VOLUME 30 NUMBER 3 JULY 1991
Articles and Notes
Incorporating Objects into Sequences of Aggression and Self-Aggression by Macaca arctoides: An Unusual Form of Tool Use? by J. R. Anderson & F. Stoppa...... 1
Implementing an Environmental Enhancement Plan for Previously Singly-Caged Macaca mulatta at a Research Facility, by V Reinhardt...... 4
Observer Influence on Range Use of Macaca arctoides After 14 Years of Observation? by D. R. Rasmussen...... 6
PVC-Pipe Food Puzzle for Singly Caged Primates, by M. A Murchison...... 12
Chimpanzees Invent Enrichment Devices: A Brief Anecdotal Report, by K. Kennedy...... 15
News, Information, and Announcements
Travellers' Health Notes...... 5
. . Update: Cholera Outbreak, Treatment of Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
Editors' Notes...... 15
Meeting Announcements...... 16
. . Human Behavior and Evolution, Transgenic Animal Models, SCAW Conference, SCAW Workshop, Humane Care and Use, Understanding Chimpanzees Symposium, Techniques in Laboratory Animal Science, 1992 ASP Meeting
Filovirus Update: Primate Veterinarians Comment...... 18
News Briefs...... 21
. . ASP R&D Committee, Monkeys Listed as Endangered, Suitcase for Survival, Lawsuit Dismissed Again, Morrison at ADAMHA, James A. Porter, 1923-1991
Research and Education Opportunities...... 22
. . Cano Palma Field Station, Visits to Foreign Centers of Excellence, AAAS/Westinghouse Award
Information Requested and Available...... 24
. . C.A.U.Z., Slow Loris Care, Databases List Japanese Researchers, Ateles Gestation, AAALAC Brochure, Electronic Discussion Forum, Neuroscience Publication, Biomedical Research Technology Resources
Grants Available...... 26
. . ADAMHA Small Grant Program, Arthritis Foundation Program, Alan T. Waterman Award, Neurological Basis of Cognition, ONR Young Investigator Program, Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, NSF Research Grants
Medical Supplies Needed...... 27
Why, it's another cartoon!...... 25
Positions Available...... 20
. . Central Connecticut State University, The Gorilla Foundation, Primate Foundation of Arizona, The Digit Fund
Address Changes...... 23
Recent Books and Articles...... 28
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James R. Anderson and Franc Stoppa
Université Louis Pasteur
Self-aggression (SA) is known to occur in macaque monkeys with a history of social deprivation, particularly early social deprivation (Anderson & Chamove, 1981). Several methods to reduce this behavioral abnormality have been attempted. The presence of social partners may reduce the incidence of self-aggression in the short-term (de Monte et al., in press; Goosen & Ribbens, 1980), but SA often persists in the animals' repertoire in spite of permanent and compatible social housing (Anderson & Chamove, 1980). Another approach to reducing SA has focused on directing the animal's attention away from its own body and toward the physical (rather than the social) environment. For example, the provision of a deep woodchip litter to encourage foraging behavior led to a substantial decrease in SA in a group of stumptailed macaques (Anderson & Chamove, 1984). The introduction of a branch, stick, or other objects into the otherwise barren cage of singly housed macaques may also reduce the incidence of self-directed behaviors, including SA (Bryant et al., 1988; Champoux et al., 1987), as the animals engage in manipulation and oral exploration of the objects.
We have also found that the introduction of objects (sticks, tennis balls) can reduce SA in laboratory-reared stumptailed macaques (see below). Our main aim here, however, is to draw attention to the macaques' incorporation of these and other inanimate objects into sequences of aggression, especially SA. This phenomenon, which does not appear to have been described previously, is of interest from the point of view of its evident similarities to numerous cases of tool-use in primates, as reviewed by Beck (1980).
Observations were conducted on 4 adult female stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) with a history of SA. Three subjects (D, B, and M) lived together in three interconnecting cages totalling 1.5 x 2.4 x 1.2 m. The fourth subject (C) was socially incompatible and lived alone in a cage measuring 0.5 x 0.8 x 1.2 m. Food (commercial primate pellets) and water were available ad libitum. Each day one of the following 3 conditions was run: control (no inanimate objects available), stick (one stick per subject was introduced into the cage at the start of the observation session), tennis ball (a tennis ball was introduced, as for the stick condition). Sticks measured 30-40 cm in length and 2-3 cm in diameter. The control-stick-ball cycle was run 3 times to give a total of nine 30-min observation sessions for each subject. The frequencies and durations of up to 17 behavioral categories were recorded using a Datamyte 800 event recorder. SA was defined as any behavioral sequence including visual and/or vocal threats or biting directed toward the animal's own body.
Table 1 shows the mean durations of SA by the subjects in the 3 conditions. Three of the 4 subjects showed less SA during the two object conditions, and one subject showed most SA during the stick condition. SA was similar in form to the descriptions in the literature (though few detailed descriptions exist). Each subject had preferred forms of SA. Subject C, for example, usually sat, leaning forward, and with one hand rubbed her back 4-5 times before suddenly thrusting the hand in front of her face to be threatened and/or bitten. The sequence would then be repeated. Subject M's SA typically consisted of grasping her left wrist with the right hand and biting it, then thrusting the big toe of her right foot into her cheek and biting it through the buccal mucosa and skin, while the other toes scratched her face.
-------------------------------------------- Subject Condition -------------------------------------------- Control Stick Tennis Ball -------------------------------------------- O 0.16 0.00 0.00 B 0.05 0.17 0.03 M 0.29 0.06 0.01 C 0.57 0.45 0.35 --------------------------------------------
Table 1. Mean durations (min) of self- aggression in three conditions.
Three subjects (B, M, C) incorporated food pellets (mean length: 4.5 cm, mean diameter: 2.25 cm) into sequences of SA, and two (B, C) incorporated the introduced objects. For example, subject C would show the sequence described above while holding a pellet or a stick in the hand that rubbed her back. Alternatively, she would touch her anogenital region with the held object. Typically in these variants, the pellet or stick would be bitten, rather than the hand. Another sequence shown by C consisted of holding a pellet or the tennis ball on the floor with one hand, the opposite foot resting alongside it. C looked alternately at her foot and the held object, and then threatened her foot as it appeared to attempt to grasp the object held in the hand. The foot was then bitten. A third sequence involved placing the tennis ball on the cage-floor about 30 cm from her face, threatening it, pushing it along the floor with her face, then pouncing on it and biting it, sometimes violently shaking the ball while holding it between her teeth. A final example of object-aided aggression by C consisted of her holding a stick in front of her face and threatening it, striking her head with the stick, repeating this sequence, then biting the stick.
Subject B also frequently rubbed her flanks with a pellet or a stick before threatening and biting the object. A particular form shown by B consisted of holding a pellet, stick, or ball in the left hand, rolling it down her outstretched right arm, then catching and threatening and biting the object as it reached the end of her arm Subject B also rolled the pellet or ball across her chest before proceeding to treat the object aggressively.
These observations provide further evidence that quite simple procedures, such as providing various inanimate objects, can reduce certain categories of abnormal behavior and thus enhance the psychological well-being of laboratory-housed macaque monkeys (see also Bryant et al., 1988; Reinhardt, 1989). However, like other investigators assessing the effects of environmental enrichment procedures (e.g., Bloomstrand et al., 1986; Rosenblum & Smiley, 1984), we found individual differences in responses to the experimental conditions; one subject showed increased SA during an enrichment condition. This underlines the need for empirical verification of enrichment techniques (Chamove & Anderson, 1989; Novak & Suomi, 1988) and the value of adopting a case-by-case approach (see also Anderson & Visalberghi, 1990).
Nonsocial object-directed aggression in primates has been described particularly in conditions where no alternative target is available and the animal is subjected to inescapable noxious stimulation (e.g., Ulrich et al., 1969). However, the incorporation of objects into naturally occurring agonistic displays has been described for many species of primates, and is considered to be a category of tool use (Beck, 1980). We suggest that the use of inanimate objects in aggressive and self-aggressive episodes by the monkeys observed here also qualifies as tool use according to Beck's (1980) definition: ...the external employment of an unattached environmental object to alter more efficiently the form, position, or condition of another object, another organism, or the user itself when the user holds or carries the tool during or just prior to use and is responsible for the proper and effective orientation of the tool (p. 10). Anderson & Chamove (1981) proposed a model of SA in which aggression was hypothesized to be reinforcing and in which some of the acts occurring during bouts of SA (e.g., plucking hairs, 'surprise' attacks by the feet) were performed by the self-aggressive animal in order to provide it with a 'legitimate' target for aggression (the offending limb) in the absence of a real social target. The stumptailed macaques in the present study use food pellets, sticks, tennis balls, or other objects to effect a change in the condition of their own bodies, i.e., to promote an aggression-evoking state of arousal by causing painful or otherwise irritating cutaneous input, while simultaneously providing a target which can be attacked without risk of injury (i.e., self-inflicted wounds or true retaliation). We have also seen stumptailed macaques provoking fights' with fixed structures in their cages (e.g., food hoppers) by repeatedly shoulder-charging or head-butting the structure and then threatening or biting it. However, these examples, though interesting, do not qualify as tool use.
It is impossible, of course, to verify the subjective experiences accompanying the macaques' object-body-object manipulation sequences described here. However, this is also true for the many cases of tool-aided scratching reported both for nonprimates and primates (Beck, 1980; see Galat-Luong, 1984, for more recent examples in monkeys) Although object-aided aggressive and self-aggressive bouts of the type described here are unconventional, it seems likely that they share underlying processes with tool use as observed in scratching and in normal' aggressive displays.
Anderson, J. R. & Chamove, A. S. (1980). Self-aggression and social aggression in laboratory-reared macaques. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 539-550.
Anderson, J. R. & Chamove, A. S. (1981). Self-aggressive behaviour in monkeys. Current Psychological Reviews, 1, 139-158.
Anderson, J. R. & Chamove, A. S. (1984). Allowing captive primates to forage. In Standards in Laboratory Animal Management, part 2 (pp 253-256). Potters Bar: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Anderson, J. R. & Visalberghi, E. (1990). Towards better conditions for captive nonhuman primates: Routines, requirements, and research. In E. Alleva & G. Laviola (Eds.), Biomedical Experimentation and Laboratory Animals: Hot Behavioural Issues (pp. 1-11) Rome: ISTISAN Reports.
Beck, B. B. (1980). Animal Tool Behavior: The Use and Manufacture of Tools by Animals. New York: Garland STPM Press. v Bloomstrand, M., Riddle, K., Alford, P., & Maple, T. L. (1986) Objective evaluation of a behavioral enrichment device for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology, 5, 293-300.
Bryant, C. E., Rupniak, N. M. J., & Iversen, S. D. (1988). Effects of different environmental enrichment devices on cage stereotypies and autoaggression in cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 17, 257-269.
Chamove, A. A. & Anderson, J. R. (1989). Examining environmental enrichment. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 183-202). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
Champoux, M., Hempel, M., & Reinhardt, V. (1987). Environmental enrichment with sticks for singly-caged adult rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 5-7.
de Monte, M., Anderson, J. R., & Charbonnier, H. (in press). Self-aggression in stumptail macaques: Effects of frustration and social partners. Primates.
Galat-Luong, A. (1984). L'utilisation spontanée d'outils pour le toilettage chez des Cercopithecidae africains captifs. Terre Vie, 39, 231-236.
Goosen, C. & Ribbens, L. G. (1980). Autoaggression and tactile communication in pairs of adult stumptailed macaques. Behaviour, 73, 155-174.
Novak, M. A. & Suomi, S. J. (1988). Psychological well-being of primates in captivity. American Psychologist, 43, 765-773.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques Lab Animal, 18, 31-33.
Rosenblum, L. A. & Smiley, J. (1984). Therapeutic effects of an imposed foraging task in disturbed monkeys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25, 485-497.
Ulrich, R., Wolfe, M., & Dulaney, S. (1969). Punishment of shock induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 1009-1015.
Authors' address: Laboratoire de Psychophysiologie (CNRS URA 1295),
Université Louis Pasteur, 7 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg,
This research was conducted at the Centre de Primatologie of the Université Louis Pasteur.
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Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
The following Environmental Enhancement Plan for caged rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) has been successfully implemented at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center in compliance with Federal Rules (USDA, 1991, sec 3.81).
Social Grouping: Of the Center's 749 caged rhesus macaques 692
(92.4%) are housed in pairs or small groups. There are:
29 adult (> 4 years old) male pairs (58 animals),
108 adult female pairs (216),
18 adult female-adult male pairs (36),
8 adult castrate pairs (16),
29 juvenile (1-4 years old) pairs of same or opposite sex (58),
31 adult male-juvenile male pairs (62),
79 adult female-juvenile female or male pairs (158),
26 groups of 2 adult females with 1 or 2 offspring (88).
All animals living in pairs or groups are compatible (i.e., food sharing, no serious aggession, no signs of depression, species-typical affiliative interactions).
Environmental Enrichment Program: Caged rhesus macaques are offered favored treats (e.g., raisins, peanuts) by the attending caregivers by hand at least once per day, consistent with personnel safety precautions.
Caged rhesus macaques (living in standard or squeeze-back cages) have access to 1 or 2 diagonally suspended perches (PVC pipes or deciduous tree branches) and 1 or 2 loose branch segments. These objects enable the animals to perform species-typical noninjurious behaviors such as perching, balancing, gnawing and manipulating.
Commercial dry food is supplemented daily with unprocessed fruits or vegetables to stimulate species-typical foraging behavior.
Special Considerations: Infants, juveniles and aged subjects as well as animals showing signs of psychological distress are housed strictly in a compatible social environment and subjected to the Environmental Enrichment Plan.
Restraint: Chair-restrained rhesus macaques are well familiarized with the experimenter (no fear reactions when being approached). They have continual visual and acoustical contact with a compatible companion housed nearby in a mobile cage.
Animals assigned to a research proposal requiring regular blood collections are trained to cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture without being mechanically squeezed or chemically immobilized.
Exemptions: Of the 749 caged rhesus macaques 57 (7.6%) are singly caged. These individuals are exempt from social grouping for scientific reasons set forth in research proposals approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (54 animals) or for veterinary reasons (3 animals).
None of the 749 animals are exempt from the Environmental Enrichment Program.
Status quo: The Environmental Enhancement Plan has been developed and tested for over 4-1/2 years. It has proven to be not only effective and compatible with ongoing research but inexpensive and safe (Reinhardt et al., 1987, 1989; Reinhardt, 1988, 1989, 1990a,b, 1991) Several years ago, the Center's caged rhesus macaques were housed singly in a barren environment. Today, the majority share an enriched double cage with a compatible companion and have ample opportunities to actively express a large repertoire of species-typical activities that were formerly inhibited due to lack of appropriate stimuli.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Eisele, S. G. & Champoux, M. (1987) Social enrichment with infants of the environment for singly caged adult rheus monkeys. Zoo Biology, 56, 365-371.
Reinhardt, V. (1988). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar adult male rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27, 4-5.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques. Lab Animal, 18, 31-33.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D. & Eisele, S. (1989). Pairing previously singly caged rhesus monkeys does not interfere with common research protocols. Laboratory Animal Science, 39, 73-74.
Reinhardt, V. (1990a). Social enrichment for laboratory primates: A critical review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 7-11.
Reinhardt, V. (1990b). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch and a piece of wood for an extended time American Journal of Primatology, 20, 51-56.
Reinhardt, V. (1991). Training adult male rhesus monkeys to actively cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Animal Technology, 42, 243-249.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (1991). Animal Welfare, Standards, Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6499-6500.
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223
Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
The Environmental Enhancement Plan is supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC.
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D. R. Rasmussen
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and Animal Behavior Research Institute
The most detailed data collected on the behavior of free-ranging groups of nonhuman primates are generally collected by observers who follow the groups on foot. Weeks, months or years of painstaking habituation to the presence of observers may precede the collection of data (Goodall, 1968, 1971; Rasmussen, 1979). Data are generally not collected until after the observer can approach and consistently sample details of interactions between individuals. At this point, subjects no longer run from the observer, but instead allow close approach and do not respond to observers walking within the mobile boundaries of the troop. It is therefore often implicitly assumed that groups behave as they would if the observer were not present (Jordan & Burghardt, 1986). In other cases, observers attempt to habituate their subjects so they respond to their presence as they do to other non-predator species such as impala or zebra (Rasmussen, 1979).
Many theoretical interpretations of empirical behavioral data assume that subjects behave in the same way when the observers are not present. The importance of controlling and measuring observer presence therefore has an exceptionally long history, which goes back to the beginning of behavioral research (Rosenthal, 1966; Barlow, 1968; Goodall, 1968, 1971; Ollason & Dunnet, 1980; Martin & Bateson, 1986; Jordan & Burghardt, 1986; Caine, 1990). Oddly, however, there have been few studies conducted on observer effects on nonhuman primates (e.g., Candland et al., 1972, Caine, 1990) or, indeed, on nonhuman animals (e.g., Jordan & Burghardt, 1986).
Possible observer effects on range use were noted in a previous study on the Viramba troop of free-ranging yellow baboons, Papio cynocephalus. The number of days elapsed since the initiation of data collection was associated, but not significantly, with the size of the area used by the troop during 12 approximately month-long data blocks (r = +.33, P = .30). There was also a strong, but not significant, correlation between the diversity of sleeping sites used by the troop and the number of days elapsed since the initiation of data collection (r = +.57, P =.054). These possible observer effects were attributed to the differential habituation of the study troop and its neighboring troops. When the Viramba troop approached a neighboring troop, the neighboring troops would avoid the observers and be supplanted by the Viramba troop. The presence of the observers therefore appeared to help the Viramba troop expand its range at the expense of other troops.
The analyses reported here are focused on how the patterns of range use of a free-ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) were related to the cumulative time the troop was observed from the onset of data collection. The troop was observed for 14 years before the onset of this study and observers could follow all subjects at a distance of 5 m when data collection began. This troop is therefore one in which an observer effect might be expected to be mild compared to a wild troop that has been observed for only a few months.
We hypothesized that the troop might move more frequently early in the study because its members were less habituated to our presence When observers were present, the monkeys may have had a greater likelihood of moving to another location. We expected this tendency to decrease as the monkeys became more accustomed to our presence. Day ranges were therefore predicted to become smaller in area and more clumped as the study progressed.
Subjects and Study Site: Four of the troop members were among those originally introduced in 1974 to Totogochillo Island in Lake Catemaco, Veracruz State, Mexico (Estrada & Estrada, 1976). The rest of the troop were descendants of the original troop members. The troop was moved to the nearby Tanaxpillo Island (the most southerly island in Figure 1 of Estrada & Estrada, 1976) in 1979 (Rodriguez-Luna, personal communication). Tanaxpillo Island is composed of two volcanic rock masses connected by a rock bridge of about 15 m in length submerged to maximum depth of about .5 m below water. There were 35 to 36 troop members during data collection. An adult female, Pierre, died and two infants were born. Members of the troop occasionally also swim the 30 m channel to Tanaxpi island, a larger cultivated and inhabited island to the northwest on which three adult males spent most of their time in an all male group. These males were not members of the troop Although Tanaxpillo Island is small, 6750 square meters, the troop moves as a distinct unit about its range. Movement of a troop as a distinct unit may cease in captivity (Rasmussen & Rasmussen, 1979).
Systematic data on the troop had been collected for 14 years by observers before the onset of this study. In addition to the published reports on these observations (Estrada & Estrada, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1984, Estrada & Coates-Estrada, 1987; Estrada et al., 1978; Estrada, 1988; Rodriguez-Luna et al., 1986a, 1986b, 1987a, 1987b), there have also been several studies conducted by Mexican graduate students and undergraduates. Caretakers also census the troop and provide food to the monkeys every day.
Data were collected by observation teams composed of 2 to 5 undergraduates and a faculty member. One or two teams of observers collected data during each of three shifts on the island: 0600 to 1000 hours, 1000 hours to 1400 hours and 1400 to 1800 hours.
Observation Methods, Conditions and Schedule: An observation team conducted 14 minute sampling sessions on an individual focal subject Subjects could be clearly seen from most points on the island and were observed from a distance of 5 to 15 m. Instantaneous samples (Altmann, 1974) on the location of focal subjects were assessed every 2 minutes during the sampling session. A 15 second tone before the onset of a 2 minute interval was used to alert observers to an upcoming instantaneous sample. If the location of the subject could not be determined at the instant of a sample, the interval was not used in the analyses.
Members of observation teams had defined roles: The principal observer took primary responsibility for keeping the focal subject in sight at all times and called observations to a data recorder who then entered the observations into a Tandy 102 lap-top computer. Assistants helped the principal observer collect data. The team did not follow the focal subject as a group. The primary observer was usually the closest to the focal subject. The data recorder generally stayed 20 or more meters away from the focal subject. Assistants attempted to move ahead of the subject so they could help with observations if the subject moved away from the primary observer. Assistants also selected different vantage points to help the principal observer collect accurate data. If, for example, the focal subject had several other monkeys around it, assistants would select a vantage point on the side of the focal subject opposite the observer so they could provide information on interactions partially obscured by the body of the focal subject. All observers attempted to minimize their influence on the behavior of the macaques except when it was necessary to protect themselves from attack. Data collection roles were rotated to prevent observer fatigue. Faculty members participated in all roles and monitored data accuracy.
Focal subjects were sequentially selected from a list derived by randomly sampling each age-sex category without replacement. If a subject on the list could not be located after a 10 minute search, the next subject on the list was observed. After the sampling session, a search was again made for the missed subject and, if located, it was observed. When observations were completed on the last subject, sampling was started again at the top of the list.
The data base for the analyses consists of 276 hours of 2 minute instantaneous samples of locations (mean hours/day = 8.6, SD=1.8) collected during the 14 minute sampling sessions on 32 days during a 49 day time span (June 26 to August 14, 1988). Videotapes of the observation methods and the troop may be obtained from the library of the University of Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (Guss & Rasmussen, 1988; Rasmussen et al., 1990).
Range Use: We used all of the instantaneous samples of the quadrat locations of focal subjects collected on a given day to assess the troop's range use. The 5 x 5 m quadrats were mapped with standard reconnaissance methods (Mosby, 1969) on the island with a Suunto KB-20 compass, a 30 m fiberglass tape and an optical level. Samples of the location of three adult males who lived in the all-male group were excluded from the assessments of the troop's range use since they did not move with the troop and only rarely visited Tanaxpillo Island Focal samples on a 13 year old female, Pierre, were also excluded since she was crippled, stopped moving with the troop, and died on July 29, 1988.
The sum of quadrats in which subjects were observed per day was used as an index of the area of the daily range. The index RU (Rasmussen, 1979) was used to evaluate the degree to which the patterns of range use of the troop were clumped. The greater the variance in intensity of use of quadrats, the larger is the value of RU. Unlike most indices of clumping, RU is sensitive to both variation in the intensity of quadrat use and the distances between quadrats that are intensively used, that is, the grain of the pattern (Rasmussen, 1980).
Considering the small size of Tanaxpillo Island, there was a surprising amount of daily variation in both area and RU: Troop members were observed in only 18 quadrats during the day when their range had the minimum area; they were observed in 53 quadrats on the day with the maximum area. On the day with the minimum RU, 8.5% of all samples of location occurred in the most used quadrat, the quadrat where food was provisioned; on the day with the maximum value of RU, 67% of all samples of location occurred in this quadrat.
Cumulative Time Observed: The amount of exposure of the troop to the presence of observers per day was measured with the cumulative 2-minute focal animal samples collected per day by the observation teams. This variable is hereafter referred to as cumulative time observed.
Figure 1a: There was a strong and significant inverted U shaped relationship between the cumulative amount of time the troop was observed and the quadratic aspect of the area used by the troop (partial correlation = -.38, P = .032).
There was no indication of a linear relationship between area and the cumulative time the troop was observed (r = +.027, P =.88). There was an unexpected, and significant, relationship between area and the quadratic aspect of cumulative time observed. The partial correlation between area and the quadratic aspect of area with the linear aspect controlled was -.39 (P = .032). This was due to a inverted U shaped relationship between area and cumulative time observed (Figure 1a).
As predicted by hypothesis 1 there was a positive tendency for daily patterns of range use to become more clumped as a linear function of the cumulative time the troop was observed (r = +.35, P = .0495, Figure 1b).
Figure 1b: There was a significant tendency for the troop's pattern of range use to become more clumped as a linear function of the cumulative amount of time the troop was observed (r = +.35, P = .0495). The regression lines are power fits (Microsoft, 1987).
There was an unpredicted inverted U shaped relationship between area and cumulative time observed. A partial cause of this relationship may have stemmed from the increase in the area of the troop's range use occasioned by the progressive deterioration of an adult female's health during the latter part of data collection by the first set of observation teams. Pierre was the oldest female in the matriline containing the females of highest agonistic rank in the troop Pierre became immobilized during the last 2 weeks of her life. During this time Pierre stayed in an area that was previously only a corridor for troop movement. The entire troop expanded its range to include Pierre's location and visited with her for over an hour every day Several adult females groomed Pierre during these visits to her location. After Pierre died, the troop's range use returned to normal. The change in the pattern of daily range use by the entire troop engendered by Pierre's illness may have been responsible for the increase, and then the decrease, in the area of the troop's range as a function of the cumulative time observed.
The degree to which the troop's daily pattern of range use was clumped was significantly and positively associated with the cumulative time observed. The direction and significance of this relationship is therefore consistent with the hypothesized observer effect: Early in the study, the presence of observers may have decreased the amount of time troop members spent in any given location and hence decreased the degree to which daily ranges were clumped. Later on, when the macaques were more habituated to observer presence, troop members may have been more at ease with the presence of observers and therefore spent more time in preferred locations. Increased habituation to the presence of observers may thus have been causally associated with increased clumping of the daily range of the troop.
It is not possible to prove the causation of the relationships between cumulative time observed and changes in the area and clumping of range use. This is true for all relationships found in nonexperimental studies of range use. The use of an a priori hypothesis made the rationale for the analyses explicit, but its use does not increase the likelihood that the hypothesized relationships are causal.
Observer presence may influence the range use of a habituated troop of macaques that has been observed for 14 years. All but four of the troop members had been born into the troop in Mexico and grown up with observers present. The observers who collected data for this project were not previously known to the macaques so habituation to the new observers may have been responsible for part of the observer effect Macaques certainly do respond to immigrants into their troop (Boelkins & Wilson, 1972). They also appear to recognize and respond differently to individual observers on the basis of degree of familiarity Although observation teams spread out, there were also more observers present than in most previous studies conducted on this troop. The size of teams may therefore also have been partially responsible for an observer effect.
In a non-experimental study such as this it is difficult to separate the changes in the observed from changes in the observers (Ciminero et al., 1977). Observers might, for example, have learned to respond differently to the macaques as the study progressed. Observers who were more confident, at ease, and unintimidated by the macaques did evoke a different response than neophyte observers. The correlations reported here therefore might reflect as much of a change in the reactions of the observers to the macaques as a change in the reactions of the macaques to the observers.
The results reported here and in a previous study (Rasmussen, 1979, 1983) support the reasonable possibility that observer presence may influence the range use of nonhuman primates. Elaborate new variables or procedures were not necessary to assess these possible observer effects. The data that are gathered during any study on range use may be subjected to similar analyses. Similar retrospective analyses may be possible with only the information found in previous publications These analyses point to a source of systematic variation in range use that could obscure relationships between range use and other variables. Changes in range use due to observer effects could, for example, modify or obscure the relationship between daily variation in range use and use of food. If variation due to observer effects is statistically controlled with methods such as partial correlation or analysis of covariance, more accurate knowledge may be obtained of the relationships between range use and other variables (Rasmussen, 1979) There are many other ways in which the behavior of nonhuman primates might change as they grow more habituated to observer presence (Rasmussen, 1990). Red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) have, for example, been noted to come down lower in the canopy after being observed for several months (C. Crockett, personal communication). Variation due to habituation to observers in such other aspects of behavior could also be subjected to statistical control.
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Candland, D. K., Dresdale, L., Leiphart, J. & Johnson, C. (1972) Videotape as a replacement for the human observer in studies of non-human primate behavior. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 4, 24-26.
Ciminero, A. R., Graham, L. E., & Jackson, J. L. (1977). Reciprocal reactivity: Response-specific changes in independent observers Behavior Therapy, 8, 48-56.
Estrada, A. (1988). Comportamiento animal: el caso de los primates. Mexico City: La Ciencia desde México.
Estrada, A., & Estrada, R. (1976). Establishment of a free-ranging colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Relations to the ecology I. Primates, 17, 337-355.
Estrada, A. & Estrada, R. (1977). Patterns of predation in a free- ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Relations to the ecology II. Primates, 18, 633-646.
Estrada, A. & Estrada, R. (1981). Reproductive seasonality in a free- ranging colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca mulatta): A five year report. Primates, 22, 503-511.
Estrada, A. & Estrada, R. (1984). Female-infant interactions among free-ranging stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Primates, 25, 48-61.
Estrada, A. & Coates-Estrada, R. (1987). Mother-infant interactions in a free ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) International Journal of Primatology, 8, 446.
Estrada, A., Estrada, R., & Manzolillo, D. (1978). Further data on predation by free-ranging stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) Primates, 19, 401-407.
Goodall, J. van Lawick. (1968). The behaviour of free-living chimpan- zees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Animal Behaviour Monographs, 1, 161-311.
Goodall, J. van Lawick (1971). In the Shadow of Man. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Guss, L. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1988). Videotapes of the Tanaxpillo troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) and observation methods Primate Center Library, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
Jordan, R. H. & Burghardt, G. M. (1986). Employing an ethogram to detect reactivity of black bears to the presence of humans. Ethology, 73, 89-115.
Martin, P. & Bateson, P. (1986). Measuring Behavior: An Introductory Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mosby, H. S. (1969). Reconnaissance mapping and map use. In R. H Giles, Jr. (Ed.), Wildlife Management Techniques, (3rd ed., pp 119-134). Washington, D.C.: The Wildlife Society.
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Ollason, J. C. & Dunnet, G. M. (1980). Nest failures in the Fulmar: The effect of observers. Journal of Field Ornithology, 51, 39-54.
Petrinovich, L. (1984). A two-factor dual-process theory of habituation and sensitization. In H. V. S. Peeke & L. Petrinovich (Eds), Habituation, Sensitization, and Behavior (pp. 17-55). New York: Academic Press.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1979). Correlates of patterns of range use of a troop of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). I. Sleeping sites, impregnable females, births, and male emigrations and immigrations Animal Behaviour, 278, 1098-1112.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1980). Clumping and consistency of primates' patterns of range use: Definitions, sampling, assessments, and applications. Folia Primatologica, 34, 111-139.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1983). Correlates of patterns of range use of a troop of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). II. Spatial structure, cover density, food gathering, and individual behaviour patterns. Animal Behaviour, 31, 834-856.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1990). Observer effects in field studies. Primate Library Report: Audio Visual Acquisitions, 10, 1-3.
Rasmussen, D. R., Guss L., Dubois, J. A., & Marsh, L. (1990). Conduct of a field course in primate social ecology and student assistance in the collection of quantitative data. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 224.
Rasmussen, D. R., & Rasmussen, K. L. (1979). Social ecology of adult males in a confined troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) Animal Behaviour, 27, 434-445.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Barney-Guillermo, H., & Caba-Vinagre, M. (1987a) Development and sexual differences in the expression of agonistic behavior in Macaca arctoides infants. American Journal of Primatology, 12, 357.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Carrillo-Castilla, P., Aguilera-Reyes, U., & Barney-Guillermo, H. (1986a). Changes in the dominance hierarchy of a group of macaques (Macaca arctoides) living in free-ranging: 1984-1986. Primate Report, 14, 229-230.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Carrillo-Castilla, P., & Manzo-Denes, J. (1986b) Sociosexual behaviour of free-ranging Macaca arctoides. Primate Report, 14, 244.
Rodriguez-Luna, E., Carrillo-Castilla, P., Manzo-Denes, J., & Caba-Vinagre, M. (1987b). Food consumption and reproductive success in a free-ranging group of Macaca arctoides. American Journal of Primatology, 12, 357.
Rosenthal, R. (1966). Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Author's address: Animal Behavior Research Inst., 314 S. Randall
St., Madison, WI 53715.
Essential help in the conduct of this study was provided by faculty members, Dr. J. Fa and Ms. L. Marsh, and by our hosts from the University of Veracruz, E. Rodriguez-Luna, D. Canales, and the staff of the primate field station. Dr. J. Capitanio provided useful comments on the manuscript. Jenifer Sawka and Robin Biggs contributed their discussions on the influence of observers on behavior. The help of the 28 students who helped collect the data is gratefully acknowledged. This research was supported by the School for Field Studies, the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, the Patronato Pro-Universidad Veracruzana, A.C., NIMH National Research Service Award 1 F32 MH09419-01 RERA, NIH Grant RR00167, NSF Grants 880414 and 890080. This is publication number 29-039 of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
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Mark A. Murchison
Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington
Singly caged primates often lack challenging living environments (Line, 1987; Novak & Suomi, 1988; Bayne, 1989) and are more likely to develop detrimental behavioral and physiological conditions than socially housed primates (Sackett, 1968; Erwin & Deni, 1979; Laudenslager et al., 1985; Spinelli & Markowitz, 1985). At the Primate Field Station of the University of Washington Regional Primate Research Center, animals are normally housed in social groups but are moved to single cages when necessary for research and medical treatment. Animals moved from social groups into single cages must therefore adjust to social separation and a less challenging cage environment.
In an effort to create physically stimulating environments for singly caged primates, investigators have provided animals with manipulable inanimate objects to exercise their exploratory skills (Champoux et al., 1987; Crockett et al., 1989; Line et al., 1989). Behavioral responses to the objects are variable, i.e., an object that is attractive to one animal may not be to another (Bayne, 1989b; Crockett et al., 1989). In addition, animals lose interest as the novelty of an object diminishes (Watson et al., 1989). Manipulable objects are more interesting to animals if they include a food reward (Crockett et al., 1989; Bayne et al., 1990). Thus, puzzles that deliver a novel and desired food reward for correct manipulation can provide a challenging foraging task for singly caged macaques (Bayne et al., 1990).
This report describes a simple food puzzle designed to elicit species-typical behaviors, and documents its usefulness as a foraging device.
Materials and Methods
The food puzzle was made from three sections of PVC pipe placed parallel one on top of the other (Figure 1). The nontoxic pipe was 30 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter. The long axis of the tubes were held parallel by two 13 cm steel bolts that passed through the ends of the long axis of each pipe and were secured with a nut. Interconnection holes (1.9 cm x 3.8 cm) were drilled into the bottom of one pipe and the top of the adjoining pipe to allow peanuts to pass from the upper to the lower pipes (Figure 1). Along one face of each pipe, six 1.4 cm diameter holes were drilled on center 3.8 cm apart. A larger seventh hole measuring 1.9 cm x 3.8 cm was drilled in the face of the lowest pipe for extracting food.
Figure 1. PVC pipe food puzzle
The puzzles were suspended from two 3 cm link chains connected to the bolts and attached to the front of the animals' cages by a snap hook clip (Figure 2). Peanuts in the shell were loaded through a hole into the top PVC pipe. The animals manipulated the puzzle by reaching through the front cage wires (Figure 2). They removed peanuts from the puzzle by inserting their fingers into the holes along the faces of the pipes and pushing the peanuts from the top pipe through the opening to the middle pipe, and then to the lowest pipe, where they retrieved the peanut through the large hole.
Figure 2. Animal sitting on perch, manipulating PVC food puzzle
We presented the puzzle to 8 colony-born cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 4 females (mean age = 5.0 years) and 4 males (mean age = 4.8 years), for 21 days. The animals were fed commercial monkey chow twice daily, at 0700 h and 1400 h. As most animals did not consume all the chow they were given, food was available virtually ad lib.
The puzzles were loaded at 0800 h with six whole peanuts in the shell in the top pipe. Observations consisted of six sampling sessions of <1 minute taken at the beginning of each hour between 0900 h and 1500 h, excluding 1200-1300 h. Recorded data consisted of the number of peanuts removed between sampling periods and total number of peanuts removed each day. Animal manipulation of the puzzle was also noted during the sampling sessions. Data were analyzed using a t-test from the statistics program of SYSTAT, Inc. (Wilkinson, 1987). For data analysis, the animals were divided by sex.
The animals manipulated the puzzles more actively each morning as soon as the puzzles were loaded than at any other time during the day They usually ate the peanuts that they removed, but sometimes dropped them to the floor inadvertently while trying to retrieve them from the puzzles.
Both sexes removed more peanuts within the first hour than at any other time during the day (Table 1). Only three animals learned to remove all peanuts from the puzzle by the last observation period; the others left peanuts in the puzzles. There were no sex differences in the number of peanuts removed each hour, but there was a significant sex difference in the total number of peanuts removed each day, with females being more proficient than males (Table 1).
--------------------------------------------------------- Hours Sex Mean S.D. T-statistic P-value --------------------------------------------------------- Hour 1 Male 1.55 2.27 1.57 0.12 Female 2.12 2.45 Hour 2 Male 0.13 0.48 0.35 0.73 Female 0.15 0.40 Hour 3 Male 0.20 0.46 1.43 0.15 Female 0.37 0.97 Hour 4 Male 0.25 0.73 0.40 0.69 Female 0.30 0.72 Hour 5 Male 0.12 0.42 0.00 1.00 Female 0.12 0.33 Hour 6 Male 0.08 0.28 1.04 0.30 Female 0.14 0.44 Total Male 2.33 2.56 2.18 0.03* Female 3.20 2.61 ------------------------------------------------------------ *P < 0.05
Table 1. Number of peanuts removed by each sex by hours.
At the beginning and through the eighteenth day of the test period, females removed more peanuts than males (Figure 3). However, the linear regression by sex showed that males had a greater increase than females in the mean number of peanuts removed during the test period (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Mean number of peanuts removed each day by sex.
Use of the PVC pipe puzzles increased animal foraging activity and provided physical and cognitive stimulation. The animals had complete control over the puzzles and could manipulate them at will. As the animals were well fed and had commercial chow available virtually ad lib, their motive for manipulating the puzzles was evidently not hunger but rather desire for the novel peanuts. Although the test period lasted only 3 weeks, macaques at the Primate Field Station continue to use the puzzles successfully and avidly.
Age and sex of animals should be considered when developing manipulable devices for enrichment. Since our subjects were all about 5 years old, age was not a factor in our results. An analysis by sex showed that initially females were more proficient than males in removing peanuts from the puzzles (Table 1). However, by the last 4 test days, males had surpassed females in number of peanuts removed It appears that males were slower to learn how to retrieve peanuts but could become as proficient as females.
The testing of these foraging devices shows that singly caged macaques are interested in manipulating objects associated with a food reward. Increasing the activity of singly caged macaques can thus be accomplished by providing the animals the opportunities to use species-typical foraging skills with foraging devices (Crockett et al., 1989; Bayne et al., 1990).
An important consideration in the use of enrichment devices is that they should not interfere with colony management procedures. The food puzzles described here can be loaded with peanuts in less than one minute without risk to the caretaker and can be cleaned along with the cages to which they are attached.
Bayne, K. (1989a). Resolving issues of psychological well-being and management of laboratory nonhuman primates. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 27-39). New Jersey: Noyes Publications.
Bayne, K. (1989b). Nylon balls re-visited. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 5-6.
Bayne, K., Mainzer, H., Dexter, S., Campbell, G., Yamada, F., & Suomi, S. (1990). The reduction of abnormal behaviors in individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a foraging/grooming board. American Journal of Primatology, 23, 23-35.
Champoux, M., Hempel, M., & Reinhardt, V. (1987). Environmental enrichment with sticks for singly-caged adult rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 5-7.
Crockett, C., Bielitzki, J., Carey, A., & Velez, A. (1989). Kong toys as enrichment devices for singly-caged macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 21-22.
Erwin, J. & Deni, R. (1979). Strangers in a strange land: Abnormal behaviors or abnormal environments. In J. Erwin, T. L. Maple, & G Mitchell (Eds.), Captivity and Behavior (pp. 1-28). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Laudenslager, M., Capitanio, J. P., & Reite, M. (1985). Possible effects of early separation experiences on subsequent immune function in adult macaque monkeys. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142. 862-864.
Line, S. W. (1987). Environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 190, 854-859.
Line, S. W., Clarke, A. S., & Markowitz, H. (1989). Adult female rhesus macaque responses to novel objects. Lab Animal, 18, 33-40.
Novak, M. A. & Suomi, S. J. (1988). Psychological well-being of primates in captivity. American Psychologist, 43, 765-773.
Sackett, G. (1968). Abnormal behavior in laboratory-reared rhesus monkeys. In M. Rox (Ed.), Abnormal Behavior of Animals (pp. 293-331) Philadelphia: Saunders.
Spinelli, J. S. & Markowitz, H. (1985). Prevention of cage-associated distress. Lab Animal, 14, 19-28.
Watson, D. S. B., Houston, B. J., & Macallum, G. E. (1989). The use of toys for primate environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 20.
Wilkinson, L. (1987). SYSTAT: The System for Statistics. Evanston, IL: SYSTAT, Inc.
Author's address: Primate Field Station, Medical Lake, WA 99022.
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grant RR00166. I would like to thank Dr. Darrell D. Williams and Kathleen S Elias for their critical review of the manuscript.
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University of Florida
During a current study of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Noell's Chimp Farm in Tarpon Springs, Florida, I have twice witnessed the invention and use of an enrichment device created by the chimpanzees themselves. These chimps live in adjoining cages, but are separated by a cement wall and do not have visual access to one another. Therefore, the knowledge of the play tool was not transmitted culturally; rather it was a separate and spontaneous innovation for both chimpanzees.
While taking behavioral data on nearby chimps, I observed Fran, a 3-year-old, tear a strip about three inches wide off the length of her blanket. She hung the strip over a steel bar which runs diagonally across one corner of her cage, taking care that the ends of the strip were even at the bottom. Having her device in place, she ran and, in a flying leap, grabbed both ends of the strip and spun herself around and around. She had constructed a spinning swing which she played on until the strip became ragged and worn.
Several weeks later a six-year-old, named Snookie, tore a similar strip from her blanket. This time, being older and more daring than the young Fran, she hung her strip from the bars across the top of her large cage. From her sleeping platform, Snookie could grab her swing and propel herself out over the entire width of her cage. She seemed to prefer the more conventional back-and-forth swinging, while Fran liked to spin. Both chimps used their inventions and appeared to enjoy the attention it brought from the zoo's visitors.
A chimp that is isolated from conspecifics benefits from a frequently changing environment. Even modest changes like a rope swing, a new toy, or food delivered in a novel way are important.
The author, a graduate student in primatology, would like to correspond with any researchers or zookeepers who work with great apes She would be very interested to know if others have witnessed similar novel behavior as reported in this article.
Associate Editor's note: There is some acceptable risk of entrapping a finger or arm in a suspended device.
Author's address: 3511-1 SW 29th Terrace, Gainesville, FL 32608.
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Update: Cholera Outbreak
On April 9, 1991, a U.S. physician attending a conference in Lima, Peru, had onset of diarrhea. He reported a maximum of eight watery stools in 24 hours and experienced no other symptoms except moderate weakness. The diarrhea lasted 5 days. After arriving in Peru on April 5, he had eaten all his meals, including a cold crab meat appetizer, 2 days before onset of illness, in his hotel or at events catered solely for the conference participants. He also consumed ice and municipal water that the hotel reported had been purified. Culture of a stool sample obtained on April 11, after his return to the United States, yielded toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Inaba, biotype El Tor. His family did not accompany him to Peru and has remained well.
The risk of cholera to tourists is extremely low, and cholera vaccine is not recommended for persons traveling to affected countries. Careful selection of safe foods and beverages is paramount.
Treatment of Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
CDC has recently reviewed data on the reported incidence in the United States of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and has evaluated information on the effective management of severe life-threatening infections. As a result of this review, CDC has concluded that the drug of choice in the United States for treatment of complicated P. falciparum infections is parenteral quinidine gluconate. Therefore, effective immediately, parenteral quinine dihydrochloride will no longer be available from the CDC Drug Service. Information regarding treatment of P. falciparum malaria is available from the Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC [404-488-4046].
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The Editor spent several days in Washington State recently, visiting our son and our colleagues at the RPRC, especially the staff of the Primate Information Center and James Ha, an animal behaviorist and computer hacker who is now working with Jim Sackett. James and I drove to Ellensburg, WA. We were pleased to be welcomed by Roger and Deborah Fouts at the Psychology Department of Central Washington Univer- sity, where Washoe and 3 other chimpanzees who received training in American Sign Language from Allan and Beatrice Gardner live. Loulis, Washoe's adopted son, who picked up ASL without formal training, also is part of the group. The animals receive plenty of enrichment and attention from a devoted group of students and volunteers. A supporting organization, Friends of Washoe has been very active in fund-raising and other publicity, and putting out a quarterly publication which contains anecdotes about the chimps as well as preprints of reports and theses written by the staff and students. The Fouts are very concerned about humane treatment for all animals which must be kept in captivity, and about questions of Animal Rights and Human Morality, which is the title of a thoughtful book by Bernard E. Rollin (New York: Prometheus Books, 1981) that Roger gave us as a parting gift.
Brave New Electronic World
We would like to remind readers that the contents of the LPN are sent out by electronic mail shortly after each issue goes to the printer. In addition, any notices, such as positions available or meeting announcements, which we receive too late for inclusion in an issue, are sent to e-mail subscribers immediately. See the inside front cover for subscription information.
We would also like to strongly encourage contributors to send their articles, notes, announcements, etc., to us by electronic mail if it is possible. We do not have a professional typist in our office, so both efficiency and accuracy are increased if we do not have to type material from scratch.
On the Tube
In the past few months we have seen two television shows of special interest to our readers. On March 10, The Urban Gorilla, a film about gorillas in captivity, was shown on the Turner Broadcasting System as a National Geographic Explorer Special. The one hour film, written, produced, and directed by Allison Argo, with cinematography by Robert E. Collins, shows conservation and environmental enrichment efforts. A videotape will be available in 1992, for rent or sale from commercial outlets. On May 19, Real Life with Jane Pauley visited James Mahoney, the veterinarian in charge at the N.Y.U. Medical Center, and showed the enrichment projects that are underway there. Dr. Mahoney expressed his feelings about the necessity of medical research and the reciprocal obligations of medical researchers toward their animal subjects.
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Human Behavior and Evolution
The Human Behavior and Evolution Society will hold its Third Annual Meeting August 22-25, 1991, at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. Abstracts are due April 1. For more information about the Meeting and the Society, contact Margo Wilson or Martin Daly, Department of Psychology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1 [416-525-9140; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Transgenic Animal Models
A symposium, "Transgenic Animal Models in Biomedical Research," will be held November 4-5, 1991, at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, under the auspices of the Registry of Comparative Pathology. The program is divided into 6 major sections: 1) production of transgenic animals; 2) neoplasia; 3) diabetes mellitus; 4) atherosclerosis and thrombosis; 5) developmental abnormalities; and 6) gene therapy. Contact Dr. George Migaki, Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306 [202-576-2452; FAX: 202-576-2164]. Registration deadline is October 11.
The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke will co-sponsor a conference on Humane Aspects of Primate Models in Neurological Disorders on October 11, 1991, in Bethesda, MD. The Chairs are Richard J Traystman and E. Christopher Staley. The purpose of the conference is to examine regulations, including the recently revised 9CFR Part 3, Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule issued by APHIS/USDA, and guidelines for the care and treatment of primates used as models in research; to discuss approval, recognition, and alleviation of induced pain, distress, and stress; and to consider the requirements for proper husbandry and enrichment for the well-being of primates. Also, the needs of nonhuman primates used as models for selected human diseases, such as Parkinsons, AIDS, and substance abuse, will be discussed. Researchers, members of Animal Care and Use Committees, administrators, veterinarians, technicians, and others interested in these issues are encouraged to attend. For more information, contact Conferences, SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Ave., Bethesda MD 20814 [301-654-6390; FAX: 301-907-3993].
SCAW will sponsor a workshop entitled U.S. Regulations and Canadian Guidelines for Research Animal Welfare at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Society of Research Administrators (SRA), which will take place October 19-23, 1991 in Vancouver, Canada. The SCAW workshop will be held on the morning of October 20, and will also focus on the function of oversight committees in both countries. Members of Animal Care and Use Committees, research administrators, veterinarians, principal investigators, and others are encouraged to attend this informative session. The fee for the workshop is $75 (U.S.). For more information, contact SCAW at the address given above, or SRA, 500 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611 [312-661-1700].
Humane Care and Use
The National Institutes of Health, Office for Protection from Research Risks, Division of Animal Welfare, is cosponsoring with the University of Washington in Seattle an animal welfare education program entitled Resolving the Ethical Dilemmas in Animal Use Protocol Review: How to Increase Humaneness Without Weakening the Science The one and one half day workshop will be held on September 12-13, 1991 in Seattle.
"Casuistry," a tool used by philosophers to solve ethical problems, will be introduced and applied to protocol reviews involving transgenic animals, withholding treatment from controls, and the use of death as an endpoint in studies. There will be presentations by Public Health Service and U.S. Department of Agriculture representatives on the policy and regulations relating to the humane care and use of lab animals.
The workshop is open to institutional administrators, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee members, laboratory animal veterinarians, scientific investigators, and other instutitional staff sharing responsibility for the management of a sound institutional animal care and use program. For further information, please contact the Univ. of Washington, Continuing Medical Education, at 206-543-1050 or 800-869-2633 [FAX: 206-543-3195]. For information on future NIH, OPRR Animal Education Workshops, please contact Mrs. Roberta Sonneborn at 301-496-7163 [FAX: 301-402-0527].
Understanding Chimpanzees Symposium
Jane Goodall and the Chicago Academy of Sciences announce the second international chimpanzee symposium, "Understanding Chimpanzees: Diversity and Survival," to be held at the Academy December 11-15, 1991. The conference will take a comparative approach to understanding the behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: documenting behaviors and behavioral variability, investigating hypotheses that explain variations, and exploring comparative methodology. The conference will also survey current population status in the wild, threats to habitat and survival, and the development of sanctuaries. Advisors for the symposium include Toshida Nishida, Richard Wranghma, Frans de Waal, Geza Teleki, Randall Susman, and Robert Fry. For a program and registration form, contact Linda Marquardt, Chicago Academy of Sciences, 2001 North Clark St., Chicago, IL 60614 [312-943-6969].
Techniques in Laboratory Animal Science
The Montreal Regional Chapter of the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science (C.A.L.A.S.) is proud to announce that it will host a weekend symposium at which animal technicians at all levels of training can get involved, exchange ideas, and discuss techniques as they relate to laboratory animal science. The symposium, Techniques in Laboratory Animal Science, will be held July 3-5, 1992, at the Montreal Neurological Institute. Abstracts (less than 200 words) covering issues or techniques in laboratory animal care and husbandry are invited. Presentations can be structured for either a 10 or 25 minute oral presentation, or for a poster presentation. In addition, there will be a handful of international guest speakers, social events, drawings, awards, and prizes. For further information, contact Janette Green, MRC of CALAS, P.O. Box 1288, Place du Parc, Montreal, QC, Canada H2W 2R3 [514-398-1960 or 514-982-6526].
1992 ASP Meeting
The 1992 meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be at Glendon College in Toronto, June 19-21. The annual meeting of the Animal Behavior Society will preceed ASP in nearby Kingston.
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I am writing on behalf of the Association of Primate Veterinarians, an organization comprised of over two hundred graduate veterinarians concerned with the health, care, and welfare of nonhuman primates and, by extension, the role that these unique animals play in biomedical research.
Since our members are involved with virtually every aspect of the use of nonhuman primates in the United States, from transportation and importation, through quarantine, to use in the laboratory, they have an opportunity to see first hand the effects of the CDC "guidelines" on the use of nonhuman primates in this country. Many of our members have begun to voice concerns about the apparently unchanging situation with regard to these "guidelines" for the control of what was originally thought to be Ebola virus. While most would agree that the action of the CDC to block the perceived threat to human and animal health in the face of the apparent epizootic was warranted and effective, the continued imposition of what is, in effect, additional federal control over the movement of these animals may, in the long run, have a negative effect on human health by directly blocking the use of these animals and reducing their use due to escalating costs. At our annual meeting last July, Mr. McCance and Dr. Brown of CDC were invited speakers. At that time we were told that revisions to the guidelines would probably be coming out soon. Nearly a year has passed and nothing has changed. There is still much confusion in the minds of airline personnel, investigators, and those responsible for importation and quarantine of specified primates. Primate imports are down, costs have increased considerably, and this has had effects on all of the areas of study in which these animals are used.
The purpose of this letter is to express briefly the problems that our members are most concerned about. To avoid getting into details of each individual's problems, which many may communicate independently, we have tried to summarize the situation as it is now perceived. There seem to be four general areas of CDC response and responsibility.
Permit and Quarantine Requirements: The rationale for the necessity of a special permit for only three selected species has been questioned. It is believed that the requirements already in place as a result of Marburg virus and herpes B-virus, which have resulted in human deaths, are sufficient. Two of the species on the permit list are macaques and known to be naturally infected with B-virus. There is strong support for the new requirements for importer facilities and for inspections to insure that the standards are being met, although this is causing particular problems for some zoos. Elimination of the special permit for those three species and the resulting paperwork was suggested. Simple notification of the CDC would allow inspectors to be present to observe handling at the time of importation.
Filovirus Testing Requirements: Those involved with the importation of foreign source primates and those with long established captive bred domestic colonies have found no correlation between "positive" titers now requiring extended quarantines or limiting the movement of animals within the U.S., and any type of clinical illness It has happened that different titers have been reported on the same serum samples, one of which would require extended quarantine and one not. No evidence has been presented to justify continued filovirus testing, as a disease prevention or diagnostic aid. No results have been published on findings, including the results of many samples collected in source countries from persons with years of exposure to primates. CDC should determine what the disposition of "positive" animals should be. A "positive" test only causes animals to remain two, three, or more quarantine periods or restricts movement into certain states With B-virus, a known human pathogen, control measures have focused on practical safe handling procedures, not antibody testing. There is also great confusion among our members and others, including physicians, as to what agent is the object of concern. Is it Ebola, Reston agent, Ebola-like, filovirus, or what? If there is any scientific justification for the requirements for filovirus testing of clinically healthy animals, this should be published and it should be continued If not, it should be removed as a requirement.
Confusion About Air Transportation: Importers have mentioned the problem of airlines refusing animals, due to CDC bans on shipment of the three designated species. Others have described problems with domestic shipments, due to airline confusion. Although CDC has maintained that there never was a ban on primate shipments, there was a period of time when it was impossible to import the three designated species. The term "ban" has come up frequently in dealing with various airlines. There is no distinction made by domestic carriers between quarantined and non-quarantined animals. We believe that the CDC should make every effort to clear up the confusion by sending a letter of information to all airlines, not just associations such as ATAA or IATA. Sending the airlines the initial information regarding the possibility of Ebola virus infection had the desired effect. Now, we believe that an update is due, clearly stating that there has been no scientific evidence of the suspected problem and that there is no ban on transporting these animals, nor has there ever been. The overlapping and sometimes confusing U.S. regulatory requirements, and the nearly total lack of reaction by other countries, are not clear to the airlines.
The second and third areas of concern are those that have most directly affected animal availability to end users and resulted in increased costs. These increased costs have been of particular concern to academic institutions that can't pass them on as can industrial users. Primate centers and NIH investigators report availability and cost factors delaying or stopping critical biomedical research projects. Conservative estimates indicate that the increased costs of primates, as a result of the CDC filovirus restrictions, could be as high as $12 million per year. Scarce funds for necessary research will be decreased by this amount.
Failure to Follow-Up: Nearly all members understand and most concur with the initial CDC reaction to what was, at the time, thought to be an Ebola disease threat to both humans and primates. The fourth, and most universal, concern by our membership was that of the CDC's failure to provide updates and information. Your interim "guidelines" clearly state that the new "guidelines" or regulations would be instituted after consultation with importers and carriers, yet it is our understanding that these new regulations are being worked on without requests for outside information or public comment. Nearly a year has passed since the special permit requirements were initiated. No evidence has been presented to justify continued filovirus testing; no results have been published on findings, if any, of a threat to the human population; no explanation of background titers in humans or primate colonies isolated for 50 years or more has been given; and, in general, no new information of any kind has been presented for nearly a year. We understand that government personnel have met to discuss future plans, but no information has been forthcoming. We believe that an update or perhaps another meeting for interested parties is warranted at this time, before new regulations are imposed. This could greatly reduce negative comments, as well as allow constructive suggestions from those most affected. We also believe that the CDC should use its national leadership role to work with state health departments to standardize procedures and requirements among all states.
In summary, there is a high level of frustration among our members due to the lack of information and the failure to relax stringent requirements when there is no longer a perception of a threat to human health from this potential primate disease. We urge you to take steps to resolve the issues we have raised (special permit, necessity and value of testing for antibodies, airline perception of animal bans, and publication of scientific information) by reopening the dialogue with the affected parties, by publishing updated guidelines for public comment, and by publishing scientific data accumulated over the past 15 months.
Thank you for your attention to this urgent matter. please contact me if you have any questions or require further information from our organization.
Paul W. Schilling, President of the Association of Primate Veterinarians, sent this letter, which we are reproducing with his permission, to William L. Roper, Director of the Centers for Disease Control, on May 9, 1991.
Author's address: P.O. Box 259, Summerland Key, FL 33042.
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Central Connecticut State University
The Psychology Department at Central Connecticut State University in New Britain, CT, anticipates two new faculty positions pending funding for Fall, 1991. The first is an Experimental Psychologist to teach undergraduate and graduate courses in Research Methods, Cognition, Learning and General Psychology. The second is a Developmental Psychologist to teach undergraduate and graduate courses in Developmental and General Psychology. Both positions require a Ph.D. in an appropriate area of Psychology and demonstrated active research. Send letter of application, resume, and names, addresses and telephone numbers of three references to Bradley Waite, Chair, Search Committee, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, CT 06050.
The Gorilla Foundation
Three full-time positions are available with this non-profit research foundation. One is for a research associate, to analyze and prepare for publication longitudinal comparative pedolinguistic data Applicants should possess an M.A. or Ph.D. in psychology, linguistics, or an allied field; extensive research and academic publication experience; an excellent command of the English language; computer literacy; and the ability to meet deadlines and work under pressure. A background in American Sign Language would be helpful. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Please send a letter of inquiry with resume and portfolio of work to Dr. Francine Patterson, Box 620-530, Woodside, CA 94062.
An experienced and an entry-level great ape keeper are also sought Responsibilities include care and maintenance of gorillas, food preparation, hands-on cleaning, data collection and tallying, record keeping, and general office work. The 40-hour work week includes both Saturday and Sunday. Applicants must be able to work closely and effectively with a variety of individuals, and must be alert, animaloriented, aware and perceptive of people as well as animals, hardworking, able to follow instructions, possessor of good judgment and initiative, and career-oriented. ASL experience is preferred but not required. Please send a letter of interest, resume, and salary requirements to Dr. Patterson at the address above.
Primate Foundation of Arizona
The Primate Foundation of Arizona has a position available as Assistant Colony Manager for their chimpanzee breeding colony. This person will work directly under the Colony Director, supervising and working with the caregivers. Chimpanzee experience and the ability to work well with others are required, while some computer experience is desirable. This person must have a negative T.B. skin test, negative hepatitis B surface antigen test, and evidence of a measles booster or natural disease prior to employment, and be willing to sign a 3-year contract. There are excellent benefits, and salary is negotiable. Send a letter of interest (with requested salary), resume, and three letters of reference to Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280 (an Equal Opportunity Employer).
The Digit Fund
The Digit Fund is dedicated to continuing the study and conservation of mountain gorillas and their habitat that was begun by the late Dr. Dian Fossey at the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda, Africa. It is now seeking a Director for the Center. This position will be open in November, 1991. The Director will supervise personnel studying mountain gorillas and biodiversity of the rain forest, as well as a Rwandan camp staff of 27 employees. Ph.D., French, and first aid training are preferred. Swahili would be helpful. This person will be responsible for maintaining: * Independent research * Efficient camp operations (including trackers, guards, and anti-poaching patrols). * Long-term data records * Accurate financial records and required reports (budget, inventory, U.S.A.I.D. reports). * Communications with Rwandan and U.S. government officials. * Close cooperation with the Digit Fund office in Colorado. Contract will be for one year, renewable for a second year, starting November 1991. By June 3, 1991, send a resume, three references, and a letter of application to The Digit Fund, 45 Inverness Drive East, Englewood, CO 80112, U.S.A.
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ASP R&D Committee
The American Society of Primatologists' Research and Development Committee will concentrate in the coming months on the problem of declining support for primate studies, which it sees due, in part, to steeply increasing costs mandated by new USDA regulations, the prevailing emphasis on molecular and submolecular research, declining understanding among funding agency review committees of the unique relevance of primate studies for human problems, and increasing pressures related directly and indirectly to lack of lay support. Suggested approaches include: (1) to compile statistics on the fate of primate research proposals over the past 3-5 years; (2) to produce guidelines for Executive Secretaries of funding agencies defining areas of investigation in which nonhuman primate use is uniquely relevant; and (3) to publish press releases of primate research having lay interest. The Committee would welcome comments and suggestions, to be sent to Doris Zumpe, Chair, R&D Committee, Dept. of Psychiatry, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-894-5947]. -- From the ASP Bulletin, March, 1991, 5.
Monkeys Listed as Endangered
Four species of snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus) have been listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as endangered (see this Newsletter, 1990, 29, 16). All four are on Appendix I of CITES. Only about 10,000 to 15,000 R. roxellana, 600 to 800 R. bieti, 200 to 670 R. brelichi, and 880 R. avunculus are thought to survive. The range and numbers of all four species have declined substantially in recent years, primarily due to habitat loss and modification. Slash- and-burn agriculture in particular has destroyed much of the forests where the monkeys occur. Hunting of the monkeys for food, pelts, and medicinal purposes also has contributed to their decline. --From the Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, 1990, 15 , 12.
"Suitcase for Survival"
The Fish and Wildlife Service, World Wildlife Fund, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and American Association of Zoological Parks & Aquariums are sponsoring a new project to show young people ways in which they can help save endangered species by being environmentally educated consumers. American Tourister, Inc., donated 40 large suitcases, which have been filled with educational material, slides, and confiscated wildlife products, such as elephant tusks, spotted cat skins, and a startling array of tourist souvenirs fashioned from other wildlife parts. The suitcases will be loaned to zoos across the nation, where workshops will be conducted for local teachers, who may then borrow a "Suitcase for Survival" for classroom use. -- From the Endangered Species Technical Bulletin, 1990, 15, 3.
Silver Spring Monkey Ruling
Activists have won a battle in their 10-year-old war with the federal government over the "Silver Spring" monkeys. In a 8-0 ruling on May 20, the Supreme Court said PETA, the International Primate Protection League, and other organizations have the right to sue in Louisiana courts in attempts to obtain custody of the 2 remaining monkeys located at Tulane.
The 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals was wrong, said the Supreme Court, in a 1988 decision not allowing PETA, et al., to sue for custody. That ruling allowed the government to kill three of the monkeys for research purposes. An additional 2 macaques were killed last month.
The 17 were seized in 1981 from a NIH funded private facility in Silver Spring, MD. Currently 2 are housed at Delta and 5 others are living at the San Diego Zoo. Ten died naturally or were killed.
Justice Marshall said the 5th Circuit court was wrong in its ruling because the NIH, in this case, could remove a suit from state to federal court. The law states that only a federal "official" can do that, and the NIH is not an "official; it is an agency.
But the show isn't over. PETA will continue a custody battle, while the Supreme court did not rule whether Tulane could, on a technical issue, remove the case to federal court, rather than state court. -- From Animal Bytes News, an electronic news list.
Lawsuit Dismissed, Again
J. Moor-Jankowski, Director of the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP) of NYU Medical Center, reports that his legal "battle" with Immuno AG, over whether a letter which was published in the Journal of Medical Primatology was libelous, finally appears to be at an end. The case was dismissed by the New York Appellate Division -- First Department in January, 1989; on appeal by the plaintiff, a seven-judge panel of the New York Court of Appeals affirmed that dismissal in December, 1989. Subsequently, The United States Supreme Court remanded the case back to the N.Y. Court of Appeals for reconsideration in light of a June 1990 decision in Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co. that opinion should not be considered a "defamation-free zone." That ruling states that expressions of opinion that might include or imply false statements about someone should be examined by the court to see if they are libelous. In January, 1991, the N.Y. Court of Appeals reconfirmed its 1989 decision, again unanimously, based not only on the First Amendment, but also on the New York State Constitution, which states that "every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish...sentiments on all subjects." On June 3, 1991, the Supreme Court refused, without comment, to hear Immuno's appeal, apparently ending the dispute, which began when the letter, from Shirley MacGreal of the International Primate Protection League, was published in 1983. Amicus curiae briefs supporting Dr Moor-Jankowski were filed not only by the New York Civil Liberty Union, numerous environmental and animal welfare groups, and many news organizations (including the N.Y. Times, the three major broadcasting networks, and Time Inc. Magazine Company), but also by ten New York State colleges and universities. --See this Newsletter, 1989, 28 2], 17, for more details about this case.
Morrison at ADAMHA
Dr. Adrian Morrison of the University of Pennsylvania, has recently been named Director, Office of Animal Research Issues in the Office for Science at the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA). Dr. Morrison is on a 2 year leave from the University of PA.
James A. Porter, 1923-1991
Dr. James A. Porter, a primatologist and longtime consultant for the Monkey Jungle, Miami, Florida, died February 15 of cancer. Dr Porter received his D.V.M. degree from Kansas State University in 1944, and also earned a master's degree in public health at Tulane in 1961 and a doctorate in veterinary science parasitology at the University of Illinois in 1965. In 1965 he was part of a research team in Panama studying malaria, in charge of the mosquito and primate colonies. In 1970 he moved to Miami, where he ran a primate import and export company and opened an animal clinic in Perrine. For the past 10 years, he has been the consulting veterinarian for the Monkey Jungle, conducting daily checks on the 500 monkeys there. Dr. Porter's third book, "Monkey Doctor," will appear next year from Iowa State University Press. Dr. Porter is survived by his wife, Marian, two daughters, a son, a granddaughter, and two sisters.
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Cano Palma Field Station
Cano Palma Station consists of approximately 750 acres on the northeast Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Three species of primates, howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), and spider (Ateles geoffroyi) monkeys inhabit the region. The station is affiliated with the Canadian Organization for Tropical Education and Rain Forest Conservation (COTERC), a non-profit organization which seeks to maintain a preserve of intact tropical ecosystems for study, and promote conservation by encouraging research and other nondestructive uses of the rain forest. For information on visiting this region for study of primatology, ecology, or conservation, contact COTERC, Box 335, Pickering, P.O., Canada L1V 2R6 [416-683-2116; FAX: 416-427-1828], or York University, Faculty of Environmental Studies, c/o Marilyn Cole, Lumbers Building, 4700 Keele St., Downsview, P.O., Canada M3J 1P3. --From the ASP Bulletin, June 1991.
Visits to Foreign Centers of Excellence
The Program for Long and Medium Term Visits in Foreign Centers of Excellence promotes the progress of science and technology by establishing bases for continuing collaborative research relationships between the science and engineering communities of the U.S. and all other countries. Awards will be made for research in any field of science normally supported by NSF, including biological, behavioral and social sciences. The program is directed toward post-doctoral scientists and engineers who have held a Ph.D. less than 6 years. Candidates must be citizens or nationals of the U.S. who have earned a doctoral degree in science or engineering or its equivalent, prior to the beginning of the exchange visit. The period of the exchange visit should be between six and twelve months. Awardees will receive travel expenses plus a monthly stipend of up to $3,000 for up to 12 months, with a monthly allowance of $150 for the spouse and each of two dependent children. All elements being equal, preference will be given to those applicants with no previous international research experience as well as from underrepresented groups within the US scientific and engineering community. Deadline for application is November 1 annually. For more information, contact: Russell Sveda, Program Manager, International Division, NSF, 1800 G Street, NW Washington, DC 20550 [202-357-7554; e-mail: email@example.com].
Nominations are invited for an annual Award for working scientists from all disciplines who make outstanding contributions to public understanding of science and technology, but are not members of the media. The award, which is sponsored by the Westinghouse Foundation and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, will be presented during the AAAS Annual Meeting in Chicago, Illinois, 6-11 February 1992. The deadline for nominations is 1 August, 1991. For additional information contact Patricia S. Curlin, Administrator of the Award, AAAS Committee on Public Understanding of Science and Technology, 1333 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 [202-326-6602].
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James L. Curl, CEAR, Northwestern Univ., Searle 15-582, 320 E Superior St., Chicago, IL 60611.
Frances M. Doepel, Div. of Veterinary Resources, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016960, Miami, FL 33101.
John Ely, Dept. of Biology, Trinity Univ., 715 Stadium Dr., San Antonio, TX 78284.
Steven G. Gilbert, Dept. of Environmental Health SC-34, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
James Ha, Washington RPRC SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
Charles R. Hamilton, Human Anatomy, College of Medicine, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843-1114.
R. M. Letscher, American Cynamid, MRD - Animal Research, Pearl River, NY 10965.
Scott Line, Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 300 South Hawthorne Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27103.
Diane MacIntyre, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Forbes Quad., Pittsburgh, PA 15260.
Dr. Mahouy, Hopital St-Louis, 1 rue Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France.
Shannon Pinkston, 650 South Ave. E., Missoula, MT 59801.
D. M. Stark, Exec. Director, Vet. Sciences/Pharmaceutical Res., Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., P.O. Box 4000, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000.
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The Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos (C.A.U.Z.) is an information Network of more than 635 scientists and educators from more than 300 zoos, aquariums, colleges and universities, nature centers, foundations, governmental agencies, etc., in 14 countries. The 1990-91 C.A.U.Z. Directory, numbering 133 pages, contains useful information on the interests and projects of people in the Network People are listed by interests in specific groups of animals, by general interests, by expertise in various fields, etc. The Directory also lists the name, address, phone number and BITNET/INTERNET address (if any) for members. The directory ($15) and membership information is available from Dr. Donna Hardy, C.A.U.Z. Network Coordinator, Dept. of Psychology, California State Univ. Northridge, Northridge, CA 91335.
James Ha, of the Washington RPRC, and editor of the Animal Behavior Society Electronic Newsletter, encourages his readers (and ours) "to register with C.A.U.Z. and support them in their effort to increase communication between academicians and the aquarium/zoo people who have practical applications for much of our research. In return, many of us have potential research projects appropriate for zoo situations, have had students who were interested in applied animal behavior, or use zoos and aquariums in our teaching. I have assisted with zoo research projects and can testify first-hand that most zoo staff are eager for closer ties to animal behavior experts. I think that this is an area in which ABS members can have a strong impact on animal welfare, education, and research opportunities." Jim urges those who share his interests in conservation to join the C.A.U.Z. Network and to tell their colleages about this project.
Slow Loris Care
Danielle Dodenhoff would appreciate information on substrates, sleeping quarters, and furnishings used to house the slow loris, Nyc ticebus coucang. Photos and sketches would be appreciated. Contact Danielle c/o Dr. A. I. Roest, Biological Science Dept., Cal Poly State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. -- from the AAZPA Newsletter, March, 1991.
Databases List Japanese Researchers
The Japanese science databases known as NACSIS have recently been expanded to include a listing of 130,000 Japanese reseachers. The Directory of Researchers lists researchers (including resident foreigners) affiliated with Japanese universities, by name, date of birth, university affiliation, education and degrees, organizational membership, and areas of specialization and gives up to three research themes and representative publications. All entries appear in both the Japanese and English languages.
The NACSIS electronic databases can all be searched by computer The new database will serve not only the inquirer who has the name of a Japanese researcher and would like to learn of his principal works or other research interests, but also the researcher who knows no one in Japan but would like to find out who there is doing work in a given field. In addition, new databases have been added, indexing abstracts of papers presented at meetings of Japanese academic societies, including medicine and dentistry.
Those interested in having a search of the NACSIS databases done, at no charge, may contact the NACSIS operator [202-357-7278] between the hours of 1 and 4 p.m., EST, on weekdays or may send messages by electronic mail to firstname.lastname@example.org (InterNet) or nacsis@nsf (BITNET).
Full details on all thirteen NACSIS databases, as well as NSF's offerings of support for research in Japan, may be found in NSF's Japan Program announcement, NSF 90-144. Order copies by mail from NSF's Publications Unit, Room 232, NSF, Washington, D.C. 20550; by calling (202) 357-3619; or by e-mail to email@example.com (InterNet) or pubs@nsf (BITNET).
Scott Carter of the Sedgewick County Zoo is surveying observed or presumed gestational length in Ateles sp. If you have such information, please contact Scott at the Zoo, 5555 Zoo Blvd., Wichita, KS 67212 [316-942-2213; FAX: 316-942-3781]. -- From the PSIC New Listings, June 10, 1991.
Electronic Discussion Forum
The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center at the University of Wisconsin -- Madison has announced the availability of a new mail server list called primate-talk. primate-talk is an open forum for the discussion of primatology and related subjects. This list is open to electronic mail users world-wide with an interest in primatology Subject matter may include, but is not limited to:
People with Internet, BITNET or UUCP addresses can communicate with primate-talk. Users of other networks should contact the WRPRC If you are interested in joining primate-talk, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org stating that you would like to sign on. If you have questions about electronic access to the list, you may call Larry Jacobsen, Head of Library Services at the WRPRC Library, (608) 263-3512, or FAX at (608) 263-4031. You may also write to the WRPRC Library, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA.
The American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) has produced a brochure briefly describing the Association and explaining the value of accreditation. For a free copy, contact AAALAC at 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814 [301-564-5111].
A new publication entitled Preparation and Maintenance of Higher Mammals During Neuroscience Experiments is now available at no charge to interested parties. It is a report of a workshop sponsored by the National Eye Institute in June, 1989, and is intended to serve as a resource to assist researchers, veterinarians and institutional animal care and use committees in interpreting and implementing current animal care and use laws, policies, and guidelines. To obtain a copy, please contact Michael D. Oberdorfer, Ph.D., National Eye Institute, Building 31, Room 6A47, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5301; FAX: 301-402-0528].
Biomedical Research Technology Resources
The eighth revised edition of the "Biomedical Research Technology Resources" directory is now available from NIH. The Biomedical Research Technology Program promotes the application of the latest technological advances to research problems through a variety of grant and contract mechanisms. Qualified biomedical scientists are encouraged to take advantage of the unique capabilities made available by the resources listed in this directory, NIH Publication No. 90-1430 Single copies are available free, from the Research Resources Information Center, 1601 Research Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850 [301-251-4970].
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ADAMHA Small Grant Program
The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) Small Grant Program provides research support of up to $50,000 per year for up to 1 year (direct costs) in support of research in any scientific area relevant to mental health or to drug or alcohol abuse Priority is given to * newer, less experienced investigators; * investigators at institutions without well-developed research tradition and resources; * more experienced investigators for exploratory studies which represent a significant change in research direction for them; * more experienced investigators for testing new methods or techniques For more information, inquire at the Division of Research Grants, NIH, Westwood Building, Room 240, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Arthritis Foundation Research Program
Arthritis Foundation research awards, including postdoctoral fellowships, arthritis investigator awards, medical student research awards, doctoral dissertation awards, new investigator grants, and arthritis biomedical science grants, offer an opportunity for physicians, scientists, medical students, and nonphysician health professionals to conduct research projects and receive research training in arthritis-related fields. The deadline for all applications for awards beginning July 1, 1992, is September 1, 1991. Please discard any application forms you have and order new ones. Many changes have been made for the 1992 year. For more information contact the Arthritis Foundation, Research Department, 1314 Spring Street, N.W., Atlanta, GA 30309.
Alan T. Waterman Award
Congress established the Alan T. Waterman Award in August 1975 to mark the 25th anniversary of the National Science Foundation and to honor its first Director. The annual award recognizes an outstanding young researcher in any field of science or engineering supported by the National Science Foundation. In addition to a medal, the person selected receives grants of up to $500,000 for up to three years of scientific research or advanced study in the medical, biological, social, behavioral, or other sciences at an institution of the recipient's choice. Candidates must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents and must be 35 years old or younger, or not more than five years beyond receipt of the Ph.D. degree by December 31 of the year in which they are nominated. Candidates should have completed sufficient scientific or engineering research to have demonstrated outstanding capability and exceptional promise for significant future achievement. In addition, their research should exhibit quality, innovation, and the potential for new discoveries. The deadline date for receipt of nominations is December 31, 1991. Contact Susan E. Fannoney, Executive Secretary, the Alan T. Waterman Award Committee [202-357-7512] for nomination forms.
Neurological Basis of Cognition
The Division of Fundamental Neurosciences of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), encourages the submission of research grant applications dealing with the neurological basis of cognitive processes. Research areas may include, for example: * neurophysiological and noninvasive neuropsychological research on nonhuman primates engaged in language-relevant communication, including the use of numbers; and * neurophysiological measures obtained from nonhuman primates engaged in repetitive event-related activities. Certain theories about brain function during event-related potentials might profitably be tested in primates or other nonlissencephalic animals. Noninvasive methods could be used with the more rare and endangered species.
Receipt dates for new research project grant and first award applications are February 1, June 1, and October 1. Applications for research grants may be made by public or private for-profit or nonprofit organizations, such as universities, colleges, hospitals or laboratories, units of State or local government, or authorized units of the Federal Government. Women and minority investigators, in particular, are encouraged to apply. For further information, and for program project guidelines, potential applicants are encouraged to call or write to: Herbert C. Lansdell, Ph.D., Div. of Fundamental Neurosciences, NINDS, Federal Building, Room 916, 7550 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5745].
ONR Young Investigator Program
The Office of Naval Research is seeking applications to support young scientists and engineers who show exceptional promise for doing creative research in fields including biological, cognitive and neural sciences. The deadline for applications is December 17, for about 14 awards of $75,000 a year for three years. Applicants must be U.S citizens in tenure-track positions at U.S. universities and colleges and must have received their graduate degrees on or after December 1 For more information, contact Special Programs Office, Office of Naval Research, Code 11SP, 800 N. Quincy St., Arlington, VA 22217, [703-696-4108].
Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields
The National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) invite grant applications for basic studies on the effects of electric and magnetic fields. Increasingly, scientists, regulators and lay people are asking whether human exposure to these fields involves risks to human health. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) cause biological effects in human beings, in laboratory animals, and in cells and tissues from humans and animals. However, the extant literature does not provide a basis for assessing the risks, if any, from exposure to these fields. This announcement is issued to encourage and foster investigator-initiated basic and applied research on the possible health effects of EMF. Collaborative research efforts among toxicologists, physicists, engineers, and scientists in closely related disciplines are encouraged to ensure quality in all aspects of the proposed study.
Inquiries should be directed to: Dr. Michael J. Galvin, Program Administrator, Scientific Programs Branch, Div. of Extramural Research and Training, NIEHS, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 [919-541-7825]; Dr. Eugene Streicher or Dr. W. Watson Alberts, Div. of Fundamental Neurosciences, NINDS, Federal Building, Room 916, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5745]; or Dr. Felix de la Cruz, Chief, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Branch, NICHHD, EPN, 631, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1383].
NSF Research Grants
The goals of the Division of Behavioral and Neural Sciences of the National Science Foundation are to advance understanding of the biological, environmental, and cultural factors that underlie the behavior of human begins and animals, with explicit emphasis on nervous system structure and function. Clinical research is not supported although other applied research may be considered. July 15, 1991,if the deadline is for submission of applications in the following program areas: Neuroscience; Biological Basis of Behavior, Language, Cognition, and Social Behavior. Contact Dr. Nathanial G. Pitts, Acting Division Director, Div. of Behavioral and Neural Sciences, NSF, 1800 G. Street NW, 20550 [202-357-7564].
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Dr. Rich Rawlins and Dr. Marcos Aurelio F. Malacco of the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Rodovia, Brasil, have compiled a list of equipment and supplies that are needed at Dr. Malacco's facility. Contact Dr. Rawlins (Dept. OB/GYN, Rush Medical Center, 1653 W. Congress Pkwy, Chicago, IL 60612) for a copy of the list, if you think you or anyone you know might be able to donate. -- From the ASP Bulletin, 1990, 14 .
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*Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe.
Jane Goodall. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1990. 268 pp. [Price:
. . Goodall relates the life histories of the chimpanzees in the Kasakela community, tracing influences on individuals' development, such as the quality and style of their mothers' care and various historical events (e.g. the polio epidemic, the four-year war with the Kahama community, the cannibalism of Passion and Pom). One particularly interesting chapter describes the social relations between the Kasakela chimps and the troop of baboons sharing their range. The title comes from Goodall's belief that only with detailed knowledge of their lives can we see the world through the eyes of chimpanzees and, through this same "glass, darkly," glimpse the origins of human behavior and understand the uniqueness of our humanity. The book has many excellent photographs, some in color.
*Patterns of Injury and Illness in Great Apes: A Skeletal Analysis.
N. C. Lovell. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990. 273
pp. [Price: $39.95]
. . Descriptions and analyses of pathological conditions of the skeletons (and dentition) of 49 common chimpanzees, 50 lowland gorillas, 35 mountain gorillas, 29 Bornean orangutans, and 17 Sumatran orangutans, collected since 1904 and housed at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. Patterns of pathological conditions are consistent overall with the literature findings for skeletal and living populations of apes, and with known behavioral patterns. Results suggest that illness and injury may be many times more important than predation as selective factors, both instrumentally and incidentally, since injury or chronic infectious disease may result in a level of morbidity which predisposes the affected animal to death by other means, such as predation.
*Animal Models in AIDS. H. Schellekens & M. Horzinek (Eds.) New York:
Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1990. 400 pp. [Price $114.50]
. . Papers from an International TNO Meeting, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 23-26 October 1989.
*Field Study Techniques for Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1970-1991. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991 33 pp. (380 citations, primate & geographic indexes) [Price: $10 Stock #91-001. Send order to Primate Information Center, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195].
*Behavioral Observations of Feral Marmosets and Tamarins (Callitrichidae): A Bibliography, 1980-1991. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991. 18 pp. (217 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50. Stock #91-002. Ordering information as above].
*Behavioral Observations of Feral and Free-Ranging Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata): A Bibliography, 1983-1991. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991. 13 pp. (168 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50. Stock #91-003. Ordering information as above].
*Behavioral Observations of Feral and Free-Ranging Prosimians: A Bibliography, 1983-1991. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991. 13 pp. (168 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50 Stock #91-004. Ordering information as above].
*Behavioral Observations of Feral Gorillas: A Bibliography (Third edition). J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991 n pp. (233 citations, species index) [Price: $6.50. Stock #91-005 Ordering information as above].
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
*Science, Medicine, and Animals. Committee on the Use of Animals in
Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991. 30 pp
[Price: $5, single copy; $4, 2-9 copies; $2.50, 10+ copies]
. . A position paper from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine, intended chiefly to provide educators with "information to use in forming...opinion(s) and in explaining to others the reasons for (animal) research."
*Decade of Dedication. Tenth anniversary report of the National Association for Biomedical Research. [NARB, 818 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006].
*Primate Report, No. 29, January 1991. [Published in cooperation
with the German Primate Center (DPZ). Price: $8]
. . This issue contains a special report on Primatology in Eastern European Countries, which includes nine articles from Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, and eastern Germany. There are also selected proceedings of the first Congress of the Gesellschaft für Primatologie.
*Environmental Enrichment: Advancing Animal Care. 35 min. [Price: $40. Order from Universities Fed. for Animal Welfare, 8 Hamilton Close, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts. EN6 3QD, England].
*The brachial plexus in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus pygerythrus). Booth, K. K. (Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy, P.O. Box 217, MED-UNSA 04, South Africa). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 23-28.
. . Documentation of the structure and branching pattern of this nerve plexus in 10 embalmed, mature animals. The quadrupedal and bipedal abilities of the vervet monkey were reflected in the structure of its brachial plexus.
*Morphology and variability of masticatory structures in the orangutan. Winkler, L. A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, P.O. Box 287, Titusville, PA
16354). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 45-65.
. . Individual differences, age-related changes, and comparisons with humans, other apes, and other animals are discussed, based on examination of the masticatory structures of 10 orangutans of various ages.
*Neonatal hypoglycemia in the rhesus monkey: Effect on development and
behavior. Schrier, A. M., Wilhelm, P. B., Church, R. M., Povar, M
L., Schrier, J. E., Sehgal, P. K., Boylan, J. M., Schwartz, R., &
Susa, J. B. (J. B. S., Dept. of Pediatrics, Rhode Island Hospital, 593
Eddy St., Providence, RI 02903). Infant Behavior and Development,
1990, 13, 189-207.
. . Ten hours of hypoglycemia resulted in motivational and adaptability problems that made it impossible for some animals to learn even the simplest tasks but, when provided with additional attention and adequate motivation, these experimental animals performed as well as controls in tests designed to measure cognitive ability.
*High-density lipoprotein response to 5-alpha-dihydro-testosterone and
testosterone in Macaca fascicularis: A hormone-responsive primate
model for the study of atherosclerosis. Greger, N. G., Insull, W. Jr.,
Probstfield, J. L., & Keenan, B. S. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of
Nebraska Medical Center, 600 S. 42nd St., Omaha, NE 68918-5180)
Metabolism, 1990, 39, 919-924.
. . Study of two animals suggests that the reduction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in response to testosterone can occur without further metabolism of the androgen. The benefits and side effects of therapeutic intervention with antiandrogens could be studied in such a model.
*Can atherosclerotic plaques regress? Anatomic and biochemical evidence from nonhuman animal models. Wissler, R. W. & Vesselinovitch, D
(Dept. of Pathology, Box 414, Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637). American Journal of Cardiology, 1990, 65, 33F-40F.
. . A review of recent studies showing that advanced, eccentric, largely intimal lesions produced in the rhesus monkey are substantially reversible, and the much more inflammatory, concentric, and often transmural atheroarteritis induced by the same atherogenic ration in the cynomolgus monkey is much more resistant to effective and beneficial regression. This appears to be due to the circulating immune complexes that participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in cynomolgus monkeys, as well as possibly in a number of humans.
*The great Silver Spring monkey debate. Carlson, P. The Washington
Post Magazine, February 24, 1991, 14-19, 28-31.
. . A history of the Silver Spring monkeys, PETA, and "the groundbreaking and controversial battle between the animal research and animal rights communities."
*Storm over primate housing standards. (IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484) IPPL Newsletter, 1990, 17, 7-27.
. . A selection of 74 letters and excerpts from moderates and extremists on all sides of the debate about standards legislation.
*Dyadic and triadic reconciliation in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Judge, P. G. (WRPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI 53715)
American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 23, 225-237.
. . Affiliation rates following aggression increased between combatants and their opponents, aggressors and the kin of their opponents, and aggressors and their own kin. Aggression among kin was reconciled more often than among nonkin. Victims reconciled with their attackers more often than the other way around, and animals with similar dominance ranks reconciled more often than those with large rank disparities Pigtail macaques exhibit a moderate-to-high conciliatory tendency compared to other primate species.
*Stability of social status rankings of female cynomolgus monkeys, of
varying reproductive condition, in different social groups. Shively,
C. A. & Kaplan, J. R. (Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray
School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27103). American Journal of
Primatology, 1991, 23, 239-245.
. . Correlations between social status rankings of individual females while living in different social groups were positive and significant Most females were either stable dominants or stable subordinates in 75% of the groups in which they lived. This and previous studies indicate that the social status of an individual is the result of both the immediate social environment and some inherent characteristic(s) of the individual.
*Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta): A multiple video-task assessment. Washburn, D. A
& Rumbaugh, D. M. (Dept. of Psychology, Language Research Center,
Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA 30303). Journal of Comparative
Psychology, 1991, 105, 145-151.
. . Adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and these effects can be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.
*Non-kin alliances, and the stability of matrilineal dominance relations in Japanese macaques. Chapais, B., Girard, M., & Primi, G.
(Dépt. d'anthropologie, Univ. de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, PQ H3C
3J7, Canada). Animal Behaviour, 1991, 41, 481-491.
. . In a captive group composed of 3 unrelated matrilines, any member of the 2 dominant matrilines was unable, individually, to maintain its rank above the third-ranking matriline, but was able to do so in the presence of the other dominant matriline. Non-kin alliances appear to prevent subordinate females from challenging higher ranking females through revolutionary coalitions (among subordinates) or through bridging coalitions (among those ranking above and below the target).
*Homosexual incest avoidance among females in captive Japanese
macaques. Chapais, B. & Mignault, C. (Address same as above). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 23, 171-183.
. . In a captive group including 3 matrilines and 2 generations, between 8 and 11 females were sexually active over 4 consecutive mating seasons, and all engaged in both heterosexual and homosexual activity. While all females performed homosexual acts with almost all possible non-kin partners, they avoided homosexual interactions with their mother, daughters, and sisters. In contrast, heterosexual pairs of relatives were sometimes incestuous. This suggests that males are primarily responsible for the reported exceptions to incest avoidance.
*Female-male social interactions in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys:
Benefits and costs of group living. O'Brien, T. G. (Dept. of Ecology &
Evolutionary Biology, Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544). Animal
Behaviour, 1991, 41, 555-567.
. . Analysis of the relative importance of male and female dominance rank, age, and other socio-demographic variables to female-male social interactions in a wild population of Cebus olivaceus, in Venezuela.
*Urine washing in brown Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): Testing
social and nonsocial hypotheses. Roeder, J.-J. & Anderson, J. R. (Lab
de Psychophysiologie, Univ. Louis Pasteur, URA 1295, 7 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 24, 55-60.
. . Observational data over a 16-month period showed rates of urine washing (UW) not varying with age, aggression, exposure to mirror images, cleanliness of hands, or an unfamiliar environment. UW occurred more frequently in high temperatures and during sunny periods, suggesting a possible role in thermoregulation.
*Visual encounters between families of cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus
oedipus. Moore, K., Cleland, J., & McGrew, W. C. (Scottish Primate
Research Group, Psychology Dept., Univ. of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA,
Scotland). Primates, 1991, 32, 23-33.
. . Five families of cotton-tops in a laboratory colony were allowed to watch each other through a peephole. Parents looked more at neighbors than did offspring, older offspring looked more than younger, females looked more than males, perhaps implying monitoring of potential candidates for mate-recruitment or resource-acquisition, or for defense against outsiders.
*Greeting behaviour in male baboons, I: Communication, reciprocity and
symmetry. Colmenares, F. (Dept. de Psicología Evolutiva, Univ. Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain). Behaviour, 1990, 113, 81-116
. . An examination of the nature and function of one type of nonagonistic interaction, recorded over a period of 9 years between 20 male members of a well-established zoo colony. Greeting in baboons is an example of a non-stereotyped behavior, in which relational and interactional properties can be studied, and in which all the traditional ethological issues of causation, development, function, and evolution can be addressed.
*Tool use by wild cebus monkeys at Santa Rosa National Park, Costa
Rica. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (CPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA
95616). Primates, 1990, 31, 375-383.
. . 300 hours of observation on 21 wild capuchins yielded 31 incidents of tool use, of 8 different types. Results suggest that Cebus and the great apes have followed a parallel evolutionary development of tool-using capacity.
*Cultural transmission of snake-mobbing in free-ranging Hanuman langurs. Srivastava, A. (Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Jodhpur, Jodhpur
342001, India). Folia Primatologica, 1991, 56, 117-120.
. . Two instances of snake-mobbing were seen during about 4109 hours of observations.
*Homosexual behavior in nonhuman primates. Nadler, R. D. (Yerkes RPRC,
Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). In D. P. McWhirter, S. A. Sanders, &
J. M. Reinisch (Eds.), Homosexuality/Heterosexuality: Concepts of
Sexual Orientation (pp. 138-170). New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
. . A review of 78 articles suggests that homosexual behavior is pervasive, but varies in frequency among species and with respect to which sex participates, and as a function of developmental stage, endocrine and dominance status, experiential history and environmental conditions, including social, spatial, seasonal, temporal, and various other conditions of experimental testing. Despite the prevalence of homosexual behavior, there is no clear evidence of a homosexual preference in any adult nonhuman primate.
*Departure of juvenile male Presbytis entellus from the natal group
Mathur, R. & Manohar, B. R. (Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Rajasthan,
Jaipur, India 302 004). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 39-43.
. . Of 20 male juveniles observed in five bisexual groups, 11 left their natal groups, 4 died or disappeared, and 5 remained. The juveniles left only after a takeover by a new adult male.
*Mother-infant relationships in bonnet macaques: Sources of variation
in proximity. Silk, J. B. (Dept. of Anthropology, UCLA, Los Angeles,
CA 90024). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 21-38.
. . Infants that have several immature sisters present are initially more independent than infants with fewer sisters, but as they reach 6 months of age infants with several sisters become less independent This effect seems to be related to the fact that the members of families with several immature females are the targets of more aggression than are the members of other families.
*The effects of estrous cycling on agonism and wounding in multi-male
chimpanzee groups. Lambeth, S., Bloomsmith, M., & Alford, P. (UTMDACC
Science Park, Dept. of Veterinary Resources, Bastrop, TX 78602). The
Newsletter, 1991, 2 , 1-2.
. . Analyses of records of aggression, wounding, and the presence of estrous females for a large colony of chimpanzees. The presence of multiple estrous females may increase agonism, even in well-established groups, but other factors seem to be of greater importance in such groups.
*Assessing the effects of social environment on blood pressure and
heart rates of baboons. Coelho, A. M. Jr., Carey, K. D., & Shade, R
E. (Behavioral Medicine Lab., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical
Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 23, 257-267.
. . Cardiovascular physiology was monitored with a tether and catheter system. Individual housing resulted in lowered heart rates and elevated blood pressures relative to housing with a familiar companion Housing with strangers resulted in both elevated blood pressure and elevated heart rate, relative to the familiar companion situation.
*Effects of woodchips and buried food on behavior patterns and psychological well-being of captive rhesus monkeys. Byrne, G. D. & Suomi, S. J. (NIH Animal Center, Bldg. 112, Poolesville, MD 20837). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 23, 141-151.
. . Study of the effects of adding woodchip litter to bare-floored pens, burying monkey chow in the litter, and scattering sunflower seeds in the litter on 2 stable social groups. The woodchips increased exploration and feeding levels, and decreased social interactions Burying the chow increased exploration and decreased passivity somewhat. Sunflower seeds in the litter increased feeding and exploration and decreased passivity and social interaction. There were no effects on agonistic interactions, play, or abnormal behavior patterns, and little effect on urinary cortisol values.
*Responses of female rhesus macaques to an environmental enrichment
apparatus. Line, S. W., Clarke, A. S., Markowitz, H., & Ellman, G
(Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 300 S
Hawthorne Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27103). Laboratory Animal, 1990,
. . Whole blood serotonin (WBS), plasma cortisol, and abnormal behavior were measured in five monkeys before, during, and after a 20-week period in which the monkeys' cages were equipped with a box containing a radio and a food dispenser, which could be controlled by the monkeys via contact detectors. All monkeys used the device (three of the five subjects earned an average of more than 200 food pellets per day) Mean plasma cortisol and WBS did not differ across sampling times, suggesting that the apparatus had no effect on basal stress levels There was an inverse relationship between apparatus use and cortisol levels in 76% of the samples, but only 3 of 17 coefficients were significant. There was a significant but small negative correlation between apparatus use and self-abusive behavior.
*Construction of playgrounds for chimpanzees in biomedical research
Eichberg, J. W., Lee, D. R., Butler, T. M., Kelley, J., & Brent, L
(Dept. of Virology & Immunology, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical
Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1991, 20, 12-16.
. . Description of a 9000 sq. ft. playground, divided into 3 compounds to allow several groups of animals to utilize the area simultaneously Future plans include additional playgrounds to include animals infected with hepatitis and AIDS.
*Evaluation of a chimpanzee enrichment enclosure. Brent, L., Lee, D
R., & Eichberg, J. W. (Address same as above). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1991, 20, 29-34.
. . The playground described above was evaluated in terms of area use and behavior changes. Behavioral samples on 38 subjects in the original indoor-outdoor run and in the playground show that activity and environmental manipulation increased in the playground, while abnormal and self-directed behaviors decreased.
*Environmental enrichment for marmosets. Poole, T. B. (U.F.A.W., 8
Hamilton Close, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3QD, England)
Animal Technology, 1990, 41, 81-86.
. . Marmosets, like other higher primates, need companionship, adequate space with incorporated complexity, some unpredictability in the environment, and ways in which they can manipulate or control their environment.
*Avoiding undue stress: Catching individual animals in groups of laboratory rhesus monkeys. Reinhardt, V. (WRPRC, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715). Lab Animal, 1990, 19 , 52-53.
. . Animals are trained, using food rewards, to enter a holding area, and thence through a tunnel into a transfer cage.
*Advances in the management of primates kept for biomedical research
Sainsbury, A. W., Mew, J. A., Purton, P., Eaton, B. D., & Cooper, J.
E. (Inst. of Zoology, Zoological Soc. of London, Regents Park, London
NW1 4RY, England). Animal Technology, 1990, 41, 87-101.
. . Over the course of a year the welfare of a colony of Macaca fascicularis has been improved by a series of changes in housing coupled with modifications in their diet and a new system of chemical immobilization. Advances in managing Callithrix jacchus have been less far-reaching, but a prototype of a new housing system is being built, a number of studies are in progress aimed at enriching the environment, and a change in diet has been carried out.
*Gorilla-approved behavioral enrichment ideas. Woods, S. (Dept. of
Anthropology, Box 233, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309). Gorilla
Gazette, 1991, 5, 8-9.
. . Listing of dozens of items.
*The population viability assessment workshop: A tool for threatened
species management. Clark, T. W., Backhouse, G. N., & Lacy, R. C
(Dept. of Conservation Biology, Chicago Zoological Soc., Brookfield,
IL 60513). Endangered Species Update, 1990, 8, 1-5.
. . Description of a computer program, VORTEX, which simulates demographic and genetic events in the history of a small population, allowing a critical, quantitative analysis of extinction probabilities, as well as exploring management options to prevent species loss.
*A study of facial growth in the sooty mangabey Cercocebus atys.
O'Higgins, P., Bromage, T. G., Johnson, D. R., Moore, W. J., & McPhie,
P. (Morphometrics Lab., Dept. of Anatomy, Univ. of Leeds, School of
Medicine, Leeds LS2 9JT, W. Yorkshire, England). Folia Primatologica,
1991, 56, 86-94.
. . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that the distribution of depository and resorptive areas in Cercocebus closely parallels that which has been observed in Macaca. It is suggested that their different adult facial morphologies are the result of changes in the rates of remodelling events that may be coupled with different patterns of sutural growth (which could not be studied by SEM).
*Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae antibodies in Aotus l. lemurinus (Panamanian owl monkey) using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA) test. Obaldia, N. III (Gorgas Memorial Lab., Apdo. 6991, Zona
5, Panama, Panama). Laboratory Animals, 1991, 25, 133-141.
. . A cross-sectional prevalence study showed that no baby monkeys less than 2 months old had detectable levels of antibody. Antibody prevalence gradually increased in all other age groups, reaching 87.5% in the 8-10-month-old group. Infection with K. pneumoniae occurs sometime between 2 and 6 months of age, probably as a result of oral-fecal contamination and a change in feeding and grooming behavior.
*Gastric haemorrhage and perforation caused by a trichobezoar in a
baboon (Papio hamadryas). Gillin, A. G., Phippard, A. F., Thompson,
J. F., Harewood, W. J., Waugh, R. C., & Horvath, J. S. (Dept. of Renal
Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Rd., Camperdown
2050, Sydney, Australia). Laboratory Animals, 1990, 24, 180-182.
. . A large trichobezoar, composed of hair and clotted blood, was removed from a captive-bred male baboon which had showed severe evidence of blood loss and melena. There had been no evidence of excess grooming nor other behavioral pathology. It is important to consider trichobezoar when confronted with unexplained G.I. disturbances in primates, as the condition may be life-threatening if untreated.
*Immunization of chimpanzees confers protection against challenge with
human immunodeficiency virus. Girard, M., Kieny, M.-P., Pinter, A.,
Barre-Sinoussi, F., Nara, P., Kolbe, H., Kusumi, K., Chaput, A., Reinhart, T., Muchmore, E., Ronco, J., Kaczorek, M., Gomard, E., Gluckman, J.-C., & Fultz, P. N. (Inst. Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, 75015 Paris, France). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1991,
. . Sustained high titers of neutralizing antibodies were elicited in 3 chimpanzees after sequential injections of different HIV-1 antigen preparations derived from the HIV-1 BRU strain that included whole inactivated virus or purified recombinant proteins and then synthetic peptides identical to the major HIV-1 neutralizing epitope V3. The animals were challenged i.v. with HIV-1 IIIB isolate. After 6 mo of follow-up, all 3 animals appeared uninfected by serologic and virologic criteria. Of 2 animals monitored for 1 yr, virus was isolated initially from one animal at 32 weeks, but the second was virus negative by all assays through 12 mo; the third has remained virus negative through 9 mo of follow-up. These results indicate that it is possible to elicit protection against, or significantly delay infection of, HIV-1 by immunization, thus laying the foundation for development of an HIV-1 vaccine.
*Presence of antibody to Cyno-EBV in domestically bred cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Fujimoto, K. & Honjo, S. (Corp. for Production and Research of Laboratory Primates, 1 Hachimandai Tsukuba-shi, Ibaragi 305, Japan). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991,
. . The presence of antibody to this virus, related to Epstein-Barr virus, was studied in 186 domestically bred cynomolgus monkeys, ranging in age from birth to 18 years, and in 20 wild born animals, over 10 years of age. Maternal antibody persisted for less than 4 months after birth, while all animals over 1 year old were consistently positive.
*Antifilarial activity of intravenous suramin and oral diethylcarbamazine citrate on subperiodic Brugia malayi in the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata. Mak, J. W., Lam, P. L. W., Choong, M. F., & Suresh, K. (Inst. for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia). Journal of Helminthology, 1990, 64, 96-99.
. . Tests on 16 animals indicate that antifilarial activity of these drugs in leaf-monkeys is similar to that seen in man, but the results must be confirmed using larger groups.
*An epizootic of simian AIDS caused by SIV in captive macaques in the
1970's. Lowenstine, L., Lerche, N., Jennings, M., Marx, P., Gardner,
M., & Pedersen, N. (CPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95617-8542)
In M. Girard & L. Valette (Eds.), Retroviruses of Human A.I.D.S. and
Related Animal Diseases (pp. 174-176). Lyon: Fondation Marcel Merieux, 1988.
. . Between 1976 and 1978, a group of 54 Macaca arctoides at the California PRC experienced high mortality from lymphoma and unusual infectious diseases. Stored sera from those animals were tested by ELISA and Western blot, and frozen tissue was inoculated into a M. mulatta. A lentivirus (SIV/STM) was subsequently isolated from this animal. The results implicate SIV as the cause of the outbreak.
*Residential status and seasonal movements of wild orang-utans in the
Gunung Leuser Reserve (Sumatera, Indonesia). te Boekhorst, I. J. A.,
Schurmann, C. L., & Sugardjito, J. (Dept. of Comparative Physiology,
Univ. of Utrecht, Padualaan 14, Postbox 80.086, 3508TB LA Utrecht,
Netherlands). Animal Behaviour, 1990, 39, 1098-1109.
. . Data collected over 12 consecutive years are analyzed to study population structure and residential status.
*Baboons of the Amboseli basin: Demographic stability and change
Samuels, A. & Altmann, J. (Dept. of Conservation Biology, Chicago Zoological Soc., Brookfield, IL 60513). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 1-19.
. . Survey documenting the extent and persistence of the influx of anubis baboons into a predominantly cynocephalus community, and confirming continued demographic stability of the basinwide baboon population and even growth in groups that had access to better feeding conditions, despite decline of the baboons' preferred habitat and expansion of human activities into wildlife areas.
Genetics and Taxonomy
*Karyotypic study of four gibbon forms provisionally considered as
subspecies of Hylobates (Nomascus) concolor (Primates, Hylobatidae)
Couturier, J. & Lernould, J.-M. (CNRS, URA 620, Inst. Curie, Section
de Biologie, 26 rue d'Ulm, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France). Folia
Primatologica, 1991, 56, 95-104.
. . Report on a karyotypic study of individuals of 3 subspecies and hybrids among 4 subspecies. Each of the 4 subspecies appears to be distinguishable on the basis of its karyotype. These data do not allow us to identify a phylogenetic relationship between the subspecies because, with respect to the karyotypes, none occupies an ancestral position in comparison with the others.
*DNA "fingerprinting" and the genetic management of a captive chimpanzee population (Pan troglodytes). Ely, J., Alford, P., & Ferrell, R
E. (Dept. of Biology, Trinity Univ., 715 Stadium Dr., San Antonio, TX
78284). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 24, 39-54.
. . In 31 cases of unknown paternity where DNA samples for mother, offspring, and all potential sires were available, DNA fingerprinting with M13 bacteriophage resulted in the unambiguous assignment of paternity for all 31 infants. Knowledge of pedigrees among the captive born animals is used to address several issues important in the genetic management of captive breeding colonies, including estimation of effective population size and of the rate of decline in genetic variability, variance in male and female reproduction, and the effect of social dominance on male reproductive success.
Instruments & Techniques
*Ambulatory electrocardiography (Holter monitoring) in caged monkeys
Vogel, A. P., Jaax, G. P., Tezak-Reid, T. M., Baskin, S. I., & Bartholomew, J. L. (U.S.A.M.R.I.I.D., Fort Detrick, MD 21601). Laboratory
Animals, 1991, 25, 16-20.
. . A swivel-tethering and jacket system was used in conjunction with vinyl patch electrodes and Holter recorders to obtain continuous 24-hour ECG recordings in 12 rhesus monkeys for a 12 day study.
*Spectral sensitivity of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops
sabaeus) and the issue of catarrhine trichromacy. Jacobs, G. H.,
Neitz, J., Crognale, M. A., & Brammer, G. L. (Dept. of Psychology,
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106). American Journal of
Primatology, 1991, 23, 185-195.
. . Each of 12 subjects had two classes of cone pigment in the 540/640 nm portion of the spectrum, suggesting that this species has routine trichromatic color vision. Results of this study add support to the idea that there are fundamental differences in the genetic mechanisms underlying color vision in platyrrhine and catarrhine monkeys.
*Pubertal growth spurt in the female rhesus monkey: Relation to
menarche and skeletal maturation. Tanner, J. M., Wilson, M. E., & Rudman, C. G. (Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX
77225). American Journal of Human Biology, 1990, 2, 101-106.
. . Three-monthly measurements of nine indoor-housed and six outdoor-housed females, from 12 months of age to 41 months, indicate that the pubertal growth spurt in female rhesus is very little different from that in women.
*Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates. Wikler, K. C. & Rakic, P. (Section of Neuroanatomy, Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510). Journal of Neuroscience, 1990, 10, 3390-3401.
. . Photoreceptor-class-specific antibodies were used to compare ratio and distribution of cones and rods in the retinae of 3 primate species. Only the retina of the diurnal rhesus monkey possesses an all-cone foveola in which the density of cone inner segments was 17-fold greater than that in the fovea of the nocturnal owl monkey or bushbaby retina. The density of cones per unit area outside of the fovea was comparable in all 3 species. Rod density in the dorsal retina was elevated in all, but was 2-3 times greater in the nocturnal species than in the rhesus.
*Immunological response and ovarian histology of squirrel monkeys
(Saimiri sciureus) immunized with porcine zona pellucida ZP3 (Mr =
55,000) macromolecules. Sacco, A. G., Yurewicz, E. C., Subramanian, M
G., Lian, Y., & Dukelow, W. R. (Wayne State Univ., C. S. Mott Center, 275 E. Hancock Ave., Detroit, MI 48201). American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 24, 15-28.
. . Female squirrel monkeys were immunized with ZP3 using either Freund's adjuvant or muramyl dipeptide (MDP), and the effects on ovarian histology examined. Ovarian function recovery was consistently better in MDP-treated animals, indicating the importance of proper adjuvant selection in immunocontraceptive studies.
*Male age and reproductive behaviour in sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus
Torquatus atys. Gust, D. A. & Gordon, T. P. (Yerkes RPRC Field Station, 2409 Taylor Rd., Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Animal Behaviour, 1991, 41, 277-283.
. . This cross-sectional study shows an early onset of copulatory behavior in male mangabeys, with high rates of mounting throughout adolescence and lower rates, probably mediated by social factors, in nondominant sexually mature males.
*Testosterone changes during the period of adolescence in male rhesus
monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Bernstein, I. S., Ruehlmann, T. E., Judge,
P. G., Lindquist, T., & Weed, J. L. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of
Georgia, Athens, GA 30602). American Journal of Primatology, 1991,
. . Monitoring testosterone levels of 59 animals over 5 years revealed consistent rises in mid-morning levels of circulating hormone in successive years from age 2.5 to 6.5 years of age, but no significant differences among the older subjects. Extreme month-to-month variability and a failure to manifest the seasonal normal curve of fully adult males was characteristic of younger males, some of whom were nonetheless capable of fertilizing females. Although hormonal and agonistic dominance measures failed to show consistent correlations, the alpha male in an age cohort significantly more often had the highest testosterone levels.
*The evolution of monogamy in large primates: A new hypothesis and
some crucial tests. van Schaik, C. P. & Dunbar, R. I. M. (Dept. of Anthropology, Duke Univ., 3705 Erwin Rd., Durham, NC 27705). Behaviour, 1990, 115, 30-62.
. . Four hypotheses are evaluated and tested. It is suggested that the male's service consists primarily in protecting the female against infanticide by other males. To the extent that this can be tested with data currently available, the evidence supports this hypothesis. Perhaps infanticide avoidance is also repsonsible for the near-universal occurrence among primates of male-female bonds.
*Synchronization of the menstrual cycle through the use of an oral
progestin in the rhesus monkey. Pope, N. S. & Gould, K. G. (Yerkes
RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Theriogenology, 1990, 34, 133-137.
. . Four subjects were treated for 21 consecutive days with 0.044 mg/ kg/day of the oral progestin altrenogest. Before treatment, all subjects ovulated over a 6-d period; after, within a 4-d range, and 3 of the 4 ovulated within 24 hours of each other. This should be a sufficient degree of ovulation synchrony to allow successful embryo transfer between females.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
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Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
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Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover drawing of a drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) by Dr. Robert M. George, Department of Anatomy, University of South Carolina
Copyright @1991 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.