VOLUME 29 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1990
Articles and Notes
A Case History of a Decrement in Maternal Competence in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), by E. J. Struthers, M. A. Bloomsmith, & P. L. Alford ...... 3
Preliminary Comments on Resocialization of Aged Rhesus Macaques, by S. W. Line, K. N. Morgan, J. A. Roberts, and H. Markowitz ...... 8
Comparing the Effectiveness of PVC Perches versus Wooden Perches as Environmental Enrichment Objects for Singly Caged Rhesus Monkeys, by V. Reinhardt ...... 13
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Environmental Enrichment, by V. Reinhardt ...... 15
A Multi-Functional Environmental Enrichment Device for Primate Enclosures, by F. B. Bercovitch, E. Tena-Betancourt, M. J. Kessler, & M. R. Lebrón ...... 16
Electrocardiograms from Unsedated Macaca Fascicularis, by P. C. Baker & K. J. Field ...... 18
Housing Endangered Primates, by D. M. Haring ...... 20
News, Information, and Announcements
Concurrent Ebola and SHF in Imported Primates ...... 1
Grants Available ...... 2
. . Whitehall Foundation, Sigma Xi; NSF Opportunities for Women
News Briefs ...... 6
. . Hurricane Hugo Crosses Cayo Santiago, PR; International Journal of Primatology; Saving Madagascar Wildlife; New Congressional Groups; Chimp Escape; Joe Held to Charles River
Information Requested and Available ...... 14
. . International Life Sciences Institute; Networking; PSIC,
AFIP Comparative Pathology Course ...... 17
Errata ...... 19
Meeting Announcements ...... 21
. . India Symposium, Animal Behavior Society, Gorilla Workshop
Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1990) ...... 22
Fyssen Foundation 1990-1991 Fellowships ...... 29
Recent Books and Articles ...... 30
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In late November, 1989, Ebola virus was isolated from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) imported into the United States from the Philippines via Amsterdam and New York. During quarantine in a primate facility in Virginia, numerous macaques died, some with findings consistent with simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF). The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases tested 10 animals and, from three, isolated SHF from tissues and serum; however, five other animals of the 10 tested were positive for Ebola virus. Monkeys from a later shipment quarantined in a second room also had unusually high mortality and were tested by a rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ebola viral antigen was detected in serum and/or tissues from seven of these monkeys. Primary liver material from animals in both rooms exhibited particles with typical filovirus morphology by electron microscopy and Ebola virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.
All persons who might have come in contact with the monkeys or with tissue or blood specimens from them have been identified and will be under surveillance by the Virginia State Department of Health for 3 weeks after the last possible exposure for each contact. As of December 6, no evidence of infection has appeared in any of the exposed persons. Any person with symptoms compatible with Ebola infection will be admitted to a local hospital and cared for under CDC guidelines for suspected cases of viral hemorrhagic fevers (CDC, 1988). Appropriate guidelines for management of newly imported primates have been sent to all U.S. primate importation and quarantine facilities, and surveillance for hemorrhagic disease in staff members and in recently imported primates is being instituted. An investigation is under way by CDC, in cooperation with foreign health officials, to identify the source of infection in the monkeys.
Unlike SHF virus, which does not cause clinical illness in humans, Ebola virus can cause severe disease in humans. This is the first isolation of Ebola virus in the United States. Ebola hemorrhagic fever was first recognized in 1976 when two epidemics occured in southern Sudan and in Zaire (WHO, 1978). A subsequent outbreak occurred in 1979 in Sudan (Baron, McCormick, & Zubeir, 1983). All 3 outbreaks were associated with high case-fatality rates in humans. [More than 500 fatalities in Zaire. -- Eds.] In these epidemics, nosocomial transmission (often by contaminated needles) was followed by person-to-person transmission to household members in close contact with blood or secretions from seriously ill patients.
The ecology, naural history, and mode of transmission in nature of Ebola virus and the related Marburg virus are unknown. Before this incident, no monkey had ever been found to be naturally infected with Ebola virus. The incubation period for Ebola virus is 5-9 days (range: 2-15 days) but can be shorter with parenteral transmission. Disease onset is abrupt and characterized by severe malaise, headache, high fever, myalgia, joint pains, and sore throat. The disease course is rapid and includes pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and occasionally facial edema and jaundice. Severe thrombocytopenia can occur, and hemorrhagic manifestations include petechiae and frank bleeding. Death occurs primarily as a result of hypovolemic shock and its consequences. There is no specific therapy (CDC, 1988), and patient management is usually directed at supportive measures.
The only previous documentation of transmission of this family of virus from primates to humans occurred in 1967, when African monkeys infected with Marburg virus were imported into Europe (Martini & Siegert, 1971). In that outbreak, human infection occurred in 25 workers handling blood and tissues from infected monkeys, and six secondary (person-to-person transmission) cases occurred; seven persons died. Animal caretakers did not become infected.
As a result of the 1967 Marburg virus outbreak, the United States and several other countries instituted a 31-day quarantine for imported monkeys. The facility in the Virginia outbreak routinely has used a 45-day quarantine. In addition to quarantine measures, the use of universal precautions in handling animals or their specimens minimizes the risk for human infections. Suspected cases of illness in potentially exposed persons should be promptly reported through state health departments to the Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. -- Reprinted from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1989, 38, 831-832, 837-838.
[This is the first report of concurrent Ebola and SHF in quarantined monkeys in the U.S. It raises the possibility that aerosol transmission between African and Asian monkeys occurred. Perhaps full face respirators with HEPA filters would be appropriate for personnel handling quarantined monkeys and performing autopsies on them.
Supplement 4 of Volume 11 (May-June 1989) of the Review of Infectious Diseases is devoted to an International Symposium on Hemostatic Impairment Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses (see Books and Articles, page 31) -- Eds.]
Baron, R. C., McCormick, J. B, & Zubeir, O. A. (1983). Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: Hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 61, 997-1003.
CDC (1988). Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. Morbidiy and Mortality Weekly Reports, 37[S-3], 1-16.
LeDuc, J. W. (1989). Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 11[Suppl. 4], S730-S735.
Martini, G. A. & Siegert, R. (1971, Eds.). Marburg Virus Disease. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
World Health Organization (1978). Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976: Report of a WHO/International Study Team. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 56, 247-270.
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The Whitehall Foundation offers research grants, initially for up to 3 years (and renewable for 1-2 years), to established scientists of any age working at accredited institutions. These awards are intended for those who have not yet received significant support from other sources for any purpose. The Foundation also offers grants-in-aid to researchers at the assistant professor level who experience difficulty in competing for research funds because they have not yet become firmly established.
The current interest of the Foundation is nonhuman neurobiology, specifically investigations of neural mechanisms involved in sensory, motor, and other complex functions of the whole organism as these relate to behavior. Awards range from $10,000 to $40,000 per year and can be used for personnel costs of technicians (including undergraduate, postdoctoral students, and graduate students), permanent scientific equipment costing not more than $10,000, materials and supplies, publication costs, travel pertinent to research, and overhead of 20% on equipment and research supplies. No support for salaries of principal investigators, construction or renovation, travel to scientific meetings, or tuition. Letters of intent are strongly suggested. Deadlines are March 1, September 1, and December 1 for research grants, and January 1, June 1, and October 1 for grants-in-aid. For detailed information, contact the Whitehall Foundation, Inc., 249 Royal Palm Way, Suite 202, Palm Beach, FL 33480, Attention: Mrs. Laurel T. Baker, Secretary [407-655-4474 from 9 am to Noon daily].
Sigma Xi, the scientific research society, offers Grants-in-Aid of Research at graduate and undergraduate levels of study. Grants are normally made in amounts up to a maximum of $1,000, for support of scientific investigation in any field, but at the present time, awards will not normally exceed $600. Each award is made payable to the individual recipient. No part of a grant may be used for the payment of any indirect costs to the recipient's institution; all of the funds must be expended directly in support of the proposed investigation. Grants normally are not made for expenses of publication, salary or tuition, travel to meetings, or usual and routine institutional obligations. Deadlines are February 1, May 1, and November 1, 1990. Contact the Committee on Grants-in-Aid of Research, Sigma Xi, Headquarters, 345 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 [203/624-9883].
NSF Opportunities for Women
The Division of Cellular Biosciences of NSF offers a program providing one-time awards to allow women scientists to become actively engaged in research as independent investigators. Eligibility is limited to women who have not previously served as principal investigators on an individual federal award for scientific or engineering research, or whose research careers have been interrupted for at least two of the past five years. Projects will be supported up to a maximum period of 36 months. Deadline dates are February 1, July 1, and November 1. Contact Dr. Mary Clutter, Division Director, Division of Cellular Biosciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, Washington, DC 20550.
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E. J. Struthers, M. A. Bloomsmith, and P. L. Alford
University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Incompetent maternal behavior in captive chimpanzees is a major cause of concern for colony management. Incompetent mothering may endanger the life of the neonate, necessitating early weaning. Once a neonate has been removed from an incompetent mother, it is difficult or impossible to reintroduce the infant to the mother's care. The alternative to mother-rearing is usually nursery-rearing by human caretakers. As adults, nursery-reared animals often exhibit a lack of adequate social, maternal, and sexual behavior (Dienske & Griffin, 1978; Harlow, 1971; Rogers & Davenport, 1969, 1970). Nursery-rearing also requires labor-intensive care and therefore leads to long-term problems for both animals and colony management.
Research by Rogers and Davenport (1970) supports the notion that maternal care, including successful nursing, is a complex set of learned behaviors that requires not only experience acquired through interactions with an animal's own mother, but also the responsive and reinforcing learning experience of rearing an infant. The infant gives signals to the mother, eliciting a variety of responses, and the mother learns through trial-and-error how to nurse and care for her infant successfully:
"Distress in the infant produces agitation and other indications of a heightened drive state in the mother... This state results in the expression of a variety of behaviors... The infant selectively responds to some of these behaviors by a reduction of the distress signals. This produces a decrease in the mother's drive state and is thus reinforcing." (Rogers & Davenport, 1970, p.368)
One possible solution to the problem of incompetent mothering may be to allow the maternal animal opportunities to learn better mothering skills by placing incompetent animals in social groups with competent mothers and by allowing mothers ample time with their newborn infants (as long as the infant is not in a life-threatening situation). In our experience, under these conditions some mothers remain disinterested and incompetent, while others show gradual improvement in mothering skills. We have had success leaving infants under these conditions for periods of time ranging from a few hours to a few weeks before deciding to remove the infant.
In one unusual case at our facility, a female displayed a decrement in maternal performance after having shown adequate maternal behavior. It was unique in our experience to observe a mother who, after having gained adequate mothering skill, subsequently proved unable to rear a successive infant. Records do not indicate whether the maternal animal, Rosalyn, was wild or captive born. She arrived at our facility in March of 1980. Her estimated age at that time was 12 years, making her approximately 21 years of age at this writing. We could not ascertain from her history whether the animal was left in the care of her own mother for any significant amount of time. Previous research suggests that exposure to the mother for a duration of at least six to eighteen months would be required to establish a maternal pattern that the female could later replicate with her own offspring (Fritz & Fritz, 1979; Rogers & Davenport, 1970).
Rosalyn's fertility history includes two spontaneous abortions (1980, 1981) preceding her first live birth in January 1982. Initially she was very protective of this first infant. She clutched it tightly to her chest, causing some attendants to feel she might suffocate it. She carried it so high on her chest and held it so tightly that the infant had little opportunity to contact the nipple. One day after the infant's birth she and her infant were isolated from the rest of her group because she seemed nervous and was carrying the infant in awkward and inappropriate positions. She was given hay to nest with, but soon began to abandon the baby for short periods in favor of nest building. On day one, while in her group, and on day two, after mother and infant had been reintroduced to their group, she appeared to nurse the infant but on neither day did she carry the infant well. She attempted to place him horizontally across her chest and to carry him upside down.
Rosalyn's care of the infant seemed to be sufficient and gradually improving from day three to day six. However, during this time she began compulsively grooming the infant until he exhibited raw spots. One study comparing the maternal behavior of wild and captive chimpanzees found that captive mothers groomed infants as often as wild mothers, but their grooming bouts tended to last longer (Nicolson, 1977). Additionally, Nicolson found that mothers generally groomed their infants more when housed alone rather than in a group situation. It appears, however, that in Rosalyn's case, excessive grooming of the infant occurred regardless of housing condition.
On day seven, the decision was made to remove the infant. Upon examination he was found to have moderately severe hypernatremic dehydration and a few infected sores where the mother had overgroomed him. The mother had been given ample opportunity to adjust to the infant and still seemed incapable of providing adequate care.
Rosalyn rapidly resumed cyclicity after removal of the infant, and on January 15 of the following year (1983) gave birth to a stillborn infant. The interbirth interval following the stillbirth was much longer than the previous interval. Two years later, in February 1985, she gave birth to a healthy, full-term, female infant.
Rosalyn was kept isolated during labor and delivery, and did a good job of holding the infant when it was born. Mother and infant were kept isolated from the group for approximately 12 days because the mother seemed comfortable and because during a previous, brief reintroduction to the group, two adult females annoyed Rosalyn, increasing her agitation. During this isolation period the infant appeared to receive adequate care and nourishment, although the mother did not demonstrate fully normal and attentive mothering skills. She sometimes laid the baby aside for short intervals and attempted to carry it in awkward positions. After reintroduction to her group, Rosalyn displayed less than ideal maternal performance, but it was more than adequate. She successfully reared this infant and they are still housed together within their social group.
Rosalyn gave birth to her third live infant in March 1989. Within the first few hours postpartum Rosalyn and the infant, along with Rosalyn's four-year-old daughter, were isolated from the rest of the social group because other juvenile animals were harassing Rosalyn. The infant was observed to nurse for a five-minute bout with the mother assisting, but then the mother's care seemed to diminish rapidly. The infant was abandoned several times for short periods. The mother left the infant on a bedboard elevated 6.5 feet off the floor of the cage. The infant moved to the edge and fell onto the concrete floor. Rosalyn quickly attended to the infant after his fall, but her interest was not sustained. At approximately five hours after birth, the umbilical cord, to which the placenta was still attached, became tightly wrapped around the limbs of the infant. At this point it was decided to remove the infant, medically stabilize him, and remove the placenta. Rosalyn also had some retained membranes that were removed when she was anesthetized to remove the infant. Upon removal the infant was found to be severely hypothermic (body temperature <34.4deg C [94 deg F]). Even after the infant became normothermic he had apparent difficulty in coordinating sucking and swallowing, frequently choking while feeding. However, the infant was vigorous.
After 24 hours, an attempt was made to reintroduce the infant to the mother, who was still isolated from the group. (We have successfully completed several other reintroductions of young infants to competent mothers, but one previous attempt with another incompetent mother failed.) Rosalyn eagerly greeted her infant and carried him ventrally, but within 30 minutes she began to lay him aside on the floor. When she carried him she was seen to pull him away from the nipple, disallowing suckling. Preventing an infant from suckling is not necessarily an indication of poor maternal care and has been reported as part of the repertoire of captive maternal behaviors (Nicolson, 1977). The danger with a marginally competent mother is that she may limit nursing to the extent that the infant experiences dehydration and malnutrition. Close observation is required to determine the severity of nursing restriction.
Rosalyn was given a fleece pad to nest with because she was arranging small branches in a nesting pattern and we feared the infant might be injured by the sticks. Unexpectedly, she wrapped the infant in the fleece, tucked him under a large branch, and wandered away. According to the scale devised by Rogers and Davenport (1970), the prime characteristic of incompetent mothering is avoidance of contact with the infant. Because of this lack of care, the possibility of injury, and particularly the threat of hypothermia, the infant was again removed within an hour of reintroduction for its own safety. One of the authors (P.L.A.) has developed a descriptive scale classifying maternal behavior into three categories. By this scale, Rosalyn's maternal behavior fit into the Inadequate/Abusive category (see Table 1.)
Holds and supports infant correctly at all times; no injurious grooming practices; very responsive to signals from infant, such as loss of grip, footing for the nipple, vocalizations. May even place infant's mouth on nipple when infant begins rooting or shows discomfort. Protects infant from other group members.
Mildly injurious grooming practices. May hold baby sideways on torso, or carry in hand as "loaf of bread," but baby is held enough to maintain its body temperature. Seldom holds infant in most favorable nursing positions, although a vigorous infant will be able to reach the nipple and nurse. Allows nursing, but may frequently interrupt nursing by overzealous grooming of infant. May allow kidnapping of infant by siblings or other group members.
actively injures the infant by biting or hitting; or severely injurious grooming practices. Holds infant improperly or lies on infant creating danger of suffocation or crushing. Doesn't support infant while moving about. Does not retrieve infant from the floor or frequently places infant on the floor. Infant rapidly becomes hypothermic. Never holds infant such that nipple can be reached; actively blocks infant's access to the nipple. May offer infant finger to suck instead of allowing nursing. May show little distress if infant is kidnapped or retrieved by another animal.
Table 1: Classification of chimpanzee maternal care.
No overt environmental alterations seemed to correlate with the fluctuation in infant care that Rosalyn demonstrated. The environment in which the mother and her infants have been housed has remained substantially the same from the first conception through the latest. She has remained in a stable social group with few changes in membership since 1980. However, her social position in the group has changed since her first delivery. At that time she was frequently harassed by other group members and perhaps she was content to be separated from her group. More recently, she is more at ease in her group and may have been more distressed at her temporary removal when the infant was born. There were some changes in the caretaking staff that attended Rosalyn throughout the period reported here. The colony veterinarian and colony manager who made evaluations and decisions concerning infant status were the same throughout. However, the caretakers and some of the people observing Rosalyn with her infants did change. It is possible that such changes could have influenced her infant care. Another consideration possibly influencing the outcome of mothering is the gender of the infant; in the two cases where the mother was unsuccessful in infant-rearing the offspring were males, while the successfully reared infant was a female. Other possible considerations are the inherent hardiness (or lack thereof) on the part of the infant, and, as the infant becomes older, the extent of involvement by other members of the social group in shared-mothering tasks. Nadler (1980, 1983) has reported that social isolation at the time of delivery and afterwards has a negative impact on gorilla maternal response to the first offspring. Because Rosalyn was similarly isolated in the early days of both her successful and her unsuccessful attempts at mothering, it is unlikely that this was a factor although her changing social position described above may have affected this process.
In most cases of maternal incompetence we would expect improvements in care to be cumulative with repeated experience (Rogers & Davenport, 1970). Perhaps the apparent deterioration of maternal skill in Rosalyn's case merely characterizes the inability of one individual to retain a skill that was initially only marginally learned. In any case, the inability of this mother to retain maternal skills sufficient for rearing an offspring is puzzling. Further research into similar cases could help increase the number of infants left in their mothers' care by providing information about possible influences such as housing, seasonality, social position, social grouping, infant gender, alloparental behavior, health history, and rearing history.
We would like to hear from other institutions that may have observed similar cases of maternal incompetence. Cases in which maternal ability seems to improve and then decline are of special interest. We would also like to be apprised of methods that have been employed by other institutions to modify incompetent maternal behavior and of success rates for reintroduction of infants to mothers after short periods of separation. You can write to the authors at the U. T. M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Department of Veterinary Resources, Route 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602.
Dienske, H. & Griffin, R. (1978). Abnormal behavior patterns developing in chimpanzee infants during nursery care. Journal of Children's Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 387-391.
Fritz, P. & Fritz, J. (1979). Resocialization of chimpanzees. Journal of Medical Primatology, 8, 202-221.
Harlow, H. F. (1971). Learning to Love. Chicago: Aldine.
Nadler, R. D. (1980). Child abuse: Evidence from nonhuman primates. Developmental Psychobiology, 13, 507-512.
Nadler, R. D. (1983). Experimental influences on infant abuse of gorillas and some other nonhuman primates. In M. Reite & N. G. Caine (Eds.), Child Abuse: The Nonhuman Primate Data (pp. 139-149). New York: Alan R. Liss.
Nicolson, N. A. (1977). A comparison of early behavioral development in wild and captive chimpanzees. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. Poirier (Eds.), Primate Biosocial Development: Biological, Social, and Ecological Determinants (pp. 529-560). New York: Garland.
Rogers, C. M. & Davenport, R. K. (1969). Effects of restricted rearing on sexual behavior of chimpanzees. Developmental Psychology, 1, 200-204.
Rogers, C. M. & Davenport, R. K. (1970). Chimpanzee maternal behavior. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), The Chimpanzee (Vol. 3, pp. 361-368). Basel: Karger.
Authors' address: Department of Veterinary Resources, Science
Park -- M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Route 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX
The authors would like to thank Ms. Carolyn Crain for manuscript preparation. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health/Division of Research Resources grants 5-R24-RR03578 and 5-U42-RR03589.
Hurricane Hugo Crosses Cayo Santiago, PR
On 17-18 September 1989, Hurricane Hugo passed directly over Cayo Santiago and eastern Puerto Rico with sustained winds of over 140 mph and gusts to 200 mph. Despite complete defoliation of the trees and destruction of every corral and several other structures on the island, almost all of the 1300 free-ranging rhesus monkeys in the colony survived the storm. Only two animals died. The offices in Punta Santiago were not damaged but were without electricity for several weeks.
Hurricane Hugo also caused damage at the Sabana Seca Field Station, the administrative headquarters and biomedical research facility of the Caribbean Primate Research Center, located approximately 10 miles west of San Juan. The sides of large corrals were downed, and others were damaged by hundreds of fallen trees. Several monkeys escaped and were recaptured. Most of the electrical and telephone poles and lines to this remote site were knocked down.
The Caribbean Primate Research Center staff spent over six weeks in the aftermath of the hurricane removing trees and debris at both facilities. At Sabana Seca important emergency assistance was provided by the United States Navy, Security Group Activity, and a large emergency generator was sent by the NIAID and NINDS, National Institutes of Health. Total damages and costs to the primate center will probably exceed $200,000. A request for aid has been submitted to the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Considering the devastation caused by Hurricane Hugo in the Caribbean, everyone at the Caribbean Primate Research Center feels very lucky indeed. -- Matt J. Kessler, Director
New IJP Editor
Plenum Publishing Corporation has announced that Russell H. Tuttle of the University of Chicago has been appointed Editor of the International Journal of Primatology as of January 1, 1990. All manuscript submissions and related correspondence should be sent to Dr. Tuttle at the Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637.
Saving Madagascar Wildlife
Madagascar, one of the world's most biologically diverse areas, is the beneficiary of the first debt-for-nature swap to be funded by the U.S. government. The Agency for International Development has put up $1 million to purchase part of the country's indebtedness. Under the arrangement, the worth of the contribution is doubled to about $2.1 million, which will be used to support local conservation groups and promote environment-related training and management.
Debt-for-nature swaps have become an increasingly popular mechanism for promoting conservation in poor countries. In another recent transaction, Costa Rica is financing conservation work by issuing nearly $33 million worth of bonds through donations from Sweden and Holland. And the World Wildlife Fund has recently arranged debt-nature swaps with the Philippines and with Zambia. Brazil is a prime candidate for debt-swap contributors, but has failed to attract any takers because of the government's instability. Environmentalists hope the situation will improve after Brazilian elections this fall. -- From Science, 1989, 245, 1192.
New Congressional Groups
As a "common sense voice" in response to animal rights activists, Representative Vin Weber (R-MN) is forming a group of Members of Congress tentatively called the Animal Welfare Caucus. Weber feels that "the use of animals for legitimate purposes...is being unfairly projected and vilified to the general public in a way that ultimately could have an impact on the quality of life of a lot of people. I don't think that the average animal lover wants to stop research that may be vital to finding a cure for Alzheimer's disease." Weber is concerned that consumers and many members of Congress do not realize the impact the animals rights movement could have on medical research and farming. In response to the announcement of Weber's pro animal research and farming group, a Congressional animal rights group is being formed. Annette Lantos, wife of Representative Tom Lantos (D-CA), is organizing the Congressional Friends of Animals, which is headed by Representatives Lantos and Robert Smith (R-NH). -- From the NABR Update, November 6, 1989, XI, 25.
NAGOYA (Kyodo) Police Wednesday launched a search on a mountain in Inuyama, Aichi Prefecture, and recaptured a trained chimpanzee that escaped Tuesday from a local primate research institute, allegedly with the help of an ape that unlocked the institute's doors. The 13-year-old male chimp Akira ran away from the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute and fled to a nearby mountain. During his flight, he bit an elementary school pupil, inflicting minor injuries, police said. A "gifted" female chimp, capable of spelling 100 objects on a typewriter, apparently used keys to open four doors in helping Akira gain his freedom from the institute, according to police. -- From the English language Japan Times, 4 October 1989.
Joe Held to Charles River
Dr. Joe R. Held has been named Vice President of Primate Operations for Charles River Laboratories. He will direct the company's world-wide primate business. Dr. Held has participated in veterinary medical and public health activities around the world. He is presently the coordinator of the Veterinary Public Health Program of the Pan American Health Organization.
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Scott W. Line, Kathleen N. Morgan, Jeffery A. Roberts, and Hal Markowitz
California Primate Research Center and San Francisco State University
Rhesus monkeys typically live in large social groups in the wild, and social housing is one of the most frequently suggested means of enriching the environment of rhesus monkeys living in the laboratory (De Waal, in press; Reinhardt et al., 1988). Recently proposed regulations from the Department of Agriculture encouraged social housing whenever possible (United States Department of Agriculture, 1989). Social housing provides the opportunity for expression of many species-typical behaviors that are not available to singly-housed monkeys. On the other hand, social housing increases the risk of aggression (Line, 1987; Novak & Suomi, 1988), and may increase the amount of distress experienced by low-ranking group members (Sapolsky, 1982).
Reinhardt and co-workers (Reinhardt et al., 1987; Reinhardt et al., 1988; Reinhardt, 1989) have shown that unfamiliar adult male and female rhesus monkeys can be successfully paired with juvenile rhesus, or with other adults of the same sex. More recently, Ranheim and Reinhardt (1989) reported that adult female pairs spent large amounts of time grooming and huddling. Besides demonstrating that pairs remain compatible for long periods, however, little information about any behavioral or physiological changes that may be induced in the monkeys by pairing were included in these studies. We feel that it is important to document improvements in the health and/or general behavior of monkeys before concluding that their welfare has been improved by social housing.
While socializing unfamiliar adult monkeys is theoretically beneficial to them, it is unknown whether all individuals will be better off as a result of social housing. In addition, the behavioral and physiological consequences of social housing in adult monkeys remain poorly documented. To address these issues we assessed the effects of socialization on aged rhesus monkeys. We chose monkeys that had previous social experience, although they had not been housed with each other before. They had been singly caged for at least ten years, and therefore presumably could benefit more from resocialization than could monkeys housed singly for shorter periods. The purpose of this report is to provide information on the initial results of group formation.
Thirteen aged rhesus monkeys (six males and seven females) were studied. Their estimated ages ranged from 19.3 to 28.3 years (mean = 23.3 years). Twelve were wild-caught, and entered the colony at a mean age of 8.2 years. The remaining monkey was born in the colony. They had been housed in outdoor social groups in our colony for a mean of 1.7 years, and were singly housed in indoor cages for a mean of 13.1 years.
In order to assess the effects of resocialization on the physical condition of the monkeys we monitored a series of physiological parameters, including body weight, skin fold thickness, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, nail growth rate, 20 serum biochemistry values, complete blood counts, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Baseline measurements were made two to four weeks prior to group formation. Follow-up measures (not including blood parameters) were taken ten days after group formation. All variables will again be measured four months after group formation. The same physiological measures were taken on twelve colony-born, young adult rhesus monkeys (six males and six females, mean age 10.5 years). The younger monkeys were born in outdoor social groups, and remained in them for a mean of 5.0 years. They were subsequently housed in indoor single cages for a mean of 5.5 years. The values from these monkeys were used as normal reference standards for comparison with the aged animals. Comparisons within and between groups were done using analysis of variance.
All monkeys were familiarized with the future group members of the same sex, and with the outdoor cage, prior to group formation. Each monkey was introduced to group members in a series of brief pair tests. Two monkeys were each placed in a wire-mesh transport cage, and the cages were then taken to a quiet room and placed parallel to each other on the floor, seven cm apart. The monkeys were watched for 15 minutes while an observer recorded their behavior. In addition, each monkey was taken to the outdoor cage and released alone for two to three hours while an observer recorded its behavior.
Behavioral data were collected using a portable computer and bar code system. The equipment allowed the observer to record both frequency and duration of 22 behaviors. Frequency only was recorded for 64 additional behaviors. Five- or fifteen-minute focal samples were recorded on all monkeys during the pre-group pairing sessions, cage familiarization sessions, and following group formation. In between focal samples, scan samples of the location and activity of all group members were performed following group formation. Finally, additional observers recorded all occurrences of contact aggression and ad libitum samples of sexual, agonistic, and affiliative behaviors following group formation.
After the pair test and cage familiarization sessions were completed, the group was formed in late September, 1989. The monkeys were placed in a double-corn crib cage with a gravel substrate, an interconnecting chute, and two anterooms. Numerous perches, plastic barrels, and solid walls provided a complex environment with mulitple escape routes and refuges. Initially the interconnecting chute was closed and the two sexes were placed in opposite sides of the corn crib. On the fourth day, after both single sex sub-groups had formed dominance hierarchies, and the level of aggression had declined, the chute was opened and the monkeys were allowed free access to both sides of the cage.
Pre-group Pairing In the brief pair tests prior to group formation males exhibited higher levels of agonistic behavior than females. There were unambiguous signs of a dominance relationship (i.e., one monkey displaying aggressive behavior such as cage shaking or open-mouth threats, and the other lipsmacking, grimacing, and/or avoiding the gaze of the other) in all but two of the fifteen possible male pair combinations. One male was involved in both of the ambiguous pairings. Repetition of those pair combinations also yielded ambiguous results (each male threatened the other, and neither showed signs of submission). In contrast, only seven of the 21 possible female pairs showed clear signs of a dominance relationship. Both females were aggressive in one pair combination, and no agonistic behavior was noted in the remaining 13 pairs.
Initial Group Formation On the day of group formation the males and females were released into separate sides of the corn-crib cage at 1000 hours. Fights were common during the first day; the frequency of contact aggression was 8.41 fights/hour among the males and 2.13 fights/hour among the females. Late in the afternoon two females formed a coalition, and by supporting each other were able to achieve the highest ranks among their group. One male quickly established himself as the highest ranking monkey in the other half of the cage, and later in the day a second male (who had been housed in the same room as the top-ranking monkey indoors, and in view of that animal) was clearly dominant to all but the top-ranking male. The top-ranking male occasionally supported the second-ranking monkey in his encounters with the other males.
On the second and third days both sides of the cage were relatively quiet. The frequency of contact aggression was 0.54 fights/hour among the females and 0.89 fights/hour among the males. By the fourth day one male was depressed and withdrawn, and was regularly harassed by two of the other males. At this point we opened the interconnecting chute in order to allow the sexes to mix, and hopefully to provide more refuges for low-ranking animals.
Aggressive behavior became more frequent after the chute was opened. The frequency of contact aggression was 5.23 fights/hour during the first 3 hours, then declined to 1.465 fights/hour during the next four days. The depressed male continued to be threatened, chased, and attacked by one of the males, and also by the top-ranking female. Two hours after the chute was opened he was permanently removed from the group and taken to the hospital for supportive care and treatment of several bite wounds.
Sexual behavior was observed within 28 minutes of opening the chute. Multiple mounts and ejaculations involving the top-ranking male and several of the females occurred on the first day. One female and the second-ranking male also attempted to copulate, but were prevented by interference from the top-ranking male. This male later copulated with a different female on the other side of the cage, out of view of the top-ranking male.
Group Partitioning On the seventh day following group formation (the fourth day after the chute was opened) one female was temporarily removed and taken to the hospital for treatment of a bite wound on the tail suffered during the first three days after the chute was opened. The next morning the top-ranking female, who was also the most frequent initiator of fights, was found dead in the cage from trauma. No new wounds were observed on any of the other animals, so it is uncertain with whom she was fighting, although we suspect it was one of the middle-ranking males. That male and one of the females continued to chase and threaten one of the remaining low-ranking males. We then decided to split the group into two mixed-sex sub-groups in an attempt to reduce the level of aggression.
Three of the higher-ranking males and three of the higher-ranking females were placed in one side of the cage. The two remaining females and two lower-ranking males were confined to the other side, and the .hy off interconnecting chute was reclosed. The female that was in the hospital .hy on was later returned to the side containing the lower-ranking monkeys.
Splitting the group reduced the level of aggression among monkeys on both sides. While threats and chases did not disappear, the mean frequency of contact aggression declined to 0.41 fights/hour over the first 5 days after dividing the group, and no new injuries occurred. Two weeks later the frequency of contact aggression was 0.32 fights/hour.
The monkeys showed a wide range of behaviors from their species-typical repertoire when moved to the outdoor group cage. Resting was by far the most frequent activity, with foraging, grooming, and locomotion also common (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Activity budget of aged rhesus monkeys. This graph depicts the proportion of time devoted to eight behavioral categories. The data were collected during 73 scan samples of 12 rhesus monkeys. The category rest included sit, lie, sleep, and passive contact.
Injuries Ten of the thirteen monkeys sustained injuries during fights in the first eight days following group formation. As mentioned above, one female died of general trauma. This occurred during the night of the fourth day after the interconnecting chute was opened. The frequency of contact aggression had been comparatively low (0.52 fights/hour) in the three preceding days, and we had no reason to suspect severe fighting would occur. As mentioned above, one male was permanently removed from the group due to continued aggression inflicted by higher-ranking monkeys. He was severely depressed, had lacerations on his fingers and head, and was hospitalized. One female was temporarily removed from the group for treatment of lacerations on her tail and a fracture of one of the metacarpals on her right hand. She was successfully reintroduced to one of the sub-groups after the cage was sub-divided. Five of the other monkeys (three females and two males) suffered lacerations on the head, hand, or tail that required cleaning with a povidone iodine solution and systemic antibiotics for one to three days. This was accomplished by netting each monkey and performing the treatments in the cage. Two monkeys received wounds that did not require veterinary care, and three received no wounds.
Physiological Changes In comparing baseline and 10-day post group-formation measurements of 1) weight; 2) arm, chest, and abdomen circumference; 3) upper arm, upper leg, suprailiac, and interscapular skin fold thickness; and 4) nail growth rate, only nail growth rate showed a significant effect. The baseline nail growth rate was 0.63 +/- .04 mm/week and increased to 1.14 +/-.14 mm/week following group formation. The nail growth rate for the young control monkeys was 1.18 +/-.04 mm/week. Analysis of variance showed that while the baseline values for the aged monkeys were significantly lower than for the young controls (p <.0002), there was no significant difference between the aged monkeys and young controls following group formation.
Figure 2: Nail growth rate of rhesus monkeys. The first bar presents the mean (+/-SEM) of 11 aged monkeys housed indoors in single cages, the second is the mean (+/-SEM) of the same monkeys 10 days after being moved to an outdoor group cage, and the third is the mean (+/-SEM) of 12 young adults housed indoors in single cages.
Despite the number of injuries, and the death of one monkey, we view the resocialization of these animals as a success thus far. The problems we have experienced demonstrate that there are apt to be significant costs associated with increased use of social housing, at least with rhesus monkeys that have been singly housed for long periods.
We developed the protocol for forming the group after consultation with numerous primatologists, and made every effort to minimize the risk of trauma. Future resocialization attempts using other protocols will help us determine whether the pre-group pair introductions and cage familiarization trials decreased or increased the aggression associated with new group formation.
The males showed higher levels of agonistic behavior during the pair introductions, and also exhibited a higher level of contact aggression in the first several days after group formation. There was a clear dominance relationship in almost all of the male pair combinations, but this did not appear to prevent serious fighting once the entire group of males was placed together. No dominance relationship could be detected for the majority of female pair combinations. After the entire group of females was assembled rates of aggression remained lower than in the male group, but serious wounds were also inflicted by the females. The lower-ranking members of both groups displayed submissive behavior toward dominant monkeys that threatened and attacked them, but this did not seem to inhibit the aggression of the higher-ranking monkeys. Only after we separated the monkeys into two sub-groups did the rates of aggression decline and remain low.
We detected few physiological changes in the monkeys in the first ten days following group formation. The nail growth rate of the monkeys increased, and equalled the rate found among young adults. Nail growth rate is lower in aged macaques (Short et al., 1987) and has been correlated with some measures of immune function, such as natural killer cell activity (Coe, 1989). One interpretation of this result is that the immune status of these animals was enhanced by the new social and physical environment. Alternatively, the minor wounds inflicted on most of the monkeys could have increased immune system activity, and also affected nail growth. Although there was not a significant change in the weight of the group as a whole, eleven monkeys lost weight and only two gained weight. We assumed that group formation would be a stressful period, however, and expected that many of the subjects might lose weight initially. The lack of change in morphometric measurements may have been because ten days was insufficient time to allow for change in those parameters. Follow-up measurements of all the physiological parameters will be needed before the long-term consequences of resocialization can be determined.
Many philosophical questions concerning the quality of life for animals versus complete protection from harm and aggression are obviously raised by these results (Markowitz & Spinelli, 1986) Additionally, the concern that experimental subjects used in research be healthy, representative members of the species needs to be considered in weighing the costs (including injury and death) and benefits arising from housing in social groups (Markowitz, 1986; Markowitz & Line, in press). It is essential that we search for the most humane and efficient methods of socializing monkeys, and essential that we document the outcomes as completely as possible, in order to minimize the cost to the animals of providing them a richer life.
Coe, C. (1989). What immunology can tell us about primate behavior. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Mobile, AL.
DeWall, F. B. M. (in press). Social nature of primates. In M. A. Novak & A. Petto (Eds.), The Psychological Well-being of Primates in Captivity. Washington: American Psychological Association.
Line, S. W. (1987). Environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 190, 854-859.
Markowitz, H. (1986). Some reflections on the appropriateness of opportunities for animals to provide captive "models". Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Newsletter, 6 , 2-5.
Markowitz, H. & Spinelli, J. (1986). Environmental engineering for primates. In K. Benirschke (Ed.), Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations (pp. 489-498). New York: Springer-Verlag. .cb;Markowitz, H. & Line, S. W. (in press). The need for responsive environments. In B. Rollin & M. L. Kesel (Eds.), The Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Novak, M. A. & Suomi, S. J. (1988). Psychological well-being of primates in captivity. American Psychologist, 43, 765-773.
Ranheim, S. & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Compatible rhesus monkeys provide long-term stimulation for each other. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 1-2.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Eisele, S. G., & Champoux, M. (1987). Social enrichment of the environment with infants for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology, 6, 365-371.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D, Eisele, S. G., Cowley, D., & Vertein, R. (1988). Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 14, 135-140.
Sapolsky, R. M. (1982). The endocrine stress-response and social status in the wild baboon. Hormones and Behavior, 16, 279-292.
Short, R., Williams, D. D., & Bowden, D. M. (1987). Cross-sectional evaluation of potential biological markers of aging in pigtailed macaques: effects of age, sex, and diet. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 644-654.
United States Department of Agriculture (1989). Animal welfare proposed rules. Federal Register, 54 , 10822-10954.
First author's address: California Primate Research
Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
This research was supported by NIH grant RR0169 to the California Primate Research Center. We thank Carmel Stanko, Sharon Fox, Mike Riddell, and Jennifer Fretwell for assistance in data collection. We thank Jerry Adams, Art Cabrera, and the CPRC animal care staff for their cooperation and assistance.
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University of Wisconsin
Perches can provide species-adequate stimulation for caged nonhuman primates. In one study, singly housed adult male rhesus monkeys spent an average 28% of undisturbed time sitting on PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipes, with animals living in lower-row cages using the pipes significantly more than animals living in upper-row cages (Reinhardt, 1989). Deciduous tree branches may serve the same function as PVC pipes (Reinhardt, 1987). To help choose the more effective option for environmental enrichment, this study compares the proportion of time individually caged rhesus monkeys spent perching on PVC pipes with that spent perching on oak branches.
Twenty healthy 4-year-old male rhesus monkeys were observed, each for 60 min, from 16:00-17:00 when the animals were not disturbed by human activity. The monkeys were housed in lower-row double cages 85 cm deep, 170 cm wide and 85 cm high. They were fed commercial dry food at 07:30, supplemented with fruit at about 15:00. Water was available ad libitum.
One half of each cage was provided with a PVC pipe, the other with an oak branch. Both perches were 120 cm long and had a mean radius of 4.8 cm. They were suspended diagonally with a slope of about 15 deg. The lower end of a pipe or branch was attached with a chain at the front of the cage at a height of 37 cm while the upper end rested at the junction of the back and side wall. This made it possible for an animal to sit and walk on the elevated branch or pipe, but did not restrict its free movement below the perches. Two feeding boxes were attached at the far sides of the front of the cage. Two drinking spouts were mounted on the top grating close to the front of each half of the double cage.
The animals had been exposed to branches and PVC pipes for more than one year without adverse effects on their health. Old branches had been replaced with new ones 4 weeks before the present observations.
The monkeys were familiar with the observer, who sat in front of their cages at a distance of about 1.20 m. One animal at a time was observed, and all its activities involving physical contact with the plastic pipe and/or the oak branch were recorded.
Animal Proportion of time (100%=60 min) spent with PVC pipe with oak branch Paul 67.6% 22.2% Kick 46.9% 5.1% Anti 45.9% 37.4% Fun 28.7% 28.3% Bruno 27.6% 54.9% Frank 24.7% 18.7% Mark 23.8% 24.1% Rudi 19.2% 23.4% Matt 17.2% 4.5% Otto 13.4% 36.1% Nosi 12.1% 20.4% David 12.0% 41.8% Andy 11.8% 21.3% Polite 9.6% 37.1% Eddi 7.3% 21.8% Madison 6.1% 27.3% Fox 5.2% 18.7% Xaver 4.3% 14.5% Darie 0.0% 10.8% Joe 0.0% 0.0% Mean 19.2 +/- 17.0 23.9 +/- 13.5
Table I: Time budgets of 20 male rhesus monkeys exposed to a suspended PVC pipe and a suspended oak branch as environmental enrichment objects.
The statistical analysis was done with the Mann-Whitney test (Siegel, 1956).
Of the 20 rhesus monkeys tested, 18 (90%) used the PVC pipes and 19 (95%) used the oak branches during the 1-hour observation (Table 1). The animals spent on average 43.1% (25.8/60 min) of the observation time with the two objects: 19.2% (11.5/60 min) with the pipe and 23.9% (14.3/60 min) with the branch (Table 1). The difference was of no statistical significance (p >0.1; Table 1) . Perching accounted for 77% and 74%, walking for 22% and 18%, gnawing for 0% and 6%, holding for 1% and 2% of the time animals spent with the pipe and branch, respectively.
The animals in this study were exposed to identically installed perches that had the same dimensions but were of different qualities. The proportion of time individual monkeys spent with the PVC pipe showed no significant difference from that spent with the oak branch. This indicates that the animals had no preference for either of the two types of perches, that oak branches were as effective as PVC pipes for enriching the environment of the animals. Oak branches, however, had the advantage over PVC pipes that they were good not only for perching, walking and holding but also served as objects for gnawing. This advantage is counterbalanced by the fact that, unlike PVC pipes, oak branches or other deciduous tree branches are not readily available throughout the year and have to be replaced regularly due to wear.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W., Cowley, D. & Champoux, M. (1987). Preliminary comments on environmental enrichment with branches for individually caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26 (1), 1-3.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques. Lab Animal, 18, 31-33.
Siegel, S. (1956). Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223
Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
I am grateful to Mr. John Wolf for providing valuable comments on this manuscript and for editing it. This project was supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC.
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The proper evaluation and interpretation of pathologic lesions are critical elements in safety assessment and are necessary components of a consistent international safety assessment policy. To encourage international cooperation, the International Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation sponsors a series of pathology monographs and histopathology seminars which help contribute to an international understanding of proper lesion classification and interpretation. The 10-volume series Monographs on the Pathology of Laboratory Animals examines and discusses all body systems. The first 7 volumes covering the endocrine, respiratory, digestive, urinary, genital, nervous, and integument and mammary systems are now available. For more information write to the International Life Sciences Institute, 1126 Sixteenth Street, NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20036 [202-659-0789].
Jean Baulu, Head and Program Leader, Barbados Primate Research Center and Wildlife Reserve, is interested in speaking with other researchers studying Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus. The Center and Reserve have a wild colony as well as a large captive breeding group. Mr. Baulu can be contacted at Farley Hill, St. Peter, Barbados, West Indies [809-422-8826; FAX: 809-422-1633].
Ken Kaemmerer is requesting assistance in locating Ateles sp. for listing in the newly set-up Ateles SSP. If you have and/or are working with Ateles sp., please contact Mr. Kaemmerer, Dallas Zoo, 621 East Clarendon, Dallas, TX 75203 [214-670-6833]. -- Reprinted from the PSIC New Listings, No. 34:89, 6.
The Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse announces that its bulletin, New Listings, will be printed twice a month rather than weekly, for greater time and cost efficiency. New Listings lists available or wanted animals, tissues, services, or equipment. For information on subscribing or placing listings, contact Cathy A. Johnson-Delaney, D.V.M., PSIC, Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
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University of Wisconsin
Many attempts have been made to enrich the environment of laboratory nonhuman primates by providing them with a) inanimate objects for manipulation, playing, or perching, b) compatible companions for social interaction, and/or c) increased cage space. The presence or absence of behavioral disorders is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of such attempts, and an environmental enrichment strategy is regarded as successful if it leads to a decrease or cessation of behavioral pathologies in the test animals. However, focusing on behavioral disorders can be misleading for several reasons:
1. Most studies are based on short-term observations. Behavioral disorders, though, are deeply ingrained habits that are unlikely to be eradicated within a few months. There is no question that an enrichment strategy deserves the designation "effective" if it breaks the habitual performance of bizzare behavior patterns, but it could be erroneous to conclude that a particular strategy is ineffective because the test animals continue to show behavioral disorders during a restricted follow-up period.
2. Laboratory primates exhibit behavioral disorders not only in a poor environment such as a barren cage, but also in an optimal environment such as a compatible group (Reinhardt et al., 1986). Behavioral pathologies have occasionally been observed even in wild animals (Grenwal, 1981). Taking the absence of behavioral disorders as a criterion for the effectiveness of an environmental enrichment strategy for laboratory nonhuman primates is therefore unrealistic.
3. The occurrence of behavioral disorders is not a basic problem. Only a minority of laboratory primates show behavioral pathologies. The majority behave in normal ways even though they live in an impoverished environment. Should the absence of behavioral disorders disqualify them from having their environment upgraded?
Apparently, behavioral disorders provide no generally applicable criterion for the evaluation of environmental enrichment strategies for nonhuman primates. What is the alternative?
Any kind of environmental enrichment should provide continuous species-adequate stimulation for the understimulated animal. Effective environmental enrichment thus stimulates the subject periodically to perform species-typical behavior patterns that were formerly inhibited due to a lack of appropriate stimuli. An environmental enrichment strategy is ineffective if it does not promote the expression of species-typical behavior patterns in the subject or if the subject loses interest in it.
Grenwal, B. V. (1981). Self-wrist biting in Arashiyama-B troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata). Primates, 22, 277-280.
Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A. & Houser, D. (1986). Hair pulling and eating in captive rhesus monkey troops. Folia Primatologica, 47, 158-164.
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
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Fred B. Bercovitch, Eduardo Tena-Betancourt, Matthew J.
Kessler, and Manuel R. Lebrón
Caribbean Primate Research Center and University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus
Improving the quality of life for captive primates is a dominant issue confronting both research institutions and zoological gardens (Maple & Finlay, 1989). Changes to The Animal Welfare Act have made it essential that housing conditions for many species, especially primates, be modified to promote their psychological health (Beaver, 1989; Woolverton et al., 1989). A major predicament confronting research institutions is designing enclosures that improve the psychological well-being of primates without conflicting with research protocols (Reinhardt et al., 1988; Bloom & Cook, 1989). In this report we describe an extremely cost-effective procedure for modifying captive enclosures that does not interfere with research procedures and that provides the monkeys with a multi-functional device that probably enhances the captive environment.
Methods and Results
Three wooden, untreated telephone cable spools, bereft of heavy telephone cables, were placed into a trisectioned 1-acre outdoor enclosure housing approximately 130 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that are the subjects of both behavioral and biomedical research. The diameter of each spool is about 180 cm and all three spools were slightly modified before placement in the enclosure. The central wheel of the spools is made from a number of wooden planks; three of these planks were removed on opposite sides of the spool to allow for movement of animals into and through the spools (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Immature rhesus macaques using a telephone spool as a play and rest area.
Upon placement in the enclosure, the monkeys immediately began to both explore and use the spools in a variety of ways. They have become a favored play area, with immature monkeys darting around, through, and over them. One of the spools was placed near an elevated perch; the young monkeys dive from the perch onto that spool. The spools are used by the macaques for grooming episodes and for protection from conspecifics. Individuals run around the spools to avoid pursuit or hide from others behind or inside the spools.
The spools also provide the monkeys with protection from the physical elements. During hot afternoons, monkeys often go inside them to avoid the sun; when heavy rains drench the enclosure, the monkeys can frequently be found inside the spools, attempting to keep dry. The monkeys also use the spools for sleeping and resting sites.
The spools were not permanently placed in the enclosure and can be relocated. Relocation has not been performed, but could be in the future as a means of altering the physical facilities in the enclosure. The spools also provide additional locations for placement of food by caretakers.
Spool deployment has not been accompanied by any adverse consequences. The troop is subject to daily behavioral observations; no wounds have resulted from altercations over access to the telephone spools. However, they have become specialized locations, with monkeys supplanting others over access to them. Although the monkeys have been observed gnawing on the spools, veterinary records have not revealed any splinters in mouths or appendages requiring special treatment. No wood has been found in the stomachs of dead monkeys since the environmental enrichment was instituted, a problem that has occurred elsewhere with the use of pine wood perches (Kessler & Kupper, 1976).
A number of suggestions have been advanced regarding means of improving the welfare of captive primates by enriching the social or physical environment (Beaver, 1989; Woolverton et al., 1989). Telephone cable spools provide an effective device for enhancing the captive environments of primates because they offer an area for multiple uses. In addition, they are extremely cost-effective because they did not cost anything for materials or labor. The enclosures need not be as large as the one used here, because the spools can fit into smaller enclosures and will provide a larger surface area for captive animals. In addition, telephone cable spools are manufactured in various sizes, so one need not obtain the large size used in our enclosure. In the future, we plan to stack smaller spools atop larger ones to increase the vertical area available to the primates, as well as providing further places for play, grooming, resting, and shelter. Because the spools serve a variety of functions, we believe that they have enriched the physical environment of the rhesus monkeys.
Beaver, B. V. (1989). Environmental enrichment for laboratory animals. ILAR News, 31, 5-11.
Bloom, K. R. & Cook, M. (1989). Environmental enrichment: Behavioral responses of rhesus to puzzle feeders. Lab Animal, 18, 25-31.
Kessler, M. J. & Kupper, J. L. (1976). Obstructive gastric foreign body in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Laboratory Animal Science, 26, 619-621.
Maple, T. L. & Finlay, T. W. (1989). Applied primatology in the modern zoo. Zoo Biology, Supplement 1, 101-116.
Reinhardt, V., Eisele, S., & Houser, D. (1988) Environmental enrichment program for caged macaques at the Wisconsin Primate Research Center: A review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27, , 5-7.
Authors' address: Caribbean Primate Research Center,
P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749.
The Caribbean Primate Research Center is supported by NIH Grant RR03640 and the senior author is funded by a Research Grant from the H. F. Guggenheim Foundation. We would like to express our appreciation to Mr. Aristides Beaton, of the Puerto Rico Telephone Company, for the donation of the telephone spools.
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The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology will present their 17th Annual Continuing Education Course on Comparative Pathology April 23-25, 1990, at the Holiday Inn of Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD. The course is designed to bring attention to disease processes in animals for which similar entities occur in man. Differences and similarities of pathologic lesions as well as the biologic behavior of specific entities will be compared in animals and man.
Military and federal service employees in the medical, veterinary, and other medical fields are requested to consult the Educational Division, AFIP, Washington, DC 20306-6000 [202-576-2939], and will be required to submit a $25 fee, payable to the Treasurer of the United States. Nonfederal civilians, who must pay $200, should contact the American Registry of Pathology, at the same address. Foreign nationals, who must also pay $200, should consult Mrs Montgomery, AFIP/CAP, at the same address, as soon as possible. All applications will be considered on a space available basis. Completed application forms should be returned by March 23, 1990.
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Phillip C. Baker and Karl J. Field
Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research Division
Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) are frequently used in toxicology studies that are designed to assess the cardiac risk of new drugs. When obtaining electrocardiograms (ECG) from macaques, dissociative anesthetics should not be used for chemical restraint because these agents can alter cardiac function and interfere with assessment of new drugs. Since most historical ECG values have been obtained from chemically restrained animals (Atkins & Dickie, 1985; Gonder, Gard, & Lott, 1980; Toback et al., 1978; Verlangieri et al., 1985), or from a small number of unsedated animals (Manilow et al., 1976; Siwick, Guy, & Durack, 1987), historical ECG values from a larger population of unsedated animals is needed. The purpose of this report is to present the historical ECG values we have obtained from 96 unsedated macaques.
Materials and Methods
Forty-eight male and 48 female 3- to 7-year-old cynomolgus monkeys were used in this study to establish normal ranges for ECG values. Each animal was evaluated by CBC, clinical chemistry, and physical examination and considered clinically normal prior to study initiation.
Animals were conditioned to handling, restraint, and the pole-and-collar techniques (Primate Products, Woodside, CA) prior to data collection. ECGs were obtained from animals restrained in the sitting position. Bipolar leads (I, II, and III) were simultaneously recorded using a three-channel electrocardiograph (Cambridge CM3000, Cambridge Medical Instruments, Ossining, NY). Tracings were standardized at 1 cm = 1 mV and the paper speed was 50 and 100 mm/sec for 200mm, and 25 mm/sec for 1 minute. Electrodes were attached to the forelimbs at the elbow and to the hindlimbs caudal to the stifle. Alcohol or electrode gel was used to provide optimal electrode-to-skin contact. Lead II 50 mm/sec tracings were used to calculate the heart rate, P wave and R wave amplitude, P, PR, QRS, QT, and PT intervals, T wave polarity, and the ST segment.
Statistical analysis of results included determining the mean, standard deviation, and range for each of the above parameters except T wave polarity. A two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare values obtained in males and females. A probability +/-0.05 was considered significant.
Results and Discussion
Males Females ECG Value Mean SD Range N Mean SD Range N Heart rate (b/m) 241 15 210-285 48 230 25 90-270 48 P wave amplitude (mV) 0.15 0.04 0.0-0.25 48 0.14 0.04 0.0-0.30 48 P wave duration (sec) 0.032 0.010 0.02-0.04 48 0.029 0.010 0.0-0.05 48 PR interval (sec) 0.070 0.011 0.06-0.10 48 0.069 0.011 0.06-0.10 47 PT interval (sec) 0.23 0.02 0.18-0.26 47 0.25 0.02 0.20-0.28 46 QRS duration (sec) 0.038 0.010 0.02-0.06 48 0.041 0.010 0.02-0.06 48 QT interval (sec) 0.163 0.015 0.12-0.18 47 0.177 0.014 0.14-0.20 46 R wave amplitude (mV) 0.40 0.24 0.0-1.0 47 0.41 0.19 0.10-0.80 48 ST segment (mV) 0.02 0.04 0.0-0.20 45 0.02 0.04 0.0-0.10 46 T wave polarity positive in 46/48 animals positive in 47/47 animals b/m = beats/minute mV = millivolts sec = seconds
Table 1: Historical electrocardiography data from unsedated cynomolgus monkeys.
Results from statistical analysis of ECG values are included in Table 1. There were no significant sex differences noted in this study. The heart rate, PR, PT, and QT intervals correspond well with those reported previously for unsedated animals (Manilow et al., 1976; Siwick et al., 1987). However, the heart rate was higher and the PR, PT, and QT intervals were shorter than those reported in sedated animals (Atkins & Dickie, 1985; Gonder et al., 1980; Toback et al., 1978; Verlangieri et al., 1986). As heart rate increased, PT and QT intervals decreased. The R wave amplitude was similar in both sexes, and was consistent with those previously reported from unsedated cynomolgus monkeys (Siwick et al., 1987). The P wave amplitude, P wave duration, QRS duration, ST segment, and T wave polarity have not been consistently reported by other investigators, precluding additional comparisons.
The results from this study indicated that ECG values observed from sedated and unsedated cynomolgus monkeys differ. The values that are affected the most included heart rate, PT, QT, and PR intervals. While these differences may be minor, the possibility exists that a chemical used for restraint could alter the ECG, thus interfering with interpretation of the test compound's effect on the ECG. This is particularly true for safety assessment studies in which sedatives, anesthetics and other compounds known to affect the heart are being evaluated. Therefore, having normal resting ECG values from unsedated macaques is important when interpreting cardiac effects of a test compound. Previous efforts to obtain such values have been published; however the sample size was often too small to include adequate statistical analysis (Atkins & Dickie, 1985). In the present study, sample size was considerably larger than previously reported, thus permitting more thorough statistical evaluation.
Atkins, C. E. & Dickie, B. C. (1985). Electrocardiogram of the clinically normal, ketamine-sedated Macaca fascicularis. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 47, 455-457.
Gonder, J. C., Gard, E. A., & Lott, N. E. (1980). Electrocardiograms of nine species of nonhuman primates sedated with ketamine. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 41, 972-975.
Manilow, M. R., McLaughlin, P., Dhindsa, D. S., Metcalfe, A. J., Ochsner, A. J., Hill, J., & McNulty, W. P. (1976). Failure of carbon monoxide to induce myocardial infarction in cholesterol-fed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Cardiovascular Research, 10, 101-108.
Toback, J. M., Clark, J. C., & Moorman, W. J. (1978). The electrocardiogram of Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Animal Science, 28, 182-185.
Verlangieri, A. J., DePriest, J. C.,& Kapeghian, J. C. (1985). Normal serum biochemical, hematological, and EKG parameters in anesthetized adult male Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Animal Science, 35, 63-66.
Siwick, D. A., Guy, D. C., & Durack, C. L. (1987). The electrocardiogram of the unsedated versus ketamine-sedated chair restrained Macaca fascicularis. Presented at the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science meeting, Denver, Co.
Authors' address: Pathology and Experimental Toxicology, Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research Division, Warner-Lambert Company, 2800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-2430.
* * *
In the last issue, Volume 28, number 4, on page 23, the name of the Director of the Diagnon Corporation, J. Erwin, was misspelled.
On page 33 of the same issue, references were omitted for the following summarized articles:
*Color vision variations in Old and New World primates. Jacobs, G. H. & Harwerth, R. S. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106). American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 35-44.
*Generational bias in mating in captive groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Smith, D. G. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Folia Primatologica, 1987, 49, 212-215.
* * *
David M. Haring Duke University Primate Center
Maintaining sifakas in large forested outdoor enclosures can provide valuable insights into patterns of foraging, ranging, and social behavior. Housing in such an enclosure would also be a crucial step in any scheme to reintroduce the species into its native habitat. Challenges faced by any primate in the wild, such as predator avoidance, identification of edible and non-edible plants, seasonal changes in food resources and harsh weather conditions, all need to be met in enclosures which are far more similar to the natural environment than would ever exist in conventional types of housing. It will be some years before we have adequate data with which to compare the success of forested versus nonforested outdoor runs, but if we find that the pregnancy rate is greater in the forested areas then this will obviously be considered the optimum type of housing for sifakas. From a management standpoint, however, the maintenance of endangered primates in open outdoor enclosures presents many problems and challenges. In particular: 1. The daily routine followed in caring for the animals in the enclosures would have to be extremely flexible. Scavengers of various types, including birds, rodents, and raccoons (Procyon lotor), must be dealt with each day. It may be difficult to monitor the condition of individuals each morning since they may be asleep high up in the trees. 2. The possibility always exists that the animals will escape. 3. Predators in the form of hawks, owls, foxes, and snakes are a remote but real threat. 4. The potential of injury from falls and exposure to harsh weather conditions is greater, particularly for infants and juveniles, than would be the case in conventional housing.
An extremely successful enclosure at the Duke University Primate Center, balancing effectively the demands of both efficient animal husbandry and the psychological well-being of the animals, is the 234 cubic meter, exclusively outdoor run which was renovated for the sifakas' use in 1985. The complex is completely enclosed by wire mesh but contains a wide variety of items for the animals to use in locomotion and social interactions.
It has been shown that sifakas housed indoors with access to the outside are more active than those which are maintained indoors only (Macedonia, 1987). Enclosures which are exclusively outdoors have, in turn, several advantages over indoor/outdoor maintenance. The environment in such enclosures is highly stimulating in a number of ways, such as the sound and smell of other animals housed outdoors, the sight of people walking by, and the view of aerial predators (or potential predators) soaring overhead. When animals have access to indoor quarters, however, they may choose to spend the majority of time inside, especially if they are new to captivity. The indoor rooms are completely sealed off from visual and olfactory contact with humans, therefore probably giving the animals increased security, but unfortunately the environment is without much habitat enrichment. Sifakas in these rooms may spend most of the day sitting and are not exposed to sunlight and fresh air. The animals in the exclusively outdoor run, on the other hand, follow natural behavior patterns of sun-bathing, foraging, resting, and play, giving every indication of being consistent in their environment. Browse feeding stations are visited regularly throughout the day, and rough-and-tumble play is a common occurrence. Animals quickly grow accustomed to close-range contact with humans, and it is easy to monitor their behavior and health. In many respects such large outdoor areas provide the best of both worlds: the security and ease of husbandry which accompanies conventional housing as well as the fresh air and much of the stimulation provided by forested areas.
Macedonia, J. M. (1987). Effects of housing differences upon activity budgets in captive sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Zoo Biology, 6, 55-67.
Author's address: Duke University Primate Center, 3705
Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705.
This article is part of a paper, "Natural history and captive management of Verreaux's sifaka," published in International Zoo Yearbook, 1988, 27, 125-134.
* * *
There will be a post-IPS Congress International Symposium on "Primates -- An Update" in New Delhi, India, from July 28 - 31, 1990. The scientific program will include contributions on such topics as evolution, genetics, ecology, behavior, social organization, communication, reproductive biology, conservation, and management. Interested persons are invited to contribute a thematic paper and/or a VHS videotape presentation in any of these areas, and should notify the organizers of their intentions before January 30 or as soon as possible. Abstracts for 20 minute presentations should be sent to the organizers in duplicate by March 15. Registration, which includes room (shared), board, local transportation, and one day of sightseeing, is US $200, before March 15, US $225 until May 30, and US $250 thereafter. Bank drafts to "International Symposium on Primates -- An Update" may be drawn on any Delhi/New Delhi bank, but checks cannot be accepted. No funding is available, but group airfare may be arranged for US participants. For further information, or to participate, contact Dr. P. K. Seth, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India; Dr. F. E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, 114 Lord Hall, 124 West 17th Ave, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210 [office: 614-292-9766; home: 614-846-4564]; or Professor Dr. C. Welker in West Germany [office: 561-8044195; home: 5665 5518].
Animal Behavior Society
The 26th Annual Meetings of the Animal Behavior Society will be held at the State University of New York at Binghamton, 10-16 June, 1990. Planned events include a Keynote Address by Carl Hopkins of Cornell University, and two Fellow Lecturers, Tom Eisner of Cornell and Patricia DeCoursey of The University of South Carolina. There will be a discussion of NSF granting procedures with Fred Stollnitz, and a "Meet the Editor" session with Lee Drickamer, current editor of Animal Behavior. For information about the program, contact the ABS Program Officer, Lynne D. Houck, Dept. of Ecology & Evolution, Univ. of Chicago, 940 E. 57th St., Chicago IL 60637-1455. For answers to questions about facilities, general logistics, travel information, and highlights of events, call or write Stim Wilcox [607-777-2423] or Anne Clark [607-777-6228], Biology Dept., SUNY Binghamton, NY 13901.
The Columbus Zoo is sponsoring a workshop on June 22-25, 1990, to bring together gorilla keepers, curators, veterinarians, field researchers, members of academia, and individuals from other disciplines to discuss the captive gorilla population. The goal of the workshop is to provide an environment that will allow this diversified group an opportunity to explore the techniques that might augment existing husbandry procedures, while the focus is to examine behavioral problems by addressing the social and environmental aspects of the captive population. The agenda will also include current data on the status and behavior of free-ranging gorillas and the possible application of this information to the captive population. Major conference topics will be Socialization, Keeper Involvement, Husbandry Techniques, and Veterinarian/Keeper Interaction. The registration fee (Keeper: $85; Zoo Personnel: $100; Others: $125) includes sessions, coffee breaks, many meals, and social events. Paper and poster abstracts should be sent by February 1 to the Columbus Zoo Gorilla Workshop, Attn: Selection Committee, P.O. Box 400, Powell, OH 43065. For more information, write to the Great Apes Staff at the same address [614-645-3426].
Laboratory Animal Medicine Course
An advanced course for senior academic and management staff in laboratory animal medicine will be held in Provence, France, July 9-13, 1990. It is intended to be an informal high level conference to deal with the many obligations of the heads/directors of laboratory animal departments. The fee for participants of 14,000 French francs (accompanying persons, 1800) includes meals and room from July 7-15. For further information, contact Jann Hau, Dean of Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, BULOWSVWJ 13, DK-1870, Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark. Dr. G. L. Van Hoosier will be participating in the course as a guest lecturer/chairman.
* * *
Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. in Anthropology. Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional anatomy, and primate evolution. Facilities include a breeding colony of Galago senegalensis, extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, and a variety of specimens for dissection. Faculty interests are in relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, functional anatomy and locomotion. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, galagos, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (physical anthropology, primate anatomy, paleoanthropology, human evolution).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Drs. Leanne T. Nash or Mary W. Marzke, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 [602-965-6213; Dr. Nash: 602-965-4812; Dr. Marzke: 602-965-6237].
Primate Foundation of Arizona, in association with Arizona
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: A private, non-profit, breeding colony pursuing research in social behavior and development to improve captive management and the quality of life and reproductive potential of captive chimpanzees. Internships: 12-month, $12,000 (gross) stipend, to study the behavior, biology, and management of captive chimpanzees.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jo Fritz, Director; Paul Fritz, Colony Director; Leanne Nash, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (social behavior); Mary Marzke, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (physical growth and development).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280.
University of California, Berkeley, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Primate Studies Program. A comprehensive program in primate studies emphasizing anatomy, behavior, and ecology and focused on primate species as integrated systems.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Phyllis Dolhinow (development and behavior of human and nonhuman primates); Katharine Milton (energetics, feeding ecology, and digestive anatomy of human and nonhuman primates).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: P. Dolhinow, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
University of California, Davis, Psychology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME: Comparative Psychology and Physiological Psychology are specializations within the Psychobiology program.
. . FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leo M. Chalupa (physiological psychology of primate visual development); Richard G. Coss (social and antipredator behavior, developmental neuropsychology, behavioral development, evolution); Kenneth R. Henry (physiological psychology of audition); William A. Mason (primate social behavior, development, responses to stress, hormonal correlates of behavior); G. Mitchell (primate behavior, captivity and behavior, zoo research, human ethology, research methods); Robert M. Murphy (genetic correlates of behavior, psychopathology); Donald H. Owings (antipredator behavior and communication); Sally P. Mendoza (hormonal correlates of behavior, responses to stress, primate behavior, physiological psychology); Robert Sommer (environmental psychology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
University of Florida, Psychology Department
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology); E. F. Malagodi (experimental analysis of behavior).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
Emory University, Yerkes Regional Primate Research
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Behavior and Biology of Primates Training Program: Postdoctoral training is available in several sciences that contribute to our understanding of the behavior and biology of primates. These include: primate behavior, including learning, memory, cognition, communication, social behavior and psychopharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrinology; neurobiology, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and psychophysics, particularly as related to visual processes; pathology and primate models of human diseases. Training facilities: Training facilities of the Yerkes Center including its Field Station and Language Research Center as well as a wide variety of other laboratories at the Main Station are available. Funding for Research Associates and Research Fellows generally is derived from individual research grants at the center or fellowships awarded by public and private agencies.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Director, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology and
. . PROGRAM NAMES: Biopsychology with a specialty area in primatology; Biological Anthropology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Psychology: Irwin S. Bernstein (primatology, social organization, aggression, sex, dominance); Roger K. Thomas (cognition, intelligence, concept use, learning and memory); B. E. Mulligan (sensory psychology, animal communication, human factors psychology); Joseph D. Allen (human psychophysiology, animal learning, adjunctive behavior, laboratory instrumentation). Anthropology: Carolyn L. Ehardt (primate social organization, social development, affiliation, kinship); Ben G. Blount (primate communication, socialization); Charles R. Peters (physical anthropology, human origins, ecology, primate diet, Africa). We also enjoy full cooperation with other departments and universities within the University of Georgia System, as well as collaboration with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Biopsychology Program, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Graduate Coordinator for Anthropology (Biological Anthropology Program) Department of Anthropology and Linguistics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 [404-542-3922].
University of Chicago, Dept. of Anthropology, Dept. of
Ecology & Evolution, Committee on Evolutionary Biology.
. . PROGRAM NAMES: Doctoral programs, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology & Evolution.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Stuart Altmann (Evolutionary Biology: behavioral ecology of primates, especially foraging); Jeanne Altmann (Evolutionary Biology: life histories and behavioral ecology, especially maternal behavior and behavioral ontogeny); Martha McClintock (Evolutionary Human Development: menstrual synchrony, pheromonal communication); Russell Tuttle (Anthropology, Evolutionary Biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior). Russell S. Lande (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Leigh Van Valen (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Michael J. Wade (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Carole Ober (Obstetrics & Gynocology, Anthropology: human and nonhuman primate genetics).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above at Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 915 E. 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637.
The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Cell
Biology and Anatomy
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Functional anatomy & evolution. Offers graduate training for the Ph.D. in functional anatomy with an evolutionary perspective. Students are required to take the first year courses of the M.D. program (cell biology, human gross anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, neuroanatomy). Other course work is arranged at the School of Medicine or on the Homewood Campus to suit the requirements and interests of the student. Our graduate program is small and offers individualized attention for each student. Opportunities are available for graduate teaching assistantships in human anatomy and for paleontological field work in western North America and East Africa. Our department houses a large collection of comparative casts of fossil primates. Research is further facilitated by access to the extensive collections of recent and fossil vertebrates at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), which is only an hour away.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Alan C. Walker (functional anatomy and evolution of Old World Primates); Joan T. Richtsmeier (finite element scaling analysis applied to growth and development of the primate skull); Kenneth D. Rose (evolution and functional anatomy of early Tertiary mammals); Christopher B. Ruff (bioengineering theory to issues of skeletal adaptation and functional anatomy of the primate postcranial skeleton); Pat Shipman (field and experimental studies of taphonomic agents); and Mark F. Teaford (primate functional morphology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Walker, Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 [30l-955-3173].
Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy. The Department of Anatomy offers a Ph.D. in anatomy. In addition there is an active post-doctoral training program, with emphasis on neuroanatomy. While a variety of species is utilized in the research projects conducted within the department, a number of members of the faculty (Drs. Pandya, Rosene, Moss, and Vogt) focus their programs entirely on the rhesus monkey. In addition, a number of faculty have projects concerned with aging in the rhesus monkey.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: D. N. Pandya (the organization and thalamocortical relations of the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys); D. L. Rosene (organization of the limbic system in the rhesus monkey, particularly the connections and histochemistry of the hippocampus and amygdala); M. B. Moss (neuronal plasticity and neurobiology of memory); A. Peters (the intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of area 17 and aging changes in monkey cerebral cortex); B. A. Vogt (connections and receptor binding characteristics of monkey cingulate cortex); M. F. Feldman (aging in brain stem auditory nuclei and cochlea of rhesus monkey); D. W. Vaughn (aging in the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and muscles of the rhesus monkey).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Peters, Chairman, Department of Anatomy, Boston Univ. Sch. of Med., Boston, MA 02118.
University of New Mexico
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral study in primatology through the Biological or Biosocial Graduate Programs of the Department of Anthropology. Program focus is on either primate systematics and paleobiology or primate socioecology and the evolution of primate behavior.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jeffery W. Froehlich (primate evolution, systematics, and biogeography, Indonesia, Central America); Jane B. Lancaster (primate social behavior, evolution of human behavior, parental investment theory).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Secretary, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 [505-277-4524].
City University of New York, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME: Evolutionary primatology and biological anthropology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Patricia S. Bridges (bioarcheology, osteology, paleopathology, southeastern US); Timothy G. Bromage (craniofacial and dental growth and development, paleoanthropology); Eric Delson (paleoanthropology; catarrhine primate morphology, evolution, and systematics); Warren Kinzey (primate anatomy, ecology, and behavior; field studies in South America); Jeffrey T. Laitman (functional morphology and evolution of the basicranium and upper respiratory system, paleoanthropology); Ross D. E. MacPhee (systematics and paleontology of primates and other mammals, island biogeography, Madagascar, Caribbean); Michael J. Novacek (paleontology and systematics of early mammals and mammalian higher taxa); John Oates (behavioral, ecological and evolutionary studies of tropical rainforest primates); Frank Spencer (biological and medical anthropology, history of anthropology); Sara Stinson (growth and development, human ecological adaptations); Frederick S. Szalay (primate evolutionary history, with an emphasis on the fossil record); Ian Tattersall (primate evolution, ecology, behavior and systematics; Madagascar; paleoanthropology); John A. Van Couvering (Neogene biochronology, stratigraphy, and paleontology; paleoanthropology; Africa).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Executive Officer, Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, Graduate Center, CUNY, 33 West 42 St., New York, NY 10036. [212-642-2278].
Cornell University, Ecology and Systematics Section of
the Division of Biological Sciences; Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Human Biology Program: Primate studies appear in Cornell University's Section of Ecology and Systematics of the Division of Biological Sciences, and in the Department of Anthropology. The primate studies are in both the Human Biology Program for undergraduates and in the graduate program. There are courses, laboratories, and seminars in comparative primate anatomy, primate evolution, primate ecology, and primate paleontology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (primate comparative anatomy, paleontology, and evolution). We curate collections for teaching and research purposes of skeletal material, casts of fossil nonhuman and human primates, and some brains. There are faculty members in the Department of Psychology at Cornell University who have research and teaching programs in primate studies. Persons to contact in Psychology are Drs. Robert Johnston and Barbara Finlay, Uris Hall, Cornell University.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Ecology and Systematics, Division of Biological Sciences, Corson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-6582] and Meredith Small, Department of Anthropology, McGraw Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-5137].
Duke University, Department of Biological Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME: Graduate Study in Biological Anthropology and Anatomy.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth E. Glander (ecology and social organization); William L. Hylander (functional and evolutionary morphology of the mascatory apparatus); Richard F. Kay (anthropoid phylogeny, based especially on cranial and dental anatomy, through paleontological field research); Kathleen K. Smith (vertebrate evolutionary morphology); John W. Terborgh (tropical forest ecology); Carel P. van Schaik (socioecology); Frances J. White (behavioral ecology); Patricia C. Wright (behavioral ecology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Director of Graduate Studies, Box 3170 Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
Kent State University, Psychology Department
. . PROGRAM NAME: Experimental psychology
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: F. Robert Treichler (primate learning and retention mechanisms; retention of concurrently learned tasks; interference effects in complex retention).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Psychology, Kent State Univ., Kent, OH 44242.
The Ohio State University, Anthropology Department
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Graduate work in primatology is part of the specialization of the Ph.D. program in physical anthropology. Students are expected to receive training in primate ethology, primate anatomy, primate evolution and primate conservation.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frank E. Poirier (primate ethology, particularly socialization; conservation of endangered species; primate evolution); Paul Sciulli (primate dentition, primate evolution, primate genetics). Additionally, students are advised to take courses in the departments of psychology and zoology, both of which have faculty interested in primatology.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Frank E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, Lord Hall, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210
Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train pre- and postdoctoral students in using primates for biomedical research. The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center is one of seven federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health problems through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive physiology and behavior; neuroscience; perinatal physiology; reproductive behavior; and cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic diseases. The Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland is the host institution of the Center. It provides an academic affiliation, and many ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the OHSU School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 35 scientists with Ph.D., M.D., or D.V.M. degrees, as well as 130 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathology, electron microscopy, radioimmunoassays, flow cytometry, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, and medical illustration.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Center employs four full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care for 2,300 nonhuman primates and small laboratory animals.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006. (503) 645-1141.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a Ph.D. in Anthropology with a specialty in Primatology. They will have an opportunity to familiarize themselves with theory and methods in Anthropology during their first year, and thereafter may specialize in the aspect of primatology that interests them. Courses in primate behavior, ecology, and anatomy are given within the Department, but students are encouraged to make use of the extensive resources available elsewhere in the University, in the Departments of Biology and Psychology, the Veterinary School, and the Medical School, as well as in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences and the Philadelphia Zoo.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dorothy L. Cheney (primate behavior, communication, and cognition); Robert S. O. Harding (primate ecology and behavior, human evolution); Alan Mann (primate anatomy and paleontology, human paleontology and evolution). Robert M. Seyfarth, Department of Psychology (primate behavior, communication, and cognition).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Robert S. O. Harding, Department of Anthropology, University Museum F-l, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6398.
University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME: Biological Anthropology Graduate Program
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Steven J. C. Gaulin (evolution of behavioral adaptations, particularly those that differ between the sexes; use of evolutionary theory, behavioral ecology, and comparative psychology to model the evolution of human behavior); Mark P. Mooney (craniofacial and development biology, comparative anatomy, experimental morphology, physiological adaptations to extreme environments, development of animal models for facial clefts); Jeffrey H. Schwartz (method, theory, and philosophy in evolutionary biology; origin and diversification of primates; human and faunal skeletal analysis; dentofacial growth and development); Michael I. Siegel (craniofacial biology, with a clinical speciality in cleft palate; functional anatomy; animal models; physiological adaptation).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Nancy J. Stugan, Graduate Admissions Coordinator, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.
Vanderbilt University, Dept. of Psychology
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Psychology Department offers a Ph.D. program where research activities concentrate on sensory and cognitive aspects of primate behavior and the anatomical and physiological substrates for such behavior. Special interests are in the development and evolution of complex sensory-cognitive systems in primates. Research efforts are on Prosimians and several species of Old World and New World monkeys. Methods include computer assisted studies of behavior, microelectrode recordings from behaving animals, and current anatomical and physiological procedures.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: V. A. Casagrande (development of the visual system, behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology); S. Florence (development of somatosensory system); P. Garraghty (somatosensory system); J. H. Kaas (plasticity of sensory motor systems; normal organization, evolution of complex systems); A. Morrel (auditory system); J. Schall (neural activity during behavior, visuomotor systems).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jon H. Kaas, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Psychology Building, Nashville, TN 37240.
University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Dept.
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M. A. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, evolution, and behavior.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud A. Bramblett (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); John Kappelman (physical anthropology, paleobiology, primate evolution, functional morphology); Robert M. Malina (physical anthropology, child growth, human adaptability).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.
University of Wisconsin, Madison
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Several programs and faculty are related to primatology. Facilities for research include rhesus and stumptail macaques, cebus and squirrel monkeys, cotton-top tamarins, and pygmy marmosets. There are active field research programs in Colombia, Brazil, Kenya, Rwanda, Cameroun, and Thailand. A Masters program in Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development has a strong emphasis on primate conservation.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: (* indicates joint appointment at Wisconsin Regional Primate Center, specialties described at that entry) Anthropology: Walter Leutenegger (evolutionary biology, reproductive adaptations); Karen Strier (behavioral ecology); Meat and Animal Science: Donald Dierschke*; Robert Matteri*; Medicine: William Bridson*; Physiology: John Hearn*; Psychology: Robert Bowman (behavioral toxicology, biochemical bases of behavior); Christopher Coe* (Director, Harlow Primate Laboratory); Robert Goy*; Charles Snowdon (also Zoology: communication, reproductive biology and behavior, endangered primates); Veterinary Science: Barry Bavister*; Veterinary School: Kevin Schultz*; Zoology: Timothy Moermond (Director, Conservation Biology, Behavioral ecology, foraging behavior, conservation); Frans de Waal*.
. . ADJUNCT FACULTY FROM PRIMATE CENTER: David Abbott (control of fertility suppression); Philippa Claude; J. Stephen Gartlan; Ted Golos; Joseph Kemnitz; Samuel Sholl; Ei Terasawa; Hideo Uno.
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the faculty members listed for each program, or the Admissions Secretary of the appropriate department: University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. Electrophoretic analysis of local populations of Cercopithecus aethiops, cercopithecus mitis, and Macaca silenus. Application of recombinant DNA technology and DNA fingerprinting to problems of paternity determination. More than 500 embalmed and skeletonized specimens of Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercocebus albigena, Papio cynocephalus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus albifrons, and Saguinus nigricollis. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Neil C. Tappen (primate anatomy, ecology and evolution; structure and function of bone and muscle); Trudy R. Turner (nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.
University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Although the Wisconsin Primate Center offers no formal graduate program, students may conduct research at the Center by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and by choosing a faculty advisor with Center affiliation. Appropriate departments for graduate students hoping to do research at the Center include Psychology, Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology, Pathology, Veterinary Science, and Meat and Animal Science, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program and the Neuroscience Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Ph.D. level staff (* indicates joint faculty appointment at UW-Madison). Barry Bavister* (fertilization and embryonic development); William Bridson* (gonadotropic physiology); Philippa Claude (cellular response to trophic factors and hormones); Christopher Coe (behavioral endocrinology, adrenal-immune interactions); Frans de Waal (behavior of group-living primates); Donald Dierschke* (endocrinology of ovaries and pituitary); J. Stephen Gartlan (field ecology and behavior); Thaddeus Golos (hormone action and gene expression); Robert Goy* (behavioral endocrinology); John Hearn* (developmental and reproductive physiology); Joseph Kemnitz (behavioral and physiological regulation of energy balance); Robert Matteri (reproductive endocrinology); Kevin Schultz* (virology/microbiology); Samuel Sholl (biochemical endocrinology); Ei Terasawa (reproductive neuroendocrinology); Hideo Uno (comparative pathobiology).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: John P. Hearn, Director, Wisconsin Primate Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Master of Arts in Anthropology. The Department gives an M. A. in Anthropology for primatology studies (in addition to more traditional fields). The orientation is towards behavioral ecology, but studies of purely behavioral approach or of anatomy are also acceptable. The basic program requires 3 full units of coursework, research usually in the form of field work, with the preparation and defense of a thesis. Students in the department have conducted field research on howler monkeys in Mexico, on a large captive group of gorillas in England, on gorilla mothers in various zoos, and on the structure of primate hair. Special Ph.D. applications will be considered by the Dean of Graduate Studies; contact the department for detailed information.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology, ecology); Mary M. McDonald (primate behavior, hominid evolution, evolutionary theory, anthropology of gender); James D. Paterson (behavioral ecology of New World arboreal and Old World terrestrial primates, allometry and bioenergetics, evolutionary theory, computer modelling and data acquisition systems); Linda L. Taylor, adjunct (primate behavior, especially prosimians; captive breeding and environmental enrichment; grantmanship; primate models of social dominance and gender; current research: rhesus breeding project).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N lN4.
University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology
. . PROGRAM NAME: Physical Anthropology; Primate Studies.
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Primate studies are part of the program of the sub-field of Physical Anthropology. Undergraduate and graduate courses in primate studies include social behavior, demography, ecology, and anatomy. Ph.D. dissertations have dealt with Macaca spp.; Cercopithecus, and Papio. Graduate students follow the M.A. program (four courses and a comprehensive exam) and specialize thereafter.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frances D. Burton (social behavior, cognition; macaques -- currently hybrid macaques of Kowloon. Becky Sigmon (paleoanthropology, primate anatomy); David R. Begum (primate evolution; Miocene hominoids).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Prof. F. D. Burton, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto, P.O., M5S 1A1.
University of Zurich, Anthropological Institute and Museum.
. . PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and postdoctoral research in biological anthropology.
. . FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Robert D. Martin (evolutionary biology of primates, reproductive biology, allometric analysis); Dieter Glaser (sensory physiology, growth); Peter Schmid (functional morphology, hominid evolution); Wolfgang Scheffrahn (population genetics of primates, human population genetics).
. . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Prof. Dr. R. D. Martin, Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich-Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
* * *
The Fyssen Foundation's general aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, into their biological and cultural bases, and into their phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." For this purpose, the Foundation will award a number of fellowships. These fellowships are meant for the training and support of research scientists working in disciplines relevant to the aims of the Foundation, which wishes to support, particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes and of their embryonic and post-natal development, as well as the elementary mechanisms which they involve. Anthropology-Ethnology: Study of a) the representations of the natural and cultural environment. Analysis of the construction principles and transfer mechanisms of these systems as they illuminate their cognitive aspects, b) the technological systems developed in the various forms of social organization. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.
Fellowships will be given to French scientists to work abroad and to foreign scientists to work in French laboratories. Study grants will normally be granted for one year but may be extended up to three. Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation. Applications must include: a curriculum vitae; a list of publications of the applicant; the names of two senior scientists whom the applicant has asked to send testimonials to the Secretariat of the Foundation by March 31, 1990; a letter of acceptance of the inviting laboratory. Fifteen copies of the completed information should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194 rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is March 31, 1991.
* * *
*Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees. R. A. Gardner, B. T.
Gardner, & T. E. Van Cantfort (Eds.). Albany: State University of New
York Press, 1989. 324 pp. [Price: $19.95 paperback, $59.50 hard-cover]
. .This volume brings together studies by the Gardners and their co-workers on the acquisition and transmission of ASL by the chimpanzees Washoe, Dar, Pili, Tatu, Moja, and Loulis; and in addition includes one study of Nim's conversational ability (performed in 1980 when Nim was at the University of Oklahoma's Institute for Primate Studies). The book format allows a more relaxed style and more detail on rationale, methodology and results than was possible in the journal articles.
*Atherosclerosis Research in Nonhuman Primates: A Selected Bibliography, 1985-1989. C. A. Johnson-Delaney. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. [Price: $6.50. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Ctr., SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
*Herpes B Virus in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1969-1989. C. A. Johnson-Delaney. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
*Simian and Human Retroviruses in Nonhuman Primates: Infection, Disease & Animal Model Studies: A Bibliography, 1988-1989 Annual Update. C. A. Johnson-Delaney. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
*Hepatitis Research in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1988-1989 Annual Update. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
*Parkinson's Disease: Studies in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. 19pp. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
*Primate Welfare, Well-Being & Enrichment Studies & Legislation: A Selected Bibliography. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1989. [Price: $6.50. Ordering information same as above.]
*Primate Enrichment: An Annotated Bibliography. S. T. Boysen, K. S. Quigley, & V. R. Woods. Columbus: Ohio State University Appropriate Primate Enrichment Project, 1989. 130 pp. (213 references with abstracts, subject index, 80 pre-1983 references) [Price: $12.50. Order from the A.P.E. Project, Psychology Dept., 142 Townshend Hall, 1885 Neil Avenue Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1222]
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
*REP: Annual Report 1988. Rijswick, The Netherlands: Division
for Health Research TNO, 1988.
. .The annual report of the REP Institutes, which stands for the Radiobiological Institute TNO, Institute for Experimental Gerontology TNO, and Primate Center TNO, Rijswick. Notes on radiation protection, experimental hematology, gene therapy, retrovirology, autoimmune disease, virology, parasitology, and ethology, in which nonhuman primates were subjects or models, are included among the many short notes.
*Primate News, 1989, Volume 23. (Published by the Oregon
Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR
. .This issue focuses on the Center's SAIDS program.
*The Animal Rights Reporter. (Vivienne Leheny, Executive
Editor, Perceptions Press, Inc., 4200 Wisconsin Ave., NW, Suite 106/345,
Washington, DC 20016)
. .Monthly "information to help corporations and research facilities effectively address animal rights pressures."
*Primate Report, No. 24, March, 1989. [Published in cooperation
with the German Primate Center (DPZ). Price: $8]
. .This issue contains reports from the divisions of the Center, as well as the following research articles: Qualitative and quantitative comparison of alpha&s'2.-adrenergic binding sites in the medulla oblongata of marmoset, tree shrew, and rat, by G. Flügge, S. Brandt, A. Jurdzinski, & E. Fuchs. Locomotor activity registration by passive infrared detection in saddle back tamarins and tree shrews, by A. Lerchl, I. Küderling, J. Kurre, & E. Fuchs. Reproductive parameters in a newly established colony of Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) , by W. Kaumanns, B. Rohrhuber, & D. Zinner. Experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with SIV isolated from African green monkeys, by O. Herchenröder, C. Stahl-Hennig, W. Lüke, J. Schneider, G. Schulze, H. Hartmann, H. Schmidt, C. Tenner-Racz, M. Hayami, J. C. Kelliher, & G. Hunsmann. IGM-mesangial nephropathy in callitrichids, by M. Brack.
Special Journal Issues
*Hemostatic impairment associated with hemorrhagic fever viruses.
Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 1989, 11[Suppl. 4].
. .Papers from an international symposium held in Leesburg, VA, May 26-28, 1987. Guest editor is Thomas M. Cosgriff.
*Recovery planning. Endangered Species Update. August, 1989, 5.
*Lana Chimpanzee Counts by "Numath". D. M. Rumbaugh. 1989. [Price: $75 (1/2 inch), $90 (3/4 inch). Rental (1/2 inch): $10.50 for 3 days, including shipping. Order from Audio-Visual Services, Special Services Building, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA 16802.]
Anatomy and Morphology
*Curvature of the lumbar spine as a consequence of mechanical
necessities in Japanese macaques trained for bipedalism. Preuschoft, H.,
Hayama, S., & Günther, M. M. (Abt. Funktionelle Morphologie,
Ruhr-Univ., MA 0/46, D-4630 Bochum, DFR).
Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 42-57.
. .If trained to walk bipedally at a juvenile age and over periods of months or years, Japanese monkeys gradually acquire a pronounced lordosis of the lumbar spine, which persists even in the 'normal', pronograde posture of these animals. It is due to a relative increase of the ventral lengths of the vertebral bodies. This change is clearly an adaptation to the mechanical necessities of the upright body posture. This result is in accordance with the development of lordosis in human children between 1 and 5 years.
*Functional differentiation of long bones in lorises. Demes, B. &
Jungers, W. L. (Address same as above).
Folia Primatologica, 1989, 52, 58-69.
. .The difference in shape-related strength of the bones between Loris tardigradus and Nycticebus coucang is more pronounced than can be expected from stresses acting during normal locomotion.
*The comparative anatomy of the forelimb veins of primates.
Thiranagama, R., Chamberlain, A. T., & Wood, B. A. (B. A. Wood, Dept. of
Human Anatomy & Cell Biology, Univ. of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147,
Liverpool L69 3BX, UK).
Journal of Anatomy, 1989, 164, 131-144.
. .Report on the dissection of 113 forelimbs taken from 62 individuals of 17 primate genera.
*Glands of the eyelids of rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta). Stephens, L. C., Schultheiss, T. E., Vargas, K.
J., Cromeens, D. M., Gray, K. N., & Ang, K. K. (Div. of Veterinary
Medicine & Surgery, Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center,
Houston, TX 77030).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 383-396.
. .This article describes and illustrates the various glands of rhesus eyelids, clarifies the classification and terminology, and reviews the comparative anatomy, which is similar to that of humans.
*Central nervous system grafting in the treatment of Parkinsonism.
Bakay, R. A. E. & Herring, C. J. (Sect. of Neurosurgery, Dept. of
Surgery, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322).
Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 1989, 53, 1-20.
. .This report reviews the clinically significant results of nonhuman primate research and clinical studies, and addresses these unresolved issues: 1) age of patient; 2) degree of disability; 3) use of fetal or adrenal tissue; 4) caudate or putamen placement; 5) open or stereotactic surgery.
*Mechanisms of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine
toxicity. Markey, S. P., Yang, S.-C., Johannessen, J. N., Burns, R. S.,
Herkenham, M., & Bankiewicz, K. (Lab. of Clinical Science, NIMH, NIH,
Bethesda, MD 20892).
Progress in Catecholamine Research. Part B: Central Aspects.
. .MPP+ is the only persistent MPTP metabolite present in monkey brain, and it is probable that it is the operative neurotoxic agent, causing substantia nigra neurons to die by slow retrograde degeneration. Neuromelanin is more likely an indicator of cells metabolically susceptible to MPTP's toxicity than a causal element. The slow recovery and stabilization of monkeys, which requires several months, parallels the lifetime of MPP+ in the brain, indicating that the use of MPTP-treated monkeys for transplant or drug evaluation studies cannot be meaningful unless conducted at least 90 days after the last injection.
*Experimental models in vivo for Campylobacter pylori.
Marshall, B. J. (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Box 145, Univ. of Virginia,
Charlottesville, VA 22908).
Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique, 1989, 13, 50B-52B.
. .C. pylori-associated gastritis identical to that found in humans has been found in rhesus, cynomolgous, and pigtailed macaques. Whenever C. pylori has been found in animals, it has been associated with gastritis. Unlike the commensal gastral spiral bacteria, C. pylori prefers the gastric antrum and does not heavily infect the gastric body mucosa or the parietal cells. Successful animal models now exist in the pig and the monkey.
*A primate model for the study of tonic pain, pain tolerance and
diffuse noxious inhibitory controls. Marchand, S., Trudeau, N.,
Bushnell, M. C., & Duncan, G. H. (M. C. Bushnell, Faculté de
médecine dentaire, Univ. de Montréal, Montréal, PQ H3C 3J7
Brain Research, 1989, 487, 388-391.
. .A model of cold pressor pain is described in which a rhesus monkey itself initiates all trials, may terminate painful stimuli at any time, and controls the duration of the experimental session, thus avoiding the inadvertent administration of intolerable pain stimuli. Pain tolerance time varies directly with stimulus intensity and is sensitive to motivational factors. This model will facilitate the study of endogenous pain-modulatory pathways and the assesment of analgesic treatments in animals.
*Choices for captive primates. Shumaker, R. W. (National Zoological
Park, Washington, DC 20009).
Humane Innovations and Alternatives in Animal Experimentation,
1989, 3, 117-120.
. .Considerations of enclosures and management for the following general categories of primates: small bodied monkeys, terrestrial monkeys, arboreal primates, and great apes.
*Feeding behaviour of the aye-aye
(Daubentonia madagascariensis) on nuts of ramy
(Canarium madagascariensis). Iwano, T. & Iwakawa, C. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan).
Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 136-142.
. .The continuously growing, chisel-like incisors and narrowed third finger of the aye-aye have been thought to represent an adaptation for the extraction of wood-boring insect larvae. There are no previous reports of feeding on the fruit of wild plants, but here the authors observed feeding on the nuts of ramy. This leads to discussion of the aye-aye's ecological niche from a new angle, viewing the specialized incisors and third finger as adaptations for feeding on nuts.
*Primate play vocalizations and their functional significance.
Masataka, N. & Kohda, M. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama,
Aichi 484, Japan).
Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 152-156.
. .An examination of the phyletic distribution of play vocalizations among New and Old World monkeys indicate that such calls are produced by species in which allomothering occurs.
*Development of social grooming between mother and offspring in wild
chimpanzees. Nishida, T. (Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kyoto
Univ., Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan).
Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 109-123.
. .Development of the use of grooming as a means of social maneuvering is discussed.
*Effects of patch size on feeding associations in muriquis
(Brachyteles arachnoides). Strier, K. B. (Dept. of Anthropology,
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715).
Folia Primatologica, 1989, 52, 70-77.
. .Data from a 14-month study.
*Fertility status, dominance, and scent marking behavior of
family-housed female cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus) in absence of their mothers. Heistermann, M.,
Kleis, E., Prove, E., & Wolters, H.-J. (Lehrstuhl für
Verhaltensphysiologie, Fakultät für Biologie der Universität,
Postfach 8640, E-4800 Bielefeld 1, DFR).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 177-189.
. .Of 12 sexually mature females living in 4 motherless families, only the dominant female in each motherless group exhibited regular estrone-glucuronide cycles. Only the dominant female obtained complete fertility, probably inhibiting ovulatory activity in her subordinate sisters. Scent marking behavior seems to be involved in the regulation of this phenomenon of intrasexual reproductive competition.
*Comparative study of vocal communication in two Asian leaf monkeys,
Presbytis johnii and Presbytis entellus. Hohmann, G.
(Max-Planck-Institute for Psychiatry, D-8000 Munich, DFR).
Folia Primatologica, 1989, 52, 27-57.
. .Data based on sound recordings and behavioral observations of free-ranging groups. Characteristic elements of the vocal systems of the two Asian species demonstrate striking similarities to those described for the African black-and-white colobus.
*Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), video tasks, and
implications for stimulus-response spatial contiguity. Rumbaugh, D. M.,
Richardson, W. K., Washburn, D. A., Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., & Hopkins, W.
D. (Dept. of Psychology, Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA 30303).
Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1989, 103, 32-38.
. .The authors hold that stimulus-response contiguity is a significant parameter of learning only to the degree that the monkey visually attends to the directional movement of its hand in order to displace discriminanda as in the WGTA. If, instead, attention is focused on the effects of the hand's movement rather than on the hand itself, stimulus-response contiguity is no longer a primary parameter of learning.
*Triadic interactions in savanna-dwelling baboons. Smith, E. O. &
Whitten, P. L. (Dept. of Anthropology, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322).
International Journal of Primatology, 1988, 9, 409-424.
. .A review of various accounts of interactions that involve two adult males and an infant. The authors conclude that multiple factors are probably at work, but the development of social relations between a male and an infant's mother is a central force.
*Vervet monkey grandmothers: Interactions with infant
grandoffspring. Fairbanks, L. A. (Dept. of Psychiatry, Univ. of
California, Los Angeles, CA 90024).
International Journal of Primatology, 1988, 9, 425-441.
. .Intensity of the grandmother-grandinfant relationship varies according to several factors related to the infant's vulnerability to mortality and to the grandmother's ability to provide effective social support. Results suggest that grandmothers are actively contributing to the reproductive success of their adult daughters and to the survival of their infant grandoffspring.
*Behavioral and autonomic responses to peer separation in pigtail
macaque monkey infants. Boccia, M. L., Reite, M., Kaemingk, K., Held,
P., & Laudenslager, M. (Dept. of Psychiatry, C-268R, Univ. of Colorado
Health Sciences Center, 4200 E. Ninth Ave., Denver, CO 80262).
Developmental Psychobiology, 1989, 22, 447-461.
. .Behavioral and physiological results indicated agitation but not depression following separation from their peer attachment figures in peer-reared infants. Reduced mitogenic responses to pokeweed consequent to peer separation, suggestive of altered B-cell function, were found. REM variables were the only sleep measures affected by the separation, and were also suggestive of agitation but not depression.
*Adaptive significance of infanticide in primates. Hiraiwa-Hasegawa,
M. (Dept. of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Tokyo Univ., Hongo
Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113, Japan).
Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 1988, 3, 102-105.
. .A review of observations and interpretations of infanticide so far observed in natural populations of ten primate species. A consensus seems to be that infanticide by males is likely to represent an adaptive strategy. Infanticide by females is considerably less common, and its functional significance is not yet clear.
*Age differences in social interactions of young males in a
chimpanzee unit-group at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.
Kawanaka, K. (Laboratory of Anthropology, Okayama Univ. of Science, 1-1,
Ridai-cho, Okayama, 700 Japan).
Primates, 1989, 30, 285-305.
. .Early adolescent males, becoming independent of their mothers, spend a long time near adults of both sexes. Late adolescent males are not tolerated by the senior males. Young adult males tend to remain in the proximity of the alpha male, and can associate with their seniors. Prime and senior males are strongly bonded with one another, being able to associate intimately with those of their own or senior age classes including the alpha male. The social position of male chimpanzees cannot be understood solely from their agonistic dominance rank. The alpha male plays a leading part in integrating the males of the unit-group.
*Inexpensive outdoor enclosure for Japanese macaques used in
biobehavioral research. Crowley, T. J., Goebel, A., & Nesbitt, T.
(Addiction Research and Treatment Services, Dept. of Psychiatry, Univ.
of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80262).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 420-424.
. .A grassy area surrounded by a 1 m high chain-link fence surmounted by a 3 m curtain of electrically conductive nylon net, connected by a run to a partially heated building, held 9 animals for a study of voluntary alcohol self-administration.
*Infant cross-fostering between Japanese
(Macaca fuscata) and rhesus macaques (M. mulatta).
Owren, M. J. & Dieter, J. A. (California Primate Research Center, Univ.
of California, Davis, CA 95616).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 245-250.
. .Four neonatal Japanese and rhesus monkeys were fostered onto mothers of the other species. Six attempts were required, for an overall succss rate of 67%. However, two of the adoptions involved the same foster mother, and both rejections occurred with the same female. Results indicate that raising nonhuman primate infants with members of a different species can be a viable means of altering species-typical experience without sacrificing essential aspects of maternal care, socialization, and psychological well-being.
*Management of an infestation of sucking lice in a colony of rhesus
macaques. Mader, D. R., Anderson, J. H., & Roberts, J. (California
Primate Research Center, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616.).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 252-254.
. .It appears that either the use of pyrethroid shampoo or ivermectin at 0.2mg/kg SQ, repeated at a 14 day interval, are equally effective in treatment of rhesus macaques infected with the sucking louse, Pedicinus eurygaster. These treatments, however, need to be combined with shaving of the animals' ventres to remove the nits and concomitant steam-cleaning of the cage and immediate surrounding environment.
*Functions and social consequences of infant-adult male interaction
in a captive group of lowland gorillas
(Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Mitchell, R. W. (Dept. of Psychology,
Memphis State Univ., Memphis, TN 38152.
Zoo Biology, 1989, 8, 125-137.
. .Boredom and the mother's frequent thwarting of contact between males and her infant are suggested as influences on males' interest in the infant. The data suggest that availability of interesting objects dissuaded males from seeking stimulation which sometimes resulted in harmful behaviors toward the infant.
*The effects of single caging on chimpanzee behavior. Brent, L.,
Lee, D. R., & Eichberg, J. W. (Dept. of Virology & Immunology, Southwest
Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78284).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 345-346.
. .The data reported suggested that individual caging of chimpanzees affected behavior significantly. Although there is a necessity for single caging in some biomedical research projects, ethical considerations make it imperative to consider means of improving the environment of such animals. Individual differences in response to single caging are also of concern when planning an enrichment program for singly-caged chimpanzees. Possible methods to reduce stereotypies and increase environmental manipulation and specific vocalizations are increased social interaction, larger living or exercise area, or the addition of manipulatable toys and puzzles.
*Moving callitrichid monkeys from cages to outside areas. Chamove,
A. S. & Rohrhuber, B. (Psychology Dept., Stirling Univ., Stirling FK9
Zoo Biology, 1989, 8, 151-163.
. .To assess the important aspects of a large area for environmental enrichment, the behavior of families of common marmosets and cotton-top tamarins when in laboratory cages and when in much larger outside areas was compared. The two tamarin families preferred an indoor cage to a large open area with little cover. When dense cover was provided to the marmoset family, they used this area extensively. By feeding marmosets in a central area, it was possible to allow unlimited access to the outside while effectively containing them.
*Effects of hand-rearing on the behavioral development of infant and
(Gorilla g. gorilla). Meder, A. (Eduard-Pfeiffer-Str. 54, 7000
Stuttgart 1, D.F.R.).
Developmental Psychobiology, 1989, 22, 357-376.
. .Nineteen hand-reared and 7 mother-reared infant and juvenile gorillas were observed for 3 years. Almost all hand-reared individuals developed stereotyped behaviors during the first months. In most cases these behaviors disappeared in the first or second year. Social behaviors, solitary play, nest building, and grooming developed at about the same age in both groups. Hand-reared immatures showed significantly more solitary play, more aggression, and less social play than mother-reared ones, especially when raised in pairs. When young gorillas were kept in groups, the frequencies of these behaviors came nearer to those of mother-reared immatures. No significant differences were noted in social play. When introduced to conspecifics, hand-reared infants sometimes reacted with indiscriminant aggression.
*Activity states and motor activity in an infant Capuchin monkey
(Cebus apella) from birth through eleven weeks. Fragaszy, D. M.
(Dept. of Psychology, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164-4830).
Developmental Psychobiology, 1989, 22, 141-157.
. .Data suggest that major organizational changes in motor coordination and the regulation of behavioral state occurred jointly over a short period of time at about 8 weeks of age. In comparison to other species of monkeys, the Capuchin infant displayed later development of manipulation, postural control, and independent locomotion, and greater dependence on social contacts for early interaction with its environment.
*A formalin-inactivated whole SIV vaccine confers protection in
macaques. Murphey-Corb, M., Martin, L. N., Davison-Fairburn, B.,
Montelaro, R. C., Miller, M., West, M., Ohkawa, S., Baskin, G. B.,
Zhang, J.-Y., Putney, S. D., Allison, A. C., & Eppstein, D. A. (Delta
Regional Primate Research Center, Tulane Univ., Covington, LA 70434).
Science, 1989, 246, 1293-1297.
. .Immunization with a formalin-inactivated whole SIV vaccine potentiated with either alum and the Syntex adjuvant threonyl muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or MDP alone resulted in the protection of 8 of 9 rhesus monkeys challenged with 10 animal-infectious doses of pathogenic virus. These results demonstrate that a whole virus vaccine is highly effective in inducing immune responses that can protect against lentivirus infection and AIDS-like disease.
*Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses. LeDuc, J. W. (Disease
Assessment Div., USAMRIID, For Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-5001).
Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 1989, 11 [Suppl. 4], S730-S735.
. .A general overview of the epidemiologic characteristics of the 12 viruses, 8 of which are zoonoses, associated with hemorrhagic fever.
*Firsthand clinical observations of hemorrhagic manifestations in
Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Sureau, P. H (Viral Hemorrhagic
Diseases, Inst. Pasteur, 28, rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris 15, France).
Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 1989, 11 [Suppl. 4], S790-S793.
. .Clinical data and a retrospective epidemiologic survey of the epidemic of September, 1976.
*Familial infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey's disease) in
(Macaca mulatta). Snook, S. S. & King, N. W. Jr. (New England
Regional Primate Research Center, One Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, MA
Veterinary Pathology, 1989, 26, 274-277.
. .Infantile cortical hyperstosis (ICH) is a rare, poorly understood bone disease of children. A captive-born female rhesus monkey born with ICH gave birth 11 years later to a similarly affected offspring. The similarities of these cases to the human and porcine forms of ICH as well as a comparison with the isolated canine and juvenile primate cases are presented.
*Mycobacterium kansasii in a rhesus monkey. Jackson, R. K.,
Juras, R. A., Stiefel, S. M., & Hall, J. E. (Veterinary Sciences Dept.,
Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD 20814).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 425-428.
. .A rhesus monkey which reacted positive to mammalian Old Tuberculin was found to have small numbers of M. kansasii in pulmonary lesions.
*Parasites of free-ranging Cayo Santiago macaques after 46 years of
isolation. File, S. L. & Kessler, M. J. (Dept. of Biology, Univ. of
Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR 00931).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 231-236.
. . 337 Macaca mulatta examined harbored intestinal parasites but were in excellent physical condition, with a high reproductive rate and a low mortality rate. It is concluded that the presence of intestinal and tissue parasites has little measurable effect on the overall health of rhesus in this free-ranging environment.
*Serologic evidence of
Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in a colony of squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri sciureus). Shadduck, J. A. & Baskin, G. (Office of the
Dean, Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A. & M. Univ., College
Station, TX 77843).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 328-330.
. .As judged by the serological evidence, infection with E. cuniculi is distributed widely in a collection of 250 squirrel monkeys.
*Social deprivation and coronary artery atherosclerosis in female
cynomolgus monkeys. Shively, C. A., Clarkson, T. B., & Kaplan, J. R.
(Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 300 S.
Hawthorne Rd., Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Atherosclerosis, 1989, 77, 69-76.
. .There was no difference between single caged and socially housed monkeys in plasma lipid concentrations. However, single caged monkeys had significantly more coronary artery atherosclerosis than socially dominant, but not socially subordinate monkeys.
*Prevalence of antibodies to SIV in baboons in their native habitat.
Kodama, T., Silva, D. P., Daniel, M. D., Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Jolly,
C. J., Rogers, J., & Desrosiers, R. C. (R. C. Desrosiers, New England
Regional Primate Research Center, One Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, MA
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1989, 5, 337-343.
. .Of 124 sera collected from yellow baboons in central Tanzania, two gave high readings by SIVagm ELISA (>1.0) and moderate by SIVmac ELISA (0.5-1.0). Similar testing of 155 sera from olive baboons of Ethiopia revealed no clearly positive sera. In addition to the two clearly positive samples, one olive baboon serum and one yellow baboon serum reacted only with major gag protein. Continued study of prevalence and diversity of SIV in primates will be important for understanding the history and evolution of primate lentiviruses and, it is hoped, the origins of viruses that cause AIDS in humans.
*Serological evidence for variation in the incidence of herpesvirus
infections in different species of apes. Eberle, R. & Hilliard, J. K.
(College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1989, 27, 1357-1366.
. .Sera from captive lowland gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, and gibbons were screened for antibody to herpesviruses serologically related to human herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), a baboon virus (SA8), and a macaque herpesvirus (B virus). Infections with HSV-like viruses are relatively common in gorillas, chimpanzees, and gibbons, but apparently not in orangutans. The incidence of such infections appears to vary considerably from species to species, with gorillas having the highest incidence.
*Ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur
Lemur coronatus, at Ankarana, N. Madagascar: With notes on
Sanford's lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs. Wilson, J. M.,
Stewart, P. D., Ramangason, G.-S., Denning, A. M., & Hutchings, M. S. (6
Sparrow Farm Rd., Ewell, Epsom, Surrey KT17l 2JL, UK).
Folia Primatologica, 1989, 52, 1-26.
. .A preliminary study of one of the largest and least disturbed populations of crowned lemurs in the semi-deciduous canopy forest, probably a dry season refuge for the species, which showed nocturnal travelling and feeding bouts, low spatial troop cohesion, and a lack of obvious troop hierachy. Strongyloides-like enteric helminths infested about one third of crowned lemurs, but were apparently not causing disease.
*Ecology of the capped langur (Presbytis pileatus) in Assam, India. Choudhury, A. (Near Gate #1 of Nehru Station, Islampur Rd., Guwahati, 781 007 Assam, India). Folia Primatologica, 1989, 52, 88-92.
*Nutrition, body condition, activity patterns, and parasitism of
free-ranging troops of olive baboons
(Papio anubis) in Kenya. Eley, R. M., Strum, S. C., Muchemi, G., &
Reid, G. D. R. (Inst. of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya,
Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 209-219.
. .Three troops, comprising 134 animals, were captured and studied during a translocation program. The 2 troops which had had access to garbage pits and vegetable gardens of human communities had better body condition and lower burdens of parasites than the nonprovisioned troop. The data support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between host nutrition and helminth parasite infection but do not permit general conclusions to be drawn on mechanisms of interaction.
*Human origins. Simons, E.L. (Duke Univ. Center for the Study of
Primate Biology & History, Durham, NC 27705).
Science, 1989, 245, 1343-1350.
. .A review of discoveries and theories from 1894 to the present.
*Absence of chromosomal similarities between tarsiers
(Tarsius syrichta) and other primates. Dutrillaux, B. & Rumpler, Y.
(Y. Rumpler, Faculté de Médecine, Inst. d'Embryologie, 11, rue
Humann, F-67085, Strasbourg, France).
Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 130-133.
. .This species, probably in common with other tarsiers, possesses a karyotype utterly distinct from that of other primates.
*Chromosomal evolution of Malagasy lemurs. XI. Phylogenetic position of Daubentonia madagascariensis. Rumpler, Y., Warter, S., Petter, J. J., Albignac, R., & Dutrillaux, B. (Address same as above). Folia Primatologica, 1988, 50, 124-129.
*Blood markers and genetic evolution in Cercopithecinae. Dugoujon,
J. M., Arnaud, J., Loirat, F., Hazout, S., & Constans, J. (CNRS, CHU
Purpan, 31300 Toulouse, France).
Primates, 1989, 30, 403-422.
. .Serum proteins and RBC enzymes were surveyed in 16 species (183 animals) of African guenons in order to determine their genetic polymorphism and to establish dendrograms on the basis of their allele frequencies. The molecular data obtained were compared with those of mangabeys (16 animals tested) and discussed in light of results in Papio and Macaca. Similar and different polymorphisms occur in closely related species or subspecies, particularly in Cercopithecus. Guenons have phenotypes clearly distinct from mangabeys.
Instruments & Techniques
*Automation of learning-set testing: The video-task paradigm.
Washburn, D. A., Hopkins, W. D., & Rumbaugh, D. M. (Dept. of Psychology,
Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA 30303).
Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 1989, 21,
. .In the video-task paradigm, subjects respond to computer-generated stimuli by manipulating a joystick. Discrimination learning-set data for 2 rhesus monkeys illustrate the utility of the paradigm in comparative research, while the efficient learning and rich data suggest several advantages over traditional WGTA testing.
*A method of remote physiological monitoring of a fully mobile
primate in a single animal cage. Pearce, P. C., Halsey, M. J., Ross, J.
A. S., Luff, N. P., Bevilacqua, R. A., & MacLean, C. J. (HPNS Research
Group, Div. of Anaesthesia, Clinical Research Centre, Watford Road,
Harrow HA2 3UJ, UK).
Laboratory Animals, 1989, 23, 180-187.
. .A system, consisting of a harness and jacket, an umbilical and back pack, a combined electrical and fluid transmission swivel, and a monitoring implant and catheters, was designed to allow the physiological monitoring of a fully mobile, unstressed Papio anubis for the purpose of measuring the changes occurring in a hyperbaric environment. It was required to operate for at least 3 months, both inside a pressure chamber and outside, and to measure electroencephalogram (3 channels), electrooculogram, electromyelogram (2 channels), arterial blood pressure, respiration, and body temperature. Catheters permitted sampling blood and giving IV drugs.
*The diet of the olive colobus monkey,
Procolobus verus, in Sierra Leone. Oates, J. F. (Dept. of
Anthropology, 695 Park Ave., New York, NY 10021).
International Journal of Primatology, 1988, 9, 457-478.
. .Data from systematically sampling one habituated social group, which inhabited old secondary rain forest on Tiwai Island, indicated that preferred foods had low fiber and tannin contents, while preferred feeding sites were in thick low growth and climber tangles. P. verus is the smallest extant primate species using a foregut fermentation system. Observations of its diet accord with inferences drawn from dental anatomy, digestive physiology, and considerations of body size.
*From menarche to menopause: Coronary artery atherosclerosis and
protection in cynomolgus monkeys. Clarkson, T. B., Adams, M. R., Kaplan,
J. R., Shively, C. A., & Koritnik, D. R. (Dept of Comparative Medicine,
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 300 S. Hawthorne Rd., Winston-Salem, NC
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1989, 160,
. .The effects on atherogenesis of stress, pregnancy, and oral contraceptive therapy were studied. It was concluded that estrogen is an important factor in the animals' "female protection" against diet-induced atherosclerosis.
*Seasonal weight changes in male rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta). Bernstein, I. S., Weed, J. L., Judge, P. G., &
Ruehlmann, T. E. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Room 228,
Athens, GA 30602).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 251-257.
. .Adult male rhesus monkeys lose weight during the breeding season and regain it during the nonbreeding season. Post hoc analyses revealed no significant correlations between male testosterone levels, dominance ranks, weights, or weight changes. It is suggested that seasonal hormonal changes may influence activities in individuals and that changes in the activities of some group members may alter those of others. This may explain why hormonal regulation of seasonal weight appears to be indirect and why juveniles experiencing no seasonal hormonal changes nonetheless show differences in activity patterns and seasonal weight changes.
*Naloxone reversal of stress-induced suppresion of LH release in the
common marmoset. O'Byrne, K. T., Lunn, S. F., & Dixson, A. F. (Lab. for
Neuroendocrinology, Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, P.O. Box
20708, Houston, TX 77225).
Physiology & Behavior, 1989, 45, 1077-1080.
. .Administration of the opiod receptor antagonist, Naloxone (1 mg/kg) immediately before and after receipt of aggression completely prevented the stress-induced decrease in LH release.
*Effects of ovarian hormones on eating behaviors, body weight, and
glucoregulation in rhesus monkeys. Kemnitz, J. W., Gibber, J. R.,
Lindsay, K. A., & Eisele, S. G. (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299).
Hormones and Behavior, 1989, 23, 235-250.
. .Results do not support the suggestion that fluctuations in caloric intake during the menstrual cycle are secondary to changes in taste preference or glucoregulation. However, possible changes in sweet preference and glucoregulation shortly after initiation of estrogen treatment, i.e., during the time of suppressed food intake, remain to be examined.
*Role of endogenous opiates in the modulation of gonadotropin
secretion in infant monkeys
(Macaca mulatta): Effects of naltrexone. Osborn, R. G., Fuller, G.
B., Hobson, W. C., Reyes, F. I., & Faiman, C. (G. B. Fuller,
Reproductive Biology Div., Primate Research Inst., Holloman AFB, NM
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 405-414.
. .A potential inhibitory role of endogenous opioids in the gonadotropin decline from infancy to the prepubertal period in primates was assessed by examining the effect of the specific opioid antagonist naltrexone on gonadotropin levels in infant rhesus monkeys. Naltrexone behaves as a gonadotropin secretory antagonist in infant monkeys and cannot be used to unmask a putative inhibitory mechanism involving endogenous opiates.
*Obesity in male and female rhesus monkeys: Fat distribution,
glucoregulation, and serum androgen levels. Kemnitz, J. W., Goy, R.
W., Flitsch, T. J., Lohmiller, J. J., & Robinson, J. A. (Wisconsin
Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1989, 69,
. .Obese and nonobese adult rhesus monkeys were assessed in terms of body size and distribution of body fat, glucose tolerance, and serum lipid, insulin, and androgen levels. Obese monkeys of both sexes had fasting hyperinsulinemia, greater insulin response to IV glucose administration, and marginally impaired glucose tolerance. Obese male and female rhesus monkeys have patterns of fat distribution and glucoregulatory abnormalities similar to those of humans with upper body obesity.
*1988 Regional Studbook Black Howler Monkey: Alouatta Caraya. B. Baker. Columbia, SC: Riverbanks Zoological Park, 1989. 65pp. (P.O. Box 1060, Columbia, SC 29202-1060).
*1988 International Studbook Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia). J. D. Ballou. Washington, DC: National Zoological Park, 1989. 170pp. (National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008. Text in English and Portuguese.)
*Atresia of the dominant ovarian follicle in rhesus monkeys is
detected within 24 hours of estradiol treatment. Hutz, R. J., Krueger,
G. S., Morgan, P. M., Dierschke, D. J., & Wolf, R. C. (Dept. of
Biological Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 18, 237-243.
. .Biochemical alterations precede morphologic changes with estradiol-17beta-induced atresia.
*Late-pregnancy changes in peripheral plasma beta-endorphin in
(Macaca mulatta). Golub, M. S., Eisele, J. H. Jr., Hwang, F. Y., &
Arbabzadeh, H. (California Primate Research Center, Dept. of
Anesthesiology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 1989, 27, 113-117.
. .Peripheral plasma beta-endorphin (BEP) was measured in 10 pregnant monkeys during the third trimester (14-21 weeks gestation; term - 23.5 weeks). The study was intended to identify a late-pregnancy rise in BEP that has been reported in women. Levels rose in late pregnancy only in animals that delivered within a few days of the final sample. When both BEP and beta-lipoprotein (BLP) were measured in a further group of 10 animals, the late-pregnancy BEP rise was not accompanied by a rise in BLP. Multiple regression indicated that plasma BEP was correlated with plasma cortisol but that an independent influence of gestational age could be detected. It is concluded that monkeys exhibit a rise in BEP just prior to parturition that is not accompanied by increases in cortisol and BLP that would indicate general maternal pituitary activation.
*Birth of a Barbary macaque
(Macaca sylvanus): Acoustic and behavioural features.
Hammerschmidt, K. & Ansorge, V. (Inst. für Verhaltensbiologie, der
F.U. Berlin, Haderslebenerstrasse 9, D-1000 Berlin 41, DFR).
Folia Primatologica, 1989, 52, 78-87.
. .Description and comparison with available data concerning parturition in primates.
*Menstrual-cycle phase and sexual behavior in semi-free-ranging
(Macaca arctoides). Steklis, H. D. & Fox, R. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08903).
International Journal of Primatology, 1988, 9, 443-456.
. .Findings over a 6-month period, yielding 530 observation hours and 268 copulations, suggest that both hormonal and socioenvironmental factors influence the patterns of sexual behavior found in stumptail macaque colonies.
*Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists attenuate
estrogen/progesterone-induced hyperprolactinemia in monkeys. Olive, D.
L., Sabella, V., & Riehl, R. M. (Dept. of Ob/Gyn, Univ. of Texas Health
Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr., San Antonio, TX 78284-7836).
Fertility and Sterility, 1989, 51, 1040-1045.
. .Results indicate a dose-dependent effect of GnRH-antagonist on prolactin (PRL) secretion, with the larger dose producing a significantly lower hyperprolactinemic response, as well as a decline in LH. Thus, GnRH-antagonist attenuates induced hyperprolactinemia in a dose similar to that which suppresses LH release. These findings suggest that GnRH is a physiologic regulator of pituitary PRL secretion. In addition, GnRH analogs may be of benefit in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation by attenuating gonadotropin-induced hyperprolactinemia, thereby reducing potential adverse effects on fertility.
*Live birthrates in two free-ranging rhesus breeding colonies in the
Florida Keys. Johnson, R. L. (Dept. of Anthropology, SUNY, Buffalo, NY
Primates, 1989, 30, 433-437.
. .An analysis of reproductive data from 1265 adult female Macaca mulatta, including 570 animals more than 12 years old. The data were collected during a partial census of 2 provisioned but free-ranging rhesus populations in the Florida Keys. Within both colonies live birthrates were found to increase sharply among females 4-7 years old and to decline linearly among females 7-17 years of age. ,cb These data do not support the theory that a decline in fertility among nonhuman primate females is primarily the result of deteriorating health rather than age per se.
*The fertility of daughters in common marmoset
(Callithrix jacchus jacchus) family groups. Hubrecht, R. C.
(Biology Dept., The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK).
Primates, 1989, 30, 423-432.
. .To test whether daughters in captive family groups could become pregnant, daughters from 4 groups were placed with a strange male for a period of 30 minutes, twice a week for eight weeks. No changes were observed in mother/daughter interactions during this time. Two of the daughters showed signs of ovulation and the male only copulated with these animals. One daughter became pregnant, but it was aggression with her siblings rather than her mother which necessitated removing her from her family group.
*Change of female partner and postejaculatory performance of young
and old rhesus males. Phoenix, C. H., Jensen, J. N., & Chambers, K. C.
(Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton,
Physiology & Behavior, 1989, 45, 367-371.
. .Introduction of a different female following ejaculation significantly reduced the postejaculatory interval and latency to a second ejaculation in both young and old males. The potential for enhanced sexual performance was retained in old rhesus males.
* * * -------------------------------------------------------------------
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover drawing of a mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla berengei) by Dr. Robert M. George, Department of Anatomy, University of South Carolina
Copyright @1990 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.