VOLUME 29 NUMBER 3 JULY 1990
Articles and Notes
Learning by Restrained and Unrestrained Rhesus Monkeys, by S. L. Williams ...... 1
Psychological Well-Being and Enrichment Workshop Held at Primate Centers' Directors' Meeting, by Carolyn Crockett ...... 3
Social Enrichment for Laboratory Primates: A Critical Review, by V. Reinhardt ...... 7
The Birth of a Live Macaca mulatta from a Nonsurgically Collected and Transferred Embryo, by L. L. Goodeaux, C. A. Anzalone, J. K. Thibodeaux, Y. Menezo, J. D. Roussel, & S. A. Voelkel ...... 12
News, Information, and Announcements
Import Rules Threaten Research on Primates ...... 14
Research and Education Opportunities ...... 16
. . AAAS/Westinghouse Award; Kresge Foundation; Diamond Foundation; IBRO/UNESCO Research Fellowship; LSRF Postdoctoral Fellowships; Earthwatch
News Briefs ...... 18
. . Primate Smuggler Jailed; ICLAS Meetings; Malaysia Extends Export Ban; Whitney Director of NCRR; Journal of Medical Primatology; Arashiyama West Monkeys; Clara Mears Harlow
Meeting Announcements ...... 19
. . Implementation of PHS Policy; Forest '90; Filovirus Conference Planned; NABR Conference; OPRR Workshop; ICLAS Caribbean Meeting; AIDS Symposium
Information Requested and Available ...... 20
. . Liontailed Macaque Estrus; Animal Research Defense Video; Bibliographies in Print; Skeletal Developmental Data Wanted; Malaria Hotline; Tree Shrew Research; Resources Available
Statement on Animal Use in Biomedical Research ...... 21
Weak Joke ...... 32
Position Available ...... 17 and insert
Recent Books and Articles ...... 22
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Shelly L. Williams
Washington and Jefferson College
Novel procedures for assessing basic cognitive processes in nonhuman primates are rapidly being developed (Haddad et al., 1986; Strobel et al., 1986; Williams, 1988; Rumbaugh et al, 1989; Washburn et al, 1989). New computerized technologies have provided investigators with the opportunity to explore complicated issues concerning stimulus control and attention. An empirical assessment of whether these new procedures require that the subject be restrained or not is warranted.
Kamin's (1969) three-phase blocking design, utilizing the typical two-choice discrimination learning paradigm, was used in this study to assess performance in a free-moving vs chair-restraint situation. One would hypothesize that restraining the animal increases the probability it will pay attention to the task while limiting the probability it will engage in behaviors that would interfere. A free-moving animal has the opportunity to engage in many other behaviors unrelated to the task. This may interfere with its ability to attend to the task at hand, leading to a decrease in performance.
Twelve adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) served as subjects. All were housed in individual cages in a colony room throughout the study. Animals were maintained at 90% of their free-feeding weight by limiting food intake (Purina Monkey Chow). Free access to water was provided in the home cages.
Two experimental chambers were used. Both were very much like an automated Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus. The first housed a standard primate chair within a large, sound-attenuating, fully ventilated, exterior shell (see Figure 1) . A Gerbrands Universal Feeder (Model G9570) delivered 1/2 of a miniature marshmallow to the left of the chair. A TV monitor was positioned directly in front of the monkey. The horizontally mounted WICO Command Control Joystick was located approximately 30 cm below the monitor screen. Monkeys could respond by moving the joystick in the horizontal plane. Movement of the joystick was correlated with the animated movement of a "Pacman" type figure on the monitor screen. A 4-sec hold in either direction produced 10 "biting motions" of the figure. This was accompanied by a "chomping" sound. Discriminative stimuli (sprites) were positioned 30 pixels to either side of the centrally located Pacman figure. Collision of the Pacman with a sprite indicated choice selection. A Commodore 64 computer was used to generate the sound, produce the sprites, and control and record all experimental manipulations.
Figure 1: In the restrained condition, monkeys manipulate the
joystick while sitting in a standard primate chair located directly
in front of the video monitor.
Figure 2: In the unrestrained condition, free-moving monkeys press clear panels located in front of the video screen to make a response.
In the second chamber, a sound-attenuating outer shell housed a well-ventilated, inner free-moving chamber (see Figure 2). On one wall, two clear Plexiglas panels (10x7 cm) were independently mounted on spring-loaded microswitches. The viewing screen of a TV monitor was located directly behind the panels. A Gerbrands Universal Feeder (Model 310) was positioned on top of the outer chamber and delivered marshmallows to a dispenser located to the right of the Plexiglas panels. A Commodore 64 computer generated the sprites and positioned them 30 pixels to either side of a centrally located vertical white line which appeared to divide the screen in half. Choice selection was indicated by the depression of one of the two panels.
Monkeys using the joystick were first trained to climb in and out of the primate chair. They were then exposed to a shaping procedure that trained them to move the joystick equally well in both directions. Monkeys in the free-moving chamber were also trained to enter and exit the chamber through a door. They were then exposed to a shaping procedure that required them to press both panels equally well. Any response biases in both situations were extinguished. Correct responses in each chamber were indicated by a 5-sec solid red screen and delivery of a food reward. Incorrect responses were indicated by an 8-sec solid black screen with a 4-sec low pitched tone. Daily sessions ended with the acquisition of 30 rewards. Therefore, number of incorrect responses determined number of trials within a session. Progression through the shaping procedures and experimental conditions was determined by a criterion set at 75% correct for three consecutive sessions.
Results and Discussion
Matched comparisons of number of sessions needed to progress through the experiment within each group revealed no significant differences between the free-moving vs. chaired situations, t(5) = 1.7, p > .05. Upon closer evaluation, chaired monkeys required slightly fewer sessions to achieve criterion in 6 out of 8 group-by-phase conditions than free-moving monkeys. This may reflect the difference in response topography rather than chamber condition. In the free-moving situation a discrete press response was required to indicate choice selection, while in the chair restraint monkeys could change their choice selection by moving the joystick in the other direction.
In conclusion, it appears that chair restraint is not a necessary condition for capturing the monkey's attention. Vivid visual images, auditory feedback, and challenging cognitive tasks appear to be inherently interesting to the animal.
Haddad, N. F., Williams, S. L., & Strobel, D. A. (1986, January). Video-arcade methodology for studying learning in rhesus monkeys. In B. Brush (Chair), Hyde Park Corner Session. Symposium conducted at the Fourth Annual Winter Conference on Animal Learning, Winter Park, Colorado.
Kamin, L. L. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention, and conditioning. In B. A. Campbell & R. M. Church (Eds.). Punishment and aversive behavior (pp. 279-296). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Rumbaugh, D. M., Richardson, W. K., Washburn, D. A., Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., & Hopkins, W. D. (1989). Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), video tasks, and implications for simulus-choice spatial contiguity. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103, 32-38.
Strobel, D. A. & Williams, S. L. (1986, May). Control of video game stimuli by nonhuman primates. Presented at the Western Psychological Association meetings, Seattle, Washington.
Washburn, D. A., Hopkins, W. D., & Rumbaugh, D. M. (1989). Automation of learning-set testing: The video-task paradigm. Behavior Research Methods, Instrument, & Computers, 21, 281-284.
Williams, S. L. (1988). The use of video games in studying nonhuman primate behavior (Doctoral dissertation, University of Montana, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 3139B.
Williams, Haddad, & Strobel (1989). Blocking effects in two-choice discrimination tasks in Rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Psychological Record, 39, 471-481.
Author's address: Psychology Dept., Washington and
Jefferson College, Washington, PA 15301.
This paper emphasizes one aspect of the results of a study reported earlier. See Williams, Haddad, & Strobel (1989).
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University of Washington
The interest in psychological well-being and enrichment has increased over the years. The 1985 amendment to the Animal Welfare Act, by mandating that primates be provided with physical environments adequate to promote their psychological well-being, gave special impetus to research on these topics. It led to a flurry of papers, symposia, discussions, and workshops trying to define and measure psychological well- being. Once various measures of psychological well-being had been identified (although not necessarily agreed upon), the research community discovered an expanding area of investigation, looking at itself to see how animals' captive environments and the procedures to which they are subjected affect their psychological well-being. The focus of some studies is to document responses to aspects addressed by regulations, such as cage size, that may be written into law but are based on opinion rather than on hard data. A related research area is the development and evaluation of a variety of enrichment techniques including apparatus and improved methods of animal handling.
Although some of the published literature on primate enrichment and well-being has come from the Regional Primate Research Centers (RPRCs) and their parent, NIH, we realized that much of the Centers' collective experience was not published. Considerable practical experience and quantitative research have resulted in some local conclusions regarding which enrichment techniques have been particularly successful. A workshop to share this information was held in conjunction with the April meeting of the Directors of the RPRCs. This workshop, held at the Primate Field Station, Medical Lake, Washington, was convened to identify enrichment techniques and management changes that ought to be implemented on a wider scale in the Primate Centers. It was felt that the workshop format would allow rapid interchange of information from which the participants could formulate specific recommendations to be presented to the Directors. This report summarizes the findings and general conclusions.
In our workshop on April 13 we hoped to reach a consensus on definitive ideas to present to the Directors during our general discussion the following morning. The topics discussed covered a broad range of issues and housing conditions. The participants, for the most part, had been involved directly in systematic evaluation of various techniques. The workshop members were M. Axthelm, Oregon RPRC, M. Clarke, Delta RPRC, V. Reinhardt, Wisconsin RPRC, J. Roberts and S. Cello, California RPRC, A. Petto, New England RPRC, J. Else, Yerkes RPRC, K. Bayne, NIH, and C. Crockett, J. Bielitzki, G. Ruppenthal, M. Murchison, C. Lohr and P. Herbes, Washington RPRC and Primate Field Station.
As we distilled the day's presentations, we discovered that there were a number of important points of general agreement on the part of workshop participants. These can be summarized as practical suggestions applicable to the most common kinds of laboratory primates, especially macaques.
1. The overwhelming conclusion of the participants was that the best psychological enrichment, overall, is social enrichment.
Although groups greater than two animals may provide more social stimulation than pairs, they increase the possibility of disease transmission and injury. Smaller groups may lead to fewer problems than larger ones. A. Petto described the successful small group housing of female Macaca mulatta which were removed periodically for participation in a timed-mating experiment.
Pair-housing provides social stimulation with fewer problems than housing in larger groups. More widespread pair-housing of animals currently housed singly was perhaps the most nearly unanimous recommendation of the workshop. Pairing has been tried successfully with several macaque species (e.g., M. mulatta, M. arctoides, M. fascicularis and M. nemestrina). Some pairs have been housed together for more than two years. Most of the published literature on pairing comes from work by Reinhardt at Wisconsin RPRC (e.g., Reinhardt et al., 1989; Reinhardt, 1989; Reinhardt, 1990b), but pair-housing is being used increasingly at other Centers as well. We are learning that the risks of pair-housing are not as great as had long been assumed, and the psychological benefits to most animals seem to outweigh them. For example, nearly all animals that have been tried have been paired successfully with some other animal, although in some cases several combinations had to be attempted before a good match was identified. Overall very few injuries have resulted. Pair-housing stimulates exercise/physical activity as well as social behavior. It is less time-consuming for animal care staff than other types of enrichment, such as transporting to an exercise apparatus or refilling a puzzle feeder. The principal time investment involves assessing initial compatibility. Experimental protocols such as blood draws can continue while animals are pair-housed.
Unless the new regulations demand increased height for social housing, conversion to pair-housing can be accomplished by modest modification to existing cages. Several Centers have modified single caging to be used for pair housing (e.g., Bielitzki et al., in press).
Several considerations and constraints of pair housing were mentioned. Before animals are put together, a clear dominant/subordinate relationship must be observed during a period of visual habituation. Visual-only contact should precede any physical contact because injuries have resulted when small openings between adjacent cages allowed insertion of appendages. More time may be required to monitor pairs than individually-housed primates, for example to assure that, when housed together, each animal allows the other free access to food. Also K. Bayne reported that pairs occasionally become incompatible after months of apparent compatibility, although no quantitative data were presented on the frequency of pair "breakdown." V. Reinhardt emphasized that there are species differences in establishing compatible pairs, and each new species should be tried with caution.
Pair-housing is not advocated as universally beneficial. Some research protocols, such as those involving communicable diseases, may preclude the possibility of pair-housing. Pair-rearing actually may be detrimental to infants: Hand-reared M. nemestrina housed in pairs continuously from early infancy showed severe clinging behavior and retarded social development (Ruppenthal & Walker, 1989).
2. Workshop participants generally supported the increased training of animals to submit to voluntary venipuncture (while slightly restrained in a cage but not squeezed), especially when unanesthetized animals are required. V. Reinhardt presented cortisol data indicating that this is the least distressful method of collecting blood from macaques (Reinhardt, in press; also see Line et al., 1987). This technique already is being used either routinely or for selected projects in five centers (California, Delta, New England, Oregon, and Wisconsin). Trained subjects have been housed individually, in pairs, or in large outdoor groups. Training time is relatively short (e.g., 30 min spaced over several weeks, Vertein & Reinhardt, 1989). Animals trained for venipuncture also can be given injections easily. M. Clarke described how group-housed rhesus were trained to produce a fecal sample prior to giving blood.
Costs and considerations mentioned include possible increased risk of needle pricks to personnel. Butterfly catheters decrease this risk but increase the cost of supplies. New disease transmission worries (e.g., Herpes B and Ebola viruses) may discourage the use of unanesthetized venipuncture. J. Roberts and M. Axthelm suggested that labs begin to quantify the number of needle pricks and other incidents relative to different kinds of blood draw procedures and supplies used. For studies requiring nonimmobilized animals, venipuncture from trained subjects is expected to be associated with fewer injuries. Some cage designs may facilitate training and venipuncture, and reduce injuries to primate subjects and personnel.
3. The inanimate enrichment that appears most beneficial to singly-caged laboratory monkeys is perches. Monkeys provided with perches use them a great deal of the time. PVC is a suitable, durable, inexpensive material that is as acceptable to monkeys as wooden branches which are more difficult to sterilize (Reinhardt, 1990a; Wolff, 1989; Williams et al., 1988). Perches can be adapted to squeeze-back cages (Reinhardt & Pape, in press). Participants were generally in favor of putting perches in as many cages as possible.
4. Manipulable objects provide limited enrichment for singly-caged primates. The success of these objects is measured by use and by reduction of undesirable behavior. In some animals, certain manipulable objects have led to a long-term reduction in stereotypies and self-injurious behavior. However, some commercially available products are expensive relative to proven benefits. Those requiring foraging skills or encouraging foraging behavior are most successful: e.g., grooming boards, puzzle feeders, substrate, Kong toys filled with food items (Bayne et al., submitted; Bloom & Cook, 1989; Bryant et al., 1988; Crockett et al., 1989). K. Bayne reported increased use over time of the grooming board which she developed. M. Murchison designed inexpensive food puzzles from which macaques learned to obtain more peanuts over time. Most participants noticed rapid habituation or disinterest with many objects, especially toys that are not related to foraging.
5. Mobile surrogates are an innovation (see Mason & Berkson, 1975) providing enrichment for nursery-raised macaques. Currently they are being used in two Centers. The one at Delta is spring mounted from the side of the cage; the enrichment provided by this movable surrogate may have contributed to slower disease process in infants experimentally infected with SIV/Delta (Clarke et al., 1989). J. Bielitzki described a mobile surrogate designed by P. Gould which is being used for some nursery-reared animals at the Washington RPRC infant lab; this surrogate hangs flexibly from the cage ceiling. Quantitative data on its effects on development are being collected. G. Ruppenthal emphasized that when social contact is permitted by experimental protocol, mobile surrogates should not be viewed as a substitute for other forms of known enrichment such as regular playroom experience with peers.
6. Many successful innovations in furnishings and other improvements to outdoor and indoor group compounds were described by S. Cello, M. Axthelm, M. Clarke, C. Crockett, J. Bielitzki, and M. Murchison. Some species and age differences have been found with respect to which materials are successful, durable, and safe (e.g., plastic chains used successfully at Washington RPRC were destroyed rapidly at some other Centers). Some furnishings have been introduced to encourage play and other active behavior. Other improvements, such as visual barriers, drainage improvements, and temperature control (e.g., shade and wind breaks), have been designed to reduce stress and disease. M. Clarke presented quantitative data relating compound improvements to reduced mortality. Primate Field Station Head D. Williams and C. Lohr gave the workshop participants a tour of the facilities, showing them some of the compound improvements. Changes in housing practices for M. nemestrina at the Field Station significantly decreased aggression, trauma and disease (Erwin & Sackett, 1990).
7. Very little time at the workshop was devoted to discussing funding for monitoring psychological well-being (e.g., behavioral assessment) and implementing enrichment techniques. Currently some of these projects are funded by a Center's core budget while others are supported by individual research grants or contracts. The workshop group was divided as to whether these tasks should be performed by research technicians or by animal care staff. Some participants found that animal care personnel did not want to take on extra responsibilities for which they were not paid a higher salary. Several other participants, however, felt very strongly that broadening animal care technicians' job descriptions to include enrichment activities would increase their own psychological well-being and self-esteem (see Roberts, 1989). Unpaid undergraduate students working for research credits were used extensively in one Center.
I am very pleased with the positive and enthusiastic response of all participants. It was rewarding to learn about the many approaches being taken at the Regional Primate Research Centers and National Institutes of Health. Our decisions can influence the management of a large number of laboratory primates. It is my sincere hope that this workshop may stimulate an increase in enrichment techniques designed to enhance the psychological well-being of nonhuman and human primates alike.
Bayne, K., Mainzer, H., Campbell, G., Yamada, F., & Suomi, S. (submitted). The reduction of abnormal behaviors in individually-housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a foraging/grooming board.
Bielitzki, J., Susor, T. G., Elias, K., & Bowden, D. M. (in press). Improved cage design for single housing of social nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science.
Bloom, K. R., & Cook, M. (1989). Environmental enrichment: Behavioral responses of rhesus to puzzle feeders. Lab Animal, 18, 25-31.
Bryant, C. E., Rupniak, N. M. J., & Iversen, S. D. (1988). Effects of different environmental enrichment devices on cage stereotypies and autoaggression in captive cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 17, 257-269.
Clarke, M. R., Koritnik, D. R., Martin, L. N., & Baskin, G. B. (1989). Cage enrichment, physiology, and behavior in nursery-reared rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology Supplement, 1, 53-57.
Crockett, C., Bielitzki, J., Carey, A., & Velez, A. (1989). Kong toys as enrichment devices for singly-caged macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 21-22.
Erwin, J., & Sackett, G. P. (1990). Effects of management methods, social organization, and physical space on primate behavior and health. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 23-30.
Line, S. W., Clarke, A. S., & Markowitz, H. (1987). Plasma cortisol of female rhesus monkeys in response to acute restraint. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 1-4.
Mason, W. A., & Berkson, G. (1975). Effects of maternal mobility on the development of rocking and other behaviors in rhesus monkeys: A study with artificial mothers. Developmental Psychobiology, 8, 197-211.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248.
Reinhardt, V. (1990a). Comparing the effectiveness of PVC perches versus wooden perches as environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 13-14.
Reinhardt, V. (1990b). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch, and a piece of wood for an extended time. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 51-56.
Reinhardt, V. (in press). Avoiding undue excitation of experimental rhesus monkeys. In H. Davis & D. Balfour (Eds.), The Inevitable Bond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., & Vertein, R. (1989). Alternatives to single caging of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) used in research. Zeitschrift für Versuchstierkunde, 32, 275-279.
Reinhardt, V., & Pape, R. (in press). Installation method of a perch for nonhuman primates living in squeeze back cages. Lab Animal.
Roberts, J. A. (1989). Environmental enrichment, providing psychological well-being for people and primates. American Journal of Primatology Supplement, 1, 25-30.
Ruppenthal, G. C., & Walker, C. G. (1989). Behavioral development of "together-together" reared pigtailed monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 18, 164.
Vertein, R., & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Training female rhesus monkeys to cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 1-3.
Williams, L. E., Abee, C. R., Barnes, S. R., & Ricker, R. B. (1988). Cage design and configuration for an arboreal species of primate. Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 289-291.
Wolff, A. V. (1989). Polyvinyl chloride piping as perch material for squirrel monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 7.
Author's address: Regional Primate Research Center
SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
Thanks to Douglas Bowden for suggesting this workshop and to Darrell Williams, Lois McCracken, and others at the Primate Field Station for local arrangements.
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Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
Pending federal rules stipulate that "nonhuman primates must be housed in primary enclosures with compatible members of the same species or with compatible members of other nonhuman primate species, in pairs, family groups, or other compatible social groupings, unless the attending veterinarian determines that doing so would endanger the health, safety, and well-being of nonhuman primates" (USDA, 1989, sec. 3.80[b]). These rules are supported by the widely accepted notion that for social animals, such as most nonhuman primate species, "the maintenance of a state of 'well-being' requires" not only "effective health monitoring, suitable exercise, and appropriate husbandry" but "ideally, the companionship of compatible members of the same species" (Canadian Council of Animal Care, 1980). Most primates have an inherent need for social contact with conspecifics (de Waal, 1988); they will perform operant responses in order to view or hear conspecifics (Butler, 1958) and will prefer companionship over privacy even if this reduces their spatial freedom (Reinhardt & Reinhardt, in preparation). "Above all else, primates, captive as well as free, nonhuman as well as human, need companionship" (Segal, 1989).
Despite the seeming consensus regarding their social disposition, nonhuman primates in laboratories are usually kept in single cages (Woolverton et al., 1989). The National Institutes of Health (NIH), for example, recommend (1985) that "when appropriate, group housing should be considered for communal animals"; yet "approximately 83% of adult captive primates at NIH are caged alone" (Bayne, 1989). At least two laboratories have documented their provision of compatible social living for previously singly-caged animals. The Primate Foundation of Arizona resocializes unrelated and unfamiliar singly-caged chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of both sexes and of different ages in compatible groups (Fritz, 1989). The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) transfers unrelated and unfamiliar singly-caged rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and stump-tailed monkeys (M. arctoides) of both sexes and of all ages to compatible pair-housing (Reinhardt, 1990a,c).
Why is social housing of laboratory primates not more popular? Many primatologists agree in theory that the social nature of the animals should be acknowledged by providing them a social environment, but only a few commit themselves to the practical implications of this theory. The following concerns have been advanced:
Over a period of 19 years, resocializing 59 singly-caged chimpanzees in compatible groups was associated with neither severe wounding nor death at the Primate Foundation of Arizona (Fritz, 1989). This corroborates an earlier study at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in which 8 singly-caged chimpanzees were resocialized in a compatible "island colony" without the occurrence of severe injuries (Pfeiffer & Koebner, 1978). A harmonizing "family group" of 7 previously singly-housed Bornean orangutans (Pongo p. pygmaeus) was established at the Cologne Zoo without injuries to the animals (Becker & Hick, 1984). At the California Primate Research Center, resocialization of 13 singly-caged rhesus monkeys in groups was associated with one death, one case of depression requiring permanent removal of the subject, and 0.7 fights/animal/hour in which 62% (8/13) of the animals sustained wounds that required veterinary care (Line et al., 1990). From the ethical and scientific point of view, such excessive, injurious fighting is not acceptable. Earlier group formations of previously singly-caged bonnet (M. radiata) and rhesus macaques were even less successful (Jensen et al., 1980). The development of safer group socializing programs for macaques is imperative.
Pair-housing of 295 previously singly-caged adult rhesus monkeys of both sexes with one another (102 pairs) or with surplus, naturally weaned, 12- to 18-month-old infants from breeding troops (91 pairs) was associated with serious, yet not life-threatening, wounding in 0.8% (3/386) of animals during a period of 36 months at the WRPRC (Reinhardt, 1990a). All adults were mother-reared, i.e., socially experienced; 241 were born in captivity, 54 in the wild. The initial pair formations were associated with only 0.05 fights/animal/hour in the adult/adult pairs, no fights in the adult/infant pairs (Reinhardt et al., 1987, 1988b; Reinhardt, 1989). The absence of fighting in the adult/infant pairs was not surprising, since healthy adult primates are usually inhibited from attacking infant conspecifics (own unpublished observations). The very low frequency of fights among adults was unexpected when considering the fact that rhesus monkeys have the reputation of being particularly aggressive primates (Line, 1987; Fairbanks et al., 1978; Teas et al., 1982; Thierry, 1985). The rarity of fights among adults was attributed to the fact that partners were paired only after they had established rank relationships during a several-day period of non-contact familiarization; this made potentially injurious disputes over dominance unnecessary during the actual pairing (Reinhardt, 1989). The statement (Sapolsky, 1990) that the formation of a stable dominance relationship with another primate takes a long time, and hence causes continual distress to the animals, does not hold true for rhesus monkeys. The partners of 5 adult male rhesus pairs established clear-cut dominance relationships (undirectional withdrawing and/or fear-grinning) after 11 seconds to 24 hours, and these relationships continued during and after the pairing without overt aggression (Reinhardt, 1989).
Figure 1: Two hand-reared adult male rhesus monkeys show their compatibility by sharing two apples.
The following compatible rhesus monkey pairs were established of hand-reared, i.e., socially inexperienced, animals without occurrence of serious wounding at the WRPRC: 1 adult male/adult male pair (Figure 1), 1 adult female/adult female pair, 3 adult male/infant male pairs (own unpublished pilot study). Pair-housing of 32 previously singly-caged, adult stump-tailed monkeys of both sexes with one another (13 pairs) or with subadults (6 pairs) was associated with only one fight and no serious wounding during 6 months at the WRPRC (Reinhardt, 1990c; unpublished follow-up observations). All adults and 2 subadults were born in captivity and mother-reared; 4 subadults were hand-reared.
Pair-housing of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) has proven to involve no undue risks at the Sir Fred Banting Research Center, Ottawa (Wong, personal communication).
More than 400 rhesus monkeys were housed in pairs for 1 to 3.5 years at the WRPRC. No indication was found that paired animals are more susceptible to infections or any other diseases than are individually caged animals (Reinhardt et al., 1989). In 1989 for example, 23% (54/237) of individually caged, but only 10% (38/382) of pair-housed rhesus monkeys required medical treatment (experiment-associated treatment excluded; own unpublished record). Evidently, health risks for pair-housed animals were not greater than those for individually housed animals.
The initial direct encounter of potential companions may be distressing for the animals, particularly when they are unfamiliar and/or incompatible (Kaplan, 1986). There should be no question whether it is more humane to force incompatible animals into aggressive interactions, house them alone, or try to find other compatible companionship. At the WRPRC, signs of social distress (depression, inadequate food sharing, wounding) were observed in 6% (28) of 446 paired rhesus monkeys (Reinhardt, 1990a) and also in 6% (2) of 34 paired stump-tailed monkeys (Reinhardt, 1990c). Incompatible pairs were separated and re-paired with more compatible partners. Only one rhesus monkey was designated for permanent single-housing because no suitable companion could be found (own unpublished observation).
There is no reason to believe that compatible animals of a stable group or pair are socially distressed as measured by peripheral cortisol concentrations (Kaplan, 1986). A study involving adult female rhesus monkeys failed to detect differences in cortisol concentrations between singly-caged individuals and paired compatible partners (Reinhardt, et al. 1990). From this it was inferred that constantly being exposed to a companion was no more distressing than living alone. Dominant partners had cortisol concentrations that did not differ from those of their subordinate counterparts, indicating that neither dominant nor subordinate partners experienced social distress. This assumption was supported by the fact that companions seldom engaged in agonistic interactions and that such interactions were usually not aggressive (Reinhardt, et al., 1990). Rather than being a cause of distress, the companion may attenuate the neuroendocrine response to potentially distressing situations (Kaplan, 1986). Research protocols requiring the temporary separation of companions (e.g., one has to be restrained in a chair or kept in a metabolic cage) should take advantage of this desirable effect of 'social support' (Kaplan et al., 1977; Coe et al., 1982) by keeping the non-experimental animal in a separate mobile cage close to the experimental animal (Reinhardt et al., 1989).
The relationship between body weight and pair formation has been studied in 28 adult female rhesus monkeys. Animals maintained fairly constant body weights the month before and the first month after pairing. They showed a significant body weight increase in the second month after pairing. Body weight fluctuations were not dependent on the relative rank status of partners (Reinhardt et al., 1988a).
Adequate food sharing (Fig. 1) is one criterion of compatibility, and animals should not be allowed to live together if one of them is unwilling to share food (Reinhardt et al., 1987).
There is little doubt that partners distract each other, particularly during their first encounter and during the establishment of social relationships. Thereafter, however, companions do not lose interest in each other, but continue to interact on a regular basis. In an investigation of 60 rhesus monkeys who had lived together in compatible pairs for 1.5-2.5 years, partners spent an average 23.5% of time interacting with each other (Reinhardt, 1990b). Since wild rhesus monkeys living in troops engage in social activities about 20% of the time (Teas et al., 1980), it is legitimate to infer that the degree of boredom in the captive pairs was not unnaturally high. Compared to singly-caged animals who have no opportunity for direct social engagement at all, boredom in paired (and probably also in grouped) animals is obviously reduced even after companions have lived together for a long period of time.
Chimpanzees, orangutans, rhesus macaques, and stump-tailed macaques have been resocialized without undue risks or disadvantages to individual animals. There is no reason to suspect that other primate species are less suitable for careful resocialization programs. However, such programs must first be developed and carefully tested for each species before social housing can be implemented as a general condition for captive nonhuman primates.
Bayne, K. A. L. (1989). Resolving issues of psychological well-being and management of laboratory nonhuman primates. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 27-39). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
Beaver, B. V. (1989). Environmental enrichment for laboratory animals. ILAR News, 31, 5-11.
Becker, C., & Hick, U. (1984). Familienzusammenführung als soziale Beschäftigungstherapie und Aktivitätssteigerung bei sieben Orang-Utans (Pongo p. pygmaeus) im Kölner Zoo. Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo, 27, 43-57.
Butler, R. A. (1958). The differential effect of visual and auditory incentives on the performance of monkeys. American Journal of Psychology, 71, 591-593.
Canadian Council on Animal Care (1980). Guide for the Care and Use of Experimental Animals. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Council on Animal Care.
Coe, C. L., Franklin, D., Smith, E. R., & Levine, S. (1982). Hormonal responses accompanying fear and agitation in the squirrel monkey. Physiology and Behavior, 29, 1051-1057.
De Waal, F. M. (1988). Social nature of primates. In The Psychological Well-Being of Captive Primates (p. 14). Boston: Harvard Medical School.
Fairbanks, L. A., McGuire, M. T., & Kerber, W. (1978). Effects of group size, composition, introduction technique and cage apparatus on aggression during group formation in rhesus monkeys. Psychological Reports, 42, 327-33.
Fritz, J. (1989). Resocialization of captive chimpanzees: an amelioration procedure. American Journal of Primatology Supplement, 1, 79-86.
Jensen, G., Blanton, F. L., & Gribble, D. H. (1980). Older monkeys' (Macaca radiata) responses to new group formation: behavior, reproduction and mortality. Experimental Gerontology, 15, 399-406.
Kaplan, B. H., Cassell, J. C., & Gore, S. (1977). Social support and health. Medical Care, 15, 54-58.
Kaplan, B. J. (1986). Psychological stress and behavior in nonhuman primates. In G. Mitchell, & J. Erwin (Eds.), Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 2A (pp. 455-492). New York: Alan Liss.
Line, S. W. (1987). Environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 190, 854-859.
Line, S. W., Markowitz, H., Morgan, K. N., & Strong, S. (1989). Evaluation of attempts to enrich the environment of singly-caged nonhuman primates. In J. W. Driscoll (Ed.), Animal Care and use in Behavioral Research: Regulation, Issues, and Applications (pp. 103-117). Beltsville, MD: Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library.
Line, S. W., Morgan, K. N., Roberts, J. A., & Markowitz, H. (1990). Preliminary comments on resocialization of aged rhesus macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 8-12.
NIH (1985). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH Publication No. 85-23.
Novak, M. A. (1989). Psychological well-being: applications to social groups of nonhuman primates. In J. W. Driscoll (Ed.), Animal Care and Use in Behavioral Research: Regulations, Issues, and Applications (pp. 81-90). Beltsville, MD: Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library.
Novak, M. A., & Suomi, S. J. (1988). Psychological well-being of primates in captivity. American Psychologist, 43, 765-773.
Pfeiffer, A., & Koebner, L. J. (1978). The resocialization of single-caged chimpanzees and the establishment of an island colony. Journal of Medical Primatology, 7, 70-81.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248.
Reinhardt, V. (1990a). Environmental enrichment program for caged rhesus monkeys at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. In M. A. Novak & A. Petto (Eds.), Psychological Wellbeing of Captive Primates, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, in press.
Reinhardt, V. (1990b). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch, and a piece of wood for an extended time. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 51-56.
Reinhardt, V. (1990c). Environmental enrichment program for caged stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 10-11.
Reinhardt, V. (1990d). A privacy panel for isosexual pairs of caged rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 225-226.
Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., Vertein, R., & Houser, D. (1988a). Pairing compatible female rhesus monkeys for cage enrichment has no negative impact on body weight. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27, 13-15.
Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Scheffler, J., & Vertein, R. (1990). Living continuously with a compatible companion is not a distressing experience for rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 16-17.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., & Vertein, R. (1989). Alternatives to single caging of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) used in research. Zeitschrift für Versuchtierkunde, 32, 275-279.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Eisele, S. G., & Champoux, M. (1987). Social enrichment of the environment with infants for singly caged adult rhesus monkeys. Zoo Biology, 6, 365-371.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Eisele, S., Cowley, D., & Vertein, R. (1988b). Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 14, 135-140.
Sapolsky, R. (1990). Physiological perspectives on nonhuman primate well-being. In J. A. Mench, & L. Krulisch (Eds.), Well-being of nunhuman primates in research (pp. 32-35). Bethesda, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.
Segal, E. F. (1989). Preface. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. vii-xv). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
Teas, J., Feldman, H. A., Richie, T. L., Taylor, H. G., & Southwick, C. H. (1980). Population patterns and behavioral ecology of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in Nepal. In D. G. Lindburg (Ed.), The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution (pp. 247-262). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Teas, J., Feldman, H.A., Richie, T.L., Taylor, H.,G., & Southwick, C. H. (1982). Aggressive behavior in the free-ranging rhesus monkeys of Kathmandu, Nepal. Aggressive Behavior 8, 63-77.
Thierry, B. (1985). Patterns of agonistic interactions in three species of macaque (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. Tokeana). Aggressive Behavior, 11, 223-233.
U.^S. Department of Agriculture (1989). Animal Welfare, Proposed Rules. Federal Register, 54, 10822-10954.
Vandenbergh, J. G. (1989). Issues related to psychological well-being in nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology Supplement, 1, 9-15.
Woolverton, W. L., Ator, N. A., Beardsley, P. M., & Carroll, M. E. (1989). Effects of environmental condition on the psychological well-being of primates: a review of the literature. Life Sciences, 44, 901-917.
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center,
1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
I am very grateful to Mrs. Klari Fajzi, Dr. Frans de Waal, and Mr. John Wolf for providing valuable comments on this manuscript.
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L. L. Goodeaux, C. A. Anzalone, J. K. Thibodeaux, Y. Menezo, J. D. Roussel, and S. A. Voelkel
University of Southwestern Louisiana and Louisiana State University
Nonsurgical embryo transfer has not been possible in Macaca mulatta due to the tortuous nature of the cervix, which prevented access to the uterine lumen (Jaszczak & Hafez, 1972; Martin & Eckstein, 1966; Mastroianni & Rosseau, 1965). However, Bavister and others (1984) reported the first live birth of a rhesus monkey from a nonsurgically transferred embryo. In our hands, this transfer technique was effective on only a small number of rhesus females. Subsequently, in our laboratory an efficient technique for cannulating the cervix and nonsurgically lavaging the uterus of rhesus monkeys has been developed (Goodeaux et al., 1990a). Briefly, an endometrial cell sampler was shortened and modified to accommodate the reproductive tract of the rhesus monkey. In addition to this, a finger is inserted into the rectum to help guide the cell sampler to its proper position inside the uterus. This technique has proven to be successful in recovering uterine-stage embryos (Goodeaux et al., 1988; Goodeaux et al., 1990b).
Nonpregnant multiparous rhesus females (M. mulatta) were maintained in individual cages in environmentally controlled rooms and fed a ration of commercial pelleted primate diet (Purina Monkey Chow). All females were trained to present their perineal regions to assist in daily monitoring of menstrual bleeding. Beginning on day 8 of the cycle (day 1 = first observed menses), morning urine samples were collected and assayed for urinary estradiol (Thibodeaux et al., 1990) to determine ovulation. Females were exposed to proven breeder males beginning on day 9 of the cycle and continuing for 2 days following the urinary estradiol peak. Females were then returned to their holding cages until nonsurgical collection.
Nonsurgical embryo recoveries were attempted on day 4.5 to 5.0 after predicted ovulation. Flushing medium consisted of Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (Grand Island Biological Co., Santa Clara, CA) with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) + 100 units/ml penicillin, 100 microg/ml streptomycin and .25 microg/ml Amphotericin B (AA) (Gibco Laboratories, Grand Island, NY). The medium was infused into the uterine lumen while digital palpation of the uterus was performed via the rectum. Recovered medium was evaluated for the presence of embryos. Sheets of epithelial cells recovered from the uterus during the nonsurgical uterine lavage were placed in 24 well tissue culture plates for use as monolayers (Goodeaux et al., 1989). Primary cultures of epithelial cells were used at 3 to 7 days following initial seeding of 24 well plates.
Two rhesus females were nonsurgically flushed for uterine-stage embryos. One female yielded a 16-cell embryo at approximately day 5 post-ovulation. The second female yielded a hatching blastocyst (zona was cracked) on day 8 post-ovulation. The hatching blastocyst was cocultured on a monolayer of predominantly rhesus uterine epithelial cells in CMRL-1066 medium for 24 hours. Both embryos were nonsurgically transferred into recipient females using similar procedures as nonsurgical collections with minor alterations. The cannula which is inserted into the uterus has a solid cylinder unlike the collection cannula. In addition, the cannula is inserted only to the point of the internal os of the cervix. The tubing which contains the embryo is positioned distal to the cannula in the uterine lumen.
The hatched blastocyst was nonsurgically transferred into the female from which the 16-cell embryo was collected. This recipient was confirmed pregnant at day 30 of pregnancy by ultrasound and rectal palpation. The baby was born on June 1, 1989 (Figure). Gestation length was 161 days from the time of transfer of the embryo to parturition. Although there was an embryo collected from the recipient female, a slight possibility of a double ovulation existed. Therefore, the maternal origin of the baby was verified by using a Parental Identity Kit (Dr. J. C. Cohen, AUG Inc., 5814 Millow St., New Orleans, LA 70115). Maternity was ascertained by a Class I exclusion of the recipient and one control female. A specific allele was exclusive to both the donor female and embryo transfer baby. This is the first report of a nonsurgically collected and transferred rhesus embryo which resulted in the birth of a live offspring.
Even though rhesus monkeys are valuable as biomedical research models, advanced reproductive management technologies have not been applied to insure maximum productivity from rhesus breeding colonies. The development of an efficient nonsurgical procedure for both collecting and transferrring rhesus embryos is the first step towards developing a complete protocol for embryo transfer. In addition, a comprehensive embryo transfer program would insure lasting genetic heterogeneity for specific pathogen-free colonies by using male and female gametes of both sero-positive and sero-negative monkeys to interchange for offspring. Further research will determine if the embryo can resist disease while the zona pellucida is intact.
Another important aspect of this research is that uterine-stage embryos from non-human primates have never before been made available in relatively large numbers by an atraumatic technique. With this increase in experimental units, there will be a reasonable number of embryos from which reliable research data can be obtained. Further development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer program may also prove beneficial to human in vitro fertilization research.
Bavister, B. D., Boatman, D. E., Collins, K., Dierschke, D. J., & Eisele, S. C. (1984). Birth of a rhesus monkey infant following in vitro fertilization and nonsurgical embryo transfer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 81, 2218-2222.
Goodeaux, L. L., Anzalone, C. A., Webre, M. K., Graves, K. H., & Voelkel, S. A. (1990a). Nonsurgical technique for flushing the Macaca mulatta uterus. Journal of Medical Primatology, 19, 59-67.
Goodeaux, L. L., Anzalone, C. A., Voelkel, S. A., Menezo, Y, Thibodeaux, J. K., & Roussel, J. D. (1990b). Nonsurgical collection and transfer of rhesus monkey embryos. Theriogenology, 33, 234.
Goodeaux, L. L., Anzalone, C. A., Graves, K. H., & Voelkel, S. A. (1988). Successful nonsurgical collection of rhesus monkey embryos. Theriogenology, 29, 249.
Jaszczak, S. & Hafez, E. S. E. (1972). The cervix uteri and sperm transport in female macaques. In Goldsmith, E. I., & Moor-Jankowski, J. (Eds.), Medical Primatology (Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates). Part 1 (pp. 263-270). Basel: Karger.
Martin, C. B., & Eckstein, P. (1966). Transcervical uterine catherization in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 94, 415-418.
Mastroianni, L., & Rousseau, C. H. (1965). Influence of the intrauterine coil on ovum transport and sperm distribution in the monkey. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 93, 416-420.
Thibodeaux, J. K., Anzalone, C. A., Voelkel, S. A., Roussel, J. D., & Goodeaux, L. L. (1990). The refractometer index as a correction factor for urinary estradiol in rhesus females. Journal of Medical Primatology (in press).
First author's address: University of Southwestern
Louisiana, New Iberia Research Center, New Iberia, LA 70560.
This study was supported in part by NIH Grant HD 21861-01A2.
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A mysterious illness among monkeys in a quarantine facility in Reston, VA, 6 months ago has effectively halted all imports of 3 species of monkeys that account for most research on primates in the United States. New rules established by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, coupled with import restrictions imposed by New York State and the reluctance of most airlines to handle shipments of monkeys, have cut off imported supplies of cynomolgus, African green, and rhesus monkeys.
Yet there is a growing conviction among primate researchers that all this represents a gross overreaction that could eventually imperil some types of research. Not surprisingly, animal rights activists are delighted.
The Reston monkeys appeared to have been infected with Ebola virus, a virus deadly to both monkeys and humans. They became sick soon after being imported from the Philippines. But in the past few months, evidence has accumulated that the virus is not the deadly pathogen that was originally feared. Though at least 7 people are known to have been infected, no human has died or gotten sick. Moreover, tests of animals within the US have indicated that viruses similar to the one found in Reston may be much more widespread than anybody imagined.
"This is a veterinary problem, not a human problem," says Paul Houghton of Primate Products, who has been importing cynomolgus monkeys from Indonesia. But Charles McCance, director of the division of quarantine at CDC, disagrees. "I don't think we know [that]," he says. "Our division is responsible for preventing the introduction of communicable disease into this country. We have to take this virus very seriously, until we know better. If we make an error, we have to err on the side of public health."
Many researchers are arguing, however, that by erring on the side of public health, CDC is threatening research and vaccine production. Although domestic stocks will prevent researchers who use these monkeys from being affected immediately by the import restrictions, pharmaceutical companies, which require large numbers of the monkeys to manufacture and test vaccines, have already begun to scramble to find alternative supplies. And importers warn that if the rules stay in effect, long-term damage will be done to the fragile supply pipeline.
The events that led to the current import moratorium began when scientists at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, MD, isolated an Ebola-like virus from one of the monkeys that died at a quarantine facility in Reston. But was it Ebola?
Ebola is thought to be of African origin, so finding it in monkeys from the Philippines was a surprise. It is one of a group of viruses called filoviruses that also includes the lethal Marburg virus. Ebola is known to have been responsible for 2 deadly outbreaks of disease, one in Zaire in 1976 and another in Sudan in 1979. The Reston virus, as it has now come to be known, looks like Ebola in the electron microscope, but there are genetic differences. "The fact that [the Reston virus] comes from the Philippines and has so far not shown any pathogenicity for man doesn't mean it's not just as much Ebola virus as the Sudan and Zaire strain," says Captain Clarence J. Peters, who headed the USAMRIID investigation. "It may just mean that within what we are calling Ebola virus we ought to make more distinctions."
Last December, CDC began a widespread search of all imported monkeys to see if filoviruses were turning up in other shipments of imported monkeys. The results were a shock. Ken Herman, a CDC virologist, says when they tested monkey blood from a variety of colonies and species against 4 different filoviruses--the Reston virus, the 2 known strains of Ebola, and Marburg--they found that about 10% of the samples reacted to one or more of these viruses. Even more surprising was that some of the monkeys tested were from "closed colonies" that have not had any new animals brought into them for years, including the CDC's own colony in Lawrenceville, GA. "This may be a family of viruses that is more common than we previously believed," says Herman. "I get almost a report a week where yet another population is identified to have the antibody," says William Raub, acting director of the National Institutes of Health.
CDC has now identified 7 people who have been exposed to the virus, and no one has gotten sick. One animal care worker cut his hand while performing a postmortem exam on an infected monkey, and although he developed antibodies within 3 weeks, he is long past the typical incubation period for producing illness without showing any sign of disease.
Nevertheless, CDC issued a new set of rules on 18 April that requires importers to comply with strict quarantine procedures and provide detailed information about how the monkeys will be transported--including how they will decontaminate aircraft that carry the monkeys. New York State, which is the entry point for approximately 80% of imports of these species into the U.S., went even further. A month before CDC issued its regulations, state health officials announced that they would require cynomolgus, African green, and rhesus monkeys to undergo a 60-day quarantine period both before and after shipment. Moreover, they would have to be tested for antibodies to the virus both before they are imported and after they arrive. "We've got to set the regulations up to maximize the safety of the people of New York," says Leo Grady, a virologist with the state health department. "We can always change things later if it appears that it is not necessary." So far, no one has received CDC's permission to ship monkeys, so no one has even asked for New York State's permission.
For importers, the testing requirement presents a nearly impossible obstacle. Ebola is a class 4 agent, meaning that to work with it researchers must use the highest level of biological containment. Only 2 facilities in the country--at CDC and USAMRIID--are capable of testing for filovirus antigens or antibodies, and neither has the capacity to test anything like the 16,000 to 20,000 cynomolgus monkeys that have been coming into this country each year. Both CDC and USAMRIID are trying to interest commercial laboratories in developing an antibody test kit that would not require maximum containment procedures, but that will take some time.
Fulfilling the other CDC requirements will also not be easy. Vance Gordon, vice president for research at the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, says the CDC "placed the burden on the importers of developing a plan that would provide adequate sureties and safeguards, without laying down explicit criteria of what the elements of such a plan would be." Bill Cummins, an importer from Texas, says he's not sure even where to start. "Everyone is trying to comply with current regulations, but how do you totally decontaminate a $50-million aircraft and not damage it?" he asks. "We have not figured that one out yet."
Houghton says importers are well aware of the need for taking health precautions when importing monkeys, but the threat isn't mainly to humans. "We're a hell of a lot more concerned about exposing our monkeys to people than we are exposing people to the monkeys," he says. "The monkeys catch a lot more things from the people and get sick, which is a problem for us, than the other way around." Gordon agrees that experienced handlers know how to avoid risks when dealing with monkeys. "One of the ironies of this situation is we have lived for years with herpes B virus," which is sometimes found in imported monkeys and is "quite as lethal as Ebola," he says.
As for the airlines, Joseph Chan of the International Air Transport Association says it's up to individual carriers whether they will carry the monkeys. Most have refused to ship the 3 species subject to restrictions, and some have refused to carry any monkeys of any species.
In the meantime, researchers are faced with the prospect of supply shortages that could cripple research. Although most researchers will be able to find domestic sources for their immediate needs, Mortimer Mishkin, a neurobiologist at the National Institute of Mental Health, says that without access to imported monkeys, "research will come to a grinding halt." "To the extent that the permit system turns into a de facto ban for any long term, then it's extremely serious for the medical research community," says Raub.
And even if the moratorium were to disappear overnight, importers warn that there could still be long-term supply disruptions. "The supply side of this primate business is extremely fragile," says Houghton. "It's not like you can stop things and then start them right back up again. We're already looking at a 4- to 6-month downtime even if things were to completely open up again right now."
The import restrictions have been embraced by animal rights activists who have long been fighting what they call the "monkey slave trade." Shirley McGreal of the International Primate Protection League doubts that the present moratorium on imports will halt the trade altogether, but she has hopes that it will force better conditions for the monkeys that are imported. "Animal protection people have been trying for years to stop the monkey trade," she says. "Now a little virus has done it for us."
The situation is showing some signs of loos- ening up. McCance says CDC has now received two applications for import permits, and he expects that some permits will be issued within the month. On 16 May, CDC mailed out specific criteria for releasing from quarantine animals imported before the restrictions were imposed. If they show no evidence of new infection and a veterinarian declares they are healthy, they may be released to users, even if they do have antibodies to filovirus indicating a prior exposure. CDC warns that "data are insufficient to determine whether monkeys that have completed import quarantine are noninfectious," and users are urged to use safe handling procedures.
But getting new supplies into the country would still pose a problem unless New York State eases its requirements and the airlines resume shipments.
[Editors' Note: Charles River (CR) Primates Corporation has sent its customers an indemnity agreement, which it requests the customers to sign and return. CR states that they will no longer supply primates or primate tissue to any customer unless they have the signed document on file. The customer must agree not to hold CR responsible for any costs or damages for any injuries as the result of CR primates or primate tissues after such has been delivered by CR to the shipper.]
A reprint of an article by Joseph Palca in Science, 1990, 248, 1071-1073. © AAAS.
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Nominations are invited for an annual Award for working scientists from all disciplines who make outstanding contributions to public understanding of science and technology, but are not members of the media. The Award, which carries a $2500 prize, is sponsored by the Westinghouse Foundation and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and will be presented during the AAAS Annual Meeting in Washington, DC, 14-19 February, 1991. The deadline for nominations is 1 August, 1990. Contact Patricia S. Curlin, Administrator of the Award, AAAS Committee on Public Understanding of Science and Technology, 1331 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 [202-326-6600].
The Kresge Foundation Science Initiative offers challenge-grants to upgrade and endow scientific equipment and laboratories in postsecondary and other research institutions. Applications will be accepted through March 31, 1992. For more information, contact Gene Moss, Kresge Foundation, P.O. Box 3151, 3215 W. Big Beaver Road, Troy MI 48007-3151 [313-643-9630].
The Aaron Diamond Foundation, which supports medical research, minority education, and cultural activities in New York City, is adding investigatorships to its repertoire of opportunities. Beginning this fall, and running through 1994, the foundation will sponsor five 3-year investigatorships annually as part of its effort to bring NYC back to the forefront of biomedical research. Three of the awards are for biomedical research, and two are in health science, social medicine, or behavioral medicine research.
The Foundation's goal is to disperse its $118 million income and principal by 1997. To date, it has sponsored viral molecular biology and basic immunology research on AIDS, AIDS transmission during pregnancy, and the development of the disease in children. It also supports studies of cancer, heart disease, and Alzheimer's disease, among others. Grants are made only to public charities or equivalent institutions. For more information, contact Vincent McGee, Executive Director, Aaron Diamond Foundation, 1270 Avenue of the Americas, Suite 2624, New York, NY 10020 [212-757-7680].
IBRO/UNESCO Research Fellowship
The International Brain Research Organization, in cooperation with UNESCO, sponsors a program to stimulate and facilitate international and interdisciplinary advanced training and research in the basic sciences of importance to brain research. The program focuses on neuroscience, including neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, neuropharmacology, neurophysiology, behavioral sciences (specifically confined to relationships of brain and behavior), neurocommunication, biophysics, and brain pathology. Applicants must have established competence in one of these fields. Preference is given to candidates seeking to acquire new techniques or training in a discipline other than their primary field of training. IBRO Travel Fellowships are intended to complement the Research fellowships in providing support for travel expenses. For further information, contact: (0290) Dr. E. S. Vizi, IBRO Fellowships Committee, 51, Boul. de Montmorency, 75016 Paris, France.
LSRF Postdoctoral Fellowships
The Life Sciences Research Foundation (LSRF) solicits money from industry, foundations, and individuals to support postdoctoral fellowships in the life sciences. Three-year fellowships will be awarded on a competitive basis to graduates of medical schools and graduate schools in the biological sciences, based solely on the quality of the individual applicant's previous accomplishments and on the merit of the proposal for postdoctoral research. U.S. citizens may apply for study at laboratories anywhere, while foreign applicants will be eligible for study in U.S. laboratories, but all research must be done at nonprofit institutions. There is special interest in supporting individuals who wish to change their field of research by bringing new ideas and methods from one area of biology to another.
A first year salary of $19,000 is to come from the first year fellowship of $35,000. The remainder is mainly to support research expenses, but can also be used for fringe benefits and certain travel. The deadline for applications is 1 October, 1990. For application forms and further information, contact Life Sciences Research Foundation, Lewis Thomas Laboratories, Washington Road, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 [609-258-3551].
Earthwatch provides volunteers and funds to scholars doing fieldwork. Among the projects and scholars listed in their 1990 catalog are studies of orangutans in Borneo (B. Galdikas), rain forest fauna in Mexico (A. Estrada), lemurs in Madagascar (A. Jolly & H. Rasamimanana), M. fascicularis in Bali (B. Wheatley), baboons in Ethiopia (J. Phillips-Conroy), small mammals in Zimbabwe (S. Alibhai), fossils in Zaïre (N. Boaz) and South Africa (P. Tobias & J. K. McKee), and the ecology of Lake Naivasha (D. Harper). Volunteers, who pay their own transportation expenses plus a share of the costs of the expedition, learn to participate in fieldwork. Interested scientists should submit a two-page outline of their research subject and design, dates, budget, and plans for the use of volunteers, to the Center for Field Research, 680 Mount Auburn St., Box 403, Watertown, MA 02272 [617-926-8200]. Volunteers should write to the same address.
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A position as a behavioral research assistant is available at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Science Park Chimpanzee Breeding Facility near Bastrop, TX. The position is part-time (24 hours per week) currently, but there is some possibility it may become a fill-time position in the future. Duties include collecting behavioral data, computer entry of data, and completing preliminary data summary and analysis. A bachelor's degree in a relevant field is required, and experience in the scientific observation of animal behavior is very helpful. Annual salary (for the part-time position) is $11,124. Contact Dr. Mollie Bloomsmith or Lydia Elliott, UTMDACC, Science Park, Department of Veterinary Resources, Rt. 2, Box 515-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602 [512-321-3991]. UTMDACC is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.
Administrative Assistant Director
The Duke University Primate Center is seeking to employ an Administrative Assistant Director, ideally beginning August 1, 1990. Salary range is $35,000 to $40,000. The candidate should have experience in management and the function of technical operations witha knowledge of Management Information Systems (MIS) and facility renovation. He/She will report directly to the Director concernint all matters of substance and will be responsible for maintaining a balanced budget and compliance with government regulations. This officer also will oversee planning, plant operations, purchasing, and personnel. In cooperation with the Center's veterinarian, this officer will implement internal quality assurance, maintain up-to-date accreditation with federal and state agencies and promulgate programs to ensure employee occupational health. Resumés should be sent by August 10 to: E. L. Simons, Duke University Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27705 [919-489-3364].
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Primate Smuggler Jailed
On 14 March, 1990, Walter Sensen was found guilty of five charges of illegal trafficking in wildlife and sentenced to two years in prison with no possibility of parole by a court in Nuremberg, West Germany. He was also banned for life from wildlife trafficking in West Germany. The charges against Sensen were 1) Shipment of 3 gorillas from the Cameroun in January 1987, en route to Taiwan. 2) Offering gorillas for sale. 3) Sale of 2 gorillas to the Guadalajara Zoo, Mexico. 4) Dealing in wildlife after being banned from wildlife trading by West German wildlife authorities. 5) Illegal importation of wildlife to West Germany. The International Primate Protection League was instrumental in gathering evidence to convict Sensen. -- From an article in the IPPL Newsletter, 1990, 17, 2-4.
The First East African Conference on Laboratory Animal Science was held 7-10 November, 1989, in Nairobi, Kenya. About 100 participants from 20 countries attended the Conference, which featured 40 lectures and some posters on the general subject "Laboratory Animal Science into the Next Century." Organizers were the Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya, and Kenya Laboratory Animal Technician Association. In conjunction with this Conference, the Governing Board of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) held its annual meeting, hosted by Dr. M. B. Suleman of the Institute of Primate Research.
Malaysia Extends Export Ban
The Department of Wildlife and National Parks of Peninsular Malaysia has advised TRAFFIC(USA) that the export ban on cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (M. nemestrina) monkeys, enacted under the Protection of Wildlife (Trade in Specimens of Species under Export Ban) Regulations of 1980, officially expired on 14 June 1989. However, the Department says that the ban will be continued for an indefinite time and applies only to the export of these species, not to local consumption.
Whitney Director of NCRR
Dr. Robert A. Whitney, Jr., has been appointed Director, National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, effective March 5. The new Center merges the functions of the former Division of Research Services and Division of Research Resources.
Journal of Medical Primatology
The Journal of Medical Primatology, now in its 19th year of publication, has been transferred, as of 1 January 1990, to Munksgaard International Publishers. The number of yearly issues has been increased from six to eight, two of which will appear as a single volume of the proceedings of the annual conference series, Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS. The 1990 proceedings volume will have 270 pages, and will appear in late June. The size of the six standard issues has been increased to 80 pages each.
Interested scientists may contact the Editor-in-Chief, J. Moor-Jankowski, M.D., LEMSIP, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10006 [212-679-8884].
Arashiyama West Monkeys
The Board of Directors of the South Texas Primate Observatory has selected 183 acres near Dilley, TX, for the permanent home of the Arashiyama West monkeys. Donations from foundations and individuals have made it possible to initiate steps toward purchase of this land, but (tax deductible) donations are still needed. The American Society of Primatologists' Bulletin urges us to help by sending contributions to STPO, P.O. Box 702, Dilley, TX 78017.
Clara Mears Harlow
Clara Mears Harlow died peacefully on 13 October, 1989, at her home in Phoenix, AZ. She was the widow of, and sometimes co-author with, Harry F. Harlow. A memorial service was held in Tucson, AZ, and she was buried in Reno, NV, beside her second husband, Robert Potter.
* * *
Implementation of PHS Policy
Reproposal of Part 3, Subparts A and D of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Animal Welfare Regulations is scheduled for this summer. Subpart D (primates) includes standards for a "physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates."
The Office for Protection from Research Risks, NIH, is cosponsoring, with the University of California, Los Angeles, an animal welfare education program which will focus on institutional programs and procedures to meet the reproposed APHIS requirements for dogs, cats, and nonhuman primates. The workshop will be held September 9-11, 1990, at UCLA's Lake Arrowhead Conference Center. It is open to institutional administrators, members of animal care and use committees, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators, and other institutional staff. Contact Ms. Gitta Walton, Director, Human Subjects and Animal Research Policy, 6-956 Factor Building, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1694 [213-825-8714]. Concerning future workshops, contact Mrs. Roberta Sonneborn, Executive Asst. for Animal Welfare Education, OPRR, NIH, Building 31/5B59, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-7163].
The First International Symposium on Environmental Studies on Tropical Rain Forests will be held from October 7 to 13, 1990, at the Convention Center of the Hotel Tropical, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Under the sponsorship of the Brazilian Society for the Appraisal of the Environment-BIOSFERA, the Brazilian Geochemical Society, and the Brazilian Nature Conservation Foundation, the Symposium will cover themes related to tropical rain forest ecosystems, their dynamics and sustainability, man's interference and impacts, with emphasis on the Amazon Region. For futher information contact the Organizing Committee -- Forest '90, P.O. Box 3591, 20001 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Filovirus Conference Planned
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC), together with other concerned agencies and persons, are planning a conference on the scientific aspects of filovirus infections in human and nonhuman primates. The meeting will be some time in the fall, probably in Atlanta. For up-to-date information on this meeting, contact Fred Murphy, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333 [404-639-3401].
The National Association for Biomedical Research will hold a conference on facility security November 7-9, 1990, at the Capitol Hilton Hotel, Washington DC. Veterinary staff, research administrators and investigators, and security personnel should find this conference of interest. For more information, contact NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006 [202-857-0540].
The Office for Protection from Research Risks, NIH, will be presenting four regional, theme oriented workshops each year on the general topic of Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The Northeast meeting, tentatively titled Problems of Small versus Large Institutions, will be held in Newport, RI, 3-4 December, 1990, under the sponsorship of the University of Rhode Island, with the cooperation of Dr. James A. Harper of Brown University. The workshop is still being planned; suggestions on speakers or topics should be sent to Kevin McAndrews, Research Office, 70 Lower College Road, U.R.I., Kingston, RI 02881-0819.
ICLAS Caribbean Meeting
The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science will hold a regional meeting in Havana, Cuba, 31 October to 2 November, 1990. Among the main topics will be Nutrition, Management of reproductive systems, Education and training, and Primatology. The scientific program will include lectures, round tables, and poster sessions. For more information, contact Dr. Fernando M. Gonzáles Bermúdez, National Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals, Apartado Postal 3, Bejucal, Havana, Cuba; or Prof. Paulino García-Partida, C. E. ICLAS/CSIC, Serrano 115, 28006 Madrid, Spain.
Tulane University will sponsor a symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS 28-30 November, 1990, at the Westin Canal Place Hotel, New Orleans, LA. It will cover topics on the use of nonhuman primate models in the study of human AIDS, including pathobiology, virology, immunology, vaccines, antiviral therapy of SIV, HIV, and Type D retroviruses. For further information, send your name and address to the Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS, Delta Regional Primate Research Center, 18703 Three Rivers Road, Covington, LA 70433.
* * *
Liontailed Macaque Estrus
As part of a study of offspring weaning in captive female liontailed macaques (Macaca silenus), we have observed an unusual pattern of estrous cycles in these lactating females. Each of six females has shown greatly "exaggerated" estrous cycles while lactating. These females showed maximal perineal swellings (which are large and conspicuous in this species) for extended periods of time in the first postpartum cycle (mean = 106 days). Subsequent cycles were also exaggerated, but length of swellings showed a gradual decrease over time since parturition.
We cannot find a description of this phenomenon for any primate species in the literature. If anyone has observed a similar phenomenon in any other primate species, please contact: Susan Clarke, Harlow Primate Lab., Univ. of Wisconsin, 22 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53715 [Phone: 608-262-1929. FAX: 608-263-4356]. Any information at all would be appreciated.
Animal Research Defense Video
The Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR) has produced two public service announcements, featuring former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, M.D., speaking in defense of the use of animals in biomedical research. These videos, which are being distributed to television stations nationwide, are available from FBR [202-457-0654].
Bibliographies in Print
A six-page list of PIC Topical Bibliographies which are in print is available from the Primate Information Center, SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-4376; FAX 206-685-0305].
Skeletal Development Data Wanted
For a study of the transplacental transfer of calcium and lead in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), data are required at different stages of gestation and during the early postnatal period on the following parameters: skeletal weight; bone length; chemical composition of fetal bone; bone/soft tissue weight ratios. Contact Michael Inskip, Room 320, Environmental Health Centre, Tunney's Pasture, Bldg. 8, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0L2, Canada [613-957-1335; FAX 613-954-2486]. -- From the PIC New Listings.
CDC has just published new recommendations for travelers (see p. 27, this issue). Prospective travelers and health-care providers are advised to call the CDC Malaria Hotline at 404-332-4554 for detailed recommendations for the prevention of malaria.
Tree Shrew Research
Dr. E. Fuchs, Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Kellnerweg 4, D-3400 Go>uttingen, West Germany [0551-3851-1; FAX 0551-3851-228] is requesting urine samples for biological function studies from tree shrews (tupaiidae). Please contact him for details of collection, preservation, and shipment. -- From the PIC New Listings.
A special insert to ILAR News, 1990, 32, titled "Biological specimens other than intact living vertebrate animals available for biomedical research," compiled by K. Kenny and F. W. Quimby, lists, among other resources, sources for fresh nonhuman primate tissues and body fluids, and living animals for noninvasive studies at parent institutions.
* * *
Preamble: Biomedical research is essential to the health and well-being of every person in our society. Advances in biomedical research have dramatically improved the quality and prolonged the duration of life throughout the world. However, the ability of the scientific community to continue its efforts to improve personal and public health is being threatened by a movement to eliminate the use of animals in biomedical research. This movement is spearheaded by groups of radical animal rights activists whose views are far outside mainstream public attitudes and whose tactics range from sophisticated lobbying, fund raising, propaganda and misinformation campaigns to violent attacks on biomedical research facilities and individual scientists.
The magnitude of violent animal rights activities is staggering. In the United States alone, since 1980, animal rights groups have staged more than 29 raids on U.S. research facilities, stealing over 2000 animals, causing more than 7 million dollars in physical damages and ruining years of scientific research in the process. Animal activist groups have engaged in similar activities in Great Britain, Western Europe, Canada, and Australia. Various groups in the countries have claimed responsibility for the bombing of cars, institutions, stores, and the private homes of researchers.
Animal rights violence has had a chilling effect on the scientific community internationally. Scientists, research organizations, and universities have been intimidated into altering or even terminating important research efforts that depend on the use of animals. Laboratories have been forced to divert thousands of research dollars for the purchase of sophisticated security equipment. Young people who might otherwise pursue a career in biomedical research are turning their sights to alternative professions.
Despite the efforts of many groups striving to protect biomedical research from animal activism, the response to the animal rights movement has been fragmented, underfunded, and primarily defensive. Many groups within the biomedical community are hesitant to take a public stand about animal activism because of fear of reprisal. As a result, the research establishment has been backed into a defensive posture. Its motivations are questioned, and the need for using animals in research is repeatedly challenged.
While research involving animals is necessary to enhance the medical care of all persons, we recognize also that humane treatment of research animals must be ensured. Appropriate training for all research personnel should be prescribed and adequate veterinary care should be available. Experiments must comply with any rules or regulations promulgated to govern human handling, housing, care, treatment, and transportation of animals.
International medical and scientific organizations must develop a stronger and more cohesive campaign to counter the growing threat to public health posed by animal activists. Leadership and coordination must be provided.
The World Medical Association therefore affirms the following principles:
Statement issued by the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989.
* * *
*Animal Lifestyles and Anatomies: The Case of the Prosimian Primates. C. E. Oxnard, R. H. Crompton, & S. S. Lieberman. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1989. 208 pp. [Price: $35]
*Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical
Research and Testing: Second Annual Annotated Bibliography.
J., Stafford, R. S., & Lu, P.-Y. Washington, DC: National Academy Press,
1990. (103 citations, with abstracts) [Quarterly bibliographies are
available from P.-Y. Lu, Toxicology Information Response Center, Oak
Ridge National Lab., P.O. Box 2008 MS6050, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6050.]
. . An edited, condensed version of the National Library of Medicine quarterly bibliographies, printed in the ILAR News, 1990, 32.
*Vertebrate Predation and Cannibalism in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1974-1989. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. (272 citations) [Price $6.50. Stock #90-001. Send order to Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.]
*Behavior of Stumptail Macaques (Macaca arctoides): A Bibliography. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. (184 citations) [Price $6.50. Stock #90-002. Ordering information same as above.]
*Prosimian Locomotion: Anatomical, Biomechanical & Bioenergetic Aspects. A Selective Bibliography. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. 15 pp. (140 citations) [Price $6.50. Stock #90-003. Ordering information same as above.]
*The Filoviridae: Ebola, Ebola-like, and Marburg Viruses in Nonhuman Primates: A Selective Bibliography. C. A. Johnson-Delaney. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. 10 pp. (79 citations) [Price $6.50. Stock #90-004. Ordering information same as above.]
*Simian Hemorrhagic Fever: A Selective Bibliography. C. A. Johnson-Delaney. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. 6 pp. (46 citations) [Price $6.50. Stock #90-005. Ordering information same as above.]
*Monkey Locomotion: Anatomical, Biomechanical and Bioenergetic Aspects. A Selective Bibliography. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1990. 18 pp. (198 citations) [Price $6.50. Stock #90-006. Ordering information same as above.]
*Guidelines on the Care of Laboratory Animals and Their Use for Scientific Purposes: Surgical Procedures. Universities' Federation for Animal Welfare. [Price: $5 from UFAW, 8 Hamilton Close, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts., EN6 3QD, UK]
*Use of Animals in Biomedical Research: The Challenge and Response. American Medical Association White Paper. Chicago: AMA, 1989. (25 pp.) [AMA, 535 North Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610]
Special Journal Issues
*Special issue: Animal models in biomedical research.
ILAR News, 1990, 32.
. . Includes a paper on the contribution of nonhuman primates to understanding coronary artery atherosclerosis in humans, by T. B. Clarkson & S. A. Klumpp.
*Progress report: NIH Chimpanzee Breeding and Research Program.
The Newsletter, 1990, Special Issue. [Primate Foundation of
Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280]
. . Progress and accomplishments of the Program since it was established in 1986.
*Program and abstracts of the thirteenth annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, University of California, Davis, July 11-14, 1990. American Journal of Primatology, 1990, 20 .
*Psychological well-being and environmental enrichment.
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, Suppl. 1.
. . Most of these papers are based on the proceedings of a symposium at the 1988 American Society of Primatologists meeting. Contents: General Issues: Primatology and primate well-being, by W. A. Mason. Assessment of psychological well-being in animals: Lessons from farm animal studies, by R. Dantzer. Issues related to "psychological well-being" in nonhuman primates, by J. G. Vandenbergh. Reproductive and endocrinological measures of stress and nonstress in nonhuman primates, by W. R. Dukelow & K. B. Dukelow. Environmental enrichment, providing psychological well-being for people and primates, J. A. Roberts. Breeding colonies and psychological well-being, by I. S. Bernstein. Environmental Enrichment: An examination of various foraging components and their suitability as enrichment tools for captively-housed primates, by S. Beckley & M. Novak. Effects of environmental impoverishment on the social behavior of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), by D. Schoenfeld. Cage enrichment, physiology, and behavior in nursery-reared rhesus monkeys, by M. R. Clarke, D. R. Koritnik, L. N. Martin, & G. B. Baskin. Enrichment options for guenons in the laboratory, by C. A. Bramblett. Evaluation of two environmental enrichment devices for singly caged chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), by L. Brent, D. R. Lee, & J. W. Eichberg. Food puzzle device simulating termite fishing for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), by S. Maki, P. L. Alford, M. A. Bloomsmith, & J. Franklin. Resocialization of captive chimpanzees: An amelioration procedure, by J. Fritz. Social housing for captive adult male chimpanzees: Comparing single-male and multi-male social groups, by A. L. Fitch, J. J. Merhalski, & M. A. Bloomsmith. Interactions between adult male and immature captive chimpanzees: Implications for housing chimpanzees, by M. A. Bloomsmith.
*Practical Methodology: Nonhuman Primates, Part I: Handling, Restraint, Personnel Safety. Part II: Techniques. School of Veterinary Medicine, Univ. of California, Davis, 1988. (19 min. and 13 min.) [Price: $150 each. Order 3334-1 and 3335-1 from Dean's Office--Instruction, School of Vet. Med., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616. Also available as slides/tape: order numbers 881 and 882 at $90 each]
*Morphological studies of GABA-ergic neurons in focal epilepsy in
primates. Ribak, C. E., & Bakay, R. A. E. (Dept. of Anatomy, Univ. of
California, Irvine, CA 92717). In J. Suzuki, M. Seino, Y. Fukuyama, & S.
Art and Science of Epilepsy (pp. 21-26). New York: Elsevier, 1989.
. . A significant and selective loss of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic somata at the focus site is demonstrated in pre-seizing, alumina gel treated animals. The data suggest that GABAergic neuronal loss precedes the onset of clinical seizures, consistent with findings of a significant loss of GABAergic terminals in pre-seizing monkeys.
*Treatment of experimental pyelonephritis in the monkey. Roberts, J.
A., Kaack, M. B., & Baskin, G. (Dept. of Urology, Delta Regional Primate
Research Center, Three Rivers Rd., Covington, LA 70433).
Journal of Urology, 1990, 143, 150-154.
. . A combination of an antibiotic and a xanthine oxidase inhibitor was compared to antibiotic therapy alone begun 72 hours after bacterial infection. Both were successful in eradicating the infection rapidly, but did not entirely prevent renal damage. Combined treatment prior to 72 hours was effective in preventing almost all renal damage and loss of renal function.
*In-utero transplantation of fetal liver haemopoietic stem cells in
monkeys. Harrison, M. R., Slotnick, R. N., Crombleholme, T. M., Golbus,
M. S., Tarantal, A. F., & Zanjani, E. D. (Fetal Treatment Program, 3rd &
Parnassus, HSE 585, San Francisco, CA 94143-0510).
Lancet, 1989, 2(8677), 1425-1427.
. . Many genetically transmitted diseases that are potentially curable by haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation can be diagnosed by chorionic villus sampling long before the optimum time for in-utero HSC transplantation. Fetus-to-fetus HSC transplantation may offer the first effective therapy of a genetic disorder in utero. It has been shown that the injection of allogenic fetal stem cells into pre-immune fetal lambs leads to haemopoietic chimerism. Now fetal rhesus monkeys were transplanted with HSCs derived from opposite sex donors. Engraftment was confirmed by karyotype analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes and bone marrow; cells of donor sex were found in four of five recipients at birth.
*Nonhuman primates and teratological research. Hendrickx, A. G., &
Binkerd, P. E. (California Primate Research Center, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 81-108.
. . Although in vitro and alternative test systems have been incorporated into developmental toxicity studies, whole animal testing will be required for the foreseeable future because of the complex relationship of the maternal/embryo-fetal/placental unit. The nonhuman primate will be particularly valuable where equivocal results are experienced in other species, when the drug/chemical is apt to be used during pregnancy, and for artificial products which often are not bioactive in nonprimate species.
*Animals in research. Council on Scientific Affairs (W. R. Hendee, AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610). Journal of the American Medical Association, 1989, 261, 3602-3606.
*Human vs animal rights: In defense of animal research. Loeb, J. M., Hendee, W. R., Smith, S. J., & Schwarz, M. R. (Address same as above). Journal of the American Medical Association, 1989, 262, 2716-2720.
*Responsibility of the regulator to the regulated community. Glosser,
J. W. (APHIS, US Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20050).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 1-8.
. . Address given at a Conference on Animal Research Committees, March, 1989.
*Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Boesch, C., & Boesch,
H. (CSRS, BP V 51, Abidjan, Ivory Coast).
Folia Primatologica, 1990, 54, 86-99.
. . Reported instances of tool use and making for 3 populations increase from Mahale (12 and 3 types of use and making) to Gombe (16 and 3) to Taï (19 and 6). Factors involved in the acquisition and benefits of tool use are discussed along with factors affecting the frequency and complexity of tool making in chimpanzees.
*Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Tai>u National Park.
Boesch, C., & Boesch, H. (Address same as above).
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1989, 78, 547-573.
. . Hunting behavior of chimpanzees living in tropical rain forest is compared to that of those living in savanna-woodlands. Findings are related to some theories on aspects of hunting behavior in early hominids, and compared with that of social carnivores.
*Reciprocity in play, grooming, and proximity in sibling and
nonsibling young rhesus monkeys. Janus, M. (MRC Unit on the Development
& Integration of Behaviour, Cambridge Univ., Madingley, Cambridge CB3
International Journal of Primatology, 1989, 10, 243-261.
. . Four captive groups were studied over two seasons. Monkeys played with nonsiblings as much as with siblings, but spent more time grooming and in proximity with siblings than with nonsiblings. All-male dyads tended to be more reciprocal in play, and all-female dyads in grooming.
*Individual and social behavioral responses to injury in wild toque
(Macaca sinica). Dittus, W. P. J., & Ratnayeke, S. M. (National
Zoological Park, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20008).
International Journal of Primatology, 1989, 10, 215-234.
. . The behavior of injured individuals was compared to their own behavior after healing. Injured macaques sought and received significantly more grooming, the amount increasing with the severity of the injury, and the initiative of other group members often compensated for a victim's inability to solicit care. However, other group members showed no altruism during the costly and highly competitive activity of foraging for food.
*Social interactions and the life history of female
Pan paniscus in Wamba, Zaire. Furuichi, T. (Lab. of Human Evolution
Studies, Fac. of Science, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto 606, Japan).
International Journal of Primatology, 1989 173-197.
. . Results of 16 months of observations. The consistency of multimale/multifemale parties and the existence of prominent mother-offspring sub-units are unique characteristics of P. paniscus among Pongidae. This social structure may provide a feasible model of the basic society from which human society evolved.
*Population organization of wild pig-tailed macaques
(Macaca nemestrina nemestrina) in West Sumatra. Oi, T. (Primate
Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan).
Primates, 1990, 31, 15-31.
. . Three troops and 10 solitary males were observed. The troops had neither a substructure similar to harem-type groups nor a superstructure that emerged as a result of fusion of the troops. The unit group appears to be multi-male and matrilineal.
*Interspecific interactions between wild pygmy chimpanzees
(Pan paniscus) and red colobus (Colobus badius). Ihobe, H.
(Address same as above).
Primates, 1990, 31, 109-112.
. . In a 2-1/2 month study, red colobus were observed to approach juvenile or infant pygmy chimpanzees on 3 occasions, and on 2 occasions groomed them. The adult male chimpanzees showed no interest in the colobus, and no true aggressive interactions were observed between the two species.
*Social relationships between adult male and female rhesus macaques:
II. Non-sexual affiliative behaviour. Hill, D. A. (Center for African
Area Studies, Kyoto Univ., Shimoadachi-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto,
Primates, 1990, 31, 33-50.
. . A 14 month study showed relationships in which adult males and sexually mature females were persistently close to one another in nonsexual contexts, both within and across seasons.
*Sex differences in the behaviour of immature captive lowland
gorillas. Meder, A. (Eduard-Pfeiffer-Strasse 54, 7000 Stuttgart 1, DFR).
Primates, 1990, 31, 51-63.
. . Among 12 male and 14 female captive infants and juveniles, females showed greater interest in young infants and were more active in nest building as well as in solitary and social grooming. Males were more active in locomotive, dominance, and aggressive behavior and in social play. Hand-rearing further increased aggression.
*Social rank and sex ratio of captive long-tailed macaque females
(Macaca fascicularis). van Schaik, C. P., Netto, W. J., van
Amerongen, A. J. J., & Westland, H. (Dept. of Biological Anthropology,
Duke Univ., 3705 Erwin Rd., Durham, NC 27705).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 147-161.
. . In 3 well-established captive groups, high-ranking females produced a higher proportion of sons than low-ranking females, and factors other than rank did not have significant effects on birth sex ratios. These results support the Trivers-Willard hypothesis rather than the local resource competition hypothesis.
*Food sharing in cotton-top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus) . Feistner, A. T. C., & Price, E. C. (Dept. of
Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland).
Folia Primatologica, 1990, 54, 34-45.
. . Within 9 captive families (4-14 individuals/group), fruit was transferred to infants by their parents and older sibs in response to begging, and was also offered to them unsolicited. Transfer to infants increased to a maximum at 12 weeks of age and then declined gradually, until it ended by 1 year of age.
*Social relations in groups of the black-capped capuchin
(Cebus apella) in captivity: Interactions of group-born infants
during their second half-year of life. Welker, C., Becker, P.,
Höhmann, H., & Schauml;fer-Witt, C. (Zoology Dept., Univ. of Kassel,
Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, D-3500 Kassel, DFR).
Folia Primatologica, 1990, 54, 16-33.
. . At this time, the 'peer phase' begins and gender differences in social play become obvious.
*Videotapes: Environmental enrichment for singly housed chimpanzees.
Bloomsmith, M. A., Keeling, M. E., & Lambeth, S. P. (Dept. of Veterinary
Resources, Science Park, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Route 2, Box
151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602).
Lab Animal, 1990, 19, 42-46.
. . Chimpanzees' responses to videotape stimuli may be affected by tape content, the subjects' housing, and, in some cases, the number of times the animals have been exposed to the tape.
*CITES Conference in Switzerland.
TRAFFIC(USA), 1990, 10, 7-16.
. . Summary of the conference held October 9-20, 1989. .bm +1
*Semen collection, evaluation, and cryopreservation in exotic animal
species: Maximizing reproductive potential. Durrant, B. S. (Reproductive
Physiology Div., CRES, Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego,
CA 92112). ILAR News, 1990, 32 2-10.
. . The dearth of consistently successful artificial insemination or embryo transfer programs for exotic animals illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating successful protocols from domestic species or humans to endangered species, and the need for carefully designed studies in male and female reproductive and gamete physiologies.
*Estimating the optimum number of
animals needed in research. Erb, H. N. (Section of Epidemiology, Dept.
of Clinical Sciences, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine,
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14850).
ILAR News, 1990, 32, 11-16.
. . The author aims to provide an understanding of the issues underlying sample size calculations, and suggests ways to decrease the needed sample size.
*The genetic and demographic status of the Western lowland gorilla
(Gorilla g. gorilla) in captivity. Mace, G. M. (Inst. of Zoology,
Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK).
Journal of Zoology, London, 1988, 216, 629-654.
. . Projected trends in population size and structure, based on recent fecundity and survival rates, suggest that the captive population will decline slowly unless infant mortality rates can be reduced. From a genetic standpoint, however, the large number of wild-born animals and large population size suggest that there should be no difficulty in preserving 90% heterozygosity over the next 200 years.
*Heterosis associated with regional crossbreeding between captive
groups of rhesus macaques. Smith, D. G., & Scott, L. M. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 255-260.
. . Since the embargo on exportation of rhesus monkeys was enacted by India in 1978, the domestic stock of rhesus monkeys has grown steadily more genetically homogeneous. The lengths and weights of male and female Chinese-Indian hybrid rhesus were compared with those of age- and ,cb sex-matched Indian controls, with results consistent with the hypothesis that regional crossbreeding fosters "hybrid vigor".
*Population structure of
Hylobates concolor in Bawanglin Nature Reserve, Hainan, China. Liu,
Z., Zhang, Y., Jiang, H., & Southwick, C. (C. Southwick, Dept. of EPO
Biology, Box 334, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 247-254.
. . The Hainan gibbon survives in Bawanglin Nature Reserve in 4 social groups (21 individuals). Of 12 births since 1982, 11 individuals survive, but only 3 are females. The total female population consists of 6 adults (2 at least 19 years old) and 3 juveniles. The groups are well protected, but their survival is precarious.
*Growth of rhesus monkeys during the first 54 months of life.
Saxton, J. L., & Lotz, W. G. (NAMRL, Code 23, Naval Air Station,
Pensacola, FL 32508-5700).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 119-136.
. . Biweekly or triweekly measurements of 8 body dimensions of 34 males and 26 females, from 1 to 54 months of age.
*Developmental trends in mother-infant interactions in Java macaques
(Macaca fascicularis) during the first ten days of life. Kemps, A.,
Timmermans, P., & Vossen, J. (Dept. of Comparative & Physiological
Psychology, Univ. of Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, the
Primates, 1990, 31, 65-77.
. . In contrast to rhesus and stumptailed infants, young fascicularis appear to develop a great variety of behaviors in the first 10 days. As the infant's behavior gains in complexity and social initiative, the mother becomes more passive and self-oriented.
*Development of epiphyseal union in Japanese macaques of known
chronological age. Kimura, T., & Hamada, Y. (Primate Research Inst.,
Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan).
Primates, 1990, 31, 79-93.
. . 205 skeletons, of known age, of the two subspecies of Japanese macaque were studied. Detailed results are given for 40 epiphyseal locations, including a table by location, species, age, and sex. *Behavioral development and socialization of infants in a free-ranging group of howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Clarke, M. R. (Delta Regional Primate Research Center of Tulane Univ., Three Rivers Road, Covington, LA 70433). Folia Primatologica, 1990, 54, 1-15.
. . Observations, over 22-months, of 6 female and 5 male infants from birth to death, departure, or end of study. Females were more sociable as infants and as adults, and exhibited less weaning stress, than males. Males, which are forced out of the group sooner, remained solitary longer and reacted negatively to interactions.
*B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) infection in humans:
Epidemiologic investigation of a cluster. Holmes, G. P., Hilliard, J.
K., Klontz, K. C., Rupert, A. H., Schindler, C. M., Parrish, E.,
Griffin, G., Ward, G. S., Bernstein, N. D., Bean, T. W., Ball, M. R.
Sr., Brady, J. A., Wilder, M. H., & Kaplan, J. E. (Div. of Viral
Diseases, Buliding 6-127, Mailstop A32, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333).
Annals of Internal Medicine, 1990, 112, 833-839.
. . This report on the 1987 Florida cases identifies 3 risk factors for human infection: nonuse of mechanical or chemical restraints for monkeys before handling, nonuse of available protective gear, and direct viral inoculation through the application of a topical medication.
*Increased peripheral lymphocytes, lymphoid hepatitis and anaemia in
African vervet monkeys seropositive to retroviruses. Fincham, J. E., van
der Riet, F., Steytler, J. G., Lai Tung, M. T., Cooper, R., Seier, J.
V., Madden, D. L., Kanki, P., Campbell, J. A. H., Taljaard, J. J. F., &
Woodroof, C. W. (P.O. Box 70, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa).
Journal of Comparative Pathology, 1989, 101, 53-68.
. . Seropositivity to STLV1 and SIV was associated with increased total, T, and atypical lymphocytes. In seropositive females there was mild, normocytic, normochromic anemia. Lymphoid hepatitis was present in 7 seropositive cases. African vervets used in biomedical and organ transplantation research and vaccine production are often infected by exogenous retroviruses which can be oncogenic and immunosuppressive in captive monkeys. Elimination of these infections may be possible by captive breeding.
*Recommendations for the prevention of malaria among travelers.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1990, 39, No. RR-3.
[Price: $1. Stock number 717-016-0033-4 from the Superintendent of
Documents, U.S.G.P.O., Washington, DC 20402-9325]
. . Mefloquine is now recommended for travelers at risk of infection with chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum.
*Yellow fever vaccine: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1990, 39, No. RR-6.
[Price: $1. Stock number 717-016-00344-0, address same as above]
. . Update of 1984 recommendations, clarifying the risks of travel to endemic areas, precautions for vaccination of special groups, and simultaneous administration of cholera and other vaccines.
*Experimental infection of African green monkeys and cynomolgus
monkeys with a SIV&s'AGM strain isolated from a healthy African green
monkey. Honjo, S., Narita, T., Kobayashi, R., Hiyaoka, A., Fujimoto, K.,
Takasaka, M., Sakakibara, I., Mukai, R., Ishikawa, K., Ohta, Y., &
Hayami, M. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, NIH, Tsukuba,
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 9-20.
. . Antibody and virus were found in all subjects, but no monkey exhibited overt clinical signs in the 42-week experimental period.
*Comparative biology of natural and experimental SIVmac infection in
macaque monkeys: A review. King, N. W., Chalifoux, L. V., Ringler, D.
J., Wyand, M. S., Sehgal, P. K., Daniel, M. D., Letvin, N. L.,
Desrosiers, R. C., Blake, B. J., & Hunt, R. D. (New England Regional
Primate Research Center, One Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 109-118.
. . Epidemiologic and clinicopathologic data from 11 macaques with naturally acquired SIV infection -- 10 of which have died -- were compared with those from 34 rhesus monkeys that have died of experimental SIVmac infection. The most striking difference was the 41% incidence of meningoencephalomyelitis in the experimental group, and its absence in the other.
*Induction of AIDS in rhesus monkeys by molecularly cloned simian
immunodeficiency virus. Kestler, H., Kodama, T., Ringler, D., Marthas,
M., Pedersen, N., Lackner, A., Regier, D., Sehgal, P., Daniel, M., King,
N., & Desrosiers, R. (R. Desrosiers, Address same as above).
. . An infectious molecular clone of SIV was identified that induced AIDS in rhesus monkeys in a time frame suitable for lab investigation. These results provide another strong link in the chain of evidence for the viral etiology of AIDS, and define a system for molecular dissection of the determinants of AIDS pathogenesis. Science, 1990, 248, 1109-1112.
*Trichobezoars in two saddleback tamarins
(Saguinus fuscicollis). Gozalo, A. S., Montoya, E., Nolan, T. E.
(Peruvian Primatological Project, P.O. Box 621, Iquitos, Peru).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 151-153.
. . Since gastric trichobezoars can lead to severe clinical disease and death, it is suggested that trichobezoars be included in the differential diagnosis for any monkey that exhibits anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, or sparse hair coat.
*Mortality causes of owl monkeys
(Aotus nancymae and Aotus vociferans) in captivity. Gozalo, A., &
Montoya, E. (Address same as above).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 69-72.
. . Findings from 115 necropsies: 25.2% acute lobular pneumonia, 10.4% chronic nephropathy, 8.7% acute catarrhal enteritis, 7% acute hemorrhagic enteritis, 5.2% acute toxic hepatitis, and 5.2% trauma.
*Seroprevalence of B virus
(Herpesvirus simiae) antibodies in a naturally formed group of
rhesus macaques. Kessler, M. J., & Hilliard, J. K. (Caribbean Primate
Research Center, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 155-160.
. . 82% of a group of rhesus monkeys removed from Cayo Santiago were seropositive for B virus, about the same as the Cayo Santiago population two decades ago, and groups of feral Indian rhesus. Probably the B virus has been enzootic in the Cayo Santiago population since it was established in 1938 with stock from India.
*Outbreak of Simian hemorrhagic fever. Renquist, D. (Primate
Research Inst., New Mexico State Univ., Holloman AFB, NM 88330).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 77-79.
. . Description, including diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical pathology, and control measures instituted, of an outbreak which resulted in the destruction of about 400 (out of over 2000) macaques.
*An overview of the world literature on spontaneous tumors in
nonhuman primates. Beniashvili, D. S. (Oncological Research Center,
Ministry of Health of the Georgian SSR, Tbilisi, USSR).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 423-437.
. . 783 spontaneous neoplasms have been reported in nonhuman primates, all similar to tumors in human beings. Carcinomas were the most frequent; neoplasms occurred most frequently in older animals; the digestive system was more commonly affected than were other organ systems.
*Trauma, degenerative disease, and other pathologies among the Gombe
chimpanzees. Jurmain, R. (Dept. of Anthropology, San Jose State Univ.,
San Jose, CA 95192).
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1989, 80, 229-237.
. . The bodies of 11 deceased members of the well-documented Gombe populations were studied for skeletal pathologies. The most common type of lesion resulted from trauma, the most being in the oldest individuals, due to falls and interpersonal violence. Degenerative disease was rare. The complete lack of osteophytosis, even in older individuals, stands in stark contrast to the modern human situation, perhaps reflecting a biomechanical cost of bipedality.
*Clinical and parasitologic aspects of cryptosporidiosis in nonhuman
primates. Miller, R. A., Bronsdon, M. A., Kuller, L., & Morton, W. R.
(Dept. of Medicine, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 40, 42-46.
. . Eighty-one cases of acute cryptosporidiosis were diagnosed among 157 infant primates, mostly Macaca nemestrina. The risk of infection was related to the length of time the animal was housed in the nursery and to social interaction with other monkeys. Cryptosporidium was the second most common enteric pathogen detected in the population, after Camplyobacter jejuni.
*Virological survey of rhesus monkeys in China. Zhao, M., Ye, M.,
Luo, G., Chen, S., Xu, J., & Song, P. (Inst. of Medical Biology, Chinese
Acad. of Medical Sciences, Chinese Medical Primate Research Center,
Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 40, 29-32.
. . Monkeys from Sichuan, Hunan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi provinces were tested for 13 viruses and/or antibodies. Antibody was detected to SFV, SF40., HSV-1, Sa11, measles, vaccinia, epidemic or simian hemorrhagic fever, Langat, Kunming, and poliomyelitis. SFV and SV40 were recovered.
*Serological survey for two simian retroviruses in macaques and
African green monkeys. Krugner-Higby, L., Kucera, L., Lerche, N., Sever,
J., Fucillo, W., Allan, J., & Benveniste, R. (Dept. of Comparative
Medicine, Wake Forest Univ. Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 40, 24-28.
. . 170 of 471 cynomolgus, 5 of 144 rhesus, and 8 of 60 stumptailed macaques tested were positive for SRV-1, while 54 of 152 African green monkeys were positive for SIV antibodies.
Entopolypoides macaci Mayer, 1933 (Babesiidae) infection secondary
to stress in long-tailed macaques
(Macaca fascicularis). Emerson, C. L., Tsai, C.-C., Holland, C. J.,
Ralston, P., & Diluzio, M. E. (Regional Primate Research Center, Univ.
of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 40, 169-171.
. . Erythrocyte infection was diagnosed in two feral fascicularis that had been in the Primate Field Station breeding colony of the WRPRC for 7 and 12 years. No organisms had been observed previously in peripheral blood smears from these animals.
*Viral battery testing in nonhuman primate colony management.
Kalter, S. S., & Heberling, R. L. (7650 Louis Pasteur, San Antonio, TX
Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 21-23.
. . Development of the rapid, sensitive, and specific dot immunobinding assay permits the monitoring of a colony for many viruses which cause problems.
*A population survey of
Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus and Ateles geoffroyi
at Palo Verde, Costa Rica. Massey, A. (Zoology Dept., North Carolina
State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695).
Revista de Biología Tropical, 1987, 35, 345-347.
. . A review of field observations, chemical analyses, and bioactivity assays.
*Apes of the world. Tuttle, R. H. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of
Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637).
American Scientist, 1990, 78, 115-125.
. . A survey of the behavior, toxonomy, and conservation status of the apes.
*Fundamental differences between field and laboratory
investigations. Orlans, F. B. (Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown
Univ., Washington, DC 20057).
Lab Animal, 1990, 19, 43-44.
. . Application of rigorous PHS policies to wild animals in the field may be inappropriate.
*Molecular evidence of Y-autosomal translocations in owl monkeys.
Ma, N. S.-F., Page, D. C., & Harris, T. S. (New England Regional Primate
Research Center, 1 Pine Hill Drive, Southborough, MA 01772).
Journal of Heredity, 1989, 80, 259-263.
. . Some owl monkeys are distinguished by an uncommon chromosomal sex determination system. A Y-to-autosome translocation in males has been observed in at least 3 isolated populations in Bolivia, Peru, and Brazil. The Y chromosome is prone to rearrangement and translocation. Here molecular findings reinforce cytological evidence that Y-chromosomal material has been transferred to autosomes 14 and 17 in owl monkeys of karyotypes VI and VII, respectively. Additional data support an earlier proposal that the 6.6-kb fragment is Y specific. In karyotype VII, the Y-chromosome marker is regionally localized on the distal short arm of chromosome 17/Y at a site that stains positively after C-banding treatment.
Instruments & Techniques
*Restraint and anaesthesia of primates. Sainsbury, A. W., Eaton, B.
D., & Cooper, J. E. (Inst. of Zoology, Zoological Society of London,
Regents Park, London, NW1 4RY, UK).
The Veterinary Record, 1989, 125, 640-643.
. . The importance of humane methods of physical restraint is emphasized. Agents for chemical restraint and surgical anaesthesia are considered in terms of ease of administration, dose rate, speed of induction and recovery, analgesic properties, muscle relaxation, and side effects.
*Interventional ultrasound in pregnant macaques: Embryonic/fetal
applications. Tarantal, A. F. (California Primate Research Center, Univ.
of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 47-58.
. . Techniques established in human subjects using ultrasound as a guide have been applied to the nonhuman primate laboratory setting, significantly decreasing the risk of pregnancy loss due to experimental intervention.
*A rapid non-surgical technique to obtain serial samples from the
gastrointestinal tract using a steerable catheter and fluoroscopy in the
rhesus monkey. Ford, E., Anderson, J., Cox, K., Dencer, M., & Cello, S.
(Address same as above).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1989, 39, 609-612.
. . A technique to procure repeated jejunal samples in a relatively noninvasive manner.
*Nonsurgical technique for flushing the
Macaca mulatta uterus. Goodeaux, L. L., Anzalone, C. A., Webre, M.
K., Graves, K. H., & Voelkel, S. A. (Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana,
P.O. Box 44650, Lafayette, LA 70504).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 59-67.
. . A reliable technique using a modified endometrial cell sampler and a blunt trocar.
*Selection of plants with medicinal properties by wild chimpanzees. Dossaji, S. F., Wrangham, R., & Rodriguez, E. (National Museums of Kenya, Inst. of Primate Research, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya). Fitoterapia, 1989, 60, 378-380.
*Macular pathology in monkeys fed semipurified diets. Feeney-Burns,
L., Neuringer, M., & Gao, C.-L. (Mason Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of
Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201). In
Inherited and Environmentally Induced Retinal Degenerations (pp.
601-622). New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989.
. . Experimental diets contained recommended amounts of calories, vitamins and minerals, but no unrefined plant or animal products and, therefore, no xanthophylls. Lack of vegetable matter in these diets resulted in absence of normal yellow macular pigmentation and virtual absence of xanthophylls in the plasma. Xanthophylls are normally present throughout the primate retina, with cone-rich areas having high concentrations of lutein and rod rich areas having more zeazanthin. Maculas that lacked the yellow pigment were very fragile and prone to split at the site of normally highest xanthopyll.
*Dietary variability in primate populations. Chapman, C. A., &
Chapman, L. J. (Dept. of Biology, McGill Univ., 1205 Dr. Penfield Ave.,
Montre>aal, PQ H3A 1B1, Canada).
Primates, 1990, 31, 121-128.
. . A review of 46 long-term studies of wild populations, suggesting that primates do not consistently combine the same kinds of foods in their diets but, rather, often switch between diet categories in ways unrelated to body size, habitat, seasonality, or population density.
*Vitamin C deficiency in captive nonhuman primates fed commercial
primate diet. Ratterree, M. S., Didier, P. J., Blanchard, J. L., Clarke,
M. R., & Schaeffer, D. (Dept. of Veterinary Science, Delta Regional
Primate Research Center, Tulane Univ., Covington, LA 70433).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 40, 165-168.
. . In November, 1988, scurvy was diagnosed in 19 rhesus monkeys and 4 squirrel monkeys, and was associated with the manufacturer's admitted error in preparation of a commercially prepared monkey diet. Clinical signs subsided after 5 days of vitamin C therapy. Cephalhematomas and weakness developed in squirrel monkeys, which failed to respond to treatment.
*Diet and feeding behaviour of samango monkeys
(Cercopithecus mitis labiatus) in Ngoye Forest, South Africa.
Lawes, M. J., Henzi, S. P., & Perrin, M. R. (Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of
Natal, P.O. Box 37, Pietermaritzburg 3200, South Africa).
Folia Primatologica, 1990, 54, 57-69.
. . Although conditions of their range differ considerably, there is little difference in the diets of samango and another C. mitis subspecies, the blue monkey.
Pharmacology & Anesthesia
*The effect of propranolol on behavioral interactions among adult
male cynomolgus monkeys
(Macaca fascicularis) housed in disrupted social groupings. Kaplan,
J. R., & Manuck, S. B. (Dept. of Comparative Medicine, 300 South
Hawthorne Rd., Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Psychosomatic Medicine, 1989, 51, 449-462.
. . Propranolol treatment had no effects of beta-blockade on social dominance, aggressiveness, or active aspects of affiliation. Apparently chronic beta-adrenergic blockade has minimal effects on the most ,cb prominent features of macaque monkey social behavior, especially those associated with risk for coronary disease in this species and human beings.
*Physiological changes during temporary occlusion of the superior
vena cava in cynomolgus monkeys. Masuda, H., Ogata, T., & Kikuchi, K.
(3-2 Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359, Japan).
Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 1989, 47, 890-896.
. . Arterial blood gas data were within normal limits during and after clamping of the vena cava for one hour in 6 monkeys. Intracranial pressure increased and regional cerebral blood flow decreased during clamping, but both recovered after the clamp was removed. Cerebral perfusion pressure was within the margin of safety during clamping, and electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram showed no abnormalities.
*Ontogeny of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in
early fetal development of rhesus macaques. Ronnekleiv, O. K., & Resko,
J. A. (Dept. of Physiology, Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR
Endocrinology, 1990, 126, 498-511.
. . This study documents the appearance of GnRH neurons from days 36-135 of gestation in fetal rhesus, and correlates this development with known physiological events, such as testicular androgen secretion and negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion.
*Rapid inhibitory effects of an LHRH agonist implant on the
oestrogen-induced LH surge and the induction of a defective luteal phase
after an agonist-induced ovulation in the macaque. Fraser, H. M., &
Lunn, S. F. (MRC Reproductive Biology Unit, Centre for Reproductive
Biology, 37 Chalmers St., Edinburgh EH3 9EW, UK).
Human Reproduction, 1989, 4, 506-512.
. . LHRH agonist implant causes rapid desensitization of the pituitary gonadotroph. When treatment is commenced during the late luteal or early follicular phase, the ability of estrogen to induce an LH/FSH surge is abolished as early as day 7, showing that a direct estrogen-induced component is not expressed in the desensitized pituitary. If the agonist implant is delayed until the late follicular phase, the resulting LH/FSH surge appears to induce ovulation although the subsequent luteal phase is shortened.
*Effect of uncomplicated pregnancy on body water content and
distribution in baboons. Brans, Y. W., Kuehl, T. J., Hayashi, R. H.,
Andrew, D. S., Menchaca, E. M., Puleo-Scheppke, B. A., & Reyes, P. (T.
J. Kuehl, Dept. of ObGyn, Scott White Clinic, Temple, TX 76501).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1990, 19, 31-45.
. . Data on 32 pregnancies presented as tables and scattergrams.
*Determination of lactogenic activity in the serum of the squirrel
(Saimiri boliviensis) using the Nb2 lymphoma bioassay. Thompson, M.
E., MacMillan, L. A., Bethea, C. L., Williams, L. E., Abee, C. R., &
Scammell, J. G. (J. G. Scammell, Dept. of Pharmacology, MSB 3130, Univ.
of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 175-181.
. . Determination of squirrel monkey prolactin by immunoassay has been hampered by the lack of antiserum specific to prolactin from this species. The grown of Nb2 cells is absolutely dependent on the presence of lactogens in the culture medium, so that Nb2 lymphoma bioassay provides a sensitive and adaptable means for determination of lactogenic activity in squirrel monkey serum.
*Corneal biometrics of the rhesus monkey
(Macaca mulatta). Zurawski, C. A., McCarey, B. E., van Rij, G., &
Fernandes, A. (B. E. McCarey, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Emory Univ. School
of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1989, 18, 461-466.
. . Keratometry, retinoscopy, horizontal diameter, and pachymetry were measured in adult and infant rhesus monkeys. Adults had corneal diameters of 10.6 +/- 0.5 mm and keratometry values of 51.90 +/- 1.61 diopters, while female adult monkeys had smaller corneal diameters and infant female monkeys had steeper corneas. No significant differences were found between right and left eyes.
*Hematology of the wild caught karyotype 1 owl monkey (Aotus nancymai). Málaga, C. A., Weller, R. E., Buschbom, R. L., & Ragan, H. A. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA 99352). Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 90, 204-205. Reproduction
*1990 Black Howler Monkey International Studbook. B. Baker (Studbook Keeper). Columbia, SC: Riverbanks Zoological Park, 1990. 58 pp.
*Sexual initiation in wild mountain gorillas. Nadler, R. D. (Yerkes
Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322).
International Journal of Primatology, 1989, 10, 81-92.
. . Although females observed in the wild played a clear role in establishing and maintaining proximity to the male and assertively presenting for copulation, all female presenting was preceded by some form of behavior by the male, particularly several components of the male's chest-beat display. Although originally described as male aggression in laboratory tests, such behavior now appears to be male sexual initiative, elicited by female proximity. The exaggerated form and frequency of the display in the laboratory, and the increased copulation during the cycle that ensued, are likely due to 1) placing females in proximity to a male daily, rather than on 2-3 days of estrus as in the wild, and 2) the inability of the female in the laboratory to withdraw from male proximity during pair tests in a single cage.
*Medial hypothalmic lesions and sexual receptivity in the female
(Callithrix jacchus). Dixson, A. F. (Primate Center, Centre
International de Recherche Médical de Franceville, BP 769,
Folia Primatologica, 1990, 54, 46-56.
. . Thermal lesions were made in the hypothalamus in 11 ovariectomized or ovariectomized/adrenalectomized, estradiol-treated marmosets. Medial hypothalamic lesions have pronounced effects upon proceptivity in the marmoset, while effects upon receptivity are much less pronounced or absent.
*Reproduction in wild female olive baboons. Smuts, B., & Nicholson,
N. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1346).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 229-246.
. . Evaluation of several factors influencing female reproduction, based on 4 years of data. Nutritional and stress-related mechanisms that may underlie the reproductive advantages of high rank are discussed.
*Observations of parturition among captive patas monkeys
(Erythrocebus patas). Hemmalin, H., & Loy, J. (J. Loy, Dept. of
Anthropology, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 183-188.
. . Descriptions of 6 labors and deliveries among laboratory-housed monkeys, including the final 1.5 - 0.5 hour before delivery in all cases.
*Reproductive synchrony in captive macaques. Silk, J. B. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024).
American Journal of Primatology, 1989, 19, 137-146.
. . Among bonnet macaques chances of producing surviving infants were reduced among females who conceived at the peak of the mating season (primiparous and low-ranking females) compared with females whose conceptions were more isolated in time. Harassment of conceiving and pregnant females may have contributed to the correlation between the extent of reproductive synchrony and infant mortality, as the levels of aggression toward females were highest during the months in which conceptions were most common.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
Two scientists at the University of Erewhon recently did an interesting study with chimpanzees. The results, published in a report in Readers Digest, point to genetic origins for differences between the sexes.
Two groups of chimps, one only males, the other only females, were taught to wash dishes after meals. 99% of the females, but only 2% of the males, also washed the stove without being specifically told. In addition, all of the females swept the kitchen floor daily, while none of the males displayed any sweeping behavior at all.
The experiment might have been more valid if the groups could have been combined. In that way we would have been assured that the males and females were not treated differently by the investigators. Unfortunately, when this was attempted, uncontrollable fighting ensued. The basis for conflict was never fully determined, but the experimenters noted that it invariably took place near a full bag of garbage.
Other scientists all over the country are racing to duplicate these results.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover drawing of a mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla berengei) by Dr. Robert M. George, Department of Anatomy, University of South Carolina
Copyright @1990 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.