Laboratory Primate Newsletter

VOLUME 30 NUMBER 4 OCTOBER 1991

CONTENTS

Articles and Notes

The Relationship Between Kinship and Grooming in the Tanaxpillo Colony of Stumptail Macaques (Macaca arctoides), by K. R. Crooks & D. R. Rasmussen........1

Resistant Shigella in a Quarantined Group of Domestically Raised Macaca mulatta, by L. C. Olson........4

Perch Use by Macaca mulatta in Relation to Cage Location, by T. Woodbeck & V. Reinhardt........11

Weaning in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): As Assessed by an Easily Collected Measure, by J. Fritz, S. Menkhus Howell, H. Hogan, B. Nankivell, & L. Nash ........13

News, Information, and Announcements

Meeting Announcements........3
. . Implementation Strategies Conference; Second Gorilla Workshop; Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS

John Michael Warren, Jr. (1925-1991........6

Filovirus Update: From William L. Roper........9

Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques........10

Educational Opportunities........12
. . ICLAS Scholarships; Course in Lab Animal Science; Cardiovascular Seminar

Editors' Notes: Quantum Leap TV Show........17

Grants Available........18
. . Fogarty International Collaboration Awards; Conservation and Research; Maintenance of Chimps for Research

Travellers' Health Notes........19
. . Oral Rehydration Therapy, Cholera Update, Imported Dengue, Malaria Hotline Update

Information Requested and Available........20
. . International Directory of Primatology; Funding for Primate Research; Import-Export Regulations; Information on Black Howler Monkeys; Animals in Education and Science Materials, Primate Specialist Group Newsletter, Capture Study Survey; Macaca cyclopis Working Group, Hylobates Information; 1992 Assistantships and Internships

Joint Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists and the Asociacion Mexicana de Primatologia........22

News Brief: A Rwanda Update........22

Planned 1992 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology........23

Research Opportunities........23 AAAS Student Research Awards; Study at Monkey Jungle

Humorous photo and caption...... 16

Departments

Positions Available........17
. . University of Stirling, Scotland, University of Wisconsin at Madison

Recent Books and Articles ........24

Address Changes........30

Contents of Volumes 28-30........i

* * *

The Relationship Between Kinship and Grooming in the Tanaxpillo Colony of Stumptail Macaques (Macaca arctoides)

K. R. Crooks and D. R. Rasmussen
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Animal Behavior Research Institute, and University of California at Davis

Introduction

A colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) living on Tanaxpillo Island in Lake Catemaco, Mexico, forms a major tourist attraction in Veracruz State (Jolly & Rasmussen, 1991). More than 20 boats carrying tourists may visit the island each day. Grooming between pairs of individuals is one of the most frequently observed behavioral interactions. Grooming occurs throughout the entire Tanaxpillo colony, primarily within the central troop but occasionally includes peripheral adult males who live outside the troop. Providing information about patterns of social interactions to the public helps increase their appreciation of this important international research, conservation, and educational resource.

We have therefore analyzed the relationship between grooming and matrilineal kinship. We felt kinship might be strongly related to grooming in the Tanaxpillo colony as several generations of individuals have been born since its formation in 1974. The results of our analyses will be made available to the tourist boat operators and to educators whose students visit the colony.

Methods

Data Collection: Data were collected by observation teams composed of two to five undergraduates and a faculty member. One or two teams of observers collected data during each of three shifts on the island: 0600 to 1000 hours, 1000 to 1400 hours, and 1400 to 1800 hours. An observation team conducted 14 minute sampling sessions on an individual focal subject. Grooming between the focal subject and others was assessed with 1/0 sampling (Altmann, 1974) during the seven two-minute intervals in each 14 minute sampling session. The data base for the analyses reported here consists of 296 hours of focal sampled data collected on 32 days during a 49 day time span (June 26 to August 14, 1988). For a more complete description of observation methods, conditions, and schedule, see Rasmussen (1991). Videotapes of the observation methods and the colony may also be obtained from the library of the University of Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (Menendez et al., 1991).

Grooming Rate: There were 40 colony members alive during the summer of 1988, so grooming could occur between 780 dyads ([40*39]/2). The 1/0 rates of grooming per two-minute interval were calculated for all the 780 possible dyads by calculating the number of times an individual was observed to groom with each colony member during the focal samples.

Degree of Matrilineal Relatedness: We have used both published literature on the colony (Estrada & Estrada, 1984) as well as the carefully kept records provided to us by the University of Veracruz to establish the matrilineal relationships between all living colony members. We only have definite information on matrilineal relatedness. It was therefore necessary to make an assumption concerning paternal relatedness to calculate the Sewall-Wright's coefficient of relatedness (Wilson, 1975). We assumed that no siblings had the same father. Consequently, a degree of relatedness of .5 represents the relatedness of mother and child; .25 for half-siblings and grandmother/ grandoffspring; .125 for aunts/uncles and nephews/nieces; .0625 for first cousins; and .03125 for second cousins.

With the information on matrilineal relatedness and the assumption on paternal relatedness we calculated the degree of matrilineal relatedness between all 780 possible dyads.

Data Analysis: In this preliminary report we use purely descriptive and graphical statistical methods. A scatter diagram is used to graphically indicate the relationship between the ranked mean 1/0 rate of grooming for all dyads with the same ranked level of Sewall- Wright's coefficient of relatedness. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient is used to quantitatively describe the strength of the relationship between these two variables. This correlation coefficient is not tested for significance since each individual has its rate of grooming calculated for each of the 39 other colony members, and therefore each individual appeared in 39 dyads.

Results


                   +----------------------------------+
               G   |                                  |
               r  6|                             *    |
               o   |                                  |
            R  o  5|                   *              |
            a  m   |                                  |
            n  i  4|                        *         |
            k  n   |                                  |
               g  3|              *                   |
            o      |                                  |
            f  R  2|    *                             |
               a   |                                  |
               t  1|         *                        |
               e   |                                  |
                   +----------------------------------+
                        1    2    3    4    5    6

Rank of Sewall Wright's Coefficient of Relatedness

A correlation of +.89 was found between ranked mean grooming rate and ranked matrilineal relatedness for all the 780 possible dyads.

Discussion

The positive relationship we found between kinship and grooming in the Tanaxpillo colony of stumptail macaques is consistent with the results reported in many previous studies of macaques (Gouzoules & Gouzoules, 1988; Mehlman & Chapais, 1988; Koyama, 1991). Although kinship has not always been found to be associated with grooming (Thierry et al., 1990), we feel this result has been replicated a sufficient number of times to warrant telling the public who observe groups of macaques that kinship is a factor that often influences grooming between macaques.

Our results suggest that kinship is an important determinant of grooming interactions in a macaque colony. Many other factors have also been shown to be associated with the amount of grooming between pairs in primate groups: Previous housing experience is related to grooming rates (Rasmussen, in preparation). Unrelated individuals may groom each other during courtship and sexual interactions (Mehlman & Chapais, 1988; Schino et Hill, 1990). Individuals may groom others, particularly those who are of higher agonistic rank, who may help them to form politically advantageous alliances (Seyfarth, 1977). We will examine these and other factors in future analyses of the data collected on the Tanaxpillo colony of stumptail macaques.

References (1)

Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-265.

Estrada, A., & Estrada, R. (1984). Female-infant interactions among free-ranging stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Primates, 25, 48-61.

Gouzoules, S., & Gouzoules, H. (1988). Kinship. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies (pp. 299-305). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Hill, D. A. (1990). Social relationships between adult male and female rhesus macaques: II. Non-sexual affiliative behaviour. Primates, 31, 33-50.

Jolly, D. W. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). Use of islands for propaga tion of endangered species and ecotourism. American Journal of Primatology, 24, 110.

Koyama, N. (1991). Grooming relationships in the Arashiyama group of Japanese monkeys. In: L. M. Fedigan & P. J. Asquith (Eds.), The Monkeys of Arashiyama. Thirty-five Years of Research in Japan and the West (pp. 211-226). New York: State University of New York Press.

Mehlman, P. T., & Chapais, B. (1988). Differential effects of kinship, dominance and the mating season on female allogrooming in a captive group of Macaca fuscata. Primates, 29, 195-217.

Menendez, D., Guss, L., Nash, A. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). Logistics, set up and operation of a two year research project on the social ecology of stumptail macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 24, 122-123.

Rasmussen, D.R. (1991). Observer influence on range use of Macaca arctoides after 14 years of observation? Laboratory Primate Newsletter,30, 6-11.

Seyfarth, R. M. (1977). A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 65, 671-698.

Thierry, B., Gauthier, C., & Peignot, P. (1990). Social grooming in Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). International Journal of Primatology, 11, 357-375.

Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: A New Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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Authors' addresses: K. R. C., Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. D. R. R., Animal Behavior Research Institute, 314 S. Randall Ave., Madison, WI 53715.
Assistance was provided by Dr. J. Fa, Ms. L. Marsh, E. Rodriguez-Luna, D. Canales, the staff of the primate field station of the University of Veracruz and the 28 students in the observation teams. Dr. J. Ha and Ms. D. Menendez provided useful comments. Mr. L. Nash helped extract information on kinship in the colony from the literature and calculate the coefficients of relatedness. Support was provided by the School for Field Studies, the Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi, the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, the Patronato Pro-Universidad Veracruzana, A.C., NIMH National Research Service Award 1 F32 MH09419-01 RERA, NIH Grant RR00167, NSF Grants 880414 and 890080, and an NSF Graduate Fellowship. This is publication number 31-011 of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
(1)For brevity we have cited only a few of the numerous articles on this topic. Please refer to the references in each of the cited articles for more complete documentation.

* * *

Resistant Shigella in a Quarantined Group of Domestically Raised Macaca mulatta

Leonard C. Olson
East Carolina University School of Medicine

Case History

Our facility recently experienced a major outbreak of shigellosis due to Shigella flexneri in 12 juvenile rhesus macaques, part of a group of 16 animals supplied by a domestic source. Because the monkeys came from a domestic source, and because the laboratory findings indicated that a significant number of infected animals were resistant to common antibiotics, it should be a service to primate users to publish the relevant facts of the outbreak, and to mention some of the interesting comments that others(1) have shared with me (Table 1). I will also compile and share the results if readers would complete the questionnaire (2) at the end of this article and return it to me.

+-------------+-------------------+---------------------------+
|             |   Antibiogram(a)  | First Choice Antibiotic   |
|             |                   |                           |
|Veterinarian |S(b) C(c) Others(d)|  S     RS(e)   C    DUE(f)|
+-------------+-------------------+---------------------------+
|     1       |Y    Y      N      |  C(g)   C                 |
|     2       |N    N      N      |   C    EES(h)             |
|     3       |Y    Y      Y      | SXT(i)        ESE(j) By(k)|
|     4       |Y    N      Y      | SXTl    GM(m) EES         |
|     5       |Y    N      Y      | SXTl          EES         |
|     6       |N    N      N      | SXTl          EES         |
|     7       |Y    Y      Y      |  D(n)  CIP(o) EES         |
|     8       |N    N      N      |   C           EES         |
|     9       |Y    Y      Y      |  By     By                |
|    10       |Y    Y      N      |  SXT    CIP   EES    Te(p)|
+-------------+-------------------+---------------------------+

(a) Sensitivity test performed if a pathogen is isolated or sensitivity requested. (b) Shigella spp. (c) Campylobacter spp. (d) Yersinia spp., pathogenic E. coli, Citrobacter spp. (e) Resistant Shigella spp. (f) Diarrhea of undetermined etiology. (g) Chloramphenicol. (h) Erythromycin ethylsuccinate. (i) Bactrim® (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Roche). (j) Erythromycin estolate (IlosoneR/Dista). (k) Baytril® (Enrofloxacin/Havor). (l) SXT (Septra®/Burroughs Wellcome). (m) Gentamicin. (n) Di-TrimR (trimethoprim-sulfadiazine/Syntex). (o) Ciprofloxacin. (p) Tetracycline.

Table 1: Routine sensitivity and therapeutic choices of primate veterinarians confronted with diarrheal disease in nonhuman primates.

Some correspondents already have personal experience with and appreciation for the emergence, particularly in imported monkeys, of Shigella serotypes that are resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (Septra®/Burroughs Wellcome; Bactrim®/Roche), chloramphenicol, and possibly other commonly used antibiotics. However, I was surprised to read the results of the sensitivities on our symptomatic new monkeys, and learn that 8 of 12 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, 5 of 12 were resistant to Septra® and 2 of 12 were resistant to chloramphenicol (Table 2). One isolate was resistant to all three of these antibiotics, and some zones of inhibition indicated borderline susceptibility to Septra® (Table 2). All isolates were susceptible in vitro to tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, ceftriaxone (Rocephin®/Roche), and gentamicin (Table 2). The Kirby- Bauer, qualitative, disc diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing, and all Shigella isolates were serotyped with S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. sonnei typing sera.

+---------------+--------------------------------------+
|Antibiotic(a)/ | Animal and Sensitivity Zone Diameter |
| Susceptible   |                                      |
| Zone Size     | 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 11 12  |
+---------------+--------------------------------------+
| Te >= 19      | 24 23 24 22 28 22 23 26 20 30 27 25  |
| F/M >= 17     | 19 26 28 28 40 24 20 21 19 28 34 21  |
| NOR >= 17     | 26 28 31 30 30 30 30 32 33 30 34 30  |
| CF >= 18      | Rb 19 21 20 20 19 18 R  R  R  21 R   |
| AM >= 17      | R  R  R  19 R  28 20 R  R  R  23 R   |
| C >= 18       | 25 30 31 30 30 R  30 27 24 R  34 29  |
| CRO >= 21     | 31 28 32 28 32 29 28 31 30 30 36 30  |
| GM >= 15      | 22 20 18 18 18 21 18 22 21 20 21 22  |
| SXT >= 16     | 18 R  R  32 40 R  23 16 26 R  R  19  |
| ES >= 23      | R  R  R  R  R  R  R  R  R  R  R  R   |
+---------------+--------------------------------------+
(a) Te = tetracycline; F/M = nitrofurantoin; NOR = norfloxacin; CF = cephalothin; AM = ampicillin; C = chloamphenicol; CRO = ceftriaxone; GM = gentamicin; cin; SXT = trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; ES = eryth romycin. (b) R = resistant.

Table 2. Antibiogram for ECU Shigella isolates.

Some correspondents were optimistic about treating Campylobacter spp., but the consensus was that Campylobacter was hard to treat, since relapses occurred frequently, and resistant strains developed quickly. Half of those I contacted felt that it was not worth doing a sensitivity test if a Campylobacter sp. was isolated (Table 1), although, when pathogens were isolated, sensitivities were generally performed. Some were doing sensitivity tests on Yersinia enterocoly tica, Citrobacter freundii, and pathogenic Escherichica coli, but did not indicate any problem at this time with resistant strains of these bacteria.

By coincidence I pulled a current issue of Reviews of Infectious Diseases from a library shelf during the outbreak, and found that the issue contained several articles on Shigella (Bennish, Salam, Lolekha, 1991), which were worth browsing. The articles discussed problems and treatment of resisitant Shigella in humans in Bangladesh and Thailand, research which was supported in part by the New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine. I was particularly impressed by one table, which I have reproduced in detail (Table 3), because it influenced my antibiotic choices, and I felt that I might have constructed the same table with the sensitivity and therapeutic information I accumulated during the outbreak.

+-----------------+---------------------------------------------+
|                 |          Antibiotic (% susceptible)         |
|                 |                                             |
|Species     No.  |Amp  Chl  TMP-SMZ  Gm  NA  Nitrofurantoin Tet|
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------+
|                 |                                             |
|dysenteriae 46   |78    26     30    100 100      100        9 |
|flexneri    1280 |2     1      12    100 100      100        2 |
|boydii      33   |82    58     73    100 100      100       15 |
|sonnei      186  |58    55     28    100  99      100        4 |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------+

Amp = ampicillin; Chl = chloramphenicol; TMP-SMZ = trimethoprim trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; Gm - gentamicin; NA = nalidixic acid; Tet = tetracycline.

Table 3. Susceptibilities of Shigella spp. as determined by the disk diffusion method. Reproduced with permission from Loleka et al., 1991.

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro® I.V./Miles) administered at a dosage of 15-25 mg/kg b.i.d. for 5 to 7 days was chosen to treat the severely affected animals. The manufacturer recommends that ciprofloxacin be mixed with 5% dextrose, and be infused over a 60 minute period. However, I have mixed it in 50% dextrose or sodium bicarbonate, diluted the mixture to an appropriate volume based on route of administration with lactated ringer's or 0.9% saline, and given the mixture subcutaneously or intravenously in a moderately fast push without adverse reactions. Typically, this involved adding the dose to a 60cc syringe and diluting with 50% dextrose and lactated ringer's, administering the mixture intravenously over a 2-5 minute period, and flushing with 20cc of lactated ringer's solution. The dextrose may not need to be diluted, but dilution and/or the flush will reduce the risk of phlebitis associated with intravenous administration of hypertonic dextrose. The rate of administration and, possibly, the dosage may need to be adjusted to avoid vomiting in some individuals; however, it is possible that ketamine sedation was responsible for the retching that occurred in one animal that received more than 25 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin intravenously. Gentamicin at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.i.d. for 5 days was chosen for mild cases that were not dehydrated, depressed, or anorexic.

Those who had additional experience with ciprofloxacin or its veterinary counterpart, enrofloxacin (Baytril®/Havor), reported that the quinolones seem to be clinically effective, although one person I talked to had evidence, based on DNA probe technology, that ciprofloxacin did not eliminate the carrier state, which could be a critical issue when dealing with resistant Shigella spp. A supporting report in Infectious Disease Alert (1991) stated that ciprofloxacin failed to eradicate convalescent fecal excretion after acute salmonellosis. Perhaps combination therapy has a role here, particularly if it is used routinely and is based on knowledge of prevailing sensitivity patterns and serotypes.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin®/Roche), a third generation cephalosporin that can be given intravenously or intramuscularly, showed good in vitro activity against our isolates; however, I have limited experience with it, and the manufacturer is careful to note that when ceftriaxone is used to treat Shigella spp. its clinical significance is unknown. Also, it should be recognized that not all cephalosporins even show in vitro activity against Shigella (Table 2).

Happily, there was rapid clinical improvement with either gentamicin or ciprofloxacin; however, one animal that had been started on ampicillin died prior to receiving the sensitivity results. As of this writing, based on the results of follow-up rectal swabs, Shigella spp. have not been reisolated.

Summary

The point of this note is that we do not want to let ourselves get lulled into thinking that we know what works for Shigella based on past success. Resistant strains are present, may develop, or may be more prevalent than current information indicates. Campylobacter may require an even greater awareness of the therapeutic challenge it presents, and other enteric bacteria may also deserve more attention. Admittedly, managers of large colonies are confronted with economic considerations that influence their decisions about doing routine sensitivity testing; however, most of the veterinarians for large colonies that I contacted performed sensitivity tests on pathogens.

I would be glad to hear from others about their experiences with resistant enteric organisms, particularly Shigella, and related issues: e.g., opinions about using antibiotics associated with emergence of microbial resistance, especially if the microbe has public health significance; and ethical and legal considerations (James, 1988) involved with the use of antibiotics that pose an occupational hazard. Canada, for example, was so concerned at one time about the incidence of fatal aplastic anemia in humans after skin or mucous membrane exposure to topical chloramphenicol that it considered a ban on its use in humans (Wurtz, 1986). Chloramphenicol is certainly not the only antibiotic to cause adverse reactions; however, chloramphenicol has developed a reputation for being hazardous to the practitioner as well as the patient (Brodsky, 1989; Del Giacco, 1981; Wurtz, 1986).

Finally, I want to encourage anyone who has the time to respond to the following questionnaire to do so; the information eventually may serve primate users by providing sufficient raw material for a future presentation or publication.

References

Bennish, M. L. (1991). Potentially lethal complications of Shigellosis. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 13[Suppl. 4], S319-S324.

Brodsky, E. et al. (1989). Topical application of chloramphenicol eye ointment followed by fatal bone marrow aplasia. Israel Journal of Medicine and Science, 25, 54.

American Health Consultants (1991). Ciprofloxacin fails to eradicate convalescent fecal excretion after acute salmonellosis. Infectious Disease Alert, May 15, 1991.

Del Giacco, G. S., et al. (1981). Fatal bone marrow hypoplasia in a shepherd using chloramphenicol spray. Lancet, 1(8226), 945.

James, A. N. (1988). Legal realities and practical applications in laboratory safety management. Laboratory Medicine, X, 84-87.

Lolekha, S., Vibulbandhitkit, S., & Poonyarit, P. (1991). Response to antimicrobial therapy for Shigellosis in Thailand. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 13[Suppl. 4], S342-S346.

Salam, M. A. & Bennish, M. L. (1991). Antimicrobial therapy for Shigellosis. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 13[Suppl. 4], S332-S341.

Wurtz, B. M. (1986). CVMA opposes chloramphenicol ban. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 135, 105.

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Author's current address: NIH, Bldg. 14D, Room 301, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.
(1) I am grateful to Dr. William H. Pryor, Jr., Dr. Stephen J. Vore, Linda T. Riggan, M.T., and Drs. Wallace D. Houser, Stephen T. Kelly, Joseph Bielitzki, John H. Anderson, R. Brent Swenson, Prabhat Sehgal, James L. Blanchard, Janice L. Southers, and Mitchell Bush for providing professional assistance or comments that helped prepare this manuscript.
(2) Please return the questionnaire to the author. Names of individuals and institutions will remain confidential.

* * *

Questionnaire

1. Do you routinely perform antibiograms on stool cultures? YES_____ NO_____

2. Do you request that sensitivities only be done on suspected patho gens and only after recovery in pure culture? YES_____ NO_____

3. Do you request sensitivities only for selected enteric bacteria? SHIGELLA____ CAMPYLOBACTER____ YERSINIA____ CITROBACTER____ E. COLI___ OTHERS___

4. Do you use a standardized method such as the Kirby-Bauer method to determine antibiotic susceptibilities? YES_____ NO_____

5. Do you identify isolates to the species level? YES__ NO__

6. Do you serotype pathogenic E._coli? YES___ NO___ What is your most common serotype?________

7. Do you begin antibiotic treatment before learning the sensitivity pattern? SOMETIMES___ ALWAYS___ NEVER___

8. How much does it cost you to perform one sensitivity? $1-$2____ $2-$3____ $3-$4____ MORE____

9. How much do you spend per average year on sensitivities? $_____

10. What is the average number of monkeys in your colony? ______

11. Do you use multiple housing methods? YES___ NO___

12. Is your approach to stool culturing the same regardless of the housing method? YES____ NO____

13. What kinds of monkeys do you have? AFRICAN___ ASIAN___ PROSIMIAN____ NWP___

14. Is your approach to stool culturing the same regardless of the kind of monkey? YES____ NO____

15. What type of facility do you represent? PRIMATE CENTER___ UNIVERSITY___ GOVERNMENT___ ZOO___ OTHER___

16. Estimate percentage of stool cultures from which you isolate more than one pathogen. ___%

17. Which pathogen do you isolate and treat most frequently? GENUS____________ SPECIES___________

18. What is the most frequently isolated enteric pathogen when the kind of monkey is considered? AFRICAN_______ ASIAN_______ NWP_______ PROSIMIAN_______

19. Do you treat all pathogens? YES____ NO____

20. Do you treat only selected pathogens? YES__ NO__

21. If you treat selected pathogens, is this decision based on isolation of a pathogen that is resistant to first choice antibiot ics? YES____ NO____

22. Do you isolate Shigella spp. that are resistant to AMP, SXT, or C? YES__ NO__ Which antibiotic is least likely to be effective? _______________

23. What do you think about the number of resistant strains of Shigella? MORE______ FEWER______ NO CHANGE______

24. Do you isolate Campylobacter spp. that are resistant to ES? YES____ NO____

25. What do you think about the incidence of resistant strains of Campylobacter? MORE______ FEWER______ NO CHANGE______

26. What do you think about the incidence of other resistant enteric pathogens? MORE_____ FEWER____ NO CHANGE_____

27. Do you perform your own sensitivities? YES___ NO___ 28. How do you determine if treatment was successful? ASYMPTOMATIC____ FAILURE TO REISOLATE____ PROBES____

29. Estimate your economic loss due to enteric pathogens. $____

30. Do you think resistant strains of enteric pathogens should be eliminated from monkeys if it were possible? YES_____ NO_____

31. Under what circumstances would you tolerate a persistant carrier state of a resistant pathogen? NO EFFECTIVE TREATMENT____ ECONOMIC____ INDOOR HOUSING____ OUTDOOR HOUSING____ INDIVIDUAL HOUSING___ NONE___ OTHER___

32. What do you think accounts for the presence of resistant strains of enteric pathogens? NATURE____ OVERTREATMENT____ SOURCE___ OTHER___

33. For each enteric pathogen you treat, what is your preferred treat ment regimen? List alternative choices when there is no response to your first choice. List pathogen species if important.

GENUS SPECIES ANTIBIOTIC CHOICE DOSAGE DURATION

SHIGELLA ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________

CAMPYLOBACTER ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________

YERSINIA ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________

CITROBACTER ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ E. COLI ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________

OTHER ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________ ___________ _________________ ________ __________

34. Were alternative choices based on isolation of resistant organisms? YES___ NO___

35. How do you feel about using antibiotics that can cause fatal side effects in humans? OPPOSED____ USE WITHOUT PRECAUTIONS____ USE WITH PRECAUTIONS____ INFORM EMPLOYEES OF RISK____ PRECAUTIONS INCLUDE WEARING LATEX GLOVES____ WEARING SAFETY GOGGLES____ PROCEDURES FOR DISCARDING DISPOSABLES____ OTHER______

36. COMMENTS WELCOMED: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Please send completed Questionnaire to L. C. Olson, NIH, Bldg. 14D, Room 301, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.

* * *

Perch Use by Macaca mulatta in Relation to Cage Location

Trisha Woodbeck and Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center

Introduction

Evidence suggests that laboratory macaques feel more secure above the ground than on it (Bernstein & Mason, 1963; Reinhardt, in press). Cages are usually installed in racks with one row close to the floor and another high above. Animals living in lower-row cages may have a greater need for elevated structures offering vantage points and places for escape than those living in upper-row cages. The present study tests this hypothesis by comparing upper-row and lower-row caged rhesus monkeys' use of an elevated structure recommended by law (USDA, 1991).

Methods

Our subjects were 28 healthy adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), kept as 14 compatible pairs in double cages, 85 cm high, 85 cm deep, and 170 cm wide. Seven pairs (14 animals) were housed in lower-row cages 30 cm above the ground, seven other pairs were housed in upper-row cages 140 cm above the ground. Lower-row (x) and upper-row (y) caged animals did not differ in age (x = 13.0 3.8 years, y = 11.9 4.0 years; t = 0.749, p > 0.1). The animals received commercial dry food at 07:30. Water was available ad libitum. Room temperature was 20-22deg. C, with a 12-hr light/dark cycle.

Each half of the double cages was equipped with a 120 cm long polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe which had a radius of 4.8 cm. The pipes were suspended diagonally with a slope of 15deg. The lower end was attached with a chain at the front of the cage at a height of 37 cm while the upper end rested at the junction of the back and side wall. The animals had been exposed to the PVC pipes for more than 2 years.

Approximately 2 weeks were allotted for the observer (senior author) and the monkeys to become familiar with one another before data were collected. The observer sat at a distance of 1 meter in front of the cages and made 30-minute recordings of two pairs at a time (1 pair living in a lower-row cage and 1 pair living above them in an upper-row cage) in the late afternoon when it was guaranteed that the animals would not be disturbed by human activities. A total of 7 observation sessions were made. The recordings included the time each monkey spent perching in front (40 cm) in the middle (40 cm) and at the back (40 cm) of a PVC pipe.

Results

The 28 animals spent an average 19.2 25.6% (range 0%-89%) of the 30-minute observation sessions perching on the PVC pipes. Durations of perching bouts ranged from 4 to 896 seconds (15 minutes) with a mean of 123 seconds (2 minutes). While perching, the animals were located 74.0 34.9% of the time in front, and 26.0 31.1% of the time in the middle and back of the pipes; the difference was significant (t = 4.485, p < 0.001).

Animals living in lower-row cages spent an average 31.6 28.8% of the time perching on their pipes while animals living in upper-row cages perched only 6.9 13.3% of the time, a significant difference (t = 2.916, p < 0.01).

Discussion

The present study confirms previous findings on the usefulness of PVC pipes as inexpensive means to effectively enrich the environment of caged nonhuman primates (Reinhardt & Smith, 1988; Wolff, 1989). After 2 years of exposure the animals continued using the pipes regularly for the expression of a noninjurious species-typical behavior (perching).

The pipes served the animals as vantage points. Sitting in an elevated position, with optimal visual control of the environment outside of the cage, supposedly created a sense of security and hence increased well-being. For upper-row caged monkeys this was of little importance. Their cages were high above the floor allowing them to live in the vertical, safer, dimension of the room at all times. Access to the vertical dimension of the cage was more important for the lower-row caged monkeys who continuously live close to the ground, in the horizontal dimension of the room. These animals made substantially more use of their PVC pipes.

PVC pipes offer the animals only a very small elevated sitting site close to the front of the cage. Mounting a sitting platform at the front of the cage well above the floor (high enough to permit an animal to sit/move under the platform) may be a more effective way of making the vertical dimension accessible. The provision of a larger, more comfortable vantage area could further enhance the well-being of the animals, especially of those living close to the floor of the room.

References

Bernstein, I. & Mason, W. (1963). Activity patterns of rhesus monkeys in a social group. Animal Behaviour, 11, 455-460.

Reinhardt, V. (in press). Space utilization by captive rhesus macaques. Animal Technology.

Reinhardt, V. & Smith, M.D. (1988). PVC pipes effectively enrich the environment of caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27[3], 4-5.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (1991). Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6500.

Wolff, A.V. (1989). Polyvinyl chloride piping as perch material for squirrel monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[1], 7.

------------------------------------------------------------------ Second author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715. We are thankful to Mrs. Jackie Kinney for editing this manuscript. The study was partly supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC.

* * *

Weaning in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): As Assessed by an Easily Collected Measure

J. Fritz, S. Menkhus Howell, H. Hogan, B. Nankivell, and L. Nash
Primate Foundation of Arizona

Weaning is a stressful process for both captive and wild-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Since premature weaning is detrimental to infants' physical and behavioral health, managers of captive chimpanzees must monitor signs of weaning stress, and take particular care to insure adequate caloric and nutrient intake (Bernstein et al., 1981; Clark, 1977; Goodall, 1968; McKinney et al., 1973; Mineka & Suomi, 1978). Allowing young chimps to remain with their mothers past weaning insures not only survival, but also normal socio-sexual development (Nicholson, 1977). However, there is little published information to assist in establishing a natural weaning criterion that insures both the behavioral and nutritional well-being of captive chimpanzees.

After observing a small sample of chimpanzees, Yerkes and Tomilin (1935) suggest that captive infants are weaned by two to three years of age. Among captive semi-free-ranging chimpanzees, weaning begins at two years of age and the mother withholds the nipple more and more over the next two years (Horvat et al., 1977). In wild chimpanzees, infants are gradually weaned over a two year period and are considered completely weaned between 3.5 and 4.5 years of age (Goodall, 1968).

Frequency of nursing in the wild declines with increasing age (Goodall, 1968, Munoz, 1984). However, differences in personality, nutritive need, and infant stress may result in individual differences in nursing frequencies. In particular, Munoz explains that stress reduction is one non-nutritive product of nursing, with frequency partially dependent on the infant's need to reduce normal stresses (as from day to day conflicts). Munoz and Goodall both report that male subjects nursed more frequently than female age-mates, attributing this to elevated stress levels induced by more time spent away from mother (a normal part of the development of infant independence). Interpreting these results for captive chimpanzees is difficult because normal nursing frequencies have not been defined for them.

We sought a simple method of recording nursing activity to establish (1) a normal nursing frequency for captive chimpanzee neonates (birth to 30 days of age), infants (31 days through 12 months), kindergartners (13 through 47 months), and juveniles (48 through 83 months); (2) the criterion by which we could consider an infant weaned; and (3) the usefulness of this information for judging the general health and well-being of the mother-infant pair.

Methods

Data collection was designed to be incorporated into management routine, allowing simple and quick collection of the maximum number of nursing observations. We maintain a monthly data collection sheet for each subject. The sheets are kept in the animal colony to allow easy access by all observers, who include the colony director, the staff veterinarian, caregivers, and research staff. Data are collected on an ad lib basis within both research and care routines. This assures observations throughout the day, although not on a set schedule. Observations of nursing are recorded using hourly intervals (0600 to 1700, seven days a week; Martin & Bateson, 1986). The criterion used for nursing is the infant's mouth over the mother's nipple. If one or more staff members observes an infant nursing during an hour, the infant is scored as nursing; otherwise, whether or not anyone was observing that infant, as not nursing. Data for each infant from day of birth to 258+ weeks of age (4+ years) were compiled by summing the number of nursing scores across two week periods for each subject.

We realize that instantaneous scan sampling may have provided better estimates of actual nursing frequency (Altman, 1974), but the ad lib method was chosen to provide preliminary results (Martin & Bateson, 1986). We continue to use this method for practical reasons. However, instantaneous scan sampled data are now being analyzed to confirm the results presented here.

       +------+----------------------------------------------+
       |       |Neonate  Infant   Kindergartener    Juvenile |
       |       |0-4 Wks  5-52 Wks   54-188 Wks    190-260 Wks|
       +-------+---------------------------------------------+
       |Females| 15         16          11             6     |
       |Males  | 16         14           8             1     |
       +-------+---------------------------------------------+
       |Total  | 31         30          19             7     |
       +-------+---------------------------------------------+
Table 1. Number of subjects observed during each age period.

In this analysis, the number of subjects sampled varied from 31 to 7 (Table 1). Note that the number of subjects decreased with increasing age due to changes in management practices during the data collection period (1982 to 1990). At the onset of the study (1982), infants were separated from their mothers prior to the juvenile period. This management strategy resulted in relatively fewer juvenile subjects sampled. The number of subjects further declined with increased subject age during the juvenile period (after 208 weeks) as some juveniles were separated from their mothers for behavioral management, such as providing access to cycling females. Of all the subjects sampled, only seven were observed after 108 weeks of age (6 female, 1 male), and weaning data are based on these subjects. In 1986, management practices were altered so that mother/infant pairs were not separated until the juvenile period, if at all. Data collection continues, with more observations on more animals in this age period. Results presented here are preliminary.

To establish normal nursing frequency and to determine a weaning criterion, we calculated the median number of nursing scores across subjects for each two week period. Median values were plotted against infant age to examine general trends with increasing age Figure 1. To examine sex differences in nursing frequency with increased age, the median nursing scores were also calculated across male and female subjects at each age.

Data were then analyzed for the four age periods described above. The mean and standard deviation of (1) the median and (2) the range at each age across subjects were calculated. (Table 2). To further explore sex differences in nursing frequency, the same calculations were made for each sex (Table 3).

To determine the usefulness of the information as an indicator of the general health and behavioral well-being of the mother-infant pair, each animal's health records were reviewed for possible associations between fluctuations in nursing frequency and mother or infant injury or illness.

Results

General Trends: Although this method of data collection provides a rough measure of nursing, and certainly under-estimates actual frequencies, there are several interesting patterns (Figure 1). Nursing scores are highest at two weeks of age (median > 10), and decline rapidly to 18 weeks of age. Between 20 and 228 weeks of age, median nursing scores remain relatively constant (0-5). Between 232 and 260 weeks of age, median nursing scores became more erratic. For 3 of 7 subjects, observed past 208 weeks, this erratic pattern was followed by the cessation of nursing. For the remaining subjects, this pattern was accentuated and nursing frequency actually increased with age.

Trends for Age Periods: The average of the median and range generally declined across the four age periods (Table 2). However, there was a sharp decline in median and range between the neonate and infant periods. The standard deviations of both the median and range also generally declined across age periods from neonate, to infant, to kindergartener. However, the standard deviations for the median and range were greater for the juvenile period than for the kindergarten period.

       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+
       |             |Neonate  Infant   Kindergartener    Juvenile |
       |             |0-4 Wks  5-52 Wks   54-188 Wks    190-260 Wks|
       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+
       |MEDIAN       |                                             |
       | Median      |  19.2     5.6         3.65          2.81    |
       | S.D. Median |   3.88    2.79        1.13          2.98    |
       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+
       |RANGE        |                                             |
       | Range       |  49      22          13.2          12.9     |
       | S.D. Range  |   2.82   12           5.72          7.3
       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+

Table 2. Observed nursing frequency during age periods.

Further, nursing trends were examined quantitatively for both male and female subjects for three of the four age periods (neonate, infant, kindergartener) (Table 3). There were too few subjects sampled during the juvenile period for quantification of results. Neither median scores nor ranges revealed much sex difference. However, the average of the range scores for males during neonate and infant periods was greater than that average for females, while the average of range scores for females during the kindergarten period was greater than that for males.

       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+
       |             |Neonate  Infant   Kindergartener    Juvenile |
       |             |0-4 Wks  5-52 Wks   54-188 Wks    190-260 Wks|
       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+
       |FEMALES      |                                             |
       |MEDIAN       |                                             |
       | Median      |  19.5     5.22        3.85          ---     |
       | S.D. Median |   4.94    2.56        1.35          ---     |
       |RANGE        |                                             |
       | Range       |  39      15.9        11.8           ---     |
       | S.D. Range  |   7.07    8.65        5.94          ---     |
       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+
       |MALES        |                                             |
       |MEDIAN       |                                             |
       | Median      |  19.2     6.2         3.82          ---     |
       | S.D. Median |   3.18    2.98        2.47          ---     |
       |RANGE        |                                             |
       | Range       |  47      20.6         6.64          ---     |
       | S.D. Range  |   0      11.9         4.27          ---     |
       +-------------+---------------------------------------------+

Table 3. Observed nursing frequency during age periods, by sex.

Weaning Criterion: Based on these results, a weaning criterion can tentatively be established based on cessation of nursing. No individual resumed nursing if nursing was not observed for 10 consecutive weeks (N = 3). Of these subjects, the male was considered weaned at the earliest age (3.5 years), while the two females were weaned at slightly older ages (3.6 and 3.8 years). However, two older females failed to meet this weaning criterion even after 4.63 and 4.67 years of age, the age at which we separated them from their mothers.

Nursing Scores and Well-being: Some infants always nursed more or less than others. Although a marked decrease (or even a sudden increase) in nursing frequency sometimes indicated an illness or injury in infant or mother, we found no consistent association of this kind.

Discussion

Little information was found in the literature to suggest a weaning criterion for captive chimpanzees. The degree of variability shown in weaning age (ranging from 3.5 to 4.67+ years) suggests that chronological age is an inappropriate criterion. Our data provide a criterion which is general and also takes into account individual differences.

The median scores presented here should not be generalized as norms for all captive chimpanzees. As described by Nicholson (1977), weaning age and behavior can vary with respect to each animal's environment. It should be noted that the weaning ages presented here (3.5 - 4.67+) are similar to those of wild chimpanzees (Goodall, 1968). This sampling method may also be sensitive to the number of observers and their daily routines. In addition, it is likely that the new baby syndrome (increased observer attention at or immediately following birth) may have inflated scores during the first few weeks of life. To control for this potential artifact, our method would be improved by specifying the number of observations to be completed per individual per day, no matter what their age.

While nursing frequency alone was not a good indicator of the health of the infant or its mother, deviation in individual nursing frequency may indicate problems. Once general trends are established for each facility, they serve as a baseline for comparison when an individual's nursing frequency deviates from his norm. Thus if an infant is nursing consistently below his established median frequency, the mother and infant may be suspected of having nursing problems; the staff can then be alerted and the pair monitored more closely. An erratic pattern of nursing frequency, indicative of the last months prior to cessation of nursing, may signal a need for additional monitoring. Particular attention to food intake and the potential need for supplements other than the adult diet must be considered. Managers of captive chimpanzees must also closely monitor behavioral signs of stress to insure well-being throughout the weaning period.

Although our method of measuring nursing is not directly comparable to more labor-intensive observation and sampling methods, we believe that it is effective as a management tool. We are continuing our research with this method, observing more subjects more often at older ages, and focusing on the maternal role in the weaning process, including the mother's behavior during weaning and the effect of her estrous condition (i.e., the baby's age at the end of its mother's postpartum amenorrhea).

Our primary objective was to create a simple method of monitoring nursing frequency that would (1) signal onset of the weaning process and (2) provide a criterion to determine when an animal is weaned. This has been accomplished, and we can recommend our method for use in other facilities. From these data, we are developing a database that we hope will provide the information needed to improve our ability to better judge the health and development status of infants with their mothers.

References

Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-267.

Bernstein, I. S. & Dobrofsky, M. (1981). Compensatory social responses of older pigtailed monkeys to maternal separation. Developmental Psychobiology, 14, 163-168.

Clark, C. (1977). A preliminary report on weaning among chimpanzees of the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. E. Poirier (Eds.), Primate Biosocial Development (pp. 235-260). New York: Garland.

Goodall, J. van Lawick (1968). The behavior of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Animal Behavior Monographs, 1[3].

Horvat, J. R., Coe, C. L., & Levine, S. (1980). Infant development and maternal behavior in captive chimpanzees. In R. W. Bell & W. P. Smotherman (Eds.), Maternal Influences and Early Behavior (pp. 285-303). New York: Spectrum Publications, Inc.

Martin, P. & Bateson, P. (1986). Measuring Behavior. Cambridge: Cam bridge University Press.

Mineka, S. & Suomi, S. J. (1978). Social separation in monkeys. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1376-1400.

Munoz, R. S. (1984). Nipple contact in captive black-faced chimpanzees Pan troglodytes [Blumenbach, 1979]. Zoo Biology, 3, 267-271.

Nicholson, N. (1977). A comparison of early behavioral development in wild and captive chimpanzees. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. E. Poirier (Eds.), Primate Biosocial Development (pp. 529-562). New York: Garland.

Yerkes, R. M. & Tomilin, M. I. (1935). Mother-infant relations in chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20, 321-359.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Authors' address: Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280. The authors gratefully acknowledge all of the observers who have devoted their time and attention to collection of these data, and J. Hnida for his assistance with this project. This study was supported by National Institutes of Health, Division of Research Resources, Grant No. R01 RR03578-06.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

Implementation Strategies Conference

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) and WARDS, Inc. will cosponsor a conference entitled, Implementation Strategies for Research Animal Well-being: Institutional Compliance with Regulations. It will be held December 5-6, 1991, in Baltimore, MD. Researchers, members of Animal Care and Use Committees, administrators, veterinarians, and other interested persons are encouraged to attend. For more information, contact: Conferences, SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814, [301-654-6390; FAX 301-907-3993].

Second Gorilla Workshop

Milwaukee County Zoo and the Zoological Society of Milwaukee County will host the second Gorilla Workshop, June 12-15, 1992, at the Hyatt Regency Milwaukee. The objective is once again to bring together the various disciplines concerned with the welfare of all gorilla populations, captive and wild. Topics will be Behavior, Husbandry, Research techniques, Behavioral enrichment, Management, Diet, Veterinary, Exhibit design, and Education and tourism. Partial funding may be available for keepers and students outside the U.S. and Canada who demonstrate financial need. Abstracts of papers and posters are being accepted for review by the Gorilla Workshop Selection Committee, Milwaukee County Zoo, 10001 W. Bluemound Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226, until February 1, 1992. For more information, contact Sam LaMalfa at the same address.

Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS

A Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS will be held in Seattle, WA, November 7-9, 1991. For information, contact Pamela A. Silimperi, AIDS Programs Coordinator, Univ. of Washington RPRC, I-321 Health Sciences Bldg, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-0909; FAX: 206-685-0305].

* * *

John Michael Warren, Jr. (1925-1991)

J. Michael Warren died July 4, 1991 in State College, PA. Mike attended the University of Wisconsin, receiving the B.S. degree in 1949, the M.S. in 1950, and the Ph.D. in 1953. After serving at the University of Oregon, Stanford University, and the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, Mike joined the faculty of the Pennsylvania State University, where he was an Associate Professor and Professor and Director of the Penn State Animal Behavior Laboratory. His early work, begun in Harry Harlow's laboratory, dealt mainly with discrimination learning and its physiological bases in nonhuman primates. He also worked with many other animals, on such topics as discrimination learning in a variety of situations, problem solving, spontaneous alternation, handedness and lateralization, social behavior, food preferences, attention, tool use, fear, environmental enrichment, aging, and brain function. Mike worked to integrate knowledge of learning processes and wrote some important reviews of the literature in comparative studies of learning, including those in Schrier, Harlow, and Stollnitz's 1965 Behavior of Nonhuman Primates and Dewsbury and Rethlinghafer's 1973 Comparative Psychology: A Modern Survey. He was married twice and is survived by five children. -- From an obituary by Donald Dewsbury

* * *

Filovirus Update: From Dr. William L. Roper

William L. Roper, Director of the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, responded on August 27, 1991, to a letter (reprinted in this Newsletter, 1991, 30[3], 18-19) from Paul W. Schilling, President of the Association of Primate Veterinarians.

I am responding to your letter outlining the concerns of the Association of Primate Veterinarians regarding the importation of nonhuman primates into the United States under the terms of the U.S. quarantine laws.

We are aware that the last 21 months have been difficult for importers and for the scientific community that depends on a reliable source of healthy, suitable animals for research.

To respond specifically to the concerns raised in your letter: a. In July 1990, when Mr. McCance and Dr. Brown spoke at your annual meeting, more comprehensive proposed regulations were being drafted. The proposed regulations are now proceeding through the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) clearance process. Further review by the Department of Health and Human Services will be required before the draft document is published. There will be an opportunity for comments, and we look forward to your careful review and input at that point.

b. Forty-eight scientific importers and eight zoos are now registered as importers; and two additional registrations are pending. We continue to work with importers, especially those opening new facilities, and with zoos to expedite the application process.

c. The special permit procedure was instituted to allow importation under controlled conditions of the three nonhuman primate species most needed for research. As each importer has developed a workable plan for importation of groups of animals, we have issued extended permits, allowing unlimited importation as long as either the original plan is followed or we are made aware of changes. Eleven importers now have extended permits. Since the first permit was granted in June 1990, 17 quarantine facilities have received 108 shipments imported under special permits. A total of 10,101 primates (8,865 cynomolgus, 360 African green, and 876 rhesus monkeys) have been imported from eight countries through 15 U.S. ports of entry on 12 international carriers, private charter aircraft, or via ground transportation. Importations of cynomolgus monkeys--the primate species most used in scientific research in the U.S. today--have averaged nearly 1,000 per month since January of this year.

d. We continue to review the issue of transportation. This is an important area of concern, from a public health point of view, because airport workers and others who may have little understanding of infection control practices are at risk for exposure to a number of human pathogens. Of particular concern to us are problems we have seen such as mixing of primate shipments, contamination of other cargo, and damaged or leaking crates. We have written to and met with representatives of the airline industry, informing them that nonhuman primates can be safely transported when the handling procedures described in International Air Transportation Association (IATA) guidelines and Federal regulations (including CDC's) are followed.

e. CDC continues to be concerned about the financial impact of stricter quarantine procedures on scientific research. We have received general comments regarding increased costs, with no specific information regarding areas or items of special difficulty. We would welcome further specific information from both importers and users on this topic.

f. We appreciate your comments on filovirus antibody testing. This issue has been reviewed several times during the last year, and will be reviewed again in detail during the next few months. Your concerns will be addressed.

In the 92 shipments that have completed quarantine and testing, 114 primates from 48 separate shipments died, for a mortality rate of 1.2 percent. If the current rate of importations continue (1,000/month), approximately 12,000 will be imported during 1991. Given a continued 1.2 percent mortality rate during quarantine, approximately 11,900 animals will survive the quarantine period and be available for use during 1991. During 1989, the year before identification of filovirus in imported nonhuman primates, approximately 15,900 cynomolgus monkeys were imported. Mortality rates at that time, based on industry estimates and a CDC survey done during December 1989, were 10-15 percent, indicating that no more than 14,300 animals were available at the end of quarantine. Of these an estimated 15 percent, or 2,300 animals, were exported leaving approximately 12,000 animals potentially available for use in the United States. It appears that the current level of importation is comparable to that experienced before imposition of the transit, isolation, and quarantine standards.

CDC continues to try to balance the needs of importers and users and the concerns for the safety of workers and others who may have contact with these animals during their importation and initial quarantine period after arrival in the United States.

Thank you for your comments.

The following paragraphs are from a letter which Dr. Roper sent to, among others, primate importers, Regional Primate Centers, animal ports, state and territorial health officers and epidemiologists, and major airline carriers.

Approximately 7,782 of the 10,101 nonhuman primates imported under special permits have completed the required quarantine period and have had paired serum specimens (obtained within the first week and after day 31 of quarantine) tested for filovirus antibodies, using an immuno fluorescent antibody (IFA) test which includes both African and Asian filovirus antigens. Ninety-five of the 7,782 (1.2 percent) primates tested as of July 25 had initial titers of greater than or equal to 256, suggesting infection with a filovirus sometime prior to importation. Fifteen (0.2 percent) seroconverted (demonstrated a 4-fold increase in antibody titer, to greater than or equal to 256) while in the 31-day quarantine period after importation.

One hundred fourteen primates from forty-eight different shipments died during quarantine, for a mortality rate of 1.2 percent. No deaths were reported to have occurred in clusters by shipment, cage location, or date. No hemorrhagic illness has been reported. Filovirus antigen capture or virus isolation has been attempted on tissue from 46 of the 56 animals that died after 8 or more days in quarantine. All tests have been negative.

The special permit procedures that were published in the Federal Register (55 FR 15210) of April 20, 1990, remain in effect. We are periodically reviewing data regarding these special permit importations, and would welcome documentation from affected parties regarding the impact of these requirements on the availability of nonhuman primates.

We are continuing to develop regulations that update and modify the procedures used in the transportation and quarantine of imported nonhuman primates. We will welcome comments when the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking is published.

* * *

Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques

The Caribbean Primate Research center (CPRC) plans to establish a new colony at Sebana Seca, PR, using surplus rhesus macaques from the Cayo Santiago population. These animals, of Indian origin, have been maintained for noninvasive research on Cayo Santiago since 1938, and they are free of tuberculosis, simian retroviruses, SV40, and measles. The new colony will have about 375 breeding females, who will be housed in single-male harem breeding groups, and who are expected to produce about 200 offspring annually beginning in 1992. Jean Baulu, of the CPRC, writes that they are hoping to find persons or groups who would be interested either in purchasing and supporting this colony in exchange for a constant, long-term supply of rhesus macaques; or in a long-term contractual arrangement for the purchase of offspring from this colony at a predetermined price. Contact Mr. Baulu at the CPRC, Univ. of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00749 [809-422-8826; FAX: 809-432-5339].

* * *

Educational Opportunities

ICLAS Scholarships

The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) endows scholarships for persons interested in qualifying themselves for work in laboratory animal science. The applicants, preferably younger persons, should be graduates in medicine, veterinary medicine, or biological science, or have equivalent training or experience. They must organize a course of study and obtain admission. This planning should be done in cooperation with the National member of ICLAS for the home country of the applicant. These scholarships are only for the study of laboratory animal science per se, and not for the study of subjects or methods involving the use of laboratory animals. For more information and application forms, contact Dr. Marie E. Coates, Dept. of Biochemistry, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH, England.

Course in Lab Animal Science

The Royal Veterinary College in London organizes a full-time course of study of one calendar year, leading to an examination for the degree of M.Sc. in Laboratory Animal Science. For more information, contact Prof. J. Bleby, The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College St., London NW1 OTU, England.

Cardiovascular Seminar

The International Life Sciences Institute and the American College of Veterinary Pathologists are sponsoring a laboratory course for pathologists and toxicologists on The Cardiovascular System of Laboratory Animals, December 7-9, 1991, at the Hyatt Orlando, Kissimmee, FL. The agenda topics will provide a review of the important current issues in pathology and toxicology related to the cardiovascular system, providing the opportunity to complete a significant learning experience in a short time. This seminar is also an appropriate introduction to pathology for investigators in allied health-related fields. For more information, contact ILSI Research Foundation, 1126 Sixteenth St., N.W., Room 300, Washington, DC 20036.

* * *

Editors' Note: Quantum Leap TV Show

Quantum Leap will jump into the animal-rights controversy in one of its first episodes next season, when Sam (Scott Bacula) "leaps" into the body of a research chimp. "The animal-rights people are in heaven," said Deborah Pratt, co-executive producer of the NBC series, in which Bakula plays a time-traveling scientist who temporarily inhabits the bodies of others. Pratt adds that Paul Brown, who wrote the episode, met with animal behaviorist Jane Goodall about the show.

"She was so moved by the idea, she's been sending him articles about inhumane treatment of lab animals to help in his research," Ms Pratt said. "I've asked Paul to show the necessity of using animals for medical research - as well as showing that inhumane treatment is wrong. We like to lay out both sides and let our audience decide what to think." -- From the July 20-26, 1991 issue of TV Guide.

This show is loosely based on neurotrauma research performed using chimpanzees approximately twenty years ago. The episode was written and advertised before anyone from the biomedical research community was contacted. iiFAR (incurably ill For Animal Research) published an Alert about this episode. They contacted the script writer, Paul Brown, who told them it was based mainly on a critique of a research project conducted in the early 1970's by Ayub K. Ommaya. He admitted he had never talked to Dr. Ommaya or any other primate researcher, nor had he ever seen any of Dr. Ommaya's published papers on his research. James S. Todd, Executive Vice President of the American Medical Association, and George J. Galasso, Chairman of the Interagency Animal Model Committee, NIH, have both written to the producers of Quantum Leap, expressing concern that the effects of the show may be damaging to biomedical research.

Dr. Ommaya, in a letter to Cathy Yarbrough of the Yerkes Center, cites some results of his research in Biomechanics, including thousands of lives saved by the prevention of head injuries in automobile accidents. The research was used to validate a mathematical model of human centripedal brain injury due to direct and indirect impact. Safety helmets and other devices were redisigned due, in part, to this work. He writes, Injuries are the number one cause of years of life lost to society, because it affects the age group from birth to age 44. When all existing major health problems are looked at in this way, it becomes clear that injuries are more significant than cancer, heart disease, and stroke combined, because of this effect on years of life lost.

Readers who watched this episode may write to the show's producer (Don Bellisario, 100 Universal City Plaza, Bldg 426, Suite D, Universal City, CA 91608) or sponsors if they feel that the portrayal of medical research was inaccurate or biased. This show may also result in useful discussions of nonhuman primate research among colleagues, students, and friends. -- J. S. Harper

* * *

Positions Available

University of Stirling, Scotland

Applications are invited for a lectureship in behavioral primatology within the Psychology Department. Candidates should have a record of excellent research and teaching. The Department has a particular interest in field primatology, and research in naturalistic captive environments such as zoos. Ability to teach and do research in areas of psychology beyond primatology is welcome. Willingness to link with other members of the Scottish Primate Research Group is desirable. Candidates with primatological training and experience outside psychology are also encouraged. Salary will be on a Lecturer A (L12690 to L17593) or B (L18328 to L23427) scale, depending on qualifications and experience. The post is tenable any time after 1 January 1992. Further particulars are available from the Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA [0786-67640; FAX: 0786-67641]. Applications in the form of a CV, plus the names and addresses of three referees should be returned by 1 November 1991 to the Staff Office, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.

University of Wisconsin at Madison

The Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, anticipates making one or more faculty appointments beginning August 1992 in one or more areas. One of the appointments is in Biological Psychology at the Assistant Professor level. Candidates working on any aspect of the biological bases of behavior, including animal behavior, neuroethology, behavioral neuroscience, etc. will be considered.

A curriculum vitae plus three letters of evaluation and selected reprints should be sent to the Search Committee, Biological Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1202 West Johnson St., Madison, WI 53706. The University of WisconsinMadison is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and especially encourages women and minorities to apply. To ensure consideration, applications should be received by November 1, 1991.

* * *

Grants Available

Conservation and Research

The Chicago Zoological Society sponsors conservation projects and research addressing all aspects of the preservation and maintenance of both wild and captive animal populations. Grants ordinarily do not exceed $5000 and may provide seed money for endeavors requiring participation of other agencies and institutions. Researchers from developing countries are encouraged to apply. Requests for application materials should be submitted to the Conservation and Research Committee, Attn: Dr. George B. Rabb, Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, IL 60513. -- From Asian Primates, 1991, 1[1].

Maintenance of Chimpanzees for Research

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) plans to continue the maintenance of a colony of 51 chimpanzees to be used in nondestructive experiments judged most likely to advance hepatitis or acquired immune deficiency (AIDS) research. The chimpanzees are presently located at the site of the incumbent contractor, the Southwest Research Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio, Texas. The contractor shall furnish housing and veterinary medical support to maintain and feed the NHLBI-owned chimpanzees. Request for Proposals (RFP) are now available; proposals are due October 31, 1991. One award is anticipated by the Government. Written requests for the RFP must include three labels, self-addressed with the mailing address, and must cite RFP No. NHLBI-HB-92-01. Requests for copies of the RFP are to be sent to: Jack E. Jackson, Contracting Officer, Blood Resources Branch, BDR Contracts Section, NHLBI, Federal Bldg., Rm. 5C14, Bethesda, MD 20892

Fogarty International Collaboration Awards

The Fogarty International Center, under a program of Central and Eastern European (including the USSR) and Latin American and Caribbean Initiatives, is providing small grants to U.S. grantee institutions to facilitate cooperation and collaboration between U.S. scientists and scientists in these regions. These small grants will provide funds to the foreign collaborators, through the U.S. grantee institution, for equipment and supplies at their home institution, and for travel expenses for both the U.S. Principal Investigator and the foreign collaborator. These awards are intended to support the new and expanded research efforts of U.S. scientists who are Principal Investigators of currently funded NIH research project grants on the general scientific subject of the proposed collaboration. No salaries or stipends for any of the collaborators, students, or technical assistants will be offered under these awards. The minimum small grant project period will be for one year; the maximum will be for three years. Applicants should be aware that applicable provisions for protections of human research subjects and laboratory animals must be met in domestic and foreign settings.

Deadlines for receipt of applications are October 1, February 1, and June 1 of each year. Special instructions are necessary and are available from Dr. David A. Wolff or Dr. Danuta Krotoski, International Research and Awards Branch, Fogarty International Center, NIH, Bldg 31, Room B2C21, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1653; FAX: 301-402-0779].

* * *

Travellers' Health Notes

Oral Rehydration Therapy

Everyone should know how to make and administer some form of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT). This knowledge is especially important when travelling in developing countries. Sometimes, despite one's best efforts, one may come down with traveler's diarrhea.

In our April issue (1991, 30[2], 15) we gave some formulas for ORT. A recent article in Scientific American (1991, 264[5], 50-56) by N. Hirschhorn and W. B. Greenough, III explains how ORT works and describes improvements in the ORT formula. The standard WHO formula for ORT is 3.5 g Sodium Chloride, 2.9 g Trisodium Citrate, 1.5 g Potassium Chloride, and 20 g glucose in a liter of water. It has recently been learned, however, that long chains of protein or starch work much better than glucose. Fluid absorption is greatly increased, and in addition the protein repairs the absorbing villus cells and the starch gives them energy. Powders made from common foods such as grains, legumes, and some roots contain both starch and protein, and are thus a valuable substitute for glucose.

ORT, in either the standard or the food-based form, restores appetite. The diarrhea patient should be encouraged to eat as soon as he can. His food should include protein, starch, and fat: Protein and starch to promote the integrity of the intestine, and fat for energy. Not only fluids are lost during diarrhea, but also vital nutrients. Feeding the patient will not only strengthen him and prevent malnutrition, but has the added benefit of shortening the episode of diarrhea. So Grandma was right: Chicken soup with noodles, rice or crackers is an excellent remedy! -- E. M.

Cholera Update

Epidemic cholera appeared in Peru in January 1991 and subsequently spread to Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, Mexico, and Guatemala. Several cases in the United States and Canada have been traced to travelers and seafood from these countries (See this Newsletter, 1991, 30[2 and 3]). In July, toxigenic V. cholerae O1 resembling the Latin-American strain was isolated by FDA researchers from oysters taken from closed oyster beds in Mobile Bay, AL. The spectrum of V. cholerae O1 infection ranges from asymptomatic through mild diarrhea to severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, often accompanied by leg cramps caused by electrolyte disturbances. Clinical suspicion should increase for persons returning from areas known to have epidemic cholera or persons with a recent history of ingestion of raw or undercooked shellfish.

All but severely dehydrated adults and children can be managed largely or completely with oral rehydration therapy (described above, and Ricelyte (®Mead Johnson) or Rehydralyte (®Ross Laboratories)). Effective antibiotics include doxycycline, tetracycline, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), erythromycin, and furazolidone. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1991, 40, 562-565.

Imported Dengue

In 1990, 24 confirmed cases of dengue were reported in the United States. Among the countries visited by the patients had been India, Thailand, Peru, New Guinea, and Mexico. Physicians should consider dengue in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with fever, headache, myalgia, rash, nausea, and vomiting, and a history of travel to tropical areas. In severe forms of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever, there may be petechiae, purpura, mild gum bleeding, nosebleeds, menorrhagia, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, aspirin should be avoided, and acetaminophen products used for management of fever. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1991, 40, 519-520.

Malaria Hotline Update

The Centers for Disease Control announce that their Voice Information Service [404-332-4555] has added facsimile capability to their 24-hour malaria hotline. By following the instructions, callers can receive on their fax machines information on malaria risk and prevention in Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, Central America and the Caribbean, Mexico, the Indian Subcontinent, and Oceania; special information for children and pregnant women; and a world map indicating areas with malaria transmission. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 1991, 40, 523.

* * *

Information Requested and Available

International Directory of Primatology

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, is compiling an international directory of primatology. The directory will encompass a broad range of organizations which have an active role in this field. The purpose of the directory is to improve communication and to foster cooperative research, training and the sharing of resources. Questionnaires have been sent out to over 200 organizations with a return deadline of September 30, 1991. Publication is slated for early 1992.

Included in the directory will be primate centers and related primate research programs, societies, associations, foundations, government agencies, SSP/CBSG's and other agencies related to primatology.

Any organizations related to the field which have not received a questionnaire, but would like to be represented in the directory should contact Larry Jacobsen, Head Librarian, who is coordinating this project, at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; FAX: 608-263-4031].

Funding for Primate Research

The ASP Research and Development Committee is compiling a document to identify those areas of research for which the use of nonhuman primates is essential, using for illustration a representative selection of primate studies that have made significant contributions in areas ranging from basic biology and behavior through biomedical and veterinary research to conservation issues. This document will be printed and distributed to major funding agencies to encourage informed peer review and support for primate research. The Committee is asking researchers to contribute short accounts (about 250 to 500 words) of relevant work, including references to publications. Please send your account, as soon as possible but no later than November 1, 1991, to Dr. Doris Zumpe, Biological Psychiatry Research Labs, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Georgia Mental Health Inst., 1256 Briarcliff Rd., NE, Atlanta, GA 30306 [FAX: 404-853-9490]. -- From the ASP Bulletin, 1991, 15[3], 4.

Import-Export Regulations

The Animal Transportation Association is introducing a bi-monthly publication, designed as a direct link to what's happening in USDA/APHIS as it pertains to changes in import and export health regulations. It alerts its subscribers to what regulations have changed and what's pending so they know when to contact the local AVIC for updated information. REG TALK will cost $15/year. For more information, contact Cherie Derouin, P.O. Box 797095,Dallas, TX 75379-7095 [214-713-9954].

Information on Black Howler Monkeys

Carol Sharp, a keeper at the Hogle Zoo in Salt Lake City, UT, is looking for information on black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), especially any articles or studies done on the high mortality of young black howler monkeys in captivity. She would also appreciate receiving any information comparing black howlers in the wild with their captive counterparts. Information on any films, books, magazine articles on this subject would be very helpful. Her address is: 2332 Maywood Dr., Salt Lake City, UT 84109 [E-mail: sharp@cc.utah.edu].

Animals in Education and Science Materials

Several items are available from ADAMHA. Let's Visit a Research Laboratory: Poster and lesson plans for elementary grades 2-5. Animals and Science: A Teacher's Guide: Outlines the proper use of animals in student investigations, the importance of biomedical research using animals, suggestions for teachers' action in support of animal use in education and research, and helpful resource materials. Animals and Science: Student Brochure: Explains to students the importance of continued use of animals in health research and education. Suggested resources, activities and guidelines for classroom use of animals are included. Animal Research: The Search for Life-Saving Answers: Suitable for varied audiences including the lay public, education and health leaders, students, legislators and their staff, and others. For ordering information, write to Public Affairs, U.S. Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration, Room 13C-05, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857.

Primate Specialist Group Newsletter

Asian Primates, a quarterly newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, is intended to serve as a vehicle for rapid communication among primatologists and conservationists working with Asian primates. Conservation alerts, reports from the field, and profiles of non-governmental organizations in habitat countries, along with announcements of meetings, job opportunities, and funding programs, will appear in its pages. The newsletter also is envisioned as providing a forum for the expression of opinion on pressing issues, such as the relative merits of in situ and ex situ conservation. The editor, Ardith A. Eudey, 164 Dayton Street, Upland, CA 91786, is calling for contributions and suggestions.

Capture Study Survey

Jane Phillips-Conroy and Cliff Jolly are completing a survey of capture studies done on free-ranging primates. We are interested in studies in which animals were captured and then released, rather than captured for transporting to a lab for later biological/behavioral studies. If you have not already been contacted by either of us, please either call or contact via E-mail, because we would like the survey to be as comprehensive as possible. We have a questionnaire that can be administered either by telephone or by E-mail, which asks questions about the nature of the project, field methods, data collected, mortality of study animals, and postcapture behavioral alterations. We hope to complete the paper imminently, so please contact one of us soon. Jane Phillips-Conroy, Dept. of Anatomy, Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63130 [314-362-3396; E-Mail: baboon@wums]; Cliff Jolly, Dept. of Anthropology, New York Univ., New York 10003 [212-998-8578; E-Mail: jolly@nyuacf].

1992 Assistantships and Internships

The Education Committee of the American Society of Primatologists is compiling its annual list of primate research and husbandry opportunities for students. If you have such opportunities, please contact Chris Duggleby, Dept. of Anthropology, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14261. The list will be published in the December 1991 and March 1992 ASP Bulletins. -- From the ASP Bulletin, 1991, 15[3 ], 17.

Macaca cyclopis Working Group

A. J. Petto and M. L. LaReau-Alves send the following note: The New England Regional Primate Research Center maintains a small colony of Formosan or Taiwanese rock macaques (M. cyclopis). There are about 40 colony-born animals of both sexes aged from one to about 20 years, and one wild female estimated to be about 11-12 years. We would like to form a working or study group with others interested in any aspect of behavior, biology, or evolution of this threatened species. We are now collecting baseline behavioral and reproductive data and compiling census and demographic data for the colony since its inception in 1967. Interested individuals should contact Dr. Andrew Petto, Primate Socioecology Laboratory, Div. of Behavioral Biology, NERPRC, P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102, USA. [508-624-8089; Fax: 508-624-8190; E-mail: petto2@husc3.harvard.edu].

Hylobates Information

Don Moore, Curator of Mammals, Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse, NY 13204 [315-435-8511] requests any facility or institution holding gibbons or siamangs, both breeding and non-breeding, to contact him. He would like to update and revise population status records. -- From the PSIC New Listings, 14:91.

* * *

Joint Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists and the Asociacion Mexicana de Primatologia

The 14th annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists was held in conjunction with the third bi-annual meeting of the Asociacion Mexicana de Primatologia in Veracruz, Mexico on June 24-28, 1991. This meeting appears to set the stage for the American Society of Primatologists to become more representative of primatologists throughout all the Americas, since the next meeting will occur in Canada. The local arrangement chair, Dr. Alejandro Estrada, worked very effectively with the program chair, Dr. R. J. Hutz, to put on a memorable meeting. Eleven paper sessions, two poster sessions, a keynote address, and four featured speakers were part of the program. There was also a banquet and business and committee meetings. Abstracts of all the papers presented have been published in American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 24[2].

Eleven paper sessions, two poster sessions, a keynote address, and four featured speakers were part of the program. There was also a banquet and business and committee meetings.

Two symposia seemed to be particularly suited for the location of the meetings. A symposium entitled Social ecology of stumptailed macaques: a Mexican-American cooperative NSF research experience for undergraduates project focused on the troop of stumptail macaques on Tanaxpillo Island in nearby Lake Catemaco. Many presentations focused on the comparative nature of the studies and the international cooperation that helped to make the study a success. Several participants in the meetings later visited the stumptail macaque group on which the symposium was focused.

Second, a special symposium entitled Conservation of Neotropical Primates underscores the considerable efforts by Central and South American Primatologists to preserve and study primates in their countries. Most of the presentations were in Spanish but English translations were broadcast through headsets, while those presentations in English were translated and broadcast in Spanish. Presentations were made by scientists and conservationists working in Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. The majority of presentations were made by scientists and conservationists from the countries in which the studies were conducted. Nearly all presentations correctly stressed the urgent need to protect the habitats of nonhuman primates in these countries. -- Reported by Dennis Rasmussen and Judith Schrier

* * *

News Brief: A Rwanda Update

The past few months have been unsettling, to say the least, for the mountain gorilla and those fighting for its preservation. In January, the war that had taken place in the northeastern part of Rwanda between rebels from neighboring Uganda and the Rwandan military extended into the Parc National des Volcans, home of the endangered species. Alarmed wildlife conservation groups worldwide appealed for an end to the violence. Among them was the Digit Fund, founded by the late Dian Fossey in 1978 to protect and study the endangered gorillas. An estimated 310 mountain gorillas are left in the world, all of them found in this region bordering Rwanda, Uganda and Zaire. Though a cease-fire went into effect March 29, conservationists still have reason to be concerned about the gorillas' welfare. We applaud this recent development, says Dianne Hitchingham, Managing Director of the Digit Fund, but remain deeply concerned after receiving the disturbing news that conservation workers checking on one of the gorilla groups were fired upon. Says Hitchingham, We urge all concernedabout the mountain gorilla to write or call their representatives in Congress.

For further information on the ever-changing situation in Rwanda, the mountain gorilla, or the Digit Fund, contact: Dianne Hitchingham, Managing Director, Digit Fund, 45 Inverness Drive East, Englewood, CO 80112 [303-790-1067, ext. 211]. -- From Wingbeat: News and Views from Voyageur Press, 1991, reported by Ray Hamel on the primate-talk electronic bulletin board.

* * *

Planned 1992 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research

An updated Directory will be published in the January, 1992, issue of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. If you wish your program to be represented in this Directory, or to revise your present entry, please send us the necessary information, following the format shown here as closely as possible. Return the information as soon as possible, but not later than December 10, 1991, to the Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 [primate@brownvm.bitnet or primate@brownvm.brown.edu]. Please note that the Directory is not intended for post-doctoral programs, though any such sent to us will be listed separately.

1. State:

2. Institution:

3. Division, Section, or Department:

4. Program Name and/or Description:

5. Faculty and Their Specialties:

6. Address for Further Information:

For examples, see the 1990 Directory in the LPN, 1990, 29 [1], 22-29.

* * *

Research Opportunities

AAAS Student Research Awards

Student affiliates of the American Psychological Association should take note that as part of an ongoing effort to encourage the development of young scientists and to recognize their achievements in all fields of scientific research, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) will highlight exceptional research by college and university students in a special poster session at the AAAS Annual Meeting, February 6-11, 1992 in Chicago. Undergraduate students and graduate students who wish to be considered for this distinction can apply by submitting brief abstracts of their research to AAAS. For complete instructions on how to submit abstracts, write: AAAS Meetings, Dept. SM, 1333 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. The deadline for abstracts is November 1, 1991.

Study at Monkey Jungle

Monkey Jungle is a commercial zoological park in Miami, FL, which was opened to the public in 1935. It is currently home to about 350 prosimians, monkeys, and apes, representing more than 30 species. The current research activities of the nonprofit DuMond Conservancy focus on the semifree-ranging populations maintained in two large areas of the subtropical hardwood hammock in which Monkey Jungle is located. One area is home to about 70 Macaca fascicularis, while the Rainforest contains Saimiri boliviensis, Cebus apella, Alouatta seniculus, and Saguinus fuscicollis.

It is possible for selected applicants to become involved in primate research on site. Application is made to Dr. Robert W. Cooper, Managing Director of the DuMond Conservancy, and projects that span broad aspects of primate biology are encouraged. Good veterinary support is available, as is access to a primate library. Researchers who undertake short term projects pay a room and facilities use fee of $85 per week; those whose projects run more than 2 weeks may either pay the fee or work for 20 hours/week in lieu of it. Accommodation is in a comfortable furnished house. Applications should be submitted well in advance of the desired starting date. Applications by student researchers must include a current, official university transcript and at least two letters of reference from professors who have knowledge of their qualifications. A negative TB skin test is required, and an up-to-date tetanus vaccination is recommended.

For further information contact Dr. Cooper, P.O. Box 246, Miami, FL 33170 [305-238-9981].

* * *

Address Changes

Alexandra C. Bakarich, Dept. of Experimental Surgery, Naval Hospital, San Diego-CID, San Diego, CA 92134.

Andre Menache, Hayovel 22/18, Raanana 43401, Israel.

Kathleen N. Morgan, Dept. of Psychology, Wheaton College, Norton, MA 02766.

Leonard C. Olson, NIH, Bldg. 14D, Rm. 301, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Douglas A. Powell, Dept. of Animal Investigation, P.O. Box 454, MAMC, Tacoma, WA 98431-5454.

Richard N. Rossan, PSC #02, Box 2209, APO AA 34002.

William R. Voss, Hazleton Research Products, Inc., 6321 S. 6th St., Kalamazoo, MI 49009-9611.

Frans de Waal, Dept. of Psychology, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322.

Linda D. Wolfe, Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC 27858-4353.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)

Books

*Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates. Volume 2. R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. Coimbra-Filho, & G. A. B. Fonseca (Eds.). Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund, 1988. 610 pp. [Price: $35. Order from R. A. Mittermeier, Dept. of Anatomical Sciences, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794]
. . Contents: Systematics: Species and subspecies -- an update, by R. M. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, and A. F. Coimbra-Filho. The pygmy marmoset, genus Cebuella, by P. Soini. The marmosets, genus Callithrix, by M. F. Stevenson & A. B. Rylands. The tamarins, genus Saguinus, by C. T. Snowdon & P. Soini. The lion tamarins, genus Leontopithecus, by R. T. Hoage & K. M. Green. The howling monkeys, genus Alouatta, by M. K. Neville, K. E. Glander, F. Braza, & A. B. Rylands. The spider monkeys, genus Ateles, by M. G. M. van Roosmalen & L. L. Klein. The woolly monkeys, genus Lagothrix, by M. Ramirez. The muriqui, genus Brachyteles, by A. Nishimura, G. A. B. da Fonseca, R. A. Mittermeier, A. L. Young, K. B. Strier, & C. M. C. Valle.

*Primatology Today. A. Ehara, T. Kimura, O. Takenaka, & M. Iwamoto (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1991. 732 + xxiv pp. [Price: $217]
. . Proceedings of the XIII Congress of the International Primatological Society, Nagoya and Kyoto, 18-24 July 1990.

*Titis New World Monkeys of the Genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A Preliminary Taxonomic Review. (Fieldiana Zoology New Series, No. 55, 1990, publication 1410). P. Hershkovitz. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1990. 109 pp.

*Multiple Births in Catarrhine Monkeys and Apes: A Review. T. Geissmann. Firenze: Editrice Il Sedicesimo, 1989. 77pp. [Price: 25,000 Lire]
. . Survey and analysis of 178 cases in 28 species, with an assessment of current hypotheses regarding occurrence, causes, and consequences of multiple births.

*Gravity, Posture and Locomotion in Primates. F. K. Jouffroy, M. H. Stack, & C. Niemitz (Eds.). Firenze: Editrice Il Sedicesimo, 1990. 278pp. [Price: 60,000 Lire]
. . Papers presented at an international symposium in 1986. Contents: General Framework and Background. Nonhuman primates as a model to study the effect of gravity on human and nonhuman locomotor systems, by F. K. Jouffroy, C. Niemitz, & M. H. Stack. Ecological adaptations related to locomotion in primates: An introduction, by P. CharlesDominique. Introduction to a comparative neurobiological approach to locomotion, by F. Clarac. An introduction to the history of primate locomotion, by M. Godinot. Effects of hypergravity on rat and dog bones, by E. Doden. Morphological and Theoretical Approaches to Gravity in Primate Locomotor Systems: The dependence of gait on size, speed, and gravity, by R. McN. Alexander. Scaling of postcranial joint size in hominoid primates, by W. L. Jungers. Size- and locomotion-related aspects of hominid and anthropoid pelves: An osteometrical multivariate analysis, by Ch. Berge. Gravity in primates and its relation to body shape and locomotion, by H. Preuschoft. The evolution of primate skin structures in relation to gravity and locomotor patterns, by C. Niemitz. The effects of gravity on the interrelationship between body proportions and brachiation in the gibbon, by N. YamaYamazaki. Experimental Approaches to Prosimian, Simian, and Human Locomotion: Size- and speed-related aspects of quadrupedal walking in slender and slow lorises, by B. Demes, W. L. Jungers, & U. Nieschalk. Gravity-related kinematic changes in lorisine horizontal locomotion in relation to position of the body, by F. K. Jouffroy & A. Petter. Comparative dynamics of pronograde and upside down horizontal quadrupedalism in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), by H. Ishida, F. K. Jouffroy, & Y. Nakano. Telemetered EMG study of the antigravity versus propulsive actions of knee and elbow muscles in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), by F. K. Jouffroy & J. T. Stern, Jr. Voluntary bipedal walking of infant chimpanzees, by T. Kimura. Postural activity of human muscles in natural stance, with consideration of myofibrous specialization in primates as adaptation to gravity, by M. Okada.

Booklets

*Puzzle Feeder for Orang Utans. S. Seymour & D. Shepherdson. London: UFAW, 1990. 3pp. [Free with self-addressed, stamped envelope, from UFAW, 8 Hamilton Close, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts. EN6 3QU, England]

Directories *Directory of the Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos 1991-1992. D. F. Hardy (Compiler). [Price: $15 from D. F. Hardy, C.A.U.Z., Dept. of Psychology, California State Univ., Northridge, CA 91335]

*Resources for Comparative Biomedical Research. A Research Resources Directory. Bethesda: National Inst. of Health, 1991. 72 pp. [Single copies may be obtained free of charge from the Research Resources Information Center, 1601 Research Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850]

Handbooks

*Handbook: Animal Models of Human Disease (Eighteenth Fascicle). C. C. Capen, T. C. Jones, & G. Migaki (Eds.). Washington, DC: Registry of Comparative Pathology, 1991. [Price: $16 in a binder, or $10 unbound. Send check or money order payable to UAREP, to Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000.]
. . Sixteen new studies and 11 supplemental updates from the American Journal of Pathology and the Comparative Pathology Bulletin. Four of the studies (meningoencephalocale, venereal papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma, Parkinsonian syndrome, and scrub typhus) and one of the supplements (saccular cerebral aneurysm) deal with primate models.

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

*ICLAS News, 1991, 1[1]. [ICLAS Secretariat, Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Kuopio, SF-70211 Kuopio, Finland]
. . This newsletter replaces the ICLAS Bulletin. The current issue includes a report on lab animal science in Yugoslavia.

*Important Laboratory Animal Resources: Selection Criteria and Fund- ing Mechanisms for their Preservation. Committee on Preservation of Laboratory Animal Resources, Inst. of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, NRC. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991. 32 pp. [Available from the Inst. of Laboratory Animal Resources, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418]
. . Reprinted from ILAR News, 1990, 32[4], this report contains assessments and recommendations for maintaining and supporting valuable animal resources.

Special Journal Issues

*Program and abstracts of the fourteenth annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists/Third biannual meeting of the Asociacion Mexicana de Primatologia, Emporio Hotel, Veracruz, Mexico, June 24-28, 1991. American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 24[2].

*Fertility in the great apes. American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 24[3-4].
. . Portions of the data presented at an international meeting held in Atlanta, June 15-17, 1989. Contents: Fertility in the great apes, by K. G. Gould. Advances in reproduction in captive, female great apes: Value of biotechniques, by N. M. Loskutoff, D. C. Kraemer, B. L. Raphael, S. L. Huntress, & D. E. Wildt. Copulatory frequency, urinary pregnanediol, and fertility in great apes, by R. D. Nadler & D. C. Collins. Cyclic changes in hormonal, physical, behavioral, and linguistic measures in a female lowland gorilla, by F. G. P. Patterson, C. L. Holts, & L. Saphire. Monitoring the ovarian cycles of Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus: A comparative approach, by J. F. Dahl, R. D. Nadler, & D. C. Collins. Mountain gorilla reproduction and sexual behavior, by D. P. Watts. Reproductive intervals in captive female western lowland gorillas with a comparison to wild mountain gorillas, by J. Sievert, W. B. Karesh, & V. Sunde. The potential role of mycoplasmas as autoantigens and immune complexes in chronic vascular pathogenesis, by H. W. Clark. Postpartum infertility in common chimpanzees, by C. E. Graham, E. J. Struthers, W. C. Hobson, T. McDonald, C. Faiman, M. T. Buckman, & D. C. Collins. National chimpanzee breeding program: Primate Research Institute, by W. C. Hobson, C. E. Graham, & T. J. Rowell. Improved sperm collection from the lowland gorilla: Recovery of sperm from bladder and urethra following electroejaculation, by N. Schaffer, R. S. Jeyendran, & B. Beehler. Diseases and pathology of chimpanzees at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, by G. B. Hubbard, D. R. Lee, & J. W. Eichberg. Assessment of luteal competency by urinary hormone evaluation in the captive female gorilla, by N. M. Czekala, T. Reichard, & B. L. Lasley. Real-time ultrasonography as a clinical and management tool to monitor pregnancy in a chimpanzee breeding colony, by D. R. Lee, T. J. Kuehl, & J. W. Eichberg.

Anatomy

*Positional behavior in the Hominoidea. Hunt, K. D. (Peabody Museum, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA 02138). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 95-118.
. . A review of quantitative studies lead to the conclusion that the morphological specializations of the apes may be adaptations to (1) the unique physical demands of arm-hanging and (2) less kinematically distinct, but still quantitatively significant, frequencies of vertical climbing.

Animal Models

*Chronic exposure to low doses of MPTP. II. Neurochemical and pathological consequences in cognitively-impaired, motor asymptomatic monkeys. Schneider, J. S. (Dept. of Neurology, Hahnemann Univ. School of Medicine, Broad & Vine Sts., Mail Stop 423, Philadelphia, PA 19102). Brain Research, 1990, 534, 25-36.
. . Examination of the brains of cynomolgus monkeys exposed to chronic low-dose (.01 to .175 mg/Kg I.V.) MPTP suggests this as a model for the early, compensated form of Parkinson's disease.

*Inhibition of CD18-dependent neutrophil adherence reduces organ injury after hemorrhagic shock in primates. Mileski, W. J., Winn, R. K., Vedder, N. B., Pohlman, T. H., Harlan, J. M., & Rice, C. L. (C. L. R., Dept. of Surgery ZA-16, 325 Ninth Ave., Seattle, WA 98104). Surgery, 1990, 108, 206-212.
. . Problems of interspecies variation in the response to injury and treatment have complicated the study of shock. This study shows that inhibition of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) adherence with CD18 monoclonal antibody significantly reduces PMN-mediated vascular and tissue injury after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. The demonstration of similar patterns of injury in rabbits, nonhuman primates, and humans suggests that the beneficial effects observed in the animal species may lead to a potentially useful strategy in humans.

Animal Welfare

*Issues for institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs). ILAR News, 1990, 32[4], 2-10.
. . Three related articles: Review standards for animal research: A closer look, by R. Dresser; AAALAC accreditation: Declining trends in deficiencies, by A. E. New; and USDA responds to questions from institutional animal care and use committees.

Behavior

*Dominance, age, and reproductive success in free-ranging female Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) . Borries, C., Sommer, V., & Srivastava, A. (Inst. fur Anthropologie, Univ. Gottingen, Burgerstr. 50, D-3400 Gottingen, Germany). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 231-257.
. . Correlations among female age, dominance, and reproduction were investigated for 12-years in free-ranging, provisioned Hanuman langurs. Results are discussed in light of the controversy over whether the langur social system is strongly influenced by kin selection. *Social influences on grooming site preferences among captive longtailed macaques. Moser, R., Cords, M., & Kummer, H. (Ethology & Wildlife Research, Zoological Inst., Univ. of Zurich-Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 217-230.
. . Several hypotheses are discussed to explain choice of body part for grooming with respect to 5 social parameters (age, kinship, sex, grooming frequency, and relative rank). The hypothesis that best explains the data is that recipients of grooming expose relatively invulnerable parts of their bodies to, and avoid eye contact with, groomers that are relatively dangerous.

*Intergenerational transmission of maternal rejection rates among free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Berman, C. M. (Dept. of Anthropology, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14261). Animal Behaviour, 1990, 39, 329-337.
. . Rejection rates for individual mothers were both reasonably consistent from infant to infant and similar to those of their own mothers, but daughters' rejection rates more closely resembled those that their mothers applied to their younger siblings than those they experienced themselves as infants.

Care

*Ivermectin toxicology in a rhesus macaque. Iliff-Sizemore, S. A., Partlow, M. R., & Kelley, S. T. (Div. of Primate Medicine, Oregon RPRC, Beaverton, OR 97006). Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 1990, 32, 530-532.
. . An indoor-housed, 3 1/2-year-old, 3.2 kg female rhesus was erroneously given 39 times the normally administered dose of 200 micrograms of ivermectin over 3 days. On the 4th day, she was weak and unsteady on her feet, her eyes were glazed, but she was responsive to stimuli, and appetite, hydration, and elimination were normal. No therapy was administered as the animal did not require supportive therapy and antidotal therapy was unavailable. By day 5, the animal had returned to normal activity and appearance.

*Variation in facility designs and management techniques: An opportunity. Fritz, J. & Nankivell, B. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 86, Tempe, AZ 85280). The Newsletter, 1991, 3[1], 3-5.
. . A brief overview of the varied methods and conditions of housing, enrichment, nutrition, etc., of chimpanzees in zoos and research and breeding facilities. In most cases, the records of such places, which should be a rich source of information, have not been analyzed.

*How to collect urine from a gorilla. Bond, M. (National Zool. Park, Washington, DC 20008). Gorilla Gazette, 1991, 5[2], 14-15.
. . Description of a shaping procedure, with drawings of a cement urinal used at the National Zoo.

Conservation

*Reintroduction of captive mammals for conservation: Guidelines for reintroducing endangered species into the wild. Kleiman, D. G. (Address same as above). BioScience, 1989, 39, 152-161.
. . Reintroduction is one of several ways to manage an endangered species and can be an important conservation strategy if guidelines are followed. Reintroduction should never override other approaches to conservation, but must work in tandem with them.

*Organization and management of endangered species programs. Clark, T. W. & Cragun, J. R. (School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT 06511). Endangered Species UPDATE, 1991, 8[8], 1-4.
. . Concepts, recommendations, and references concerning factors of an organizational nature, such as problem analysis and work group effectiveness, which are as important as good biology to species recovery programs.

Disease

*Gastric injury and invasion of parietal cells by spiral bacteria in rhesus monkeys: Are gastritis and hyperchlorhydria infectious diseases? Dubois, A., Tarnawski, A., Newell, D. G., Fiala, N., Dabros, W., Stachura, J., Krivan, H., & Heman-Ackah, L. M. (Dept. of Medicine, Uniformed Services Univ., 4301 Jones Bridge Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814-4799). Gastroenterology, 1991, 100, 884-891.
. . Helicobacter pylori-like, but not "Gastrospirillum hominis"- like, organisms cause gastritis while not modifying acid output; "G. hominis"-like, but not H. pylori-like organisms, invade and on occasion damage parietal cells while apparently causing hyperchlorhydria; and the rhesus monkey appears to be a good model for the study of gastric infection with spiral bacteria.

*SIV, STLV-I, and type D retrovirus antibodies in captive rhesus macaques and immunoblot reactivity to SIV p27 in human and rhesus monkey sera. Lairmore, M. D., Lerche, N. W., Schultz, K. T., Stone, C. M., Brown, B. G., Hermann, L. M., Yee, J. A., & Jennings, M. (Dept. of Veterinary Pathobiology, Ohio State Univ., 1925 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 43210). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1990, 6, 1233-1238.
. . 1229 rhesus monkeys from 2 research colonies and 165 humans from various groups were tested for STLV-1, SIV, and SRV-D antibodies. The results underscore the need to adopt criteria for a positive SIV serologic test requiring reactivity against more than one viral gene product, illustrate a potential problem in the testing of human sera for antibodies against simian retroviruses, and also demonstrate the need for caution in the interpretation of immunoblot results.

*Conserved and divergent features of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Franchini, G. & Wong-Staal, F. (National Cancer Inst., NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). In S. D. Putney & D. P. Bolognesi (Eds.), AIDS Vaccine Research and Clinical Trials (pp. 107-119). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1990.
. . Summary of the genetic similarities and differences which could be relevant to the biological effects in vitro and in vivo, of HIV-1, HIV-2, and ISV, with particular references to the isolates analyzed in the authors' laboratory.

*Persistent infection of rhesus macaques with a molecular clone of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: Evidence of minimal genetic drift and low pathogenetic effects. Franchini, G., Markham, P., Gard, E., Fargnoli, K., Keubaruwa, S., Jagodzinski, L., Robert-Guroff, M., Lusso, P., Ford, G., Wong-Staal, F., & Gallo, R. C. (Address same as above). Journal of Virology, 1990, 64, 4462-4467.
. . Two of two rhesus were successfully infected with molecularly cloned HIV-2sbl/isy virus, and one of two with uncloned HIV-2nih-z virus. The animals remained healthy, but intermittent lymphadenopathy and a transient decrease in the absolute number of circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes were observed in the animals infected with the cloned virus. The data suggest that HIV-2sbl/isy in rhesus macaques may represent a good animal model system to study prevention of viral infection.

*Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Lipman, N. S., Schelling, S. H., Otto, G., & Murphy, J. C. (Div. of Comparative Medicine, MIT, 37 Vassar St., 45-107, Cambridge, MA 02139). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 82-88.
. . A juvenile rhesus developed a symmetrical erosive polyarthritis involving both large and small diarthroidal joints. Neither an infectious nor a metabolic etiology could be determined. This case shares many clinical and pathological features with the polyarticular form of human juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

Instruments & Techniques

*Motor activity of squirrel monkeys measured with an ultrasonic motion sensor. Holtzman, S. G. & Young, C. W. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Emory Univ., School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322). Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 1991, 38, 633-637.
. . A system for measuring the motor activity of individual monkeys in the home cage, which can distinguish between movements of greater than or less than 1 second, and between number of movements and time spent in motion. Diurnal pattern of spontaneous activity is illustrated along with the dose-dependent effects of d-amphetamine and haloperidol.

*Quantitation of serum immunoglobulins G, M, and A in the rhesus monkey (M. mulatta) using human monospecific antisera in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: Developmental aspects. Tryphonas, H., Karpinski, K., O'Grady, L., & Hayward, S. (Toxicology Research Div., Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health & Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OL2, Canada). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 58-66.
. . The micro-ELISA sandwich technique was shown to be specific, reliable, sensitive, and economical for use in the routine measurement of total serum IgG, IgM, and IgA levels in the rhesus monkey.

Nutrition

*Laminar analysis of the number of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in the visual cortex (area 17) of 3-month-old rhesus monkeys fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation from birth. Palackal, T., Kujawa, M., Moretz, R., Neuringer, M., & Sturman, J. (J. S., Dept. of Developmental Biochemistry, New York State Inst. for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Rd., Staten Island, NY 10314). Developmental Neuroscience, 1991, 13, 20-33.
. . The numerical density of neurons in layers IV-CA and V-2 was significantly greater in taurine-supplemented rhesus monkeys than in those fed a taurine-free formula; the numerical density of astrocytes in layer IV-A was significantly greater and in layer IV-CA was significantly smaller in the taurine-supplemented monkeys. These are developmental disadvantages in addition to those previously reported.

*Postingestional effects of a high-protein diet on the regulation of food intake in monkeys. Hannah, J. S., Dubey, A. K., & Hansen, B. C. (Obesity & Metabolism Res. Lab., MSTF 6-00, 10 S. Pine St., Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1990, 52, 320-325.
. . An immediate reduction in food intake was observed in rhesus monkeys ingesting a 50%-protein diet, and this reduction of total calories persisted throughout the 3-6 week experimental period, and was independent of sensory cues associated with diet acceptance. The data support the possibility that a high-protein diet may have a valid role in decreasing appetite and food intake.

*The diet of the capped langur (Presbytis pileata) in a moist deciduous forest in Bangladesh. Stanford, C. B. (Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). International Journal of Primatology, 1991, 12, 199-216.
. . Data on diet and food availability support the hypothesis that colobine feeding strategy is adapted to cope with seasonal food scarcity.

*Studies on the effect of dietary fish oil on the physical and chemical properties of low density lipoproteins in cynomolgus monkeys. Parks, J. S. & Gebre, A. K. (Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest Univ., 300 S. Hawthorne Rd., Winston-Salem, NC 27103). Journal of Lipid Research, 1991, 32, 305-315.
. . Significantly lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apoE concentrations were found when animals were consuming a fish oil versus a lard diet, respectively, but total plasma cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDS), and apoB levels were not affected. Striking changes in the physical and chemical properties of plasma LDL can occur when fish oil is isocalorically substituted for lard in the diet with no apparent effect on total plasma or LDL cholesterol concentrations.

*Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function. Murphy, M. G. (Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Bldg., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4H7). Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 1990, 1, 68-79.
. . A review of current information regarding the effects of diet- induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes. Dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function.

*Behavior modification of lowland gorillas at the Cologne Zoo. Rumpler, U. (Cologne Zoo, Riehler Strasse 173, D-5000 Cologne 60, Germany). (Translated by H. Gilman) Gorilla Gazette, 1991, 5[2], 2-6.
. . A change of diet eliminated copraphagy and vomiting. Sweets and high-protein foods were eliminated, while foliage, hay, and vegetables were increased.

Physiology

*Proteins: Biologically relevant components of the scent marks of a primate (Saguinus fuscicollis). Belcher, A. M., Epple, G., Greenfield, K. L., Richards, L. E., Kuderling, I., & Smith, A. B. III. (Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19104). Chemical Senses, 1990, 15, 431-446.
. . Proteins from urine and from gland secretions are a component of what constitutes the scent image for saddle-back tamarins. They may also serve as carriers and/or reservoirs for more volatile ligands that encode some of the messages contained in the material.

*Massive cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentiation in adult macaques. Pons, T. P., Garraghty, P. E., Ommaya, A. K., Kaas, J. H., Taub, E., & Mishkin, M. (Lab. of Neuropsychology, NIMH, Bldg. 9, Room 1N107, Bethesda, MD 20892). Science, 1991, 252, 1857-1860.
. . After extensive long-term deafferentiations in adult primates, changes in cortical maps were found to be an order of magnitude greater than those previously described.

*Famous monkeys provide surprising results. Palca, J. Science, 1991, 252, 1789.
. . A news article describing the background and some of the political effects of the above article.

*Anabolic-androgenic steroids: Effects on social behavior and baseline heart rate. Rejeski, W. J., Gregg, E., Kaplan, J. R., & Manuck, S. B. (Dept. of Health & Sport Science, Box 7234, Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC 27109). Health Psychology, 1990, 9, 774-791.
. . Half of 24 male cynomolgus monkeys were treated with anabolicandrogenic steroids (AS). The animals were kept in 4 social groups of 6, half treated, half control. All dominant animals exhibited increased dominant behavior and all subordinates manifested increased submission. Affiliative behaviors decreased among all animals, and for the most part had not returned 8 weeks after the last treatment. AS created an increase in baseline heart rate among dominant animals, while subordinate AS animals experienced a decrease.

*Behavioral and immunological consequences of brief mother-infant separation: A species comparison. Laudenslager, M. L., Held, P. E., Boccia, M. L., Reite, M. L., & Cohen, J. J. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Dept. of Psychiatry, 700 Delaware St., Denver, CO 80204). Developmental Psychobiology, 1990, 23, 247-264.
. . Seven-month-old bonnet and pigtail macaques were studied before, during, and after a 2-week period during which their mothers were removed from their social groups. In both species, the brief maternal separations were associated with species dependent changes in the behavior of the infant, while immunological changes were significantly related to the behavioral responses. Reproduction

*Nursing does affect the duration of the post-partum to ovulation interval in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Ziegler, T. E., Widowshi, T. M., Larson, M. L., & Snowdon, C. T. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1202 W. Johnson St., Madison, WI 53706). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1990, 90, 563-570.
. . In 25 post-partum intervals, neither mother's parity nor sex of infant influenced the length of past-partum to ovulation interval. The interval for females nursing 2 infants was twice as long as for those not nursing, or nursing 1 infant. Neither family size nor the amount of time the mother was in contact with infants correlated with the length of the interval, but there was a positive correlation between the percentage time that mothers nursed 1 infant at a time and the length of the interval.

*The effects of early experience on adult copulatory behavior in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A preliminary report. King, N. E. & Mellen, J. D. (Washington Park Zoo, 4001 S.W. Canyon Rd., Portland, OR 97221). The Newsletter, 1991, 3[1], 1-3.
. . Results of a survey of 61 chimpanzees born in North American zoos, attempting to determine which aspects of their early experience predict adult reproductive success. Results suggest that if an animal must be hand-raised and cannot be returned to a group, using it in a show helps to provide a rich and varied environment.

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In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

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  • Contents of Volumes 28-30 (1989-1992)

    * * *

    NOTE: All printed back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are available at $3 each.

    All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
    Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
    Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
    Judith_Schrier@brown.edu

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
    Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
    Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.

    Cover drawing of a drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) by Dr. Robert M. George, Department of Anatomy, University of South Carolina

    Copyright @1992 by Brown University

    Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M. Sc.
    Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
    Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
    Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B. A.
    Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.