department of the Emory University Medical School. After he left Yerkes, he served as vice-Chancellor of the St. George's University School of Medicine on the island of Grenada until his death.
Bourne was a most articulate spokesman for nonhuman primate research. He fought vigorously to proceed with research involving all primates, but was especially concerned with the dwarf chimpanzee. Among his numerous books on many facets of biology were "The Ape People" (1971), and "Primate Odyssey" (1974).
APHIS Oversight Hearings Held in House
APHIS Administrator James W. Glosser was the single witness called before a hearing of the House Agriculture Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research and Foreign Agriculture oversight on July 7. He used the opportunity to provide comprehensive information on the agency's reorganization and a wide range of APHIS activities.
In response to questions, Dr. Glosser said that new Animal Welfare Act regulations were in final stages of departmental and interagency review. He indicated their economic impact was sufficient to define them as major rules. As such, these regulations require a very extensive review process, a description of which was offered for the hearing record. While an exact schedule could not be predicted, Dr. Glosser said he expects the regulations--Part 1 and 2 in final form and a proposed Part 3, including new dog and primate provisions--would soon be forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget, where they will be reviewed for at least 60 days.
Subcommittee Chairman George Brown (D-CA) and ranking minority member Pat Roberts (R-KS) both expressed concern about the adequacy of APHIS resources to administer the Animal Welfare Act. They requested that Dr. Glosser provide a written description of the cost of the new regulations to APHIS as well as the economic impact on regulated entities.
Zoo in Madagascar
Andrea Katz, Colony Supervisor at the Duke University Primate Center, and her husband, Charles Welch, spent two months last year, with support from the Center, the Wildlife Preservation Fund International, and the Jocelyn Alexander Fund, working at the forestry station at Ivoloina, on Madagascar's east coast, which includes a small zoo.
Andrea and Charles offered training and advice on captive lemur husbandry, focusing on diets, housing, reproductive and social behavior, and veterinary care. Particular attention was given to the lemurs' diets, as they were found to be inadequate for long-term health.
Ivoloina can now adequately care for and exhibit its small collection of tortoises and lemurs. Looking toward the future, it has the potential to make a great contribution to conservation. It can serve as a center for education and for the captive breeding of endangered eastern forest species, most of which are rare in captivity. Species such as the aye-aye (Daubentonia madgascariensis), the red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra), the sifaka (Propithecus diadema) , and the gray gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotensis) may be managed successfully at Ivoloina. There are also hopes for an expansion of cooperative breeding programs between Ivoloina and Parc Tsimbazaza, the national zoo, and a greater Malagasy involvement with captive conservation efforts of foreign zoos.-- From an article by Andrea Katz in the Wildlife Preservation Trust's Newsletter, On the Edge, No. 35, Summer 1988, 3-4.
At a meeting organized by the Jane Goodall Institute on December 1-3 1987, in Washington, D.C., a majority of scientists and other attendees composed "Recommendations to USDA on Improving Conditions of Psychological Well-Being for Captive Chimpanzees." These are printed on pp. 116-121 of volume 17 of the Journal of Medical Primatology. Minority position papers will be printed in future issues of the same journal.
Rift Valley Fever
Last October, two French army doctors working in a hospital in the Mauritanian river town of Rosso on the Senegal River made tests that led to a diagnosis of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) among patients there. It was the first confirmed outbreak of the dangerous viral disease in humans in West Africa. Although the disease was confined to a fairly limited area, increasing concern about the future seems warranted. A dam downriver at Diama in the Senegal River delta had begun operation 2 years before. Now there is circumstantial evidence, at least, that fears that impoundment of water behind the dam would lead to a worsening of water-borne diseases are being realized.
RVF is a febrile viral disease that in severe cases in humans may cause eye effects leading to blindness and fatal complications of hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis. It is also called enzootic hepatitis because of its effects on animals. RVF, caused by a virus of the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridiae family, can be transmitted by direct contact--especially by infected blood in aerosol form, but the major vector is insects, particularly mosquitos.
The most commonly used vaccine for humans requires three inoculations spaced over a month and protects for less than a year. It is, therefore, regarded as impractical for large-scale immunization campaigns in sub-Saharan Africa. A new vaccine, a single shot of which will protect for several years, is being tested by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.
The virus was first isolated in the early 1930's in Kenya's Rift Valley, and outbreaks were confined to sub-Saharan Africa, occuring most frequently in East and Southern Africa, until 1977, when a serious outbreak was reported in Egypt in the Nile Valley and the Delta. Some 598 deaths among the 18,000 clinical cases reported then established RVF as one of the nastier arboviruses. Since the Mauritanian outbreak, blood samples taken in four other West African countries--the Gambia, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Niger--from domestic animals and man tested positive for RVF, but a substantially lower percentage showed antibodies to the disease than in Mauritania.
Scientists have established that eggs laid by infected Aedes mosquitoes can maintain the RVF virus for several years; hatching occurs when conditions are favorable. It is suggested that the RVF epidemic on the Mauritanian shore could serve as a paradigm for other outbreaks of the disease. Unfortunately, it could also serve as a paradigm for the predicament affecting developing countries when the scientific ability to prophesy misfortune far exceeds the capacity to avert it. --From a news article by John Walsh in the June 10, 1988 issue of Science.
Imported Human Rabies in Australia
In July, l987, a 10-year old Australian boy died after symptoms which began with headache, fever, vomiting, and chills, progressed to anorexia, delirium, incoordination, diplopia, weakness and palsies, and ended with pneumonia, seizures, and coma. Four months after his death, the illness was confirmed as being rabies. The child had traveled with his mother to India, Pakistan, Nepal, Singapore, and Thailand between February and October of 1986, but no animal bites were reported during this period. Extensive interviews with relatives, friends, and other contacts revealed that the patient, an animal lover, had been injured by two animals in the 2 years before his death. He was severely scratched by a neighbor's dog 2 months before his onset of illness, but the dog remained healthy and did not have rabies antibodies when tested in December 1987. However, according to a travel companion, the patient was bitten on a finger by a wild monkey at a marketplace in northern India in March 1986. This incident was not reported to the boy's mother.
The monkey bite in northern India must be considered the probable exposure, but the patient might have received other unreported bites while traveling in Asia. This report emphasizes the importance of rabies preexposure prophylaxis for travelers visiting rabies-endemic countries for more than 30 days, especially children who are likely to have unrecognized or unreported exposures. Preexposure prophylaxis can be administered intramuscularly or intradermally; however, the intradermal regimen should be completed at least 30 days before departure and should not be used if the person is taking chloroquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis. --From Morbidity and Mortality, 1988, 37, 351-353.
* * *
The annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) was held in New Orleans, June 2-5, 1988. Hosted by Loyola and Tulane Universities, the conference attracted approximately 266 members, nonmembers, and guests.
The program consisted of 78 papers, 42 posters, 2 symposia, and a workshop. The topics of these contributions reflect the diversity of the membership; there were, for example, paper sessions with titles ranging from endocrine physiology to colony management to dominance and competition. Abstracts of all presentations have been published in the American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14.
One of the symposia, "Psychological Well-Being," spanned two days. Psychological well-being is not a new concern for primatologists, but the issue has been pushed forward by recent changes in federal regulations. The contributions to this symposium fell into two major (but not mutually exclusive) categories: those dealing with how to measure and define psychological well-being, and those describing ways in which psychological well-being has been promoted in various laboratories and zoological parks. The use and treatment of captive primates was also explored by the Keynote Speaker, Michael W. Fox, of the Humane Society of the United States.
The second symposium, "Primate Learning and Cognition," was in memory of Allan M. Schrier. Papers on learning set, concept formation, and information processing were included, as was a tribute to Allan Schrier and his role in the history of primate research.
Student members are an important part of the ASP, and each year tribute is paid to them by presenting an award for the best paper and the best poster written and delivered by a student. This year the winning paper ("Proximity Relations During Rhesus Macaque Mating Consorts") was given by Thomas Ruehlmann of the University of Georgia. Two students tied for the poster award: Marilyn Thompson from the University of South Alabama ("Regulation of Serum Prolactin Levels in the Unanesthetized Squirrel Monkey"), and Janet Zullo of Bucknell University ("The Use of Sentinels by Captive Red-bellied Tamarins").
Next year the ASP will meet in Mobile, AL, in late August. A call for papers and symposium topics will be issued later this year. Chris Abee of the University of South Alabama will serve as local arrangements chair. Contact Mike Raleigh, Program Chair of ASP, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, for additional information. The annual meeting in 1990 will be hosted by the University of California, Davis.
The ASP welcomes new members and urges those involved in primate research to participate in the annual meetings. Please contact Rich Rawlins, Treasurer of ASP, Department of OB/GYN, Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL 60612, for information regarding membership. Questions about the society should be addressed to William Mason, President of ASP, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. --Nancy G. Caine, Executive Secretary of ASP, Department of Psychology, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837.
* * *
State Legislation Affecting Animal Research
The National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) is inviting state legislators who have played key roles in the defeat or victory of animal rights legislation in Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and California to address a conference, open to official representatives from NABR member institutions--research, laboratory animal care, administrative, and government affairs staff. The conference will be held at the Washington Hilton, 1919 Connecticut Ave, Washington, DC, from October 30 to November 1, 1988. The program will also include discussions of state issues, such as animals in education, open meeting laws, regulation of facilities, and animal cruelty; how to build a successful coalition that includes representatives from industry, academia, voluntary health groups, and private citizens; and how to testify before a state committee. For more information, contact NABR, 818 Connecticut Avenue N.W., Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006 [202-857-0540].
PHS Policy Workshop
The National Institutes of Health, Office for Protection from Research Risks, is continuing to sponsor a series of workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The workshops are open to institutional administrators, members of animal care and use committees, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators, and other institutional staff who have the responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs. The next workshop will be held in Lafayette, IN, on November 1-2, 1988. For information, contact the Conference Bureau, Room 110, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
* * *
Amelia V. Aquino, CEAR, Northwestern Univ., Searle 14-482, 320 E. Superior St., Chicago, IL 60611.
Nancy A. Ator, Dept. of Psychiatry & Behav. Sci., Johns Hopkins Sch. of Med., 270 Rutland Ave., #624, Baltimore, MD 21205.
R. W. Cooper, 1044 W. Orange Rd., Santa Ana, CA 92706.
J. Fobes, Box 16708, Alexandria, VA 22302.
Mario Gonsalez-Pacheco, PAHO, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.
Henry Heffner, Psych. Dept., Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606.
S. A. Iliff-Sizemore, Oregon Reg. Primate Res. Ctr., 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006.
Michael L. Kaplan, Enders Research Labs, 320 Longwood Ave, Rm 52, Boston, MA 02115.
Irving McConnell, Smith, Kline, & French Labs., P.O. Box 1539 (L-70), King of Prussia, PA 19406.
Col. Theopolis Peace, Dept. Clinical Invest., Brooke Army Med. Ctr., Box 592, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-6200.
Primarily Primates, Inc., P.O. Box 15306, San Antonio, TX 78212-8506.
Susan M. Sieber, Deputy Director, Div. Cancer Etiology, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892.
William D. Tomlinson, Dr., Office of Res. & Sponsored Prog., U. Conn. Health Ctr, Bldg 12, 263 Farmington Ave., Farmington, CT 06032.
* * *
The 1988 Questionnaire
The subscription renewal form in the April issue included a questionnaire, reproduced below with the first 521 responses tabulated.
Continue or Expand Discontinue --------------------------------------------------- Need for Newsletter 518 (99.4%) 3 (<1%) Original Articles 476 (96.9%) 15 (3.1%) Reprints of Articles of General Interest 384 (81.9%) 85 (18.1%) Abstracts in Books and Articles Section 283 (63%) 166 (37%) Meeting Announcments and Reports 477 (97.3%) 13 (2.7%) News Items 500 (99%) 5 (1%) Notices 414 (88%) 56 (12%) ---------------------------------------------------
Responses to Newsletter Questionnaire
Many of the respondents added comments or suggestions. We were deeply touched by many references to the founding editor, Allan M. Schrier, and especially by those who wrote that he "would have been proud" of what we have done since his death in 1987.
Many requests were for material we are already trying to provide, but can only print if is is sent to us: letters to the editors, positions available, questions and answers (at least send us the questions!), case histories and notes from laboratories on how they solved practical problems, more humor, reports from field workers--we happily print them, when we receive them.
As in the past, suggestions often cancelled each other: as many readers felt we should eliminate all references to field work as said we should drop the word "Laboratory" from our title. Although 37% of respondents indicated that we could eliminate the abstracts from our Books and Articles section, many others, especially those at isolated locations, stated that the abstracts were extremely valuable. Readers suggested that we eliminate abstracts from "common" journals, but for some the American Journal of Primatology is "common," while others more regularly see Laboratory Animal Science. We will continue our policy of abstracting articles which relate to practical problems of conservation, managing a colony, selecting subjects for research, pursuing research, and protecting both animals and personnel.
One suggestion, which we will implement with Volume 28, is to put the Table of Contents onto the back cover, giving us two more pages at no additional cost.
Foreign Mailing Costs
Since 1974 we have asked our foreign subscribers to pay a small fee to cover the extra cost of overseas mailing (domestic mail is sent fourth class, which is very inexpensive). That fee has increased from the original $2/year to the current $4/year; in 1989 it will cost $5 to mail 4 issues to foreign addresses. We have never before considered the extra costs in correspondence and bookkeeping that are generated by charging this fee, but it is now clear that an undue proportion of our time and energy are devoted to processing it.
We therefore would like to ask our corporate subscribers if it would be possible for one or more of them to give us a total annual grant of $1000 per year, for the specific purpose of mailing the Newsletter free of charge to interested researchers, libraries, zoos, and educational and industrial institutions outside of the United States. Specifically, we would like to ask those readers who work for firms whose budgets could support such a grant to forward this request to the appropriate offices, with your own statements about the usefulness of the Newsletter and the appropriateness of information about primate use and well-being being shared with foreign colleagues. Such support would, of course, be acknowledged in the Newsletter.
* * *
(Addresses are those of first authors)
*Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. Ian
Tattersall, Eric Delson, & John Van Couvering (Eds.). New York: Garland
Publishing, 1988. 603 + xxxvi pp. [Price: $87.50]
. . The editors have defined human evolution in a broad sense, covering such areas as systematics, evolutionary theory, genetics, primatology, primate paleontology, and Paleolithic archaeology. The encyclopedia, alphabetically arranged with about 600 topics and an equal number of cross-referencial headings, was written by 40 scientists. For futher help in finding a topic, there is a "Subject List by Topics," an "Introduction to Human Evolution and Prehistory," and cross-references at the ends of most entries. There are also bibliographic references in many entries, a "consensual" classification of the primates, and a Time Chart.
*The Primate Postcranial Skeleton: Studies in Adaptation and
Evolution. Elizabeth Strasser & Marian Dagosto (Eds.). New York:
Academic Press, 1988. [Price: $17]
. . Most of the papers in this volume were originally presented at the 56th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, New York, April 4, 1987, at a symposium addressing the relationship between the acquisition of novel locomotor strategies and the origin and radiation of major groups of primates. They have also been published in the Journal of Human Evolution, 1988, 17[1/2].
*Skeletal Development of the Wrist and Hand in Macaca mulatta and Man: A Roentgenographic Atlas. Maria Michejda. Basel: Karger, 1987. 124 pp. [Price: $230.75]
*Osteoarthritis in Rhesus Monkeys and Gibbons: A Locomotor Model of Joint Degeneration. C. Jean DeRousseau. Basel: Karger, 1988. 146pp. [Price: $64]
*Behavior of Captive Prosimians: A Bibliography, 1965-1987. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (205 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
*Zoo Breeding of Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1982-1987. B. Caminiti. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1987. (139 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
*Training Programs in Veterinary Pathology and Clinical Pathology. Association of Veterinary Pathology Chairpersons. [Available free from the Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306.]
*Field Research Guidelines: Impact on Animal Care and Use
F. Barbara Orlans (Ed.). Bethesda, MD: Scientists Center for
Animal Welfare, 23 pp. [Price: $5 each, for 1 to 9 copies; $4 each, for
10 or more. Order from SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814].
. . Proceedings of a workshop held on October 8, 1987, at the Rockefeller University, New York City, to discuss newly promulgated guidelines on acceptable humane methods of field research and their impact on institutional Animal Care and Use Committees.
Special Journal Issues
*International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8.
. . Contains abstracts of the XIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, July 24-29, 1988, held in Brasília, Brazil.
*1988 Agent Summary Statement for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Report on Laboratory-acquired Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Centers for Disease Control. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1988, 37, (Suppl. S-4).
*A naturally occurring epizootic of Simian Agent 8 in the Baboon.
Levin, J. L., Hilliard, J. K., Lipper, S. L., Butler, T. M.,
& Goodwin, W. J. (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research,
San Antonio, TX 78284).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 394-397.
. . An epizootic of genital lesions was observed on four Papio sub-species housed in two different outdoor breeding corrals. Serological analysis revealed strong prevalence of antibodies to Simian Agent 8 (SA8). This herpesvirus was subsequently recovered from skin lesions and identified by restriction endonuclease digestion of infected cell DNA. Observations of lesion type, frequency and location were suggestive of venereal transmission. The remarkable similarity between infection resulting from SA8 in baboons and herpes simplex virus in man suggests that the baboon is an excellent model in which to study genital herpes virus transmission and infection.
*Primates. King, F. A., Yarbrough, C. J., Anderson, D. C., Gordon, T.
P., & Gould, K. G. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory
Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322).
Science, 1988, 240, 1475-1482.
. . An overview of basic and applied studies for which primates are appropriate subjects and a summary of the advantages and problems of using nonhuman primates in research.
*Aging and immunity in nonhuman primates: I. Effects of age and
gender on cellular immune function in rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta) . Ershler, W. B., Coe, C. L. Gravenstein, S.,
Schultz, K. T., Klopp, R. G., Meyer, M., & Houser, W. D. (Medical
Sciences Center, 1300 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 181-188.
. . Lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and antibody response to tetanus toxoid vaccination were evaluated in cohorts of rhesus monkeys aged 2 to 36 years. The data confirm expectations that, like other mammalian species, the rhesus monkey shows a decline in immune function with age and demonstrate further that the changes are more marked in males. Rhesus monkeys, therefore, are suitable for the investigation of mechanisms of immune senescence.
*Naturally occurring renal disease in non-human primates.
Skelton-Stroud, P. N. & Glaister, J. R. (CIBA-GEIGY Pharmaceuticals,
Stamford Lodge, Altrincham Rd., Wilmslow, Cheshire SK9 4LY, U.K.). In P.
H. Bach & E. A. Lock (Eds.),
Nephrotoxicity in the Experimental and Clinical Situration, Part 1
(pp. 189-210). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987.
. . A diversity of background kidney disease in nonhuman primates is described. Glomerulonephritis has been reported most frequently in owl and squirrel monkeys, and macaques as a species have demonstrated a random proliferative arteriopathy which could prejudice some investigations. Background kidney lesions in monkeys used in toxicology are generally infrequent and minor. It is important that any significant or unusual kidney pathology in nonhuman primates is reported, so that there will be an adequate database of background pathology against which to assess lesions encountered in toxicity studies.
*Glomerulopathy in squirrel monkeys with acute
Plasmodium falciparum infection. Aikawa, M., Jacobs, G.,
Whiteley, H. E., Igarashi, I., & Ristic, M. (Inst. of Pathology, Case
Western Reserve Univ., 2085 Adelbert Rd., Cleveland, OH 44106).
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1988, 38,
. . The renal pathology of 9 squirrel monkeys with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection was studied by light and electron microscopy. Endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis was the major pathological change observed. The peroxidase anti-peroxidase method demonstrated the presence of IgG, IgM, and P. falciparum antigens in the mesangium and basement membrane. These findings were consistent with those seen in humans with acute P. falciparum infection and indicates that squirrel monkeys are likely to be a good model for the study of renal pathology in malaria research.
*A nylon ball device for primate environmental enrichment. Ross, P.
W. & Everitt, J. I. (Dept. of Environmental Pathology & Toxicology,
Chemical Industry Inst. of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 481-483.
. . A hard nylon ball connected by an eye bolt to a stainless steel chain, attached either inside or outside the cage of a rhesus monkey is an inexpensive, easily constructed device which may prove useful in enriching the cage environment. It is nontoxic, durable, easily sanitized, and may be smeared with flavored oral medicants if desired.
*Problems in defining stress and distress in animals. Moberg, G. P.
(Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1987, 191,
. . A discussion of the problems in defining and measuring stress. It is suggested that measurement of prepathologic states, such as suppressed immune system and reproductive malfunction, have a potential of providing a clinical definition of stress and a meaningful measure of well-being.
*Establishment of a chimpanzee retirement fund: Maintenance after experimentation. Eichberg, J. W. & Speck, J. T. Jr. (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78284). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 71-76.
*Differential effects of kinship, dominance, and the mating season
on female allogrooming in a captive group of
Macaca fuscata. Mehlman, P. T. & Chapais, B. (Dept.
d'Anthropologie, Univ. de Montréal, CP. 6128, Montréal, PQ H35 3JT).
Primates, 1988, 29, 195-217.
. . It is suggested that, in some contexts, grooming of subordinate nonkin may function to reduce tension in the groomer. In the Japanese macaque, this possibility and asymmetrical grooming of subordinate homosexual partners may prove to be exceptions to the general rule that female cercopithecine grooming of nonkin flows up the dominance hierarchy.
*Parental division of infant caretaking varies with family
composition in cotton-top tamarins. McGrew, W. C. (Dept. of Psychology,
Univ. of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland).
Animal Behaviour, 1988, 36, 285-310.
. . 7 families, with none to 9 older offspring, were studied to determine the amount of "baby sitting" of infants by each parent in relation to the number of helpers available. The more helpers, the less done by both parents, but the mother's contribution became relatively larger than the father's as his shrank, because of the irreducible time required for nursing.
*Affiliative behavior of adult female sooty mangabeys
(Cercocebus atys) . Ehardt, C. L. (Dept. of Anthropology &
Linguistics, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 115-127.
. . A 14-month study of affiliative interactions among 30 adult female members of a captive group of sooty mangabeys. In consideration of the taxonomic distinctness of the sooty mangabey from the gray-cheeked mangabey, comparison of these results with those available for albigena were made. Few differences were apparent. Comparisons with the affiliative behavior of Papio females also suggested limited differences, despite the apparently isolated position of the sooty mangabey within the tribe Papionini.
*The integration into a social group of a hand-reared Brown capuchin
cebus apella. Visalberghi, E. & Riviello, M. C. (Ist. di
Psicologia, CNR, Via Aldrovandi 16b, 00197 Rome, Italy).
International Zoo Yearbook, 1987, 26, 232-236.
. . An 8-month-old, hand reared infant was reintroduced to 3 members of her natal group over 17 days. A 20-minute videotape recording showing the main phases of the first reintroduction is available to any zoo or researcher by request to the first author.
*Social interactions following parturition in stumptail macaques.
Bruce, K. E., Estep, D. Q., & Baker, S. C. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ.
of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC 28403-3297).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 247-261.
. . The social behavior of six female Macaca arctoides living in a social group of 23-29 individuals was monitored before and after parturition and was compared to the social interactions of six nonpregnant females. Results indicate that new mothers may become focal points for group interactions, but they do not receive more affiliation overall or less aggression than nonmothers.
*Some communicatory functions of scent marking in the cotton-top
(Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Epple, G., Küderling, I., & Belcher,
A. (German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 3400 Göttingen, D.F.R.).
Journal of Chemical Ecology, 1988, 14, 503-515.
. . The ability of cotton-top tamarins to discriminate between scents from conspecifics and those from other tamarin species, and between scents from conspecific individuals was tested. Glass rods carrying scent from conspecifics were sniffed more frequently than rods carrying scent from related tamarin species or unscented rods. Shelves carrying rods that had been scent marked by conspecifics were contacted more frequently than those carrying rods marked by heterospecific females. Contacting and sniffing responses to the scents of novel females were higher than those to the scents of females to which the subjects had been habituated.
*Species and subspecies specificity in urine and scent marks of
(Saguinus fuscicollis). Epple, G., Alveario, M. C., Belcher, A. M.,
& Smith, A. B. III (Address same as above).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 663-679.
. . An investigation of the ability of saddle-back tamarins to discriminate between scent material from conspecifics and corresponding material from other species and to differentiate material from two subspecies of Saguinus fuscicollis. The results show that urine and scent marks contain chemical cues on which recognition of conspecifics can be based. The scent marks of closely related subspecies also offer cues which could enable the tamarins to discriminate between them.
*Differential behavioral and adrenocortical responses to stress
among three macaque species. Clarke, A. S., Mason, W. A., & Moberg, G.
P. (W. A. Mason, California Primate Research Center, University of
California, Davis, CA 95616).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 37-52.
. . Behavioral and adrenocortical responses of rhesus, bonnet, and crabeating macaques were compared in their home cages, during exposure to novelty and during physical restraint. It is concluded that behavioral dispositions, inclusive of psychophysiological responses, may vary qualitatively even among closely related primate species.
*Interspecific contrasts in responses of macaques to transport cage
training. Clarke, A. S., Mason, W. A., & Moberg, G. P. (Address
same as above).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 305-309.
. . Corticosteroid values in response to brief confinement in a transport cage were compared between rhesus, bonnet, and crabeating macaques before and after they were trained to enter the cage. Behavioral data were collected to assess performance during training. Bonnets took longer to train than rhesus or crabeaters. Rhesus showed the smallest adrenocortical response to cage confinement after training and crabeaters the greatest. The results have implications for choice of experimental subject species and for management and husbandry of laboratory primates.
*Husbandry, breeding and maintenance of a viable population of
cotton top tamarins
(S. o. oedipus). Scullion, F. T. (Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of
Bristol, Langford, Bristol, BS18 7DU U.K.).
Animal Technology, 1987, 38, 167-174.
. . Experiences with a colony of 180 cotton top tamarins, established in 1977 with 12 animals.
*The Arnhem Zoo colony of chimpanzees
Pan troglodytes: Development and management techniques. Adang, O.
M. J., Wensing, J. A. B., & Van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (Burgers' Zoo and
Safaripark, Schelmsweg 85, Arnhem, The Netherlands).
International Zoo Yearbook, 1987, 26, 236-248.
. . This paper focuses mainly on husbandry and veterinary matters. The authors believe that the history of this colony shows that it is strongly advisable to keep chimpanzees in large groups of natural composition. The most important contributing factors to this essentially harmonious chimpanzee society seem to be a spacious and well-planned enclosure, individual feeding, and expansion through natural reproduction.
*Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for
the purpose of environmental enrichment. Reinhardt, V., Houser, D.,
Eisele, S., Cowley, D., & Vertein, R. (Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 135-140.
. . An attempt was made to socialize unrelated and unfamiliar adult rhesus monkey females that had lived in single cages for more than one year. Partners first were given the opportunity for noncontact familiarization in partitioned double cages, and were then transferred into ordinary double cages. Three of 18 pairs were incompatible (two cases of depression, one serious tail injury) and were separated. It was concluded that the environment of singly caged rhesus monkey females can be enriched with little risk by carefully choosing compatible companions.
*Behaviour of wild gorillas, Gorilla gorilla, and their
management in captivity. Harcourt, A. H. (Dept. of Applied Biology,
Univ. of Cambridge, Pembroke St., Cambridge CB2 3DX, U.K.).
International Zoo Yearbook, 1987, 26, 248-255.
. . Descriptions of the physical and social environments of gorillas in the wild, with discussion of the implications for captive management.
*The apparent reversal of a wasting syndrome by nutritional
Saguinus mystax. Barnard, D., Knapka, J., & Renquist, D. (U.S.
Dept. of Health and Human Services, PHS, NIH, Division of Research
Services, Veterinary Resources Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 282-288.
. . In one year, 60% of 180 newly imported, sexually mature Saguinus mystax had died, and most of the rest showed signs similar to "wasting marmoset syndrome". In an effort to improve survival rate, an open formula diet (26.2% crude protein, 12.3% ether extract, 43.3% nitrogen free extract, and 5.9% crude fiber on a dry matter basis) replaced the commercial closed formula diet that had been fed since arrival. During the 3 month open formula diet evaluation period average weight increased by 56g (p < .05), mortality decreased demonstratively, and alopecia and chronic diarrhea were nearly eliminated.
*Unexpected frostbite in cynomolgus macaques after a short exposure
to snow. Laber-Laird, K., McDole, G., & Jerome, C. (Dept. of Comparative
Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest Univ.,
Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 325-326.
. . A clinical condition diagnosed as frostbite affected 30 of 43 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) that were exposed to an ambient temperature of 23deg.F and snow-covered ground for 25 minutes. Due to weather conditions, the animals were being housed indoors (range of 70-75deg.F), but were allowed outside briefly for regrouping of males and pen cleaning. A group of stumptail macaques (M. arctoides) exposed to the same conditions and another group of cynomolgus monkeys exposed for 10 minutes were unaffected.
*Effects of trapping on the vervet
(Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) population in Barbados. Horrocks,
J. A. & Baulu, J. (Dept. of Biology, Univ. of the West Indies, Cave
Hill, Barbados, West Indies).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 223-233.
. . The effects of a 7-year trapping program is described. Population abundance has remained relatively constant despite an increase in number trapped from less than 200 in 1980 to almost 1,000 in 1986. The data suggest that the number of adults has been decreasing while that of juveniles has been increasing, which may explain the claimed increase in crop damage in Barbados at constant population size.
*Efficacy of ivermectin against natural infection of
Strongyloides spp. in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).
Battles, A. H., Greiner, E. C., & Collins, B. R. (College of Veterinary
Medicine, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 474-476.
. . The data presented in this report and from other studies suggest that ivermectin can be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the removal of Strongyloides spp. from the squirrel monkey. Additional studies are needed to further refine the dosage schedule.
*Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity response in tetanus toxoid
sensitized rhesus monkeys: Predictor of anergy and value in tuberculin
skin testing. Davis, J. A., Hayre, M., & Linn, J. M. (Dept. of
Laboratory Animal Medicine, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 413-416.
. . Twenty juvenile male rhesus monkeys were assigned randomly to one of two groups of 10 animals. The test group was vaccinated 3 times with tetanus toxoid intramuscularly at 1 month intervals. The control group was treated the same, but saline was administered rather than tetanus toxoid. Following sensitization, the animals were challenged with tetanus toxoid intradermally. Eight of the test animals, and none of the controls, responded to the challange. Elicitation of a delayed cutaneous response in animals sensitized to tetanus antigen before challenge may serve as a positive control for delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity. This simple test may serve as a useful adjunct in making objective clinical decisions concerning anergy-suspect animals.
*Childhood chloroquine poisonings--Wisconsin and Washington. Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, GA 30333). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1988, 37, 437-439.
*Effect of tetanus toxoid inoculation on mortality in the Cayo
Santiago macaque population. Kessler, M. J., Berard, J. D., & Rawlins,
R. G. (Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 93-101.
. . From 1977 to 1984 tetanus deaths accounted for 19.5% of the total mortality in the free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. During the two years after inoculation against tetanus, the mean annual total mortality rate and the mean annual tetanus mortality rate declined by 42.2% and 94%, respectively. The elimination of tetanus infections is expected to have a profound impact on the demography of the population by increasing the rate of population growth, decreasing the differential rates of increase of the component social groups, and changing the age distribution of the population.
*Sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus from African green
monkey, a new member of the HIV/SIV group. Fukasawa, M., Miura, T.,
Hasegawa, A., Morikawa, S., Tsujimoto, H., Miki, K., Kitamura, T., &
Hayami, M. (Dept. of Animal Pathology, Inst. of Medical Science, Univ.
of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan).
Nature, 1988, 333, 457-461.
. . The complete DNA sequence of authentic SIV-agm was isolated from a naturally infected African green monkey of Kenyan origin. Comparison of the genome of SIV-agm with those of known HIV/SIVs indicates that the virus is a new simian lentivirus that is approximately equally distantly related to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in contrast to SIV-mac, which is much closer to HIV-2 than to HIV-1.
*Update: Universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, GA 30333). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1988, 37, 377-382, 387-388.
*A survey of the pathology in a breeding group of cotton top
(Saquinus o. oedipus). Scullion, F. T., Brown, P. J., & Potts, E.
(Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, BS18 7DU U.K.).
Verhandlungsbericht des 29. Internationalen Symposiums über die
Erkrankungen der Zootiere Cardiff 1987 (pp. 239-245).
Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1987.
. . The results of a survey of the major pathological findings from 42 necropsies in a breeding group of cotton top tamarins. Inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology was found in 89%, hepatocellular pigment in 88%, and adenocarcinoma of the large intestine in 17% of the cases. Diseases of organ systems other than the alimentary tract were not common.
*Stochastic model for interhuman spread of monkeypox. Jezek, Z.,
Grab, B., & Dixon, H. (Smallpox Eradication Unit, WHO, 1211 Geneva 27,
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1987, 126, 1082-1092.
. . With the eradication of smallpox, systematic routine vaccination with vaccinia has ceased and an increasing proportion of the human population in tropical rain forest areas of central and western Africa lacks vaccinia-derived immunity to monkeypox virus. A computerized stochastic model of Monte Carlo type was constructed to assess this potential risk. The model clearly indicated diminishing numbers of cases in successive generation and eventual cessation of transmission. Therefore, it appears highly improbably that the virus could maintain itself permanently in communities by interhuman transmission. After the eradication of smallpox, human monkeypox constitutes the most important orthopoxvirus infection in man, but analysis of information collected up to this time suggests that it does not represent currently a serious public health problem or a challenge to the achieved eradication of smallpox.
*Campylobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of rhesus
monkeys. Reed, K. D. & Berridge, B. R. (Dept. of Pathology, Wilford
Hall, USAF Medical Center, Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300).
Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 1988, 329-330.
. . Four of seven adult rhesus monkeys necropsied had chronic gastritis involving predominantly the antrum. Small curved bacteria, with features which lead to the designation Campylobacter-like organisms (CLO), were found in the antrum of those four animals. Further studies will be necessary to determine the prevalence of CLO in rhesus monkeys, whether or not they are a factor in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis in non-human primates, and whether it could be useful as an animal model to study Campylobacter-associated gastritis in man.
*Natural history of endemic type D retrovirus infection and acquired
immune deficiency syndrome in group-housed rhesus monkeys. Lerche, N.
W., Marx, P. A., Osborn, K. G., Maul, D. H. Lowenstine, L. J., Bleviss,
M. L., Moody, P., Henrickson, R. V., & Gardner, M. B. (California Primate
Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1987, 79, 847-854.
. . A 2.5-year epidemiologic study of a breeding group of rhesus monkeys which is a focus of endemic simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS), demonstrated a strong association between the occurrence of SAIDS and infection with a type D retrovirus, SAIDS retrovirus serotype 1 (SRV-1). Of 23 healthy "tracer" juvenile rhesus monkeys, 19 died with SAIDS within 9 months of introduction into the resident SAIDS-endemic population. In contrast, 21 healthy "sentinel" juvenile rhesus monkeys placed in the same outdoor enclosure but denied physical contact with the SAIDS-affected group by a 10-foot-wide "buffer zone" remained free of SRV-1, SRV-1 antibody, and disease for 2.5 years. Seroconversion was found to be a poor indicator of infection rate, as approximately 50% of virus-positive juvenile monkeys had no antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of antibodies against human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, human immunodeficiency virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus, was uniformly low or absent in both SAIDS-free and SAIDS-affected groups of rhesus monkeys, demonstrating that these retroviruses are not etiologically linked to SAIDS at the California Primate Research Center.
*Effects of global warming on species and habitats: An overview.
Peters, R. L.
Endangered Species Update, 1988, 5, 1-8.
. . Because species with fragmented populations and reduced ranges are so vulnerable to climate change, one of the best things that can be done now is to minimize further range reduction. Thus, climate change is a compelling new reason to conserve as many natural lands as possible.
*Infanticide and primate evolution. Chaljan, V. G., Meishvili, N.
V., & Vanchatová, M. A. (M. A. V., Lab. of Evolutionary
Biology, Czechoslovak Acad. of Sciences, Na Folimance 11, 12000 Praha 2,
Behaviour as One of the Main Factors of Evolution (pp. 321-330).
Leonovichová, V. & Novák, V. J. A. (Eds.). Prague: Czechoslovak
Acad. of Sciences, 1987.
. . Infanticide has been described in many primate species. In this study documented cases of infanticide or severe injuries of infants are analyzed both in a wild-living population and in captive groups of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). The results suggest that infanticide in hamadryas baboon groups is not part of a male reproductive strategy because the victims of a male's aggression are not only descendants of his predecessor, but also his own infants. Infanticide was observed in cases of non-stable social structure, overpopulation, or increasing numbers of adult males. The role of infanticide in early human populations and its place in primate evolution are analyzed in terms of the results.
*Sociobiology of the great apes and the hominid ancestor. Ghiglieri,
M. P. (814 North Leroux, Flagstaff, AZ 86001; Send $3 for a Xeroxed
Journal of Human Evolution, 1987, 16, 319-357.
. . The behavioral ecology and social structures of mountain gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, and bonobos are reviewed and contrasted between species. Social dynamics and molecular studies indicate that, among the extant Hominoidea, the evolutionary clade of chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans probably evolved from the most recent common ancestor in the ape-human stem. The most probable phylogenetic referential model for the suite of social behaviors of the hominid ancestor consists of behavioral traits common to all three species. It is postulated that this phylogenetic model is a useful tool for comparing goodness of fit of other referential models seeking to explain hominid evolution.
*The brain of
Homo habilis: A new level of organization in cerebral evolution.
Tobias, P. V. (Dept. of Anatomy, Univ. of the Witwatersrand Medical
School, Johannesburg, S.A.).
Journal of Human Evolution, 1987, 16, 741-761.
. . New studies have been made on endocranial casts of Olduvai specimens of Homo habilis, comparing them with those on other East African H. habilis and other hominoids. With H. habilis, cerebral evolution had progressed beyond the stage of "animal hominids" (Australopithecus spp.) to that of "human hominids" (Homo spp.). In functional capacity, in particular, its possession of a structural marker of the neurological basis of spoken language, H. habilis had attained a new evolutionary level of organization.
*Cage design and configuration for an arboreal species of primate.
Williams, L. E., Abee, C. R., Barnes, S. R., & Ricker, R. B. (Dept. of
Comparative Medicine, College of Medicine, Univ. of South Alabama,
Mobile, AL 36688).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 289-291.
. . Studies were carried out to compare various perch materials and cage configurations to determine the most suitable cage environment for the squirrel monkey. The monkeys preferred a poly-vinyl-chloride pipe perch (rigid) over rope perches (non-rigid). When provided with multiple levels of perches, all levels were used. Results indicate that by creating a cage environment with multiple tiers of horizontal perches the effective cage space can be doubled or tripled. This provides an effective means of reducing population density without enlarging the dimensions of the cage or reducing social group size.
*Cytogenetic studies of
Aotus from eastern Amazonia: Y/autosome rearrangement. Pieczarka,
J. C. & Nagamachi, C. Y. (Dept. de Genética, Centro de Ciências
Biológicas, Univ. Federal do Pará, Campus do Guamá, 66000 Belém,
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 255-263.
. . Among 21 specimens of Aotus captured in Brazil, males had a diploid number of 49 chromosomes, and females had 50. The observed difference is a consequence of the fusion of the Y chromosome with an autosome. The karyotype is similar to that of the Bolivian Aotus (A. azarae boliviensis). It differs, however, in the G- and C-banding patterns of the chromosome resulting from the Y/autosome fusion. Considerations are presented on the classification of A. infulatus as a separate species.
Instruments and Techniques
*Clinical trials and the breeding of endangered species of primates
in captivity. Padua, C. V. (Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro --
CPRJ/FEEMA, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil).
Primatologia no Brasil, 1986, 2, 393-410.
. . A description of clinical life tables, and a step-by-step example of their use to compare the survival of golden lion tamarins at the Brookfield Zoo and the Rio Primate Center.
*Age estimation in rhesus macaques
(Macaca mulatta) based on mandibular dimensions. Bouvier, M. (Dept.
of Anatomy, LSU School of Dentistry, 1100 Florida Ave., New Orleans, LA
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 129-142.
. . A new technique based on mandibular measurements for estimating age in rhesus macaques has several advantages over presently available techniques. It produces age estimates with a prediction error of +/- 5.08 months in males and +/- 7.29 months in females, only slightly higher than those for dental eruption or epiphyseal union data.
*Effects of physical and chemical restraint on intravenous glucose
tolerance test in crested black macaques
(Macaca nigra) . Yasuda, M., Wolff, J., & Howard, C. F. Jr. (Oregon
Regional Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 171-180.
. . Conscious monkeys placed in plexiglas cylindrical restraining devices appeared relaxed, but glucose clearance and insulin secretion were impaired. A combination of midazolam with ketamine, compared to ketamine alone, did not cause detectable changes in the IV glucose tolerance tests; midazolam also reduced adverse reactions to ketamine and extended the duration of anesthesia.
*Comparison of electrostimulation methods for semen recovery in the
(Macaca mulatta) . Gould, K. G. & Mann, D. R. (Yerkes Regional
Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 95-103.
. . Electroejaculation of 17 rhesus monkeys was performed at intervals during a 15-month period using both penile and rectal probe stimulation. The semen quality was compared for the two methods; both were effective in approximately 90% of attempts, and there was no difference in fertilizing capacity of the sperm. A seasonal difference in semen quality was detected, and samples recovered by penile stimulation showed higher sperm count.
*Use of ultrasound for early pregnancy detection in the rhesus and
(Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) . Tarantal, A. F. &
Hendrickx, A. G. (Developmental & Reproductive Biology Unit, California
Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 105-112.
. . Diagnostic ultrasound provides an accurate method for the detection of early pregnancy and embryonic loss in macaque species. A developing gestational sac may be observed on gestational day (GD) 14-15 with positive identification on GD 16-18. Visualization of the yolk sac, embryo, and developing heart on GD 21-25 confirms pregnancy. Continuous observations during embryogenesis provide useful information when assessing the teratogenic potential of a variety of agents.
*Persistent sympathetic nervous system arousal associated with
tethering in cynomolgus macaques. Adams, M. R., Kaplan, J. R., Manuck,
S. B., Uberseder, B., & Larkin, K. T. (Dept. of Comparative Medicine,
Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 279-281.
. . A portable electrocardiographic telemetry system was used for continuous monitoring of the heart rate of 26 cynomolgus monkeys while: (a) pair-caged, 8 weeks prior to tethering; (b) singly-caged, tethered; (c) singly-caged, tethered, administered propranolol (30 mg/kg/day) in the diet; (d) group-housed, 1 week after group formation; and (e) group-housed, 4 weeks after group formation. Tethering resulted in persistent elevations in heart rate relative to the other conditions. Administration of propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, resulted in an abrupt, sustained decrease in heart rate indicating that the increase in heart rate associated with tethering was due to persistent stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Investigators using the swivel-tether system should be aware of these potential effects when designing experiments and interpreting the results.
*Simplified vest and tether system for maintenance of chronically
catheterized pregnant rhesus monkeys. Ducsay, D. A., Cook, M. J., &
Novy, M. J. (Div. of Reproductive Biology and Behavior, Oregon Regional
Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR 97006).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 343-344.
. . A simplified tether and vest system which permits the use of a large number of catheters and electrodes is described. Straps prevent the suit from being pulled up to expose the catheters and electrodes. In addition, they prevent the monkey from spinning and twisting the catheters, while still allowing the animal to stand, sit, lie down, or move about the cage.
*Human-type ABO blood groups as genetic markers for the management
of a squirrel monkey
(Saimiri sciureus) breeding colony. Terao, K., Hamano, M., Cho, F.,
& Honjo, S. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, National
Institute of Health, 1 Hachimandi, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305 Japan).
Primates, 1988, 29, 287-292.
. . Human-type ABO blood groups were determined for 94 families (151 animals) of squirrel monkeys. Four phenotypes, A, B, AB, and O, were detected. The usefulness of ABO blood groups for defining the genetic variability of a squirrel monkey breeding colony through successive generations is discussed on the basis of the difference in distribution of ABO blood groups between wild-originated parental populations and their first colony-born offspring.
*Age-related changes of immunoglobulin levels in African green
(Cercopithecus aethiops) . Fujimoto, K., Hiyaoka, A., Cho, F., &
Honjo, S. (Address same as above).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 85-93.
. . Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were measured in domestically bred African green monkeys ranging in age from 0 day to 49 months, as well as in adult (5 years or older) animals of wild origin. Transplacental transfer of IgG was observed. IgG, IgA, and IgM levels increased with increasing age, except for a temporary decrease of IgG level in the first month of life.
*Central blood volume and blood pressure in conscious primates.
Cornish, K. G., Gilmore, J. P., & McCulloch, T. (Dept. of Physiology,
Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105-1065).
American Journal of Physiology, 1988, 254, H693-H701.
. . Conscious intact and sinoaortic-denervated monkeys were studied to determine the extent to which high-pressure receptors contribute to the maintenance of arterial blood pressure when venous return is decreased by hemorrhage or lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The data support the view that a nonhypotensive reduction in venous return unloads arterial baroreceptors sufficiently to activate the arterial baroreflex, probably through reductions in pulse pressure. Also, low-pressure receptors by themselves do not appear to contribute importantly to blood pressure maintenance when venous return is decreased by either LBNP or a nonhypotensive hemorrhage.
*Survival rate and life span of rhesus monkeys at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. Tigges, J., Gordon, T. P., McClure, H. M., Hall, E. C., & Peters, A. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 263-273.
*Menstrual cycles in rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta) are unaffected by a single dose of the anesthetics
ketamine and xylazine administered during the midfollicular phase at
laparoscopy. Hutz, R. J., Dierschke, D. J., & Wolf, R. C. (Dept. of
Biological Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 79-84.
. . In five of six animals, ketamine plus xylazine, administered on day 6 of the menstrual cycle, had no effect on the occurence of timely surges of estrogen, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone, or on ovulation as determined by the presence of a corpus luteum at laparoscopy and normal serum concentrations of progesterone. There were no significant differences between the cycle during treatment and previous cycles in the same animal for length of the menstrual cycle or luteal phase, nor did these values differ from those of ten control monkeys treated with ketamine only on day 5 or 6 of the cycle. Ketamine plus xylazine apparently provides anesthesia appropriate for laparascopy.
*Seasonal changes in serum dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione,
and testosterone levels in the squirrel monkey
Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis). Wiebe, R. H., Williams, L. E.,
Abee, C. R., Yeoman, R. R., & Diamond, E. J. (Univ. of South Alabama
College of Medicine, Dept. of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Mobile, AL 36688).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 285-291.
. . The squirrel monkey has a well-defined breeding season during which adult males undergo androgen-dependent morphological changes, with acquisition of active spermatogenesis. Blood samples were obtained weekly from 10 adult males, and serum was assayed for testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Significant seasonal variations were noted in all of these. The pattern of peripheral serum androgen concentrations throughout the year would suggest annual activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and/or hypothal- amic-pituitary-gonadal axes.
*Urinary hormone analysis as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the
ovarian function of female gorillas
(Gorilla gorilla). Czekala, N. M., Roser, J. F., Mortensen, R. B.,
Reichard, T., & Lasley, B. L. (Research Dept., Zoological Society of San
Diego, San Diego, CA 92112).
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1988, 82, 255-261.
. . Daily urine samples were collected from 4 adult female gorillas over 7 menstrual cycles. Urinary oestrone conjugate and pregnanediol- 3-glucuronide (PDG) were measured by radioimmunoassay; LH was measured by enzyme immunoassay and each hormone was indexed by creatinine. Observations indicate a relationship between the quality of the LH surge and the levels of PDG in the luteal phase and suggest that both the LH surge and the subsequent luteal phase function may be predictable from the oestrogen excretion profile during the follicular phase.
*International Register and Studbook for the Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) Savage and Wyman, 1847, 5th ed. R. Kirchshofer. Frankfurt: Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt, 1987. 236pp.
*International Lion-Tailed Macaque Studbook. L. Gledhill. Seattle: Woodland Park Zoo, 1987. 264pp.
*1987 International Studbook for the Black Lemur (Lemur macaco, Linnaeus, 1766). Roger Birkel. St. Louis: St. Louis Zoological Park, 1987. 86pp.
*A labor readiness index (Bishop score) for rhesus monkeys. Golub,
M. S., Donald, J. M., Anderson, J. H., & Ford, E. W. (California Primate
Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 435-438.
. . A scoring system is presented for quantitative evaluation of labor readiness in macaque monkeys. Cervical position, length, softness, and dilation are rated along with fetal head position for a total score of 13. The system is based on experience in evaluating readiness of multiparous rhesus monkeys for labor induction. Guidelines for examination for use of the score are described.
*Mating behavior of ring-tailed lemurs
(Lemur catta) at Berenty, Madagascar. Koyama, N. (Center for
African Area Studies, Kyoto Univ., 46 Shimoadachi-cho, Yoshida,
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606 Japan).
Primates, 1988, 29, 163-175.
. . Of five adult females in the observed troop, only two were observed to mate. The mating period covered two consecutive days. Each female was receptive for about 4 hr. Data from 47 copulations, of which 38 were with ejaculation, suggest that to be the first mating partner is of importance for male ring-tailed lemurs. The second most dominant male was always the first mating partner. Only after several ejaculations and resultant fatigue did he lose possession of the female to lower ranking males, and the first ranking male was not seen to copulate with either female. These results suggest that a male's mating success is partly, but not completely correlated with his dominance rank, and that other factors also determine patterns of mating.
*Determinants of behavioral rhythmicity during artificial menstrual
cycles in rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta) . Michael, R. P. & Zumpe, D. (Dept. of Psychiatry,
Emory Univ. School of Medicine, 1256 Briarcliff Rd., NE, Atlanta, GA
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 157-170.
. . The hypothesis that copulations are more closely linked to ovulation when males have simultaneous access to several females in different cycle phases was tested and supported by giving hormones to ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys in small social groups. The authors propose that socio-hormonal integration of behavior in the group is highly adaptive and enhances the reproductive success of both males and females.
*Patterns of reproduction and mortality in two captive colonies of
Hanuman langur monkeys
(Presbytis entellus) . Harley, D. (9 Arbor Dr., Piedmont, CA 94610).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 15, 103-114.
. . Approximately 10 years of data from U.C. Berkeley and the San Diego Zoo reveal that langur monkey females reach reproductive maturity between 3 and 5 years and have median birth intervals, following the birth of a live infant that survives beyond 9 months, of approximately 15.5 months. Observed differences and similarities in patterns of reproduction and mortality between the two colonies and field populations are discussed.
*Weaning variability in semi-free-ranging Japanese macaques
(Macaca fuscata). Collinge, N. E. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2H4 Canada).
Folia Primatologica, 1987, 48, 137-150.
. . A marked level of variability in maternal weaning behaviors was found to be unrelated to traditional sociological factors, such as the rank, parity, age and number of immature offspring of the mother, and sex of the infant. The only variability in the weaning behaviors of infants occurred in the rates of distress and attempts at nipple contact, which were positively related to maternal rejection. The oestrous state of the mother was the one factor which could be used to predict a significant increase in the level of maternal rejection, and different behavioral tendencies in the infant.
*Female perineal swelling and its effects on male sexual arousal: An
apparent sexual releaser in the chacma baboon
(Papio ursinus) . Girolami, L. & Bielert, C. (Primate Behaviour
Research Group, School of Psychology, Univ. of the Witwatersrand, WITS
2050, Johannesburg, South Africa).
International Journal of Primatology, 1987, 8, 651-661.
. . Fluctuations in female behaviors concomitant to periodic perineal swelling in some primate species have prevented assessment of the function of that swelling. By attaching a plastic reproduction of a fully swollen perineum to ovariectomized female chacma baboons, it has finally been demonstrated that the sexual swelling has an important function in the sexual communication of this species. It induces sexual arousal in male conspecifics.
*Tamarin and marmoset mating systems: Unusual flexibility. Goldizen,
A. W. (Dept. of Anthropology, 1054 LSA Building, Univ. of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, MI 48109).
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 1988, 3, 36-40.
. . Recent studies of wild tamarins and marmosets have shown that at least one species exhibits variable mating patterns, including cooperative polyandry, monogamy, and, more rarely, polygyny. Polyandry is thought to occur because the high frequency of twinning and the relatively high weights of infants in these species make the rearing of infants unusually difficult. Nonreproductive helpers (older offspring) and polyandrous males may serve as alternative sources of the extra help needed with infant care.
*Social mechanisms of population regulation in a captive group of
(Macaca radiata). Silk, J. B. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of
California, Los Angeles, CA 90024).
American Journal of Primatology, 1988, 14, 111-124.
. . An evaluation of the factors that contributed to annual variation in fertility and infant survival in a relatively undisturbed captive group of bonnet macaques over a 16-year period. Female fertility was highest when there were relatively few adult females in the group and when there were relatively few adult females per adult male. Similarly, infant survival was highest in years when there were relatively few adult females present and when cohorts of infants were small. Since environmental factors, such as availability of food and vulnerability to predation, were unlikely to constrain population growth in captivity, the data suggest that other mechanisms may have affected demographic processes in this captive group.
*Prolonged lactational infertility in adolescent rhesus monkeys.
Wilson, M. E., Walker, M. L., Pope, N. S., & Gordon, T. P. (Yerkes
Regional Primate Research Center of Emory Univ., Field Station,
Lawrenceville, GA 30245).
Biology of Reproduction, 1988, 38, 163-174.
. . After a successful first pregnancy, a significant percentage of lactating adolescent mothers (57.1%; n=8) failed to exhibit an ovulation with normal luteal phase during the subsequent breeding season. In contrast, the remaining lactating adolescents (42.9%, n=6) and all of the adult mothers (100%; n =6) exhibited ovulations with a normal luteal phase. Age alone was not the critical variable, since all nonlactating adolescents exhibited ovulations with normal luteal phase parameters in the subsequent breeding season. Differences in luteal phase function among lactating adolescents were not related to differential rates of ponderal or skeletal growth. A still-developing neuroendocrine system may thus render a significant proportion of adolescent females more sensitive to suckling-induced suppression of gonadotropin secretion.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
Dr. Volker Sommer, of the Institut für Anthropologie der Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, is editing a book entitled "Affen--Overtüren der Menschwerdung" (Primates--Overtures to Mankind), for the German nature/photo magazine GEO. He is seeking to purchase high quality color photographs of nonhuman primates "in action." Royalties will vary from $75 to $500, according to size in the book. Slides are preferable, but outstanding prints can be used. Each slide or picture should be marked with the photographer's name, Latin and common name of the primate species, location of habitat, and a short description of the depicted behavior or situation. All material will be handled most carefully and returned by registered air mail. Material should be submitted by November 30, 1988, to GEO-books, Picture Department, attn: Christiane Breustedt, P.O. Box 30 20 40, 2000 Hamburg 36, Federal Republic of Germany.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
We are grateful to the Duke News Service/Jim Wallace for providing the cover photograph of Mandarin, a female infant Philipine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta
Copyright @1988 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Managing Editor: Janice Viticonte
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.