Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Compatible Rhesus Monkeys Provide Long-Term Stimulation for Each Other, by S. Ranheim & V. Reinhardt ...... 1

Preliminary Information on Rare Tibetan Macaques at the San Diego Zoo, by D. Flynn, A. S. Clarke, N. C. Harvey, & D. G. Lindburg ...... 4

Species Survival Plan Report: Golden Lion Tamarin, by J. Ballou & D. Kleiman ...... 6

Birth of Twin Chimpanzees, by D. Cohn ...... 9

Intake, Output, and Urinalysis in Cynomolgus Monkeys ...... 10

News, Information, and Announcements

Letter: Polyvinyl Perches ...... 2

Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Alert ...... 3

Meeting Announcements ...... 7
. . Animal Models and Viral Diseases, Gesellschaft für Primatologie, International Ethological Conference, ICLAS Regional Symposium, Asociación Mexicana de Primatología

News Briefs ...... 8
. . Animal Research Facility Protection Act, Misleading Positive Tuberculin Reactions, \"In the Wild" in the Zoo, Black Howler Monkey Sanctuary in Belize

Research Reports: Psychological Factors in Immunity ...... 11

Correction: Heart Rate and Activity ...... 11

Grants Available ...... 12

NIH Regional Workshops on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ...... 12

Information Available ...... 13
. . Chimpanzee Newsletter, National Disease Research Interchange, PIC, Gorilla Gazette, SCAW Speakers' Bureau

Malaria in Travelers Returning from Kenya ...... 14

Research Opportunity: National Research Council ...... 14

Reading List for Young Readers ...... 15

B Virus Cases in Michigan Rhesus Handlers...... insert

Cartoon, after C. Brinkman ...... 8:

Another Cartoon, after C. Brinkman ...... 10:

Wow! Another Cartoon ...... 15:


Positions Available ...... 9

Recent Books and Articles ...... 16

Address Changes ...... 28

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Compatible Rhesus Monkeys Provide Long-Term Stimulation for Each Other

Susan Ranheim and Viktor Reinhardt
University of Wisconsin


Numerous methods of environmental enrichment for singly caged rhesus monkeys have been described (Fajzi et al., 1989). With only two exceptions (Line, 1987; Reinhardt et al., 1988), however, the effects of such methods have not been evaluated over long periods of continual exposure. Some novel objects gradually lose their attractiveness for a caged monkey and hence become useless after some time. For example, less than 10% of 148 rhesus monkeys continued to pay attention to hard nylon balls after 11 months of exposure (Line, 1987). It would be inefficient, therefore, to provide singly caged rhesus monkeys with nylon balls. On the other hand, 100% of 75 rhesus monkeys were still using a branch for perching and/or gnawing after 15 months of exposure (Reinhardt et al., 1988). Comparable analyses are needed to determine the long-term usefulness of other environmental enrichment strategies.

The present study evaluates the long-term usefulness of social facilitation for previously singly caged adult rhesus monkeys.


Twelve singly caged, unrelated female rhesus monkeys were paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment (Reinhardt et al., 1987), and their interactions were recorded 30 months after pair formation. Each pair was observed for a total of 60 min, on two occasions from 12:15-12:45 when the animals were not distracted by any human activities. The animals lived on a temporary basis in 85x85x85 cm cages for repeated in-homecage venipuncture (Vertein and Reinhardt, 1989). They were fed commercial dry food at about 7:30, supplemented with fruit at about 15:00. Water was supplied ad libitum.

The proportion of total time (100% = 60 min) during which companions were observed interacting with each other was calculated for each pair.

|Paired females|Time spent interacting with each other |
|              |grooming|huddling|total (100% = 60 min)|
|Jimmie &  Helga|36.0 min|0.0 min |36.0 min   (60.0%)   |
|Chip &  Cha    |1.0 min |4.0 min |5.0 min    ( 8.3%)   |
|Sissi &  Ninni |6.0 min |2.1 min |8.1 min    (13.5%)   |
|Zip &  Zap     |18.1 min|0.0 min |18.1 min   (30.2%)   |
|Bluff &  Irma  |5.9 min |8.0 min |13.9 min   (23.2%)   |
|Xantha &  Fox  |40.3 min|4.9 min |45.2 min   (75.3%)   |
|Mean          |17.9 min|3.2 min |21.1 min   (35.1%)   |

Table I. Time budget of adult female rhesus monkeys that have lived together for 2.5 years for the purpose of cage enrichment.


Without exception, partners of all 6 pairs were seen interacting with each other (Table I) . The interactions observed were 1) grooming each other and 2) huddling with each other. The proportion of total time spent interacting with one another ranged from 8.3% to 75.3% with a mean of 35.1% (Table I) . Thus, companions were engaged in social grooming and huddling on average for 21 minutes of the 1 hour observation. The monkeys spent significantly more time grooming than huddling (Table I, Mann-Whitney test p < 0.05).


This study clearly shows that socializing previously singly caged rhesus monkeys provides effective stimulation over long periods of time. While nylon balls are attractive to individually caged animals in only about 10% of cases after 11 months of exposure (Line, 1987), companions were attractive to each other in 100% of cases after 30 months of exposure. A companion is probably a more species-appropriate stimulus than an artificial toy. The same seems to hold true for branches, which retain their attractiveness for at least 15 months (Reinhardt et al., 1988). Unfortunately no data are yet available on the proportion of time animals are actually distracted by nylon balls, branches, or any other environmental enrichment gadget. The rhesus monkeys in the present study distracted each other in species-typical ways on average 35% of the time, even though the companions had lived with each other continually for 2.5 years. Apparently, a compatible companion is a very valuable, ever-changing stimulus that does not easily lose its effect over time.


Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V., & Smith, M.S. (1989). A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged nonhuman primates. Lab Animal, 18 [2], 23-32.

Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., Vertein, R., & Houser, D. (1987). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar female rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26 [2], 5-6.

Reinhardt, V., Eisele, S., & Houser, D. (1988). Environmental enrichment program for caged macaques: A review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27 [2], 5-6.

Line, S.W. (1987). Environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 190, 854-859.

Vertein, R., & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Training female rhesus monkeys to cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28 [2], 1-3.


Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
We are thankful to Mr. John Wolf for editing this manuscript.
This investigation was supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.

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Letter: Polyvinyl Perches

Axel Wolff, in the January issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter (28, 1989, 7), reported on the use of polyvinyl chloride piping for squirrel monkey perch material. A cited drawback was the inability of the material to withstand a cagewash temperature of 180deg F. We have solved this problem by using chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe. Perches made of CPVC can go through the cagewash with the squirrel monkey cages. For larger colonies of squirrel monkeys, this translates to a substantial reduction in labor time.

Our monkeys are either individually housed or socialized in groups of two by adjoining two individual cages via an open grid tunnel. Perches are used in both situations. We have designed our perches so that they can be attached and removed from the cage without opening the cage door. This allows us to dismantle the perch and use our squeeze cages without entering the cage. The design consists of a \"J" shaped section of stainless steel attached to each end of the pipe. The section hooking onto the rear of the cage is simply screwed onto the pipe. The other \"J" piece slides on a screw so that the pipe can be secured in place from outside the cage. Two sections of one-half inch (inner diameter) CPVC pipe, aligned side by side, are installed for each monkey.

Twenty-five of our 26 squirrel monkeys interact with their perches by sitting, eating, sleeping, or jumping up and down and vocalizing. Prior to the introduction of perches, we had observed an ulceration unresponsive to various treatment strategies on the plantar surface of one of the monkey's feet. We observed the beginnings of the same problem in other members of our group. We have had no problems of this nature since the addition of perches, and the ulcerative process of the single monkey has resolved.--Nancy Contel, Staff Veterinarian, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Experimental Station, P.O. Box 80400, Wilmington, DE 19880-0400.

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Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Alert

The Division of Veterinary Sciences, Primate Research Institute (PRI), New Mexico State University, Holloman AFB, NM 88330-1027 [505-479-6101] has issued an alert to advise all potential or current users of feral primates that the disease Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHF), has been diagnosed in a severe epizootic, limited to part of its macaque colony. Stringent management techniques in excess of those normally used for quarantine limited the outbreak to about 400 macaques out of a population of over 2000. Investigation is concentrating on potential exposure, prior to arrival at PRI, of a recently arrived shipment of cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) to African species (baboons, patas and African green monkeys) that harbor the virus in latent form.

Normal quarantine practices proved insufficient to contain SHF because of its extraordinary virulence and the high susceptibility of macaques, which appear to have no natural resisitance. The nature of the problem did not become evident before significant spread occurred within the PRI macaque colony because: 1) secondary bacterial infections obscured the normal symptoms of SHF; 2) cynomolgus monkeys did not show the classical signs previously reported in rhesus monkeys, impeding diagnosis; 3) animals became infectious before showing evidence of illness.

PRI's veterinary staff, directed by David Renquist, D.V.M., requested and received extensive logistical support for diagnosis, management, and analysis of the epizootic from a wide variety of agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. The outbreak was traced to a group of M. fascicularis received at the facility on March 23, 1989. SHF was first suspected early in April, and confirmed on April 17 by Dr. William London of NIH.

SHF is a relatively uncommon problem in primates. Approximately 8 outbreaks have occurred previously, the last in 1972, where patas monkeys were implicated as an asymptomatic host species; rhesus monkeys became inoculated as a result of contamination of ketamine with a very small amount of patas blood (10&S'-12 dilution). Historically, infection to macaques from African species is thought to occur from a bite or contaminated needle. Once macaques are infected, spread might occur by direct contact, potential aerosol, animate and inanimate carriers, cage-to-cage transfer, feces, and urine. Historically, and in the present outbreak, there is no evidence of transmission to humans. Clinical signs of SHF include epistaxis, ecchymosis, lethargy, ataxia, anorexia, moribundity, and death.

Considering the extremely virulent and lethal nature of the virus, inability to predict a viremic animal, and its potential latency in baboons, patas, and African green monkeys, it would be prudent to reevaluate procedures in or during the holding of these species when adjacent to macaques. Additionally, any macaque having symptoms of epistaxis with ecchymosis and unexplained death, should be considered suspicious with immediate P-3 (most stringent) personnel, animal, and facility quarantine procedures instituted until a diagnosis is confirmed. Normal (P-2) quarantine procedures may not contain this virus.

Further information will be available at a seminar to be held in conjunction with the American Society of Primatologists and American Primate Veterinarians meetings in Mobile, AL, this August.


London, W. T. (1977). Epizootiology, transmission and approach to prevention of fatal simian hemorrhagic fever in rhesus monkeys. Nature, 268, 344-345.

Palmer, A. E., Allen, A. M., Tauraso, N. M., & Shelokov, A. (1988). Simian hemorrhagic fever. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 17, 404-412.

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Preliminary Information on Rare Tibetan Macaques at the San Diego Zoo

D. Flynn, A. S. Clarke, N. C. Harvey, & D. G. Lindburg
Zoological Society of San Diego

The Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a large-bodied, stump-tailed macaque endemic to China. Until recently, there were no studies of this macaque, and it remains among the least known of the genus.

Intermittent studies of a provisioned population of M. thibetana in a tourist park at Mt. Emei, China (Sichuan province) were initiated several years ago by Zhao and Deng (1987, 1988a, b, c, d). The Mt. Emei population consists of six groups, ranging in size from 28 to 65 individuals (mean x = 38.3). Mean adult sex ratio (F:M) for the population was 3:1 (Zhao and Deng, 1988d). The investigators found evidence for breeding and birth seasonality in this population, and for male emigration and male-male competition (Zhao and Deng, 1988c; Zhao, Deng, & Nash, 1989). The habitats of this and other populations were most frequently described as forested and mountainous (Fooden et al, 1985).

Although the Mt. Emei population enjoys the relative protection of the tourist park, the species is regarded as \"endangered" (Eudey, 1987). Lack of information on the behavior of M. thibetana has been confounded by its scarcity in captivity. Outside China, the East Berlin Zoo has exhibited a few individuals of this species in the past, and the species was also once kept by the Philadelphia Zoo. Until now, the latter had been the only ones in the United States.

In 1987 the San Diego Zoo obtained six captive-born Tibetan macaques (three males and three females) from the Chengdu Zoo for the purpose of establishing a breeding colony. Within a few months of arrival, one animal had died and two others were euthanized for complications relating to tuberculosis (see Janssen, 1988 and in press). The remaining three (one male and two females) were moved to a university quarantine facility, given Isoniazid therapy and TB-tested monthly for the next year. Although information provided with the animals was minimal, the ages of the three surviving animals at acquisition were given as follows: male = 6 years, adult female = 6 years, subadult female = 4 years. According to descriptions of age-related changes in pelage and weight from the Mt. Emei population (Zhao & Deng, 1988a) these ages appear to be accurate. As of 11/88, the weights of the animals were 19.4 kg for the male, 16.0 kg for the adult female, and 11.6 kg for the younger female.


Adult male Tibetan macaque (R) being groomed by subadult female. Note robust build of both animals, and large canines of the male. Photo by Craig W. Racicot, Zoological Society of San Diego.

Currently the three animals are housed together in an outdoor cage in an off-exhibit research facility at the San Diego Zoo, where they have visual and auditory access to several lion-tailed macaque (M. silenus) groups housed nearby. The animals are fed a diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and commercial monkey biscuits once daily. At this writing, the three animals have been housed together for six months.

Daily morning urine samples are collected from the females and will be assayed for estrone conjugates and progesterone metabolites. The females exhibit no sexual swelling or color change. However, other indicators of female cyclicity are observable. The presence of menstrual blood is easily detected by visual inspection in both females; presence or absence of menses is noted daily. Data for intermenstrual intervals thus far yield the following cycle data: mean cycle length for the older female was 26.3 days (N = 7 cycles) and that for the younger female was 42.3 days (N = 4 cycles). So far neither of the females has become pregnant. Probably due to her immaturity, the younger female's early menstrual cycles were longer and more irregular than those of the adult female, although her most recent cycles have been shorter and have been synchronous with the older female. Both females also exhibit clearly visible vaginal mucus secretions; degree of mucus is scored daily via a rating system. Quantity of vaginal mucus appears to vary over the cycle, with the largest amount present at midcycle. Analysis of these behavioral and physiological data will enable the detection of variations in reproductive behavior over female cycle phase and relation to female hormonal profiles.

Behavioral data are collected daily on weekdays. Observations indicate a linear dominance hierarchy among the three animals. The male is dominant to both females and the older female is dominant to the younger. Sexual behavior occurs throughout the cycle of both females. Both multiple and single mount-to-ejaculation patterns have been observed, although the single mount pattern occurs more frequently.

The prospects for a breeding program are still optimistic, as we hope to obtain more of these animals from Chinese zoos in the near future. A larger colony will provide not only breeding prospects, but also the opportunity to study closely the social and reproductive behavior of this little-known species. These data will contribute to effective management and husbandry of this rare species in the future, as well as providing data for the comparison of behavior and reproductive patterns with other macaques. References

Deng, Z. & Zhao, Q. (1987). Social structure in a wild group of Macaca thibetana at Mt. Emei, China. Folia Primatologica, 49, 1-10.

Eudey, A. A. (1987). Priorities in Asian primate conservation. Primate Conservation, 8, 172-174.

Fooden, J., Guoquiang, Q., Zongren, W., & Yingxiang, W. (1985). The stumptail macaques of China. American Journal of Primatology, 8, 11-30.

Janssen, D. (1988). Tuberculosis in San Diego Zoo. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27 [3], 14.

Janssen, D. L., Anderson, M. P., Abildgaard, S., & Silverman, S. Tuberculosis in newly imported Tibetan macaques (Macaca speciosa thibetans). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, in press.

Zhao, Q. & Deng, Z. (1988a). Ranging behavior of Macaca thibetana at Mt. Emei, China. International Journal of Primatology, 9, 37-47.

Zhao, Q. & Deng, Z. (1988b) Tibetan macaques at Mt. Emei, China: I. A cross-sectional study of growth and development. American Journal of Primatology, 16, 251-260.

Zhao, Q. & Deng, Z. (1988c). Tibetan macaques at Mt. Emei, China: II. Birth seasonality. American Journal of Primatology, 16, 261-268.

Zhao, Q. & Deng, Z. (1988d). Tibetan macaques at Mt. Emei, China: III. Group composition. American Journal of Primatology, 16, 269-273.

Zhao, Q., Deng, Z., & Nash, L. (1989). Mating behavior and mate competition in wild Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in China. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 78, 329 (abstract).


Authors' address: Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112.
The authors thank the veterinary and animal care staff of the San Diego Zoo hospital for their cooperation and assistance.

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Species Survival Plan Report: Golden Lion Tamarin

J. Ballou and D. Kleiman

Status of the Population: On 12 September 1988, the captive population consisted of 517 (238 male, 242 female, 37 unknown sex) living tamarins distributed over 87 institutions worldwide. This population size represents a 1% reduction since the same time last year.

A gene drop analysis was conducted on the population to evaluate the genetic representation and contribution of the founders to the current population. Fifty-one wild-caught founders are currently represented; however, because of bottleneck events and genetic drift in the pedigree, genomes of many are only partially represented. Only 18 of the 51 are fully represented. Twenty are represented between 50% and 90%, and 13 have less than 50% of their genome surviving in the population. As a result, only 33 of the possible 102 unique founder alleles have survived, representing a 68% loss of founder allele diversity. This translates into 14.5 founder equivalents and 13.2 founder genome equivalents (technical measures of \"effective founders"). Significant efforts need to be devoted to bringing additional founders into the captive population.

The average level of inbreeding in the population is 0.026. In other words, 2.6% of the original founder heterozygosity has been lost.

Population growth continues to be managed through limited use of contraceptive implants and separating successfully breeding pairs that have produced their share of young. Currently, over 20 females are carrying contraceptive implants. However, there is still a need for institutions interested in holding exhibit-only non-breeding golden lion tamarins. Any institution interested in joining the Golden Lion Tamarin (GLT) Conservation Program should contact: Dr. Devra Kleiman, Dept. of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008 [202-673-4825].

Reintroduction Program: To date, 61 captive-born and 6 confiscated golden lion tamarins have been released in or near the Poco das Antas Biological Reserve in 1984, 1985, 1987, and 1988. Thirty-three of the captive-born, 3 of the wild-born (i.e., confiscated), and 10 of 13 resulting offspring are alive today (2 of which are 2nd generation reintroduction births!).

The 1988 reintroduction of 15 tamarins took place in early November. Originally from Skansen, Frankfurt, Penscynor, and the University of Nebraska, all but the Nebraska animals were kept at the National Zoo for 30 days' quarantine prior to being sent to Brazil. The Nebraska animals had been living at liberty on the grounds of the National Zoo all summer and thus had some unstructured pre-release training in locomotion and orientation.

As was done in 1987, the 1988 reintroductions took place on forest tracts on privately owned farms. The Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Project's educational team had identified landowners who were willing to preserve these forests as permanent private reserves (protected from cutting, grazing, and hunting). These tracts are all within several kilometers of Poco das Antas Reserve and well within the historic distribution of golden lion tamarins. Because of this strategy, some very fine forests have been saved, and some influential landowners have invested in the Conservation Project. There has been a mutually beneficial exchange of prestige between Conservation Project staff and landowners that can be measured concretely by the waiting list of additional landowners wanting to preserve their forest and have tamarins. There are 14 additional forest tracts (one 360 hectares!) on farms that have been committed for translocations and reintroductions.

Newly released animals are provisioned daily with canned marmoset diet in an apparatus that requires manipulative foraging. The apparatus, along with bananas, is placed at progressively greater distances from the next box, thus stimulating natural foraging and locomotion while allowing the animals to maintain weight and condition during this crucial early phase of their release training.

Animals are fed and checked daily, and data on food consumption and a variety of behaviors are collected. This intensive monitoring schedule not only increases the likelihood that disappearances and deaths can be documented, but also helps maintain project \"presence" at the privately owned reintroduction sites.

Plans are underway for a 1989 reintroduction, probably consisting of 4 family groups being reintroduced on additional private land.

For further information, contact Dr. Ben Beck, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008.


This article is reprinted with permission from The AAZPA Newsletter, 1989, 30 [2], 6-7.

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Meeting Announcements

Animal Models and Viral Diseases

The UCLA Symposia on Molecular & Cellular Biology are interdisciplinary conferences funded through registration fees, gifts, and grants. Overlapping meetings, in which conferees registered in one may attend sessions in either, are being held at Keystone, CO, on \"Animal Models of Human Viral Diseases: Relevance to Developmental Therapeutics" (March 31-April 5, 1990) and \"HIV and AIDS: Pathogenesis, Therapy and Vaccine" (March 31-April 6, 1990). The Animal Models conference is being organized by John Blasecki, Catherine Loughlin, and John McGowan, while the HIV conference will be organized by Samuel Broder and Flossie Wong-Staal. For detailed programs, information, and applications, contact UCLA Symposia, 2032 Armacost Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90025 [213-207-5042].

Gesellschaft für Primatologie

The first business meeting of the Gesellschaft für Primatologie will be held, in combination with a scientific congress, in Göttingen in the autumn of 1989. The Gesellschaft, which hopes to affiliate to the International Primatological Society, aims to support the protection of primates and the conservation of their habitats; to promote research in primatology and collaboration between scientists; and to sponsor insitutions or projects for the breeding and conservation of primates. For information about the Gesellschaft and its upcoming meeting, contact Dr. Eberhard Fuchs, c/o Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-3400 Göttingen, FRG. .cb;International Ethological Conference

The twenty-first International Ethological Conference, an international conference of animal behaviorists, dedicated to the integration and synthesis of all aspects of animal behavior, will meet in 1989 from August 9 to 17 in Utrecht, The Netherlands. For information, write to: XXIst International Ethological Conference, c/o QLT Convention Services, Keizergracht 792, 1017 EC Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ICLAS Regional Symposium

The First ICLAS Regional Symposium in Laboratory Animal Science will be held in Nairobi, Kenya, November 7 to 10, 1989. The program will include workshops, symposia, panel discussions, papers, and posters. For information and registration forms, write to Programme Chairman, Institute of Primate Research, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya.

Asociación Mexicana de Primatología

The Asociación Mexicana de Primatología, a young organization whose goals include the fostering of scientific exchange among primatologists and the enhancement of conservation efforts in Mesoamerica, plans a meeting, to be held jointly with the American Primatological Society, in 1992, in Cancún, México. For information about the Asociación or the meeting, contact the President, Dr. Alejandro Estrada, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 176, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, México.

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News Briefs

Misleading Positive Tuberculin Reactions

False positive TB reactions were found in a colony of squirrel monkeys, a species which is exceedingly resistent to tuberculosis. Donna L. Pierce and W. Richard Dukelow of the Endocrine Research Center at Michigan State University, report in a paper (\"Misleading positive tuberculin reactions in a squirrel monkey colony." Laboratory Animal Science, 1988, 38, 729-730) that careful examination of research and health records revealed that the reacting animals had received Freund complete adjuvant (which contains killed M. tuberculosis organisms) some years earlier, and this caused the false reaction.

Animal Research Facility Protection Act

Legislation to protect animal research facilities from illegal acts was introduced on April 7 by Senator Howell T. Heflin (D-AL). The Animal Research Facility Protection Act, S. 727, is an amendment to the Animal Welfare Act making it a federal crime to steal, destroy, or make unauthorized use of research animals, equipment or data. In his floor statement, Senator Heflin referred to an incident of arson, theft, and damage which had occurred earlier that week at the University of Arizona. He said, in part, \"Extremists who perpetrate crimes in the name of animal rights ignore not only the rights of others, but also their own rights of free speech... Everyone can agree that we owe an enormous debt to research animals. Laboratory animals should be utilized only when necessary and must be well cared for and respected for humane as well as scientific reasons. But no one can condone lawless and senselessly destructive acts for whatever reason they are motivated."

\"In the Wild" in the Zoo

Golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) at the National Zoo in Washington, DC, are being habituated to freedom in preparation for their release back in Brazil. The animals' nest boxes have been hung in trees outside of their cages, and ropes are strung from tree to tree over pedestrian paths, to resemble branches and vines. Food is hung from trees to allow foraging.

The first group of zoo-bred golden lion tamarins to be released in Brazil had been given lessons in foraging and avoiding predators in their cages, but they were reluctant to venture out of their cages once they were placed in the jungle. Free-release training is not only more effective, it is also more economical. -- from an article by Edwards Park in Smithsonian, 1988, 19[6], 24-28.

Black Howler Monkey Sanctuary in Belize

The black howler monkey (Alouatta nigra) is known in Belize as the \"baboon," so an 18 square mile area in that country, containing an estimated 1000 howlers, is called the Community Baboon Sanctuary. \"Community" because this is a grassroots conservation effort which began with just 12 landowners and one village, and now is supported by 8 villages and over 70 landowners. Each landowner has voluntarily pledged to manage his farmland in cooperation with the Belize Audubon Society, which has 4 main goals: conservation, education, research, and tourism. A 113-page illustrated paperback book, The Community Baboon Sanctuary: A Guidebook, Gays Mills, WI: Orang-utan Press, 1988, is available for $5 (U.S. postpaid) from Dr. Robert Horwich, RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631.

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Birth of Twin Chimpanzees

Douglas Cohn
The Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates

The Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP) of New York University Medical Center announces the birth of twin chimpanzees. The mother, eighteen year old Andrea, was six weeks away from expected parturition when a large pool of blood was discovered under her cage on April 11th, which suggested imminent abortion. However, to everyone's surprise she was found the next morning dorsally recumbent supporting two tiny babies on her ventrum! Since it was uncertain that Andrea could successfully rear her babies, she was sedated and all three were examined. The twins, named Alise and Amber, weighed 0.68 and 0.77 kg, respectively, about half as much as a normal newborn chimpanzee. Andrea was in good condition and had already passed her placenta but, not surprisingly, had insignificant breast development and little milk production. We decided it would be better to hand raise both babies, rather than risk losing one or both to inadequate nutrition.

The twins at first were fed hourly with a 10% detrose solution. Gradually Similac formula was added to their diet until, by 72 hours, they were drinking full strength Similac solution, and feedings could be given every two hours. Both babies passed their first feces on the sixth day. By this time preliminary hematological data indicated a hypochronic anemia (PVC = 28), and each infant was given oral iron supplementation. Gradually the feedings were spaced so that, after the second week, they were fed eight times a day. During the third week the twins developed upper respiratory tract infections, which had to be treated with antibiotics. The anemia still did not resolve, so the oral iron supplements were increased, and some iron was given parenterally. Still, they continued to gain weight (they broke the 1.0 kg mark by the fourth week) and began to support their heads on their own. Although as of this writing they are still not completely out of the woods, every day that passes raises their chances of survival. We will keep you informed of their progress.


Author's address: The Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates, Long Meadow Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987.

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Positions Available


The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, is seeking a well-qualified biological scientist for the position of Staff Officer for committees on biological and behavioral issues of national interest. Responsibilities include developing proposals, budgets, and committee nominations and convening and assisting committees until completion of the report. Qualifications include demonstrated excellent oral and written communications skills, especially in preparing scientific and technical reports, editing scientific reports, briefing technical experts, and coordinating with report sponsors, administration, supervision and budgeting. Also required is the ability to work knowledgeably with experts and committees with differing viewpoints on such diverse topics as transgenic animals; bioethics; animal use in education, testing, and research; electronic (computer) communication; animal records systems; national surveys; animal models of human diseases; animal pain and distress; biohazards and zoonoses; husbandry and use of standards for laboratory animals; and refinements or alternatives to the use of living animals in biomedical research. Depending on experience and qualifications, this person may possess a DVM, MD, PhD, or Masters degree. Publication in refereed journals is desirable.

The NRC offers a salary commensurate with experience and an excellent benefits package, including paid relocation to the Washington, DC area. Send a letter of application, current curriculum vitae, and names and addresses of three references in confidence to NRC/ILAR, (HA 372-TW), 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418. The NRC is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Cayo Santiago

The Caribbean Primate Research Center of the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, has a position available for a Staff Scientist at the Cayo Santiago research facility. The individual will be expected to develop and conduct an independent research program or project, to participate in the ongoing collaborative studies, and to assist the Scientist-in-Charge in the management of the facility. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in the field of primatology. Applicants should supply a letter, a C.V., and names of 3 references to: John Berard, Scientist-in-Charge, CPRC, P.O. Box 906, Punta Santiago, PR 00741.

* * *

Intake, Output, and Urinalysis in Cynomolgus Monkeys

In a paper, \"Food- and water-intake, urinary and fecal output, and urinalysis in the wild-originated cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) under the indoor individually-caged conditions," published in Japanese in Experimental Animals, 1989, 38, 71-74, M. T. Suzuki, M. Hamano, F. Cho, and Shigeo Honjo described how daily food and water intake, and urinary and fecal output were determined for 253 wild-caught cynomolgus monkeys kept in individual cages. Freshly collected urine was analyzed. A statistically significant correlation was observed between total water intake and urinary output, as well as between urinary output and urinary specific gravity (p < 0.01). The following table summarizes their findings.

|Number of animals examined| Male, 61                              |
|Body weight, kg           |6.5+/-1.3*                             |
|Commercial monkey chow, g |46+/-23                                |
|Apple, g                  |96+/-11                                |
|Orange, g                 |87+/-19                                |
|Drinking water, |ml(ml/kg)|311+/-187  30-830** (50+/-33)  (4-126) |
|Total water,***  ml(ml/kg)|474+/-187 207-947   (76+/-35) (25-156) |
|Fecal output, g(g/kg)     | 19+/-8     2-43   (3.0+/-1.3) (1-6)   |
|Urinary output, ml(ml/kg) |131+/-81   17-376   (21+/-15)  (3-72)  |
|Number of animals examined| Female, 192                           |                                  --------------------------------------------------------------------
|Body weight, kg           |3.4+/-0.9                              |
|Commercial monkey chow, g | 31+/-17                               |
|Apple, g                  | 96+/-13                               |
|Orange, g                 | 87+/-17                               |
|Drinking water, |ml(ml/kg)|162+/-153  10-1070   (49+/-48)  (3-406)|
|Total water,***  ml(ml/kg)|327+/-155 144-1249  (100+/-51) (30-474)|
|Fecal output, g(g/kg)     | 13+/-7     1-44    (3.0+/-2.3) (1-18) |
|Urinary output, ml(ml/kg) | 89+/-59   10-384    (27+/-18)  (3-139)|

*: Mean +/- standard deviation **: Minimum-Maximum ***: Drinking water plus water in food eaten

Table 1. Food and water intake, urinary and fecal output per day in cynomolgus monkeys

* * *

Research Reports: Psychological Factors in Immunity

As part of a broad effort to define and standardize reference data on immunological responses in monkeys, Dr. Christopher L. Coe, professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin, and colleagues at Stanford University School of Medicine have shown that levels of antibodies circulating in the bloodstream -- generally thought to change only in response to immunizations, disease, or drug treatment -- can be strongly influenced by rearing conditions of infant squirrel monkeys. The investigators studied the antibody response to viral challenge in 6-month-old monkeys that had been removed from their mothers for 7-day periods in different separation environments. Monkeys that were housed individually in unfamiliar cages showed significantly reduced antibody levels, but those that were housed with 3 or 4 familiar infant companions in their home cages mounted a normal antibody response.

Coe and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin have also shown that early rearing conditions significantly affect the type of lymphocyte proliferation responses observed in juvenile rhesus monkeys. His current work now also focuses on several other measures of immune response, including the function of specialized immune system cells that respond to infection and regulate immune competence -- lymphoctyes, macrophages, and natural killer cells. They are examining whether psychological intervention such as different types of housing can affect the immune system of aging monkeys and whether thymic hormones are effective in restoring the declining immune response.

Taken as a whole, these studies of immunological responses in monkeys show that immune function is subject to multiple influences, including age and sex as well as psychological factors. \"There is a complex interrelationship between the endocrine, immune, and autonomic nervous systems, and all three are susceptible to influence by psychological factors," says Dr. Coe. -- From a report by Judy Estrin in the Research Resources Reporter, May 1989, 13[5], 8-10.

* * *

Correction: Heart Rate and Activity

In the article \"Heart rate and activity of rhesus monkeys in response to routine events," by S. W. Line, K. N. Morgan, H. Markowitz, and S. Strong (Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 1989, 28 [2], 9-12), Figure 3 had an error in the legend, and the shaded bar in Figure 5 was poorly reproduced. The Figures are correctly reproduced here.

Figure 3: Heart rate of the subjects on a day they were TB tested and a normal day. The monkeys were still sedated with ketamine at 1000 and were fully awake by 1100.

Figure 5: Heart rate and activity during an evening treatment. Each point represents the mean (+/- SEM) for the six subjects sampled at two-minute intervals on four different days. The shaded bar denotes the period of time that a human was in the animal room.

Editor's Note: The graphs are correct in the Web version of the original.

* * *

Grants Available

The Division of Research Resources (DRR) is continuing its competitive grant program to help institutions upgrade and develop their animal facilities. DRR anticipates that $10.931 million may be available to support 35 to 40 animal facility improvement grants in Fiscal Year 1990.

Institutional animal resource improvement grants are awarded to assist biomedical research and educational institutions in upgrading their animal facilities and developing a centralized animal care program. A major objective is to enable institutions to comply with the USDA Animal Welfare Act and DHHS policies on the care and treatment of animals. These awards are limited to Alterations and Renovations (A&R) to improve laboratory animal facilities and related major resource equipment, such as animal cages and washers. It is not the purpose of the improvement grant to provide general operating costs for the resource. The projects are supported for one year.

To gain approval and support, both the need for resource improvement as well as a sound plan to meet the requirements of the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals must be presented and described in the context of the biomedical research training program of the institution.

Any domestic public, or private institution, organization or association with one or more research projects supported by the Public Health Service and involving the use of animals is eligible to apply. Applicants are expected to develop a single proposal for campus-wide service. The following receipt dates have been established: August 7, 1989 and December 4, 1989. Applications received after these dates will be returned. All applications will be pooled for funding in the summer, 1990.

Institutions may request major equipment items for their animal resources as well as funds for A&R. Support for new construction is not authorized. The total award is limited to a maximum of $700,000 from this grant program. Within this, there is no limit on the equipment request but the request for A&R is limited to $500,000. Equal matching funds from non-Federal sources are required for all A&R as well as equipment. Funds awarded for A&R may not be obligated until final architectural drawings, specifications, and updated cost estimates are received and approved by the Division of Research Resources.

A copy of the complete RFA, which describes the research goals and scope, terms and conditions, review procedures and criteria, and method of applying, may be obtained by contacting: Leslie P. Bullock, D.V.M., Director, Laboratory Animal Sciences Program, Division of Research Resources, 5333 Westbard Avenue, Room 853, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 [301-496-5175].

* * *

NIH Regional Workshops on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

The National Institutes of Health, Office for Protection from Research Risks, is continuing to sponsor a series of workshops in implementing the Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The workshops are open to institutional administrators, members of animal care and use committees, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators and other institutional staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional ,cb animal care and use programs.

The next such workshop will be held September 14-15, 1989, at Denver, Colorado. For more information, contact Mrs. Mary Peratt, Coordinator for Research Affairs, Office of Research Affairs, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Box C290, 4200 East 9th Ave., Denver, CO 80262 [303-270-7960].

* * *

Information Available

Chimpanzee Newsletter

A new publication, dedicated entirely to the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is intended to provide an opportunity to share information, ideas, events, announcements, anecdotes, and to ask questions that will aid in better understanding and care of captive chimpanzees. It will be published quarterly on September 15, January 15, April 15, and June 15.

A first issue, provisionally titled The Newsletter, appeared in May, containing articles on the chimpanzees at the University of Texas Science Park, the St. Louis Zoo, and the Primate Foundation of Arizona (PFA). The Newsletter is published courtesy of the PFA. Jo Fritz, director of PFA, serves as Editorial Consultant. Cindy Knapp, PFA Caregiver, and Susan Menkhus, PFA Staff Observer and Arizona State University graduate student, are Co-Editors.

Articles submitted to The Newsletter should be no more than 1000 words, typed in double-spaced format. Black and white illustrations will be accepted. Topics may include, but are not limited to, management techniques, veterinary practices, facilities descriptions, case history profiles, issues and questions, employment, research opportunities, news, and events. The deadlines for submittal are 30 days prior to the publication date, i.e. August 15 for the September 15 issue. Submissions and correspondence should be sent to Susan Menkhus and Cindy Knapp, Co-Editors, The Newsletter, c/o The Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280.

.bi;Gorilla Gazette

The Great Apes staff of the Columbus Zoo are publishing a newsletter, called the Gorilla Gazette, intended to be by and for gorilla keepers, and a source of practical advice for great ape facilities. Articles in the first 3 volumes include descriptions of facilities, populations, and procedures, as well as requests for information and chatty notes. The staff also has available a list, compiled by Rob Sutherland of the Calgary Zoo, of zoos housing gorillas in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. Address requests to the Great Apes Staff, Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Drive, P.O. Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400.

National Disease Research Interchange

Human tissues and organs that would otherwise be discarded are being made available to researchers through the National Disease Research Interchange (NDRI) in Philadelphia. NDRI provides a full range of services to researchers, including nationwide tissue retrieval, processing, and delivery. It is not a tissue bank, but acts as an interchange between sources of human tissue -- hospitals, organ recovery programs, eye banks -- and investigators who require a reliable, steady supply of human tissue propared precisely for their research needs. For more information, contact: Director of Research, NDRI, 2401 Walnut Street, Suite 408, Philadelphia, PA 19103 [800-222-NDRI or 215-557-7361].


The Primate Information Center now can provide a monthly listing of all indexed literature added to their database in your own defined field. This monthly, custom literature search is available for an annual fee of $20, and service may begin any time during the year. Call the PIC at 206-543-4376 for more information on how to set up your own monthly bibliography.

SCAW Speakers' Bureau

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) will provide speakers on the following topics (subject to approval of speakers and, in some instances, availability of honoraria and expense reimbursements): Federal laws covering research with animals; Facility management and care of laboratory and experimental animals; Bioethics; Research using wildlife; Animal behavior; The case for humane vivisection; Biomedical and other research requiring use of animals; Noninvasive animal models development, and refinement of existing models; Operation of IACUCs; Animal protocol review issues; Animal suffering. On request, SCAW will find speakers on relevant topics not included here.

* * *

Malaria in Travelers Returning from Kenya

In August 1988, seven (88%) of eight U.S. citizens returning to Pennsylvania from a tour of western Kenya developed symptoms of malaria. Onset of symptoms occurred 10-74 days (median: 12 days) after arrival in the zone endemic for malaria. The travelers stayed 1 month in an area within 100 miles of Lake Victoria. Each took pyrimethamine 12.5 mg with dapsone 100 mg (Maloprim) orally once a week starting 10 days before arrival at this site. All eight were exposed to mosquitoes at night, and all used insecticide and mosquito netting for protection. None of the eight had had malaria before this trip.

Each of the seven experienced fever, followed by chills, rigors, and diaphoresis. Five of the seven became ill while still in Kenya. In one of these five, symptoms resolved spontaneously within 2 days of onset; .tr ` ED;.* circle e the other four took presumptive oral therapy with pyrimethamine 75 mg with sulfadoxine 1.5 g (Fansidar`, 3 tablets) 2 days before returning to the United States. One of these four had symptom resolution after therapy with Fansidar`. One of the three travelers whose symptoms persisted after Fansidar` therapy had a therapeutic level of sulfadoxine (57ppm) on her return to the United States.

Blood smears were examined for all three travelers who remained symptomatic after Fansidar` therapy, as well as for two additional travelers who became ill after returning to the United States. All five had blood smears diagnostic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All five were treated successfully with quinine and tetracycline. .cb

Malaria is endemic in large areas of sub-Saharan Africa, New Guinea, Latin America, and Asia. Travelers to areas with endemic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and New Guinea are at particular risk for malaria even when recommended precautions such as mosquito netting, insecticides, and chemoprophylaxis are used. Approximately 150 U.S. travelers annually are diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria on return from abroad; most have visited sub-Saharan Africa. Resistance of P. falciparum to chloroquine extends throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and resistance to sulfa drugs and pyrimethamine has also been reported.

Prophylactic use of Maloprim and other pyrimethamine/sulfa compounds against malaria is not recommended for U.S. travelers. Rather, adults traveling to sub-Saharan locations where malaria is endemic should take chloroquine salt, 500 mg orally once each week. Travelers to these areas who have no history of sulfonamide intolerance should also take with them three Fansidar` tablets. If symptoms of malaria occur while the traveler is far from medical assistance, these three tablets of Fansidar` should be taken in a single oral dose as therapy for presumed malaria.

P. falciparum malaria can sometimes persist despite the use of appropriate therapy. Because of increased travel by U.S. citizens, primary-care physicians will continue to have a role not only in prevention but also in diagnosis and treatment of malaria in returning travelers. -- Reprinted from a Note in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1989, 38, 363-364.

* * *

Research Opportunity: National Research Council

The National Research Council Associateship Programs announces an annual competition for scholarly awards for basic research in biological, health, and behavioral sciences, and biotechnology. The Council in cooperation with participating federal laboratories will offer awards for independent scientific research. Recipients will be free to work on problems of their own choice as guest investigators at those laboratories. Many of the programs are open to experienced senior scientists as well as to recent PhD's. Annual stipends for recent graduates range from $27,150 to $35,000 and are appropriately higher for seniors. Relocation reimbursement and funds for professional travel are available. A health insurance program is offered. Deadline for application is August 15. For further information on participating laboratories and application materials, contact: Associateship Programs (GR430A), National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418 [202-334-2760].

* * *

Reading List for Young Readers

Most of us receive letters from teachers and schoolchildren from time to time, asking for information about primatology or specific primates. Cathy A. Johnson-Delaney, D.V.M., of the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse (Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195), has compiled a Reference List for Young Readers, which should be useful for responding to those letters. If other readers suggest additions, we will publish an expanded list in the future.

This list may serve as a guide for the elementary student to begin learning about nonhuman primates. Books listed were preliminarily screened for accuracy, availability, and presentation. Evaluation of the information is left to the student.

Suggested sources of information about primates: libraries -- school, city, county; bookstores; local zoo.

Anderson, Norman & Walter Brown. Lemurs. A Skylight Book. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1984.

d'Aulaire, Emily & Ola. Chimpanzees and Baboons. Ranger Rick's Best Friends Series. Washington, DC: National Wildlife Federation, 1974.

DeVore, I. & S. Eimerl. The Primates" and The Primates -- Young Reader's Edition. Life Nature Library. New York: Time-Life Books, 1965, 1968.

Green, Carl & William Sanford. The Gorilla. Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1986.

Hogan, Paula. The Life of the Gorilla. Raintree Children's Books. Milwaukee: Raintree, 1979.

Kavanagh, Michael. A Complete Guide to Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. New York: Viking Press, 1984.

Leen, Nita. Monkeys -- A Pictorial. New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston, 1978.

Lumley, Kathryn. Monkeys and Apes. A True Book. Chicago: Children's Press, 1982.

McDearmon, Kay. Orangutans, The Red Apes. A Skylight Book. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1983.

Michel, Anna. The Story of Nim, The Chimp Who Learned Language. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980.

Overbeck, Cynthia. The Japanese Macaques. The Lerner Natural Science Books. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1981.

Patterson, Francine. Koko's Kitten and Koko's Story. New York: Scholastic, 1985, 1987.

Powzyk, Joyce. Tracking Wild Chimpanzees. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1988.

van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. My Friends, the Wild Chimpanzees. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1967.

van Lawick-Goodall, Jane. My Life with the Chimpanzees. Los Angeles: Byron, 1988.

More mature reading:

Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.

Goodall, Jane. In the Shadow of Man (revised edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988.

* * *

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


*Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues. Helene N. Guttman, Joy A. Mench, & Richard C. Simmonds (Eds.). Bethesda: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 1989. 164 pp. [Price: $25 each for 1-5 copies; $20 each for multiple copies. Order from SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814]
. . Based on proceedings of a Washington, DC international conference organized by SCAW, this volume includes sections on well-being and ethics, environmental considerations, and animal care and use committees.

*Handbook of Medical Primatology. B. A. Lapin, E. K. Dzhikidze, & E. P. Fridman. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo \"Medicina," 1987. 191 pp. [In Russian. Price: 55 kopeks]

*The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals (6th ed.). Trevor B. Poole (Ed.). New York: Churchill, 1987. 933 pp. [Price: $98]
. . About 190 pages concern animal husbandry for laboratory animals in general, while 81 pages are dedicated to discussions of specific, commonly used primates.


*Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing: An Annotated Bibliography. G. J. Cosmides, R. S. Stafford, & P.-Y. Lu. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989. (26 citations, with abstracts). [Free. Order from Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418]
. .Reprinted from ILAR News, 1989, 31.

*Eye Anatomy of Macaques: A Bibliography, 1980-1988. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. (211 citations, species and subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]

*Histochemistry and Biochemistry of Macaque Eye: A Bibliography, 1976-1989. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. (208 citations, species and subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Address same as above]

*Origins and Fossil Record of New World Monkeys: A Bibliography, 1971-1989 with Selected Earlier Citations. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. (121 citations) [Price: $6.50. Address same as above]


*ICLAS Bulletin, Number 64, Spring, 1989. (International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, CANTAB, Alexandra House, Hinchingbrooke Hospital, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, PE18 8NT, England).
. . This issue contains articles on laboratory animal science in Japan and Nigeria.

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

*Humane Innovations and Alternatives in Animal Experimentation: A Notebook, 1988, Volume 2. (Published by PsyETA, Box 87, New Gloucester, ME 14260.)
. . The issue includes a column by P. O'Neill on problems of maintaining the coat condition of captive rhesus monkeys.

*Non-human Primates in the Netherlands: A Survey of Import and Export, Ownership and Use (TRAFFIC Report, No. 6). F. A. van der Helm & I. Spruit. Zeist, The Netherlands: TRAFFIC, 1988. 88 pp. [Price $6. Order from TRAFFIC (Netherlands), Postbus 7, 37000 AA Zeist, The Netherlands]
. . Report of a joint survey with the International Primate Protection League (Netherlands).


*Town Hall: In the Name of Research. 60 minutes. Portland, OR: KATU-TV, 1988. [Available for loan from Audiovisual Services, Primate Center Library, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 (608-263-3512), by payment of postage charges]
. . A moderated discussion by researchers, proponents of animal rights, and persons who have benefitted from the results of animal research, which will not change the mind of anyone who is committed to either side, but should be useful for teachers.

Animal Models

*Species of the genus Papio (Cercopithecidae) as subjects of biomedical research: I. Biological basis of experiments on baboons. Fridman, E. P. & Popova, V. N. (Primate Information Centre, Research Inst. of Experimental Pathology & Therapy, USSR Academy of Medical Science, Sukhumi, USSR). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 291-307.

*Species of the genus Papio (Cercopithecidae) as subjects of biomedical research: II. Quantative characteristics of contemporary use of baboon species in medical and biological investigations. Fridman, E. P. & Popova, V. N. (Address same as above). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 309-318.
. . Baboons appear to be more similar to man than are other monkey species, which makes them a desirable model for use in experimental research to approximate human health conditions.

*The squirrel monkey in biomedical research. Albee, C. R. (Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688). ILAR News, 1989, 31, 11-20.
. . Current studies of reproductive biology of squirrel monkeys hold promise for improving reproduction if practical management strategies can be developed. A promising approach to more efficient use of the animals is the development of more precise genetic characterization, which will allow the selection of animals with similar characteristics, reducing the number of animals required in each experimental group.

*Disposition of sulphadiazine in young rhesus monkeys with protein calorie malnutrition. Nehru, B., Mehta, S., Nain, C. K., & Mathur, V. S. (Dept. of Biophysics, Punjab Univ., Chandigarh-160014, India). International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology, 1988, 26, 509-512.
. . Disposition of sulphadiazine was assessed in young rhesus monkeys in 3 states: control, protein calorie malnutrition (PCM), and following nutritional rehabilitation. There was no alteration in the absorption kinetics except a delayed peak in the malnourished group. The most significant change observed was in the elimination kinetic parameter. Prolongation of biological half-life and delayed clearance of sulphadiazine in PCM animals suggest that there is need to modify drug dosage and interval of administration in malnutrition.

*Isolation of a gastric campylobacter-like organism from the stomach of four rhesus monkeys, and identification as Campylobacter pylori. Newell, D. G., Hudson, M. J., & Baskerville, A. (Experimental Pathology Lab., PHLS Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJG, UK). Journal of Medical Microbiology, 1988, 27, 41-44.
. . Campylobacter-like organisms, isolated from the gastric antrum of rhesus monkeys, were similar to C. pylori by light microscopy, in ultra- structural morphology, in enzymic, fatty-acid-methyl-ester, and protein-profile analysis, and in antigenic reactivity with rabbit antisera to C. jejuni and C. pylori and with C. pylori-specific monoclonal antibody. Because this natural infection of the rhesus monkey is associated with chronic gastritis, resembling the disease in humans colonized with C. pylori, the animal is recommended as a model for the investigation of human gastritis.

*The neural basis of memory decline in aged monkeys. Walker, L. C., Kitt, C. A., Struble, R. G., Wagster, M. V., Price, D. L., & Cork, L. C. (Neuropathology Lab., 509 Pathology Bldg., Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205-2182). Neurobiology of Aging, 1988, 9, 657-666.
. . Preliminary data suggest that the density of senile plaques, most commonly in amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex, may be related to poor behavioral performance in some aged monkeys. However, behavioral decline begins before the appearance of significant numbers of senile plaques, suggesting that other factors may interfere with cognition. Autoradiographic analyses of primate temporal neocortex demonstrate loss of muscarinic, nicotinic, dopaminergic, and serotoninergic receptor binding sites between the ages of 2 and 22 years. No studies have directly related a decrease in receptor number to deficits in learning and memory in aged primates. Detailed anatomical analyses of the distribution of in situ uptake/receptor binding sites and messenger RNA in aged nonhuman primates may clarify some of the factors that most likely contribute to behavioral changes in elderly humans.

*Hemiparkinsonism in monkeys after unilateral caudate nucleus infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): behavior and histology. Imai, H., Nakamura, T., Endo, K., & Narabayashi, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, 1-1 Hongo 2, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan). Brain Research, 1988, 474, 327-332.
. . Using a 200 microl. osmotic minipump, 4 mg of MPTP HCl was administered directly into the unilateral caudate nucleus, i.e., the dopamine nerve terminal area, of monkeys for 14 days. Persistent hemiparkinsonism began to appear in a week. Each monkey exhibited a flexed posture and hypokinesia of the contralateral limbs and circling toward the MPTP-treated side. These disturbances developed within 3 months and maintained a plateau for 3 months until the day of sacrifice. After treatment with apomorphine, there appeared a striking circling away from the MPTP-treated side. Selective cell loss in the MPTP-treated side of the substantia nigra pars compacta was found along the entire rostrocaudal extent relative to the untreated side.

*The neurotoxin MPTP does not reproduce in the rhesus monkey the interregional pattern of striatal dopamine loss typical of human idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Pifl, C., Schingnitz, G., & Hornykiewicz, O. (Inst. of Biochemical Pharmacology, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna, Austria). Neuroscience Letters, 1988, 92, 228-233.
. . Dopamine (DA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra in 4 rhesus monkeys with permanent parkinsonism produced by repeated injections of MPTP (total dose: 2.1-6.45 mg/kg. i.m.) and in 4 untreated monkeys. MPTP failed to reproduce the interregional caudate-putamen gradient characteristic of idiopathic human Parkinson's disease. The DA pattern produced by MPTP was similar to the DA loss in caudate and putamen observed in patients with postencephalitic parkinsonism.

*Influence of ventilatory technique on pulmonary baroinjury in baboons with hyaline membrane disease. Gerstmann, D. R., deLemos, R. A., Coalson, J. J., Clark, R. H., Wiswell, T. E., Winter, D. C., Kuehl, T. J., Meredith, K. S., & Null, D. M. Jr. (Physiology & Medicine, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284). Pediatric Pulmonology, 1988, 5, 82-91.
. . Management of premature baboons with high frequency oscillator ventilator and appropriate O&s'2 resulted in less severe airleak, 100% survival, and no evidence of severe tracheal injury or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. These outcomes were not achieved with clinically similar strategies using positive pressure ventilators or high frequency flow interrupters.

*Nonhuman primates and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A union of necessity. Fultz, P. N. (Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 73-83.
. . Because of the close phylogenetic relationship, nonhuman primates are highly susceptible to human pathogens, including infection of chimpanzees by HIV, the causative agent of AIDS. This, and the existence of a highly related simian virus, SIV, which causes an AIDS-like disease in macaques, emphasizes the continued importance of using nonhuman primates as model systems for identifying and developing prophylaxis and therapy for infectious agents and, in particular, for fighting the pandemic AIDS.

*Effect of recombinant soluble CD4 in rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques. Watanabe, M., Reimann, K. A., DeLong, P. A., Liu, T., Fisher, R. A., & Letvin, N. L. (N. L. Letvin, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772). Nature, 1989, 337, 267-270.
. . The CD4 molecule is a high-affinity cell-surface receptor for HIV-1. The authors assess the therapeutic effect of recombinant soluble CD4 in SIV&s'MAC.-infected rhesus monkeys. Virus was readily isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells of these animals before starting treatment, but became difficult to isolate soon after treatment had begun. Moreover the diminished growth of both granulocytemacrophage and erythrocyte progenitor colonies from the bone marrow of these monkeys rose to normal levels during treatment. Soluble CD4 could prove valuable in treatment of AIDS.

*Prospective study of the development of diabetes in spontaneously obese monkeys. Hansen, B. C. (Room 257, Howard Hall, 660 West. Redwood St., Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201). In E. M. Berry, S. H. Blondheim, H. E. Eliahou, & E. Shafrir (Eds.), Recent advances in obesity research, V. (pp. 33-41). London: John Libbey, 1987.
. . Some adult obese rhesus monkeys have spontaneously developed non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). The progression of the disease from the normal state to overt diabetes lasts from 3 to 6 years in monkeys. This rapidity has made possible the regognition of the pattern of the natural history of the development of the disease in ways not accomplished previously in humans. It is now possible to apply this pattern analysis to relatively short longitudinal trains of human data and to determine among individuals the degree and rate of progression to the disease.

*Changes in insulin responses and binding in adipocytes from monkeys with obesity progressing to diabetes. Hansen, B. C., Jen, K.-L. C., & Schwartz, J. (Address same as above). International Journal of Obesity, 1988, 12, 391-400.
. . Over 3 years, rhesus monkeys which became obese and were otherwise normal, developed hyperinsulinemia, and developed NIDDM, and those which remained lean, were studied. The major change was a decrease in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in NIDDM, relative to the enhanced responses observed in cells from the obese-hyperinsulinemic monkeys. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization dropped markedly as hyperinsulinemia progressed into diabetes. The progression of metabolic events from hyperinsulinemia to NIDDM in monkeys includes cellular changes in insulin responses at the level of the adipocyte.

*Effects of rearing and exposure condition upon the acquisition of phobic behaviour in cynomolgus monkeys. Röder, E. L., Timmermans, J. A., & Vossen, J. M. H. (Dept. of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, Univ. of Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1989, 27, 221-231.
. . Young monkeys were confronted with a harmless novel object in their home-cage environment. Most surrogate-reared monkeys showed persistent maladaptive avoidance behavior with respect to the object during tests, while most mother-reared monkeys approached the object during tests, taking food near it. Further investigation of the origin of phobic behavior is interesting in view of developing animal models of human phobias of which no conditioning history is known.

Animal Welfare

*Attitudes toward animal research. Gallup, G. G. Jr., & Beckstead, J. W. (Dept. of Psychology, SUNY, Albany, NY 12222). ILAR News, 1989, 31 [2], 13-16.
. . A survey of 263 college students indicated that most are concerned about pain and suffering in animals, but at the same time the majority appreciate and support the need for using animals in research. A commentary by J. Tannenbaum is included.

*Animal research at Stanford University. SCAW Newsletter, 1988, 10 [4], 1, 3-5.
. . A summary of the Stanford Committee on Medical Ethics' deliberations on three closely related questions: Why are animals used in biomedical research? What is the spectrum of thought on use of animals for research purposes? How are animal research subjects protected at Stanford?

*Are there ethical justifications for animal use? Robb, J. W. SCAW Newsletter, 1988, 10 [4], insert, and 1989, 11 [1], 4, 7-8.
. . A summary of a talk delivered by a minister and professor of Religion and Bioethics at the SCAW Conference on Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues, held in Washington, DC, in June, 1988. It examines some of the serious philosophy opposing use of laboratory animals in research and testing, and also suggests counter reasons why such research is morally justified.

*The myth of a simple relation between space and aggression in captive primates. de Waal, F. B. M. (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299). Zoo Biology Supplement, 1989, 1, 141-148.
. . A review of literature on the relation between captive environments and social behavior, particularly aggressive behavior, in monkeys and apes, concludes that theories of \"crowding" and \"stress" are too simplistic to account for the observed relation. \"Coping mechanisms," behavior patterns that seem to aim at the avoidance of conflict and the reduction of social tensions, may be fruitful areas for exploration.


*Maternal separation in bonnet monkey infants: Altered attachment and social support. Reite, M., Kaemingk, K., & Boccia, M. L. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 E. Ninth Ave., Denver, CO 80262). Child Development, 1989, 60, 473-480.
. . Five social-group-living bonnet monkey infants were separated from their mothers for 4 days, and behavioral, physiological, and sleep-pattern changes were monitored. Findings suggest that, in bonnet monkey infants, adoption by a female within the social group ameliorates the response to loss.

*Differences among three macaque species in responsiveness to an observer. Clarke, A. S. & Mason, W. A. (W. A. Mason, California Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). International Journal of Primatology, 1989, 9, 347-364.
. . Behavioral responses of experimentally naive captive-born juvenile female Macaca mulatta, M. radiata, and M. fascicularis to a passive human observer were compared. Responsiveness was assessed using eight relatively stereotyped behavior patterns characteristic of this genus. Patterns were analyzed as indicative of \"fear" or \"hostility." Responses of M. fascicularis were frequent in both categories, although fear scores exceeded those for hostility. M. mulatta scored more frequently as hostile than as fearful. Both fear and hostility scores for M. radiata were extremely low.

*Development of social grooming between mother and offspring in wild chimpanzees. Nishida, T. (Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Univ., Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 109-123.
. . Infants under 2 years of age rarely groomed their mothers. Most older adolescents reciprocated grooming with their mothers almost equally. Daughters began to groom mothers mutually, and groom others, earlier than sons. Development of grooming as a means of social maneuvering is discussed.

*Olfactory demarcation of territorial but not home range boundaries by Lemur catta. Mertl-Millhollen, A. S. (1303 Steven, Hayes, KS 67601). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 175-187.
. . Over 350 hours of observation were collected using focal animal sampling of scent-marking behavior by 2 troops of ring-tailed lemurs. Significantly more scent marks were deposited in the area of home range overlap between troops than in the area of exclusive use. The majority of marks were in a narrow band within the area of overlap that coincided with the positions of intertroop confrontations.

*Primate play vocalizations and their functional significance. Masataka, N. & Kohda, M. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 152-156.
. . Some nonhuman primate species produce pronounced and specific play vocalizations. An examination of the phyletic distribution of these play vocalizations among New and Old World monkeys indicate that such calls are produced by species in which allomothering behavior occurs. A functional explanation of play vocalizations is proposed, according to which they serve as a possible source of information for maternal retrieval of infants whenever necessary.

*The pairbond in the titi monkey (Callicebus moloch) : Intrinsic versus extrinsic contributions of the pairmates. Anzenberger, G. (Psychologisches Inst., Attenhoferstrasse 9, CH-8032, Zürich, Switzerland). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 188-203.
. . The visual presence of a pairmate clearly affected encounters between unfamiliar heterosexual pairs. The presence of a male pairmate had a much stronger influence on all behavioral measures compared to that of a female pairmate. .cb;Care

*Environmental enrichment for laboratory animals. Beaver, B. V. (College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843). ILAR News, 1989, 31 [2], 5-13.
. . A review of objectives and techniques, especially with reference to nonhuman primates. There are also commentaries by E. F. Segal and J. S. Spinelli.

*Chimpanzees in captivity: Humane handling and breeding within the confines imposed by medical research and testing. Position Paper for the Jane Goodall Institute Workshop on the Psychological Well-Being of Captive Chimpanzees 1st to 3rd December, 1987. Moor-Jankowski, J. & Mahoney, C. J. (New York University School of Medicine (LEMSIP), New York, NY 10016). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 1-26.

*Appropriate conditions for maintenance of chimpanzees in studies with blood-borne viruses: An epidemiologic and psychosocial perspective. Prince, A. M., Goodall, J., Brotman, B., Dienske, H., Schellekens, H., & Eichberg, J. W. (Laboratory of Virology, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Inst. of the New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10021). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 27-42.

*A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged nonhuman primates. Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V., & Smith, M. D. (V. Reinhardt, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53705). Lab Animal, 1989, 18 [2], 23-32.
. . Environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged primates are apparently still very limited. 45% of the available information is in the form of abstracts and brief communications, generally lacking supporting data. There is a strong need for more quantitative data, including follow-up studies, to determine the actual usefulness and long-term appeal of specific enrichment strategies.

*Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Reinhardt, V. (Address same as above) American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 17, 243-248.
. . Unrelated, adult male rhesus monkeys that had been kept in single cages for several years were first given the opportunity to establish clear-cut rank relationships by pairs during a 5-day period of noncontact familiarization. Only then were they paired in a different double cage. Establishment of clear-cut rank relationships prior to pairing was apparently instrumental in the extremely low incidence of aggression which followed.

*Pairing previously singly caged rhesus monkeys does not interfere with common research protocols. Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., & Eisele, S. (Address same as above). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 73-74.
. . Over the past 2 years, experiences with 194 adult and 58 juvenile rhesus monkeys subjected to pairwise caging have not supported the hypothesis that appropriate management and handling of the animals for research purposes would be considerably restricted.


*Reproductive strategies and primate conservation. Bercovitch, F. B. & Ziegler, T. E. (Address same as above). Zoo Biology Supplement, 1989, 1, 163-169.
. . Natural reproduction of primates in captive situations is essential for primate conservation and is best achieved by collaborative ventures between field and laboratory workers.

*In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer technology as an aid to the conservation of endangered primates. Bavister, B. D. & Boatman, D. E. (Address same as above). Zoo Biology Supplement, 1989, 1, 21-31.
. . Descriptions of experimental embryological techniques for sperm capacitation, in vitro fertilization, culture of embryos, and embryo transfer, using the rhesus monkey.

*The criteria for successful captive propagation of endangered primates. Snowdon, C. T. (Psychology Dept., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706). Zoo Biology Supplement, 1989, 1, 149-161.
. . Endangered animals should be maintained in captivity so that they can retain the ability to survive if reintroduced to the wild. Animals need complex social and physical environments in order to acquire the sensorimotor, social, and parental skills they need to be self-sustaining. Environments should be managed to provide the opportunities to learn foraging and predator detection skills. A variety of noninvasive research techniques are described that allow the gathering of research data without compromising the breeding success of endangered animals.


*Prophylaxis against B virus infection. Wansbrough-Jones, M. H., Cooper, B., & Sarantis, N. (St. George's Hospital, London SW17 0QT, UK). British Medical Journal, 1988, 297, 909.
. . Recommended procedures in case of injury in monkey handlers.

*Case report: Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in tamarins with colitis and colon cancer. Lee, Y-C. C., Lawless, D., Crook, J. E., & Clapp, N. K. (J. E. Crook, Medical and Health Sciences Div., Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117). American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1989, 296, 118-122.
. . Findings provide preliminary evidence that the T-lymphocyte subset T4+/T8+ ratios provide information to improve early diagnosis of tamarin colon cancer and/or colitis.

*ELISA for detection of antibodies to a type D retrovirus, SRV-W. Schultz, K. T., Thomas, C., Toohey, K., & Curro, T. (Dept. of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706). Viral Immunology, 1989, 2, 47-55.
. . Interpretation of an ELISA to detect antibodies to a type D retrovirus were based on: 1) comparisons of known antibody positive (to a closely related type D retrovirus) and negative serum samples; 2) the ability of ELISA reactivity to be absorbed with a type D virus but not a mock virus preparation; and 3) analysis by a Western blot assay as an alternative way to identify antibody to the type D retrovirus.

*Pathologic and virologic description of three cases of type D retrovirus infection in rhesus monkeys and a brief review of nonhuman primate retroviruses. Schultz, K. T., Benveniste, R., Bridson, W. E., Houser, W. D., Uno, H., & Warner, T. F. C. S. (Address same as above). Zoo Biology Supplement, 1989, 1, 77-87.
. . A description of the manifestations seen in 3 rhesus monkeys which developed diseases that fit into the simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

*Human monkeypox: Confusion with chickenpox. Jezek, Z., Szczeniowski, M., Paluku, K. M., Mutombo, M., & Grab, B. (Communicable Diseases Div., WHO, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland). Acta Tropica, 1988, 45, 297-307.
. . Results of a study assessing the extent of and reasons for clinical diagnostic errors in areas where health staff as well as the general public are aware that human monkeypox is a zoonosis occurring sporadically. The presence of lymphadenopathy, pre-eruptive fever, and slower maturation of skin lesions are the most important clinical signs supporting correct diagnosis of monkeypox.

*Cardiomyopathy associated with vitamin E deficiency in two mountain lowland gorillas. McNamara, T., Dolensek, E. P., Liu, S.-K., & Dierenfeld, E. (Animal Health Center, New York Zoological Soc., Bronx, NY 10460). Proceedings, First International Conference on Zoological and Avian Medicine (p. 493). East Northport, NY: AAV/AAZV, 1987.

*Focal ulcerative ileocolitis with terminal thrombocytopenic purpura in juvenile cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Snook, S. S., Canfield, D. R., Sehgal, P. K., & King, N. W. Jr. (New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 109-114.
. . A newly recognized syndrome in 5 juvenile cotton-top tamarins is distinct from any other reported gastrointestinal disease reported in tamarins. Traditional etiologies such as viruses, ingested toxins, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia and Clostridium difficile are not considered likely etiologic agents. Nontraditional etiologies such as anaerobes or pathologic strains of Escherichia coli are now being considered. This syndrome is of potential significance to ongoing research into the etiology of idiopathic tamarin colitis.

*Heinz bodies do not modify the membrane characteristics of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) erythrocytes. Omorphos, S. C., Rice-Evans, C., & Hawkey, C. (Dept. of Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, Rowland Hill St., Hampstead, London NW3 2PF, UK). Laboratory Animals, 1989,! 23, 66-69.
. . In contrast to the situation in human erythrocytes, the presence of Heinz bodies in red cells of marmosets does not adversely affect the properties of the membrane. Marmosets suffering from wasting marmoset syndrome were not included in the study, but the results presented should provide useful reference values on which an investigation of erythrocyte membrane properties in such cases could be based.

*Intestinal parasites of sympatric Pan troglodytes and Papio spp. at two sites: Gombe (Tanzania) and Mt. Assirik (Senegal). McGrew, W. C., Tutin, C. E. G., Collins, D. A., & File, S. K. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 17, 147-155.
. . Normative data on intestinal parasite loads in two genera of African primates. Baboons and chimps at both sites carried nematodes and protozoans, while baboons at both sites had trematodes.

*Occurrence of spontaneous diabetes mellitus in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and impaired glucose tolerance in its descendants. Yasuda, M., Takaoka, M., Fujiwara, T., & Mori, M. (717 Horikoshi, Fukuroi-shi, Shizuoka 437, Japan). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 319-332.
. . Clinical and pathological features, such as abnormal glucose tolerance, loss of insulin response, or degeneration of pancreatic .tr ` FC;.* Beta `-cells, in a cynomolgus monkey resemble NIDDM. Two descendants of the monkey have developed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin response. Genetic factors seem involved in the appearance of carbohydrate intolerance in this family group of monkeys.

*Spontaneous periodontitis in a sample group of the monkey Macaca Fascicularis. Friskopp, J. & Blomlöf, L. (Folktandvarden, Kista Centrum Tr 4, S-164 42 Kista, Sweden). Journal of Periodontal Research, 1988, 23, 265-267.
. . Ninety-seven animals were examined, pocket depths were measured with a graded probe, and one \"bite-wing" radiograph was exposed on each side. Approximately 8% of the monkeys and 1% of all teeth had periodontitis. The results suggest that the ability to develop gingivitis is rather uniform among individuals of M. fascicularis and, further, that their susceptibility to developing destructive periodontitis varies greatly.

*Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP): General recommendations on immunization. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1989, 38, 205-214, 219-227.


*Duke University Primate Center. Izard, M. K. (Duke University Primate Center, Durham, NC 27705). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 85-98.
. . The Duke University Primate Center houses the world's largest collection of prosimian primates. Researchers have access to the animals for noninvasive studies, to a large collection of preserved tissues and cadavers, and to an extensive collection of Eocene and Oligocene fossils. The Center is also involved in conservation programs in Madagascar, which provide opportunities for field research in primatology and conservation.


*Blood-protein allele frequencies and phylogenetic relationships in Macaca: A review. Fooden, J. & Lanyon, S. M. (Div. of Mammals, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60606). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 17, 209-241.
. . Allele-frequency data have been assembled for 35 blood-protein loci in 17 or 19 recognized species of macaque. The greatest intraspecific genetic differentiation occurs at the level of island populations within species. It is suggested that the reduced genetic variability of island populations is a result of postisolation genetic drift rather than founder effect.


*Flow microfluorometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonhuman primates: Correlation of phenotype with immune function. Ahmed-Ansari, A., Brodie, A. R., Fultz, P. N., Anderson, D. C., Sell, K. W., & McClure, H. M. (Dept. of Pathology, 783-WMB, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 17, 107-131.
. . Functional helper, suppressor, natural killer (NK), lymphokine activated killer (LAK), and antigen-presenting cell studies were performed to correlate phenotype with immune function. Data indicate that Leu-3a+ T cells and Leu-2a+ T cells in some primate species represent human equivalents of helper and suppressor T cells, respectively. NK and LAK effector cells in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques appear to be predominantly Leu-19+, while Leu-2a+ cells appear to be the predominant NK and LAK effector cells in sooty mangabeys.

*Cardiac allotransplantation across major blood group barriers in the baboon. Cooper, D. K. C., Lexer, G., Rose, A. G., Keraan, M., Rees, J., Du Toit, E., & Oriol, R. (Oklahoma Transplantation Inst., Baptist Medical Center, 330 NW Expressway, Oklahoma City, OK 73112). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 333-346.
. . In heterotopic heart transplantation experiments in Chacma baboons, some of the animals were significantly immunosuppressed with cyclosporine, resulting in prolonged cardiac allograft survival. ABO blood group incompatibility between recipient and donor did not significantly influence mean allograft survival, but early hyperacute (vascular) or acute (cellular) rejection occurred only when ABO incompatibility was present.

*Development of a series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing leukocyte differentiation antigens of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Murayama, Y., Noguchi, A., & Takenaka, O. (A. Noguchi, Inst. of Basic Medical Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-si, Ibaragi 305, Japan). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 99-109.
. . Six monoclonal antibodies to Japanese monkey leukocytes were developed. These monoclonal antibodies, designated the U series, cover most kinds of leukocytes (pan T cells, CD8+ cells, CD8+ subset and granulocytes, CD16+ cells, monocytes/macrophages), and should be useful in the immunological analysis of primate models, such as tissue transplants and virus-related diseases, in particular, AIDS.

*UH series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing major histocompatibility complex class II antigen(s) of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Murayama, Y., Ishida, T., Hashiba, K., Noguchi, A., & Takenaka, O. (Address same as above). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 111-123.
. . Six mouse monoclonal antibodies were developed by immunization with a Japanese monkey cell line. These monoclonal antibodies, designated the UH series, reacted with large populations of peripheral B cells and monocytes, but not with T cells. The distribution of reactivities and the molecular weight of the membrane antigens recognized were similar to those of the HLA-DR monoclonal antibody; one .tr ` FD inhibited the binding of HLA-DR. Human interferon-` induced increased expressions of all the UH antigen epitopes.

Instruments and Techniques

*A perch for primate squeeze cages. Schmidt, E. M., Dold, G. M., & McIntosh, J. S. (Laboratory of Neural Control, NINCDS, Bethesda, MD 20205). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 166-167.
. . An aluminum perch, which can remain in place during the operation of a squeeze cage, is described.

*Why field biologists mark free-ranging vertebrates for scientific study. Gavin, T. A. & Haas, C. A. (Dept. of Natural Resources, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14850). ILAR News, 1989, 31 [2], 17-24.
. . A review of common techniques and reasons for marking animals. The authors are convinced that the quality of field studies of free-ranging vertebrates may be enhanced by using marked animals.

*Movement characteristics of ejaculated sperm from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) analyzed by manual and automated computerized image analysis. Yeung, C. H., Weinbauer, G. F., & Nieschlag, E. (E. Nieschlag, Max Planck Clinical Research Unit for Reproductive Medicine, Steinfurter Str. 107, D-4400, Münster, FRG). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 55-68.
. . An automated, computerized system was used to measure the movement characteristics of cynomolgus monkey sperm. Swimming velocities were in good agreement with data derived from tracking sperm heads manually with a digitizer, but sperm counting by the system was erroneous.

*The housing and handling of marmosets and tamarins infected with AIDS and other retroviruses. Francis, L., Moore, R. T., Raymond, R. T., & Baskerville, A. (PHLS, Center for Applied Microbiology & Research, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, England). In A. C. Beynen & H. A. Solleveld (Eds.), New Developments in Biosciences: Their Implications for Laboratory Animal Science (pp. 99-103). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Nijhoff, 1988.
. . To avoid handling animals infected with HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, a cage was designed to minimize risks from bites and scratches, and to enable animals to be trapped safely in a nest box with a squeeze-back.

*Determining acrosomal status of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) sperm by fluorescence microscopy. Cross, N., Morales, P., Fukuda, M., & Behboodi, E. (Div. of Reproductive Biology and Medicine, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 17, 157-163.
. . Exocytosis of the acrosome, the \"acrosome reaction," appears to be an absolute prerequisite for sperm penetration of the zona pellucida. The acrosome of Macaca fascicularis sperm cannot be distinguished by conventional light microscopy. Methods are described for labeling the acrosomal regional of sperm with fluoresceinated Pisum sativum agglutinin and anti-sperm antiserum. Acrosome-intact sperm are much more heavily labeled in the acrosomal region than are acrosome-reacted sperm, providing a simple means of differentiating.

*A method of remote physiological monitoring of a fully mobile primate in a single animal cage. Pearce, P. C., Halsey, M. J., Ross, J. A. S., Luff, N. P, Bevilacqua, R. A., & MacLean, C. J. (HPNS Research Group, Div. of Anaesthesia, Clinical Research Centre, Watford Rd., Harrow HA2 3UF, UK). Laboratory Animals, 1989, 23, 180-187.
. . A tether, jacket, and backpack system, designed to allow the physiological monitoring of a fully mobile, unstressed Papio anubis, is described.

*Chronic instrumentation and longterm investigation in the fetal and maternal baboon: Tether system, conditioning procedures and surgical techniques. Stark, R. I., Daniel, S. S., James, L. S., MacCarter, G., Morishima, H. O., Niemann, W. H., Rey, H., Tropper, P. J., & Yeh, M.-N. (Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, NY 10032). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 25-32.
. . Animals were conditioned before pregnancy to accept a backpack/tether system, and those who showed tolerance were bred. Catheters in the maternal femoral artery and vein, fetal carotid artery jugular vein and trachea, and amniotic fluid cavity, and electrodes for fetal electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram were placed surgically .tr ` 9E;.* plus-or-minus at 136`4 days. Initial results demonstrate that longterm observations of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical processes in the pregnant baboon and her fetus can be made successfully without the use of undue restraint or labor-suppressant drugs.

*Diagnosis of early pregnancy by ultrasound in Macaca fascicularis. Conrad, S. H., Sackett, G. P., & Burbacher, T. M. (Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 143-154.
. . Real-time ultrasonography was used to detect early pregnancy in 32 longtailed macaques. In 92% of the successful conceptions, a correct diagnosis was made. The earliest sign of pregnancy was an intrauterine ringlike structure (11 days). A \"line swelling" (14 days) preceded definite fetal echoes (21 days), and fetal heart motion (30 days) proved fetal viability. Ultrasound is a rapid, noninvasive, and relatively cost-effective method of diagnosing and monitoring early pregnancy in M. fascicularis.


*Effects of aging on the in vivo release of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine, and thyroxine induced by TSH-releasing hormone in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Yoshida, T., Sato, M., Ohtoh, K., Cho, F., & Honjo, S. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, National Inst. for Health, Hachimandai 1, Tsukuba City 305, Japan). Endocrinology, 1989, 124, 1287-1293.
. . Results suggest that the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to TSH and/or the productive or releasing capacities of T&s'3 and T&s'4 in the thyroid gland decreases with increasing age in this species.

*Excretion of estrone, estradiol, and progesterone in the urine and feces of the female cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Ziegler, T. E., Sholl, S. A., Scheffler, G., Haggerty, M. A., & Lasley, B. L. (Dept. of Psychology, 1202 W. Johnson St., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 17, 185-195.
. . Each of three gonadal steroids was injected into a separate female cotton-top tamarin. Urine and feces samples were analyzed to determine the proportion of free and conjugated steroids. Steroidal excretion patterns help explain the atypical hormonal patterns seen during the tamarin ovarian cycle.

*Hematologic and serum chemistry values in Callicebus moloch cupreus. Roberts, J. & Mendoze, S. (California Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 163-165.
. . Hematological and serum chemistry values obtained from 16 clinically healthy, adult titi monkeys were further evaluated by comparing them with serial samples collected from four healthy individuals over a year.

*A positive wave at the J-point of electrocardiograms of anaesthetized baboons (Papio ursinus). Hugo, N., Dormehl, I. C., & van Gelder, A. L. (AEC Inst. for Life Sciences, Univ. of Pretoria, P.O. Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1988, 17, 347-352.
. . Electrocardiograms were performed on 50 anaesthetized baboons. A positive deflection, referred to by the authors as the H-wave, consistently occurs at the junction between the QRS complex and the S-T segment. The significance of this deflection at the J-point, as the junction is known, is still to be established; however, characterization of the H-wave regarding amplitude and position with respect to the R-wave is done.

*Estrogen and androgen dynamics in the cynomolgus monkey. Bourget, C., Femino, A., Franz, C., & Longcope, C. (C. Longcope, Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Univ. of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave. N, Worcester, MA 01605). Endocrinology, 1988, 122, 202-206.
. . In general, the dynamics of androgen, estrogen, and cortisol production and metabolism are similar in male cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and in man. The similarity is especially close for peripheral aromatization despite differences in adipose tissue content between man and nonhuman primates.

*Characterization of inheritance patterns of blood pressure in Macaca fascicularis. Hartley, L. H., Rodger, R. F., & Herd, J. A. (R. F. Rodger, Dept. of Veterinary Services, EG7G Mason Research Inst., Worcester, MA 01608). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 125-132.
. . A breeding colony of Macaca fascicularis was established at the New England Regional Primate Center in 1977 and continued through 1984. Characterization of the offspring of this colony at 18 and 30 months of age suggested that higher blood pressure levels are hereditary in M. fascicularis, but evidence to date cannot determine if this condition is harmful to the animals.

*Plasma alpha-tocopherol, retinol, cholesterol, and mineral concentrations in captive gorillas. McGuire, J. T., Dierenfeld, E. S., Poppenga, R. H., & Brazelton, W. E. (Animal Health Center, New York Zoological Park, Bronx, NY 10460). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 155-161.
. . Normal physiological data are lacking for most nondomestic species. This report describes circulating levels of select fat-soluble and mineral components in plasma samples from 74 captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in North America.


*International Studbook Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus Chrysomelas: Number One. G. M. Mace (Compiler). Trinity, Jersey, Channel Islands: IRMC/Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, 1988. 42 pp. [Available from J. J. C. Mallinson, Studbook Keeper, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey, Channel Islands]

*The effects of isosexual rearing on adult sexual behavior in captive male rhesus macaques. Bercovitch, F. B., Roy, M. M., Sladky, K. K., & Goy, R. W. (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1988, 17, 381-388.
. . Results suggest that growing up with female peers is not a prerequisite for the expression of adult sexual behavior among male rhesus monkeys, and that adult male sexual behavior may be influenced by relative dominance status when immature.

*Changes in female reproductive condition following male take-overs in a colony of hamadryas and hybrid baboons. Colmenares, F. & Gomendio, M. (MRC Unit, Development and Integration of Behaviour, Cambridge Univ., 6B-Madingley, Cambridge, CB2 8AA UK). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 157-174.
. . A novel group of 3 adult males, 3 adult females, and 1 unweaned infant was introduced to a resident colony fo 12 adult females, 11 juveniles, and 6 unweaned infants. All acyclic females (i.e. lactating, pregnant, and immature) exhibited a dramatic enhancement of sexual activity. It is argued that the observed enhancement of sexual activity was not imposed by the males' aggressive behavior, but rather was a spontaneous female response to male novelty. This single causal factor was potent enough to override the role that nutrition and lactation normally play in the control of females' reproductive activity.

*Status and reproductive potential of lion-tailed macaques in captivity. Lindburg, D. G., Lyles, A. M., & Czekala, N. M. (Research Dept., San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112). Zoo Biology Supplement, 1989, 1, 5-16.
. . A review of studbook records and physiological and behavioral studies at the San Diego Zoo.

*Correlates of sexual and maternal competence in captive gorillas. Beck, B. B. & Power, M. L. (National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008). Zoo Biology, 1988, 7, 339-350.
. . Questionnaires were used to collect standardized biographies of every gorilla held in North America. These biographies were searched for factors associated with reproductive success or failure. It is concluded that many cases of reproductive failure are due to deficits in sexual behavior, which in turn may result from lack of early social experience with conspecifics. Some reproductive failure involves medical problems; interventive diagnostic techniques continue to be useful, if only to identify healthy individuals that can be managed intensively.

*Old age and sexual exhaustion in male rhesus macaques. Phoenix, C. H. & Chambers, K. C. (Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR 97006). Physiology & Behavior, 1988, 44, 157-163.
. . Capacity for multiple ejaculations was measured in 3 groups of rhesus macaques. Sexual exhaustion was defined as a 45-min period without a mount when a male was paired with a female. None of the very old males (25-30 years, N=4) achieved more than 2 ejaculations, old males (19-20 years, N=5) displayed as many as 6 ejaculations, and fully adult (9-15 years, N=5) males achieved a maximum of 5 before meeting the criterion of sexual exhaustion.

*Serum hormone levels in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. Hein, P. R., Schatorjé, J. S. J. O., Frencken, H. J. A. A. M., Segers, M. R. G., & Thomas, C. M. G. (Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, St. Radboud Hospital, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 133-142.
. . Serum levels of estradiol (E&s'2.), progesterone (P), prolactin (Prl), monkey chorionic gonadotropin (mCG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol (C) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys are described. mCG, E&s'2., and Prl patterns resembled those of pregnant rhesus monkeys. P patterns differed from data from the literature. DHEAS patterns did not follow E&s'2 patterns. C levels did not change during pregnancy.


*Absence of chromosomal similarities between tarsiers (Tarsius syrichta) and other primates. Dutrillaux, B. & Rumpler, Y. (Faculté de Médecine, Inst. d'Embryologie, 11, rue Humann, F-67085 Strasbourg, France). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 130-133.
. . None of the 40 pairs of chromosomes of T. syrichta appears to be similar to those of any of the other primates (about 100 species) previously studied by the authors. This species, probably in common with other tarsiers, possess a karyotype utterly distinct from that of other primates, ruling out any reliable phylogenetical interpretation.

*Chromosomal affinities of Callimico goeldii (Platyrrhini) and characterization of a Y-autosome in the male. Dutrillaux, B., Lombard, M., Carroll, J. B., & Martin, R. D. (CNRS-UA 620, Inst. Curie, Section de Biologie, 26 Rue d'Ulm, F-75231 Paris, France). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 230-236.
. . Goeldi's monkey is of particular interest because it is intermediate in many features between the two main groups of New World monkeys: marmosets and tamarins, and the true monkeys. Results suggest that it branched away from a lineage leading to a common ancestor of marmosets and tamarins.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

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Address Changes

Beth Armstrong, Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Dr., Powell, OH 43065.

Bioscan, 1730 Twenty-First St. NW, Washington, DC 20009.

Jennifer Cobb, 2730 E. Yucca, Phoenix, AZ 85028.

Carrie Conte, Div. of Animal Care, Yale Univ., 220 South Frontage Rd., New Haven, CT 06510.

Frances M. Doepel, Baylor Animal Program, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030.

Janice Dubois, P.O. Box 577, Charlestown, RI 02813.

John Duktig, Smith, Klein & French Labs., Box 1539 L-70, King of Prussia, PA 19406.

Carolyn Ehardt, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Carol L. Emerson, Div. Veterinary Resources (R-289), Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016960, Miami, FL 33101.

George Ettlinger, Island Reach, Thames Drive, Twyford, Berks., RG10 9TP, UK.

Diane Garnes, American Cyanamid, P.O. Box 55, Pomona, NY 10970.

Elizabeth Goldwyn Gibson, 8822 Lost Woods, San Antonio, TX 78240.

Laura Gillespie, 11743 Chess Dr., Bridgeton, MO 63044.

Mary Goeltz, Veterinary Resources Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Stephen Heisel, 189 Aspinwall Ave., Brookline, MA 02146.

Bart Holland, Dept. Preventive Medicine (F-596), UMDNJ-NJ Medical School, Newark, NJ 07013-2757.

Charlene Jendry, Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Dr., Powell, OH 43065.

William E. Jennings, 6107 Bannocks Dr., San Antonio, TX 78239.

Delores E. Keller, Pace Univ., Bedford Rd., Marks Hall, Pleasantville, NY 10570.

Stacy LeBlanc, Animal Program, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030.

Robert W. Maher, Dupont Med. Prod. Exp. Stat., 6400/5452, Wilmington, DE 19880-0400.

Masaji Matsuzaki, 92/16 68th Avenue, Forest Hills, NY 11375.

Paul E. Meckley, Dept. Animal Science & Agricultural Biochemistry, Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717.

Mary Norman, Office of Animal Resources, UC-SD, M-014, La Jolla, CA 92093.

Vicky Norwood, 1725 E. Limberlost # 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.

Jeffrey W. Richig, Veterinary Services, Pharmaceuticals Div., CIBA-GEIGY, Summit, NJ 07901.

James F. Sears, 1730 West Rock Rd., Perkasie, PA 18944.

Linda Taylor, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Miami, P.O. Box 248106, Coral Gables, FL 33124.

Sylvia Taylor, 235 Sunnyside Rd., E-2, Temple Terrace, FL 33617.

Charles E. Thalken, Rt. #2 Box 68-C, Ogallala, NE 69153.

Gerald P. Walsh, Leonard Wood Memorial Leprosy Research Ctr., c/o American Consulate, Cebu, APO San Francisco, CA 96528.

* * *

B Virus Cases in Michigan Rhesus Handlers

On June 20, 1989, an animal technician at International Research and Development Corporation (IRDC), Mattawan, MI, died of complications from being bitten by a rhesus monkey infected with Herpesuirus simiae. Two former employees were hospitalized at the same time. On June 26 one was released, after a blood test showed no signs of infection, but the other has serologic evidence of H. simiae and is being treated. Tests are continuing on more than 135 current or former IRDC employees who had direct or indirect contact with monkeys at the independent contract research facility in Mattawan.

According to David Johnson, Michigan Department of Health, 22 current employees with direct monkey contact had bites, scratches, or open hand wounds from which they may be infected. A serologic survey of the exposed is underway, and those bitten or scratched are being given precautionary Acyclovir treatment until the survey results are known. The father of the fatal case is also part of the serologic survey and Acyclovir prophylaxis, because he performed mouthto-mouth resuscitation on his son prior to arrival at the hospital.

A company statement issued on June 21 stated that IRDC follows Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for prevention of H. simiae infection in monkey handlers (see this Newsletter, 1988, 27 [l], 9-12). According to this statement, "The company exceeds the guidelines for protective clothing that lab technicians wear while handling primates. In addition, the company strictly follows the CDC guidelines for the cleaning, disinfecting, and monitoring of bites and scratches inflicted by primates." The statement also said that "the company feels any allegations challenging the company's safety procedures are unfounded and inaccurate."

One former co-worker of the victims said that monkey handlers typically only wore the arm-length gloves, and that these were inadequate, being in poor repair. Another IRDC worker, however, said that the dead man had a reputation of being "always careful" about wearing protective gear.

In another prepared statement, on June 25, IRDC stated that it "would like to re-emphasize that the deceased lab technician contracted the B virus through an unreported incident, thereby eliminating the possibility of employing preventive measures of treatment established by the Centers for Disease Control."

B virus is rare in humans (these are the 23rd and 24th well-documented cases since it was first diagnosed in 1932), but common in macaques. It is estimated that as many as 50% of rhesus monkeys carry the virus, which can remain dormant for long periods, and which causes only mild symptoms in the monkeys. Twenty-one of the 24 known human cases, however, have been fatal.

This episode reemphasizes the importance of not only establishing correct procedures for our laboratories, but making sure that all personnel understand the reasons for them. -- This note was prepared using articles which appeared in the Kalamazoo, MI Gazette, from June 21 to June 26, 1989.

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N. I. H.

Cover drawing of an infant marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) by Penny Lapham.

Copyright © 1989 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.