VOLUME 31 NUMBER 3 JULY 1992
Articles and Notes
Difficulty in Training Juvenile Rhesus Macaques to Actively Cooperate during Venipuncture in the Homecage, by V Reinhardt...... 1
Natural Migration Patterns Predict Escapes from a Colony of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata), by S. M. Lehman & L. L. Taylor...... 3
Effect of an Enrichment Device on Stereotypic and Self-Aggressive Behaviors in Singly-Caged Macaques: A Pilot Study, by L. M. Watson...... 8
Avoiding Aggression During and After Pair Formation of Adult Rhesus Macaques, by V. Reinhardt...... 10
Wind Direction is Associated with Daily Variation in Use of an Island by a Troop of Stumptail Macaques (Macaca arctoides), by D R. Rasmussen, R. Biggs, & R. Gorena...... 12
Seed Ingestion and Gastrointestinal Health in Tamarins? by E W. Heymann...... 15
News, Information, and Announcements
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Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
In-homecage training protocols have been described to ensure the cooperation of adult laboratory nonhuman primates during various handling procedures such as vaginal swabbing and venipuncture (Bunyak et al., 1982), blood pressure measurement (Turkkan, 1990), topical application of drugs (Reinhardt & Cowley, 1990), and intramuscular injection (Priest, 1991). Working with cooperating rather than fearfully resisting animals enhances personnel safety and minimizes animals' distress.
The potential risk, however, involved in training conscious, unrestrained adult nonhuman primates is a deterrent for many investigators. This explains why these techniques have been tested only sporadically in very few animals.
Training very young nonhuman primates that display no aggressive reactions when physically handled, and reinforcing the training into adulthood, may be a more acceptable approach. In the present study an attempt was made to a) determine the age at which juvenile rhesus macaques do not respond with overt aggression to being handled, and b) train such individuals to actively cooperate during the most common handling procedure, i.e., venipuncture.
The subjects were 14 female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 13-18 months of age. They were mother-reared, and lived as 7 pairs of same-aged companions. Each pair was housed in a 85 x 85 x 85 cm squeeze-back cage. Inanimate environmental enrichment consisted of a swing and a gnawing stick.
The animals were screened by restricting them to the front quarter of their cages (by means of the squeeze-backs) and attempting to catch each subject by hand.
Of the 14 juvenile macaques, 8 tried to bite the author during the screening tests. These animals ranged in age between 16 and 18 months. The remaining 6 juveniles were 13 to 14 months old. None of them tried to bite; it was therefore decided to attempt to train them for in-homecage venipuncture.
During the training, pairs were again restricted to the front quarter of their cages, leaving them enough room to comfortably move
around. Stepwise attempts were then made to:
*1. Gently stroke each animal.
*2. Briefly hold one of its legs.
*3. Gently pull the leg through the open cage door.
*4. Puncture a saphenous vein.
*5. Condition the subject to voluntarily present a leg behind or through the cage opening for venipuncture. Subjects resisting the conditioning process were not punished but treated with special patience. Training sessions lasted 30 seconds to 5 minutes. They included both cagemates in random sequence and were concluded by offering favored food through the mesh of the cage.
Training was successful in only 2 cases: Bobby and Circle were companions; they stopped resisting having a leg pulled out of the cage and a blood sample taken after a total of 27 min distributed over 20 training sessions, and 30 min over 22 sessions, respectively. Circle voluntarily extended a leg through the cage opening for venipuncture after 47 min (38 sessions). Bobby presented a leg behind the cage opening after 46 min (37 sessions). The cooperativeness of both was reconfirmed consistently by tri-weekly subsequent testings during a 11-month follow-up period. Neither of the two animals ever tried to bite or escape on these occasions.
The training was unsuccessful in the 4 other cases. Both partners of the second pair stopped resisting having a leg pulled out of the cage after 33 min (24 sessions) and 43 min (34 sessions), respectively. However, they invariably refused to cooperate any further. After a total of 120 min distributed over 75 sessions, neither was willing to present a leg for venipuncture. The training was stopped at this point. The two monkeys of the third pair were worked with, each for a total of 60 min during 42 sessions. They did not overcome their fear (temporary diarrhea, grinning) during this time, and both vigorously resisted (clinging to squeeze-back, screaming) having a leg pulled out of the cage. The training was discontinued to avoid further distress to the animals.
In contrast to juveniles older than 15 months, younger animals did not try to bite when being caught and handled. This suggests that rhesus macaques younger than 15 months have not yet developed the species-characteristic aggressive defense reaction against physical contact with humans. It would therefore seem appropriate to initiate any training program involving physical handling at this early age, to eliminate the risk of being bitten. Bobby and Circle never tried to bite throughout the 11-month follow-up period. They retained their original tolerance to being handled even at 25 months, an age at which aggressive defense reactions are normally expected.
While training the 6 juveniles was successful in only 33% of cases, a success rate of 100% was reported in a sample of 10 adult pair-housed and 5 single-housed male rhesus macaques (Reinhardt, 1991). What could account for this difference? The juveniles, unlike adults, probably had difficulty mastering their natural fear. Their learning capacity was thus inhibited, and most of them stubbornly refused to cooperate. A similar phenomenon has been described (Reinhardt et al., 1987) in a troop of captive rhesus macaques that were regularly caught one by one to be weighed. The monkeys were frightened into temporarily leaving their familiar home environment. Older animals readily learned to overcome their anxiety with the prospect of quickly returning to their home quarters, while younger animals continued to try to avoid being caught, thereby exposing themselves to prolonged distress.
The relatively large amount of time invested with little success does not make training of juvenile rhesus macaques attractive enough to be recommended as a routine management procedure.
Bunyak, S., Harvey, N. C., Rhine, R. J., & Wilson, M. I. (1982). Venipuncture and vaginal swabbing in an enclosure occupied by a mixed-sex group of stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). American Journal of Primatology, 2, 201-204.
Priest, G. M. (1991). Training a diabetic drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to accept insulin injections and venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30, 1-4.
Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A. & Houser, W. D. (1987). Prompted progression order in a troop of captive rhesus monkeys. Folia Primatologica, 48, 121-124.
Reinhardt, V. & Cowley, D. (1990). Training stumptailed monkeys to cooperate during in-homecage treatment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29 , 9-10.
Reinhardt, V. (1991). Training adult male rhesus monkeys to actively cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Animal Technology, 42, 11-17.
Reinhardt, V. (1992). Impact of venipuncture on physiological research conducted in conscious macaques. Journal of Experimental Animal Science, in press.
Turrkan, J. S. (1990). New methodology for measuring blood pressure in awake baboons with use of behavioral training. Journal of Medical Primatology, 19, 455-466.
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223
Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
I am thankful to my wife Annie for providing very constructive comments on this manuscript and to Jackie Kinney for proof reading.
This study was supported by NIH grant RR-00167 to the WRPRC; publication number 32-001.
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Shawn M. Lehman and Linda L. Taylor
Washington University and University of Miami
Preventing nonhuman primates from escaping from their captive habitats has always been a major concern. Singly-housed laboratory primates may escape from their cages. However, most animals are still contained within a building and can eventually be recaptured. Escapes from large, outdoor breeding enclosures, on the other hand, can be a particularly difficult problem because there may be no secondary containment system once a perimeter fence has been breached. As the number of captive corral breeding programs for nonhuman primates increases, so does the problem of predicting and preventing escapes. To date, little is known about how and why escapes occur from such facilities. Few data concerning escapes have been reported (Emlen, 1991), perhaps because of the untoward nature of these events.
Studies of the behavior of free-ranging primates may provide some insights as to which individuals are most prone to attempt escapes from captive colonies. Analyses of various primate social organizations have shown that male emigration from the natal social group is a common phenomenon (e.g., Colvin, 1983; Jones, 1983; cf. chimpanzees [Pusey & Packer, 1987]). Although males may emigrate from adolescence through adulthood, the modal age classes are usually juveniles and sub-adults (Colvin, 1983). For example, a study by Sugiyama (1976) of the life history patterns of male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) noted that most males emigrated from their natal troops while still juveniles (2.5 years of age).
The ultimate causes of emigration may be to avoid inbreeding (Pusey & Packer, 1987). The proximal causes of male emigration are poorly understood to date. Colvin (1983) suggested that changes in male peer networks may be the most important factor influencing male emigration. However, few studies have attempted to document the contextual factors that alter adolescent male social networks. Despite the lack of systematic data on the proximal causes of male emigration, we hypothesized that natural emigration patterns may provide a method of determining who is most likely to attempt escapes from captive colonies. Specifically, those age/sex classes who leave their natal groups in the wild would represent those individuals most likely to attempt to leave ("escape" from) a captive natal group.
In this report we present systematic data from a study of escapes from a corral breeding enclosure of Japanese macaques. We wanted to determine if emigration patterns seen in free-ranging Japanese macaque populations could be used to determine if certain captive individuals (i.e., young males) would be more likely to escape than others.
In 1972, Japanese macaques were translocated from Arashiyama, Japan to the Arashiyama West Instutite (AWI) in Laredo, TX (Fedigan et al., 1983). In 1975, the population was relocated to a 24 ha enclosure outside Dilley, TX (Clark & Mano, 1975). The enclosure contains native brushland and is bounded by an electrified perimeter fence. Descriptions of the local flora and fauna, macaque diet and social organization have been given elsewhere (Gouzoules et al., 1981; Fedigan et al, 1983).
The AWI macaque population numbered 479 animals at the time of our study (Table 1). Animals were provisioned daily with grain, fruits, and commercial cattle food and were free to forage on vegetation in the enclosure. The population density for the enclosure was 501 sq. m./animal and the sex ratio was 1.3 males to 1 female. All animals were identified by chest or facial tattoos. All tattooed monkeys were of known age, sex, and matriline.
+-----------------+-------+--------+--------------+ | | Age | | Percentage | | Age/Sex Class |(years)| Number |of total group| +-----------------+-------+--------+--------------+ |Infant males | <1 | 77 | 16 | |Infant females | <1 | 85 | 18 | |Juvenile males | 1-4 | 80 | 17 | |Juvenile females | 1-4 | 61 | 13 | |Sub-adult males | 5-9 | 40 | 8 | |Sub-adult females| 5-6 | 26 | 5 | |Adult males | 10+ | 21 | 4 | |Adult females | 7+ | 89 | 19 | +-----------------+-------+--------+--------------+
L. Griffin-O'Neill (manager) reported that animals were frequently observed to "escape" from the enclosure despite the electrified fence. Data were gathered by noting sex, age class, and fence crossing method (i.e., escape) for each animal exiting the enclosure from May 2 to 28, 1988. Data were recorded between 07:00 and 20:00 hours. Data on two aspects of escapes were noted -- events and animals. An escape event was defined as an occurrence when one or more animals exited the enclosure despite the fence. A period of thirty seconds or more was required to distinguish discrete events. An escaping animal was defined as any macaque who crossed over, under, or through the electrified fence either alone or in a group.
Chi-square (X2) tests were done to determine if the frequency distribution of escaping animals, as measured by their age/sex class, differed significantly from their representation in the group as a whole. All statistical tests were two-tailed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
A total of 85 animals were observed as they escaped in 41 separate events. Two means of escape were observed: (1) exiting via wooden, nonconductive fence support poles (N = 33, 80%), or (2) exiting via holes under the fence (N = 8, 20%).
Figure 1a shows the proportion of expected versus observed escapes by sex class. Males and females did not escape with equal frequency (X2 = 21.6, d.f. = 1, p = .001). Males accounted for more than 70.6% (N = 60) of all escapees, although they constituted only 44% (N = 210) of the population. Females escaped only 25 times (29.5%) despite their comprising 56% (N = 269) of the overall population.
[Figure 1]: Proportion of observed versus expected escapes by (a) sex and (b) age class.
Figure 1b illustrates the proportion of observed versus expected escapes by age class. Infants escaped only while being carried, and were not considered in our analyses. Escape frequencies differed significantly by age class (X2 = 65.2, d.f. = 3, p = .001). Juveniles accounted for 59% (N = 50) of escapes despite their accounting for only 30% (N = 141) of the total population. Sub-adults (N = 24) were the next most prevalent escapers.
The proportion of observed versus expected escapes by age/sex class are presented in Figure 2. Escape frequencies differed significantly by age/sex class (X2 = 70.0, d.f. = 5, p = .001). Juvenile and sub-adult males accounted for 65% (N = 54) of the escapes although they constituted only 25% (N = 120) of the corral's population. Juvenile females (13%) were the next most frequent escapers. Adult females escaped only 6 times despite the fact that they comprised the largest single age/sex class of the population (N = 89). Adult males (N = 5)
[Figure 2]: Proportion of observed versus expected escapes by age/sex class.
and sub-adult females (N = 3) escaped infrequently and both accounted for the smallest portion of the population at 4% (N = 21) and 5% (N = 26), respectively.
Our data illustrate differential escape frequencies for the following variables: site and age/sex class. We found that holes were the preferred escape route; perhaps because they offered the least risk of shock. The lowest charged wire was approximately 25.4 cm above the ground and macaques could crawl through the holes without contacting the hot wire. Although there have been reports of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) excavating holes to obtain drinking water (Lehman et al., 1992), we did not observe any AWI monkeys digging holes under the fence. The colony manager informed us that the holes were dug by feral pigs and/or peccaries (L. Griffin-O'Neill, pers. comm.).
Juvenile and sub-adult males escaped most frequently from AWI. Thus, the hypothesis that young males would be most likely to escape was supported. These data conform well with observations made in other studies of the population dynamics of Arashiyama West population (Clark & Mano, 1975; Fedigan et al., 1983). Of the 23 instances of animal disappearance/emigrations recorded at AWI from 1972-1979, most were by young males (43.4% of all cases).
We suggest that the high escape frequency for young males may be explained, in part, by two related factors: species-typical behavior and resource availability. First, behavior typical of the species may influence escape frequencies because, among free-ranging Japanese macaques, young males (3-4 years of age) usually migrate from their natal troops (Sugiyama, 1976; Kawanaka, 1977). Young males at AWI may have been responding to the same cues that are the impetus for most young males to leave their natal troops at this age. Thus, the young males in our study were exhibiting a behavior pattern appropriate for the species, although inappropriate for the setting.
Second, resource availability may have caused the patterns we observed. A preliminary investigation by Clark (1979) revealed that the AWI macaques preferred indigenous plant food to monkey chow. When the macaques were first introduced into this enclosure, it was covered with native south Texas vegetation. However, the macaques have eaten most of the edible plants. Plant cover, similar to that which used to be inside the enclosure, exists within view. Therefore, macaques may be exiting the enclosure to feed on nearby vegetation because the interior of the corral has been denuded. Our supposition is strengthened by the fact that the young males re-enter the enclosure after feeding (L. Griffin-O'Neill, pers. comm.).
We suggest that the problem of escapes from this or other captive
colonies of male-migrating species may be ameliorated or eliminated.
The frequency of escapes can be significantly reduced by three measures:
*1) imbedding the bottom of the fence in concrete footings;
*2) instituting a management policy that mimics the timing of migration and group re-entry of wild males by removing males from their natal groups during their third to fourth years, holding them in bachelor groups, and reintroducing them to a new group during the breeding season of their seventh year; and
*3) providing browse inside the enclosure, either by harvesting the browse from outside, or subdividing the enclosure into several smaller areas and rotating animals between these subdivisions after the vegetation has had a chance to recover.
Clark, T. W. & Mano, T. (1975). Transplantation and adaptation of a trooop of Japanese macaques to a Texas brushland habitat. In S. Kondo, M. Kawai, & A. Ehara (Eds.), Contemporary Primatology (pp. 358-361). Basel: Karger.
Clark, T. W. (1979). Food adaptations of a transplanted Japanese macaque troop (Arashiyama West). Primates, 20, 399-410.
Colvin, J. (1983). Influences of the social situation on male emigration. In R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Primate Social Relationships (pp. 160-171). Sunderland: Sinauer.
Emlen, J. (1991). Foreward. In L. M. Fedigan & P. J. Asquith (Eds.), The Monkeys of Arashiyama: 35 Years in Japan and the West (pp. i-xiv). Albany: SUNY Press.
Fedigan, L. M., Gouzoules, H., & Gouzoules, S. (1983). Population dynamics of Arashiyama West Japanese macaques. International Journal of Primatology, 4, 307-321.
Gouzoules, H., Gouzoules, S., & Fedigan, L. (1981). Japanese monkey group translocation: Effects on seasonal breeding. International Journal of Primatology, 2, 323-334.
Jones, K. C. (1983). Inter-troop transfer of Lemur catta males at Berenty, Madagascar. Folia Primatologica, 40, 145-160.
Kawanaka, K. (1977). Division of males in a Japanese monkey troop on the basis of numerical data. Bulletin of the Hiruzen Research Institute, 3, 11-44.
Lehman, S. M., Overdorff, D. J., & Lessnau, R. G. (1992). Drinking from saltwater sources by free-ranging rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 27, 43.
Pusey, A. E. & Packer, C. (1987). Dispersal and philopatry. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies (pp.250-266). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sugiyama, Y. (1976). Life history of male Japanese monkeys. In J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, E. Shaw, & C. Beer (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 7 (pp. 20-52). New York: Academic Press.
Second author's address: Dept. of Anthropology and Div. of Veterinary Resources, Univ. of Miami, Miami, FL 33177.
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Lyna M. Watson
New England Regional Primate Research Center
Few investigations have focused on quantifying effects of enrichment devices on frequencies of macaques' stereotypic and self-aggressive behaviors. Bryant et al. (1988) studied 6 male Macaca fascicularis which were transferred daily from their single home cages to an enriched playpen cage. The animals' stereotypic and self-aggressive behaviors decreased while in the pen, and their locomotor activity increased upon return to the home cage. Both Bayne et al. (1991) and Line & Morgan (1991) recorded abnormal behaviors in singly-housed adult M. mulatta. Bayne et al. offered a foraging/grooming board. Abnormal behaviors decreased, but were not eliminated, during the experimental phase. Line & Morgan (1991) found that novel objects (balls and sticks) had no significant effect in reducing stereotypic locomotion or self-abusive behaviors.
In an attempt to obtain a more precise definition of psychological
well-being, the present study addressed four specific questions:
*1. Does the presence of a puzzlefeeder affect the rate of stereotypic activity?
*2. Would stereotypic behavior change when treats are added to the feeder?
*3. Would stereotypic behavior differ pre- and post-removal of the feeder?
*4. Would stereotypic behavior differ during the first week the feeder is used and the first week it was reintroduced after a one-week period without it?
Materials and Methods
Subjects: Subjects were two adult male M. fascicularis (aged 9 and 7 years), who exhibited stereotypic and/or self-aggressive behaviors. Both were born off-site, and nursery-reared for the first 8 months of their lives. During this period of partial isolation they had auditory, olfactory, and visual contact with conspecifics, but no direct physical contact. They were then moved to the New England Regional Primate Research Center, where they are now housed individually. Both are now subjects in non-invasive dental research. Neither animal was subjected to any direct dental work for the 4 months preceding the onset of this study. During this study both animals were individually housed in different rooms with nine other singly-caged conspecifics. They were kept in standard cages measuring .60 x .66 x .80 m., and were fed Agway Prolab 18 monkey chow twice daily. Water was available ad libitum. Fruit was given twice a week.
Apparatus: An acrylic puzzlefeeder, 30.5 x 15 x 5 cm (Primate Products, Redwood City, CA), was used (see Bloom & Cook, 1989, for description). Peanuts (with shells), grapes, raisins, bits of carrot or apple, and "Primatreats" (Bioserve Corp., Frenchtown, NJ) were placed in the feeder. Both monkeys required a brief demonstration on the use of the feeder, and mastered the device within two minutes.
Procedure: After a 2-week acclimation, the study was five weeks long. For week one, a baseline rate of behavior was obtained for both monkeys. For weeks 2 and 3, each animal had a puzzlefeeder attached to its cage. In week 4, the feeder was removed, and during the final week, reattached. The observer positioned herself about 3 feet from the front of the cages to obtain a full view of the animals' activities and interactions with the feeder. During the entire study, observations were made 3 times/day, 4 days/week, between 7-9 am, 11am-1 pm, and 2-4 pm. During weeks 2, 3, and 5, the feeders stayed attached to the cages except for cleaning. In one of the three daily sessions (counter-balanced), the feeders were left empty, to assess the effects of the feeder alone. Each animal was observed for 15 minutes/session using a modified frequency count in which the presence or absence of 18 behaviors were recorded at 15 second intervals. Total observation time was 900 minutes per monkey.
Stereotypic behaviors were assigned to one of three categories.
*"Self-directed": self-biting, self-grasping, saluting, eye-poking, floating limb, masturbation, hair pulling, and excessive licking.
*"Cage-directed": cage shaking or rubbing.
*Locomotor activity: pacing or rocking. Six general behaviors were also recorded: passive exploration, drinking, eating, foraging, grooming, and visual or tactile exploration of the feeder. Descriptions of these behaviors may be found elsewhere (see Allyn et al., 1976; Erwin & Deni, 1979).
Statistical Analysis: Total frequencies for each of the 13 stereotypic behaviors were summed across trials (intervals). T tests were performed on the combined frequency data for both animals with p less-than-or-equal-to (LE) .05 the level of significance. An analysis of variance was applied to each behavior for all 4 phases of the study.
Comparing the baseline period (week 1) and periods with the puzzle-feeder (weeks 2, 3, and 5), four of the self-directed behaviors, self-biting (p LE .040), floating limb (p LE .020), hair pulling (p LE .003), and excessive licking (p LE .001) significantly declined when the feeder was attached. However, the two locomotor stereotypies, pacing (p LE .002) and rocking (p LE .008), and one cage-directed stereotypy, cage shaking (p LE .030), significantly increased under this same condition. Thus, the puzzlefeeder appeared to have differential effects on different types of stereotypies.
Comparing behaviors when treats were presented in the feeder (2/3 of the observations during weeks 2, 3, and 5), and when they were not (1/3 of those observations), five self-directed behaviors, self-biting (p LE .016), floating limb (p LE .050), hair pulling (p LE .028), self-grasping (p LE .010), and masturbation (p LE .048), decreased significantly, while one locomotor behavior, pacing (p LE .048), increased significantly in the presence of treats. No statistical significance was found when a Wilcoxon rank sum test was made for each behavior with and without treats.
The monkeys, on average, consumed most of their treats by interval 20 (within the first 5 minutes). We compared the first 20 intervals with the remaining 40 to see if the stereotypies were triggered by the initial appearance of food or by the depletion of food. Whether the feeder was loaded initially or not, stereotypic activity (self-grasping, self-biting, floating limb, hair pulling, masturbation, and pacing) tended to occur during the second part of the sessions. However, for four of these behaviors (self-grasping, floating limb, hair pulling, and pacing), differences between the first 5 min and the second 10 min were greater when treats had been presented than when the feeder was empty to start with. So even though the amount of self-directed activity decreased overall when treats were presented, the level rose after the food had been consumed.
Four behaviors were significant when the baseline condition (week 1) was compared to week 4, when the feeder was removed. Self-biting (p LE .040) and masturbation (p LE .033) declined in frequency, and pacing (p LE .001) and rocking (p LE .030) increased.
Ideally, an enrichment device should elicit behaviors, e.g. foraging and grooming, that would replace stereotypic or abnormal behaviors. It should also be durable and easily removed and replaced.
These objectives were partially achieved by the puzzlefeeder. The
macaques in this study showed a decrease in self-directed behavior,
especially self-biting, floating limb, hair pulling, and excessive
licking, when treats were in the feeder. Paradoxically, both pacing
and rocking increased when treats were in the feeder, and pacing
increased significantly during the second half of observation sessions, after the treats had been consumed. Possible explanations for
this increase are:
*Subjects were more stationary during the first half of sessions in order to extract the treats from the feeder;
*Other monkeys in the room may have intimidated subject animals when treats were put in the feeder;
*Subject animals may have been responding to the observer's presence, anticipating an addition of more treats to the feeder. If a macaque displays not only more frequent pacing or rocking, but does so after the treats have been consumed, an alternate device that is more uniform in its dispersal of treats should be considered. One possiblity would be a pellet-feeder, timed to dispense treats.
In this study, as in Bryant et al. (1988) and Bayne et al. (1991), not all stereotypic or abnormal behaviors were eliminated when an enrichment device was utilized. A reduction in some behavior pathology was noted, possibly due to replacing the stereotypic behaviors with activities directed toward the feeder. In contrast to Bayne et al., (1991), this study included observations when there was no food in the device, in order to quantify the effect of the puzzlefeeder by itself. Bryant et al. (1988) included observation periods when the animals were removed from the enriched playpen to the home cage and, as in this study, found that locomotor activity increased in the absence of the stimulus or enriched environment. Based on the results of this pilot study, a longitudinal investigation using two macaque species is being designed, to determine more precisely the effects of an enrichment device on singly-housed macaques' stereotypic behaviors.
Allyn, G., Demye, A., & Begue, I. (1976). Self-fighting syndrome in macaques: I. A representative case study. Primates, 17, 1-22.
Bayne, K., Mainzer, H., Dexter, S., Campbell, G., Yamada, F., & Suomi, S. (1991). The reduction of abnormal behaviors in individually housed rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) with a foraging/grooming board. American Journal of Primatology, 23, 23-35.
Berkson, G. (1967). Abnormal stereotypic motor acts. In J. Zuloin & H. Harlow (Eds.), Comparative Psychopathology (pp. 76-94). New York: Grune & Stratton.
Bloom, K. & Cook, M. (1989). Environmental enrichment: Behavioral responses of rhesus to puzzlefeeder. Lab Animal, 18, 25-30.
Bryant, C., Rupniak, N., & Iversen, S. (1988). Effects of different environmental enrichment devices on cage stereotypies and autoaggression in captive cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 17, 257-269.
Erwin, J. & Deni, R. (1979). Strangers in a strange land: Abnormal behaviors or abnormal environment? In J. Erwin, T. Maple, & G. Mitchell (Eds.), Captivity and Behavior (pp. 1-28). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Line, S. & Morgan, K. (1991). The effects of two novel objects on the behavior of singly caged adult rhesus macaques. Animal Science, 41, 365-369.
Author's address: Harvard Univ., NERPRC, 1 Pine Hill Dr., P.O. Box
9102, Southboro, MA 01772.
The author is grateful to Dr. Melinda Novak for her invaluable guidance and input on this manuscript, and to Dr. Andrew Petto for his review of the material. This research was funded by NIH grant number RR 00168.
* * *
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
Often I am asked how to avoid aggression associated with pair housing of previously singly-caged adult rhesus macaques for the purpose of environmental enhancement in compliance with new federal rules (USDA, 1991). Socializing two unfamiliar rhesus macaques with each other can indeed be very dangerous. Traumatic or even fatal consequences may account for the fact that pair housing has not been attempted systematically until recently.
"Despite the conventional wisdom that unfamiliar adult macaques are
more likely to fight than to coexist peacefully" (Line et al., 1990),
I successfully paired several hundred previously singly-caged adult
rhesus without encountering problems with aggression (Reinhardt,
1991). Strict adherence to the following protocol may account for this
perhaps surprising success:
*1: Two strange adult rhesus macaques of the same sex are familiarized with each other in a double cage with grated partition (Reinhardt et al., 1987).
*2: Restricted to visual, olfactory and acoustic communication by the grated partition, the two potential companions establish a dominance-subordinance relationship (i.e., unidirectional grinning/yielding) within a short time (Reinhardt, 1988, 1989).
*3: The two partners are transferred into a different double cage without a separating partition (Reinhardt et al., 1987).
If the animals are not given the opportunity to become familiarized and to establish a dominance-subordinance relationship by means of non-injurious gestures, rank-determining aggressive disputes with possibly injurious consequences must be expected at the time of pair formation (Reinhardt, 1988). Aggression may also be triggered by territorial disputes if partners are paired in the familiarization cage by simply removing the grated partition (Reinhardt, 1988). Transferring well-familiarized subjects into an environment in which everything is unfamiliar except the companion facilitates the development of a peaceful, rather than antagonistic, relationship (Reinhardt, 1989).
In the light of the formerly assumed intolerant nature of singly caged rhesus macaques, their actual compatibility after careful pair formation is remarkable: Of 68 adult pairs tested at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center in 1986 and 1987, partners were compatible in 85% (58/68) of cases throughout follow-up periods of 1 to 5 years. Compatibility of female pairs (86% of 56) did not differ from that of male pairs (83% of 12). Partners were judged incompatible on the basis of depression or inadequate food sharing in 13% (9/68), and aggression in only 1% (1/68) of cases. Partner incompatibility was evident shortly after pair formation in 3 pairs; it developed in the course of a rank reversal after several months or years in the 7 other pairs.
Five years of experience suggest the following guidelines to avoid
aggressive conflicts between pair-housed adult rhesus macaques:
* Keep male-only pairs in male-only areas to eliminate possible sex-related aggressive competition.
* If partners are temporarily separated for more than 1 week, offer them a brief (several seconds) noncontact re-familiarization encounter. This ensures that companions clearly recognize each other during the subsequent critical moment of reintroduction.
* Do not force companions to stay together as a pair if their dominance-subordination relationship becomes equivocal (e.g., bidirectional threatening, pushing, slapping), if one of them shows signs of depression (e.g., reduced alertness, reduced interest in otherwise favored food), or if one them inflicts an injury on the other that requires medical treatment.
Rhesus macaques need and deserve companionship, but this does not imply that the quality of inter-individual relationships may not change. Social relationships are dynamic by their very nature. Pair-housed animals require more professional attention to ensure that their well-being is not jeopardized by unnoticed incompatibility. It would be unrealistic to expect invariable compatibility between companions of any social species, including human and nonhuman primates.
Line, S.W., Morgan, K.N., Markowitz, H., Roberts, J.A. & Riddell, M. (1990). Behavioral responses of female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to pair formation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 1-5.
Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., Vertein, R. & Houser, D. (1987). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar adult female rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 5-8.
Reinhardt, V. (1988). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar adult male rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27, 1-3.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248.
Reinhardt, V. (1991). An environmental enrichment program for caged rhesus monkeys at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. In Novak, M.A. & Petto, A.J. (Eds.), Through the Looking Glass: Issues of Psychological Well-being in Captive Nonhuman Primates (pp. 149-159). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (1991). Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6499-6500.
Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223
Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
I am thankful to Dr. Dan Houser for providing helpful comments on this manuscript.
Publication number 31-054 of the WRPRC.
* * *
Dennis R. Rasmussen, Robin Biggs and Roberto Gorena
Animal Behavior Research Institute, Yale University and University of Texas, Pan American
In 1988 we initiated a study on the social ecology of the provisioned troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) living on Tanaxpillo Island in Lake Catemaco, Veracruz State, Mexico. The troop travels about its daily range on the 6750 m&'S2 island as a unit. One focus of our study centers on the factors causing the considerable variation (Rasmussen, 1991) in the troop's daily range.
The influence of weather on our own activities led us to believe that weather might also influence the macaques' range use. For example, on cloudless days the intensity of the tropical sun made us seek the shelter provided by shade trees and cliffs on the island's perimeter. Our hosts from the University of Veracruz believed wind influenced the troop's range use (Rodriguez-Luna & Canales, personal communication, 1988).
Previous studies have produced conflicting results on the influences of weather on range use. During days with heavy rains primate groups may move less and seek shelter (Raemaekers, 1980). Or cloud cover on rainy days may protect group members from the tropical sun and permit use of a larger area (Hall, 1962; Stoltz & Saayman, 1970; Malik, 1988). These conflicting possibilities prevented us from making a directional hypothesis on the influence of weather.
Subjects, Study Site, and Observation Methods: There were 35 to 36 macaques in the troop during data collection. Teams of 3 to 6 observers collected data. A focal subject was the focus of a 14 min sampling session conducted by an observation team. We divided sampling sessions into 2 min intervals. We listed the subjects by sampling each age-sex category without replacement. Focal subjects were sequentially selected from the list. Observation teams started the list again after sampling all subjects. We could usually observe all troop members at least once each day (mean number of 2-min intervals sampled per day per subject=8.20, SD=3.52).
We base our analyses on the observations collected on the troop in 1988. These data were collected on the 32 days between June 26 and July 8 and between July 26 and August 14. These data consist of 296 hours of 2-min intervals from the 14-min focal sampling sessions (8870 2-min intervals, mean number collected per day = 223.13, SD = 52.43). Details on the troop, study site, and observation methods appear elsewhere (Rasmussen, 1991). The study site, troop, and observation methods are documented with video tapes available from the library of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
Analytic Strategy: We used multiple regression and partial correlation to analyze the relationships between daily variation in range use and daily variation in weather. The variables and the statistics used to summarize daily values of the variables are defined as follows:
*Range Use: We used instantaneous samples of the locations of the focal subjects in 5 by 5 m quadrats mapped on the island to calculate descriptive statistics on the day ranges of the troop. We estimated the area of day ranges with the number of quadrats in which subjects were observed per day. We used the index RU (Rasmussen, 1991) to evaluate the degree to which day ranges were clumped. The greater the variance in intensity of use of quadrats, the larger the value of RU.
*Weather Variables: Observation teams estimated weather conditions at the beginning of each 14-min sampling session, since there can be considerable daily variation in tropical weather (Table 1). We calculated the mean and standard deviation of these estimates.
+--------------------------------------------------------+ | Rain Ratings Cloud Cover: % Sky with Clouds | | 1=no rain 1= no clouds | | 2=faint mist 2= 1 -25% | | 3=light sprinkling 3=26 -50% | | 4=moderate rain 4=51 -75% | | 5=pouring 5=76-100% | | | | Wind direction: Direction of wind origin estimated | | to the nearest 45 degrees with North=0, South=180, | | etc. Wind direction was the direction of the pre- | | vailing wind, not the gusts that varied by location | | on the island. | | | | Wind Intensity: 1=nearly calm| | 2=faint breeze| | 3=moves most leaves on trees| | 4=bends small branches on trees and causes chop on lake| | 5=strong gusts sufficient to sway whole trees| +--------------------------------------------------------+
Statistical Control of Seasonal Changes and Observer Effects: Observations commenced at the end of the dry season and continued through the peaks of the annual rains (Estrada & Estrada, 1981). Seasonal trends in weather, vegetation, and other factors, such as aging of offspring, could influence the troops' range use (Rasmussen, 1983). Increased habituation to observer presence might also influence range use (Rasmussen, 1991). We therefore statistically controlled for seasonal effects and for influences of increased habituation to the presence of observers.
We used the cumulative number of days we observed the troop as our control variable. We call this variable days observed. We used days observed since it controls for any change associated with the passage of time since the onset of the study. Control of days observed also removes autocorrelations in the residuals. We controlled for only one variable since each covariate uses up one degree of freedom. We did, however, control both the linear and quadratic aspects of days observed.
We conducted a separate hierarchical multiple regression analysis on each weather variable. Each weather variable was regressed first on the linear aspect of days observed, second on the quadratic aspect of days observed, and third on the linear aspect of area. We conducted parallel analyses with RU. We use partial correlation coefficients to summarize the results of these analyses since days observed is then controlled in both the weather variable and the variable describing range use (Table 2). The mean and standard deviation of wind direction were linearly and positively related with RU. The standard deviation of wind location was linearly and negatively related to area.
+------------------------------------------+ |Weather Variables RU AREA | +------------------------------------------+ |Mean Rain Rating -.1992 +.2349 | |SD Rain Rating -.0355 -.0157 | |Mean Cloud Rating -.1838 +.2233 | |SD Cloud Rating -.0670 +.1839 | |Mean Wind Intensity +.0559 -.0099 | |SD Wind Intensity +.1718 -.1317 | |Mean Wind Direction +.3688 * -.3182 | |SD Wind Direction +.5322 * -.5742 *| +------------------------------------------+ | * P < .05 | +------------------------------------------+Table 2. Partial correlations between RU, area, and the weather variables.
The strongest relationships we found were between range use and wind direction. We feel we obtained these results because wind direction was our best measure of prevailing weather. Days with gentle prevailing winds from the north and northwest generally had more rain and clouds. The troop tended to more evenly use a larger range on such rainy and cloudy days. Days with prevailing southern winds were more frequently cloudless, so the full force of the tropical sun beat down on Tanaxpillo Island. On such days the troop spent more time in the deep shade of trees on the island's periphery. Because troop members spent more time in shade, the troop's range use was more clumped and there was a tendency for the troop to use a smaller area. Distribution of shade on days with clear skies may therefore be a major variable influencing the troop's use of Tanaxpillo Island.
Estrada, A., & Estrada, R., (1981). Reproductive seasonality in a free-ranging colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca mulatta) : A five year report. Primates, 22, 503-511.
Hall, K. R. L. (1962). Numerical data, maintenance activities and locomotion of the wild chacma baboon, Papio ursinus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 139, 181-220.
Malik, I. (1988). Patterns of spatial distribution in free-ranging monkeys of Tughlaqabad. Primate Report, 22, 43-51.
Raemaekers, J. (1980). Causes of variation between months in the distance traveled daily by gibbons. Folia Primatologica, 34, 46-60.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1983). Correlates of patterns of range use of a troop of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). II. Spatial structure, cover density, food gathering, and individual behavior patterns. Animal Behaviour, 31, 834-856.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). Observer Influence on Range Use of Macaca arctoides After 14 Years of Observation? Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30, 6-11.
Stoltz, L. P., & Saayman, G. S. (1970). Ecology and behaviour of baboons in the Northern Transvaal. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 26, 99-143.
First author's address: Animal Behavior Research Institute, 314 S.
Randall Ave., Madison, WI 53715.
Help in the conduct of this study was provided by Dr. J. Fa, L. Marsh, E. Rodriguez-Luna, D. Canales, the staff of the primate field station, and student assistants. P. Dubois and Dr. S. Sholl wrote programs for data collection and management. Support was provided by Animal Behavior Research Institute, SFS, the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, the Patronato Pro-Universidad Veracruzana, A.C., NIMH National Research Service Award 1 F32 MH09419-01 RERA, NIH, and NSF Grants 880414 and 890080.
* * *
Eckhard W. Heymann
German Primate Center
Gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., colitis) are a major health problem in captive tamarins (e.g., Clapp et al., 1988; Gozalo & Montoya, 1992; Scullion et al., 1987). The etiology of these diseases is frequently unknown (Scullion et al., 1987). In contrast, wild tamarins do not show these diseases, or their incidence is very low (Wood et al., 1989). Therefore, conditions of captivity may be responsible for the development of gastrointestinal diseases (Wood et al., 1990). Nutrition may be one of the factors (Gozalo & Montoya, 1992).
Wild tamarins are known to ingest the seeds of fruit species they consume (Crandlemire-Sacco, 1986; Garber, 1986; Savage, 1990; personal observations). These seeds are defecated without being digested, and thus tamarins act as seed dispersers (Crandlemire-Sacco, 1986; Garber, 1986). The size of some of the ingested seeds is tremendous compared to the body size of tamarins: e.g., seeds up to 23 mm long, and with diameter up to 10 mm have been recovered from fecal droppings of moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) (personal observation). Furthermore, the ingestion of seeds is a constant phenomenon: 51 of 61 (84%) fecal samples of moustached tamarins and 13 of 21 (62%) fecal samples of saddle-back tamarins (S. fuscicollis) that were collected during a 4-month field study in northeastern Peru (see Heymann & Hartmann, 1991, for study site and subjects) contained at least one seed. Seed load of the intestine of wild tamarins may reach up to 1.7% of body weight (Garber, 1986). Due to their size and hardness, seeds might have mechanical effects on the intestinal wall, comparable to the effects of dietary fiber. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of roughage in human and animal nutrition (e.g., Spiller & Kay, 1980). Seeds might function as a kind of roughage in tamarins, whose frugivorous-insectivorous-exudativorous diet is otherwise low in dietary fiber. By mechanically stimulating the intestinal walls, seeds, especially large ones, could enhance motility and thus reduce retention time in the intestines. Garber (1986) found that passage time of seeds through the tamarins' intestines was shorter for denser seeds.
We offer the hypothesis that lack of stimulation of the intestines due to lack of seed ingestion is partially responsible for the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases in captive tamarins. A crude test for this hypothesis could be obtained by comparing rates in captivity of gastrointestinal diseases in different tamarin species in relation to the amount of seed ingestion in the wild. Unfortunately, no quantitative data have been reported so far on the amount of seed ingestion in wild cotton-top tamarins, S. oedipus, the species in which colitis has been most intensively studied (e.g., Clapp et al., 1988). [Another test would be to provide seeds in variety to groups of captive cotton-tops -- Editors]
Although Howe (1986) points out that "seeds that are not digested constitute a waste of time, energy, or feeding capacity", the possible benefit associated with the mechanical stimulation of the intestine may be another factor for seed ingestion, besides the digestion of adhering, nutritive pulp that cannot be removed by chewing. A thorough consideration of the role of seed ingestion in the natural diet of tamarins may lead to an improvement of nutrition in captivity as well as reducing gastrointestinal problems.
Clapp, N. K., Henke, M. L., Lushbaugh, C. C., Humason, G. L., & Gangaware, B. L. (1988). Effects of various biological factors on spontaneous marmoset and tamarin colitis. A retrospective histopathological study. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 33, 1013-1019.
Crandlemire-Sacco, J. (1986). The ecology of the saddle-backed tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis, of southeastern Peru. PhD dissertation, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh.
Garber, P. A. (1986). The ecology of seed dispersal in two species of callitrichid primates (Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis). American Journal of Primatology, 10, 155-170.
Gozalo, A. & Montoya, E. (1992). Mortality causes of the moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) in captivity. Journal of Medical Primatology, 21, 35-38.
Heymann, E. W. & Hartmann, G. (1991). Geophagy in moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae), at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian Amazonia. Primates, 32, 533-537.
Howe, H. F. (1986). Seed dispersal by fruit-eating birds and mammals. In D. G. Murray (Ed.), Seed Dispersal (pp. 123-189). Sidney: Academic Press.
Savage, A. (1990). The reproductive biology of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) in Colombia. PhD dissertation, Madison: University of Wisconsin.
Scullion, F. T., Brown, P. J., & Potts, E. (1987). A survey of the pathology in a breeding group of cotton top tamarins (Saguinus o. oedipus). Verhandlungsbericht uber Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 29, 239-245.
Spiller, G. A. & Kay, R. M. (1980). Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber. New York: Plenum Press.
Wood, J. D., Peck, O. C., Sharma, H. M., Mekhjian, H. S., Stone, D. W., Hernandez-Comacho, J., Rodriguez-M., J. V., & Rodriguez-Melo, M. A. (1989). Incidence of colitis and colon cancer in feral cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Gastroenterology, 96, A551.
Wood, J. D., Peck, O. C., Sharma, H. M., Mekhjian, H. S., Stone, D. W., Stonerook, M., Weiss, H. S., Hernandez-C., J., Rodriguez-M., J. V., & Rodriguez-M., M. A. (1990). Captivity promotes colitis in the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Gastroenterology, 98, A180.
Author's address: German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 3400
The field study on moustached tamarins and saddle-back tamarins from which the ideas presented here emanated was carried out under authorization no. 001-90-GRA-SRAPE-DRRRNN of the Regional Government of Amazonia in Iquitos (Peru). I should like to thank Drs. Jaime Moro S., Filomeno Encarnacion C., and Luis Moya I., from the Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia, for their help and support, my field assistants Emerita Tirado H., Juan Huanaquiri H., and William Asipali M. for their skillful work in the field, and Drs. Ursula Bartecki, Teresa J. Gatesman, and Prof. Hans-Jurg Kuhn for discussion and critical comments. The study was made possible through an award by the Forderkreis des Deutschen Primatenzentrums e.V. and was financed by the German Primate Center (DPZ).
* * *
Comparative Medicine Research
The Comparative Medicine Program of the National Center for Research Resources invites grant applications for Comparative Medicine Research Program Projects (CMRPP), to establish CMRPPs where vitally needed laboratory animal studies on biology, pathophysiology, behavior, diseases, and uses may be conducted. Funding will be provided to support a multidisciplinary, multicategorical research program focusing on biomedical research related to lab animal medicine, pathology, and science. Each CMRPP will carry out research on from three to six specific projects. In addition, CMRPPs may have a core support unit to provide administrative services and institutional research-related lab animal diagnostic services for its research program. Each CMRPP will be under the leadership of a Principal Investigator (PI) with established scientific and administrative competence.
Domestic institutions or organizations with research resources and facilities for lab animals are eligible to apply. Institutions must have substantial and established research programs involving lab animals, professional and technical staff to conduct high quality biomedical research, in-house lab animal diagnostic capabilities, and excellent institutional research resources and facilities for lab animals. An institution is eligible to have only one CMRPP award.
Research that may be performed in CMRPPs include:
*Basic studies on the normal and abnormal anatomy, physiology, genetics, and behavior of lab animals that are frequently used in biomedical research.
*Studies that will advance the development of new animal models for human or comparative medical studies.
*Studies of the etiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, control, and prevention of lab animal diseases that adversely affect biomedical research.
For further information, general consultation on program requirements, and the Program Announcement with Guidelines, which contains important information for applicants, contact: The Director, Laboratory Animal Science Program, Comparative Medicine Program, NCRR, Westwood Bldg., Rm 857, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5175; FAX: 301-480-0868].
Ecology Research Funds Available
$20,000 per year is available for basic and applied field research on the ecology of the African Montane ecosystem of the Virunga Volcanoes in Rwanda. Applications are welcomed from, among others, ecologists and zoologists. Applicants should have or be a candidate for at least the equivalent of a Ph.D. degree. Grants tenable at Karisoke Research Center in Virunga Volcano region of Rwanda. For further details, inquire with stamped, self-addressed envelope to: AME Program, The Digit Fund, 45 Inverness Dr., East, Suite B, Englewood, CO 80112. -- From the electronic bulletin board primate-talk
* * *
Jean Balch Williams
Primate Information Center
Maryeva W. Terry, the founder and first manager of the Primate Information Center, the first Secretary for Membership of the International Primatological Society, and a former regional officer for the American Society for Information Science, died in Seattle on May 18, 1992 of cardiopulmonary disease.
Maryeva's interest in primatology started long before the founding of the Regional Primate Research Centers. Her library research, abstracting, and editing contributed substantially to Theodore C. Ruch's monograph, "Diseases of Nonhuman Primates", published in 1959. During those early years she and her husband Jess, a wildlife photographer, shared their home with a pair of galagos.
Maryeva began working for Professor Ruch soon after she graduated from college. Anyone who remembers Professor Ruch, as well as Maryeva, will know that for her this represented the continuation of an excellent education. One of Professor Ruch's passions was the accumulation of primate references, which he published in 1941 as "Bibliographia Primatologica". In 1963, when he became Director of the Regional Primate Research Center at the University of Washington, he appointed Maryeva Terry to be the manager of the Primate Information Center.
A major mission of the PIC was to maintain a continuously updated, indexed bibliography of the world's literature on nonhuman primates. Not only did she accomplish this mission -- with numerous revisions of the indexing thesaurus and database -- but far more. It was she who introduced most of the PIC services. Some of you will remember that the original Current Primate References consisted of a few typed pages. Much of the format of our present sophisticated, state-of-the-art periodical was developed by Maryeva.
In 1977 she established the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse, another national service operated from the Regional Primates Research Center at the University of Washington. The Clearinghouse has also been a very successful operation, contributing substantially to the conservation of laboratory primates.
She leaves a tremendous legacy for all of us.
* * *
In the notice about potto studbook and information (L.P.N., 1992, 31, 16), the phone number given is no longer correct. The correct number for Cheryl Franklin, who is looking for husbandry information on Peridicticus potto and Arctocebus calabarensis, is 617-442-2002, extention 167 or 166.
In the announcement of the Fyssen Foundation's 1992 International Prize, (L.P.N., 1992, 31, 7), the subject under consideration for the 1992 Prize is "Biological mechanisms of cognitive development". The rest of the announcement is correct.
* * *
Schrier Commemorative Library at G.S.U.
The Allan M. Schrier Commemorative Library was opened in Georgia State University's recently dedicated Sonny Carter Life Sciences Laboratory. The room will hold a substantial portion of the late Professor Schrier's personal library on comparative and physiological psychology. It is intended that the library will serve to commemorate the contributions and life of Allan Schrier, a friend and colleague. It is appropriate that the Schrier Library be placed in the Sonny Carter Laboratory because that laboratory has produced new technology and a substantial array of new findings on rhesus' learning and perception processes--topics of sustained interest to Allan Schrier. Dr. Sonny Carter, for whom the laboratory is named, was an astronaut who was killed in a commercial plane crash in the spring of 1991. At that time, he was a colleague of Drs. Duane M. Rumbaugh, W. Kirk Richardson, and David A. Washburn on the Rhesus Project. -- Duane M. Rumbaugh
Kyoto Research Institute Anniversary
Kazuo Fujita (Dept. of Psychology, Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484, Japan) reports that the Institute was 25 years old on June 1. After having a celebration on June 3, they had a symposium on "Primatology Tomorrow" on June 11 and 12. They have also published a monograph entitled 25 Years of Primate Research Institute (free), and a book entitled Handy Encyclopedia of Primatology (800 yen). Both are written in Japanese.
The January, 1992 (V. 11, no. 2) issue of TRAFFIC USA, published
by the World Wildlife Fund, includes several items of interest.
*Mexico and Uganda have joined the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Mexico is not only home of many rare species, but also "apparently been an important center for transshipment to the United States of illegally taken wildlife."
*Izgrev N. Topkov, of Bulgaria, has been appointed Secretary General of CITES.
*New TRAFFIC offices have been opened in India, Malawi, Malaysia, and Taipei, bringing to 14 the number of TRAFFIC offices worldwide.
AIDS Model Announced
Anthony Fauci, head of NIAID, announced on June 11, 1992, that Michael Agy and Michael Katze, of the Washington RPRC, and Lawrence Corey, of Northwestern Univ., have discovered that Macaca nemestrina can be infected with HIV, and develops symptoms similar to those of AIDS. The macaques are susceptible to at least 5 common strains of HIV, including ones currently common in the AIDS epidemic. Viruses attacked the animals' CD4 immune system cells, just as they do humans'. This finding will be published in the July 3 issue of Science.
* * *
NIH Workshop on Humane Care and Use
Another workshop on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, sponsored by the NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks, will be held August 27-28, 1992, in Pocatello, ID. The title is "Special Considerations in Animal Research: Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement in the Field and Laboratory." For more information, contact Jim Peck, Laboratory Animal Supervisor, Dept. of Animal Welfare, Campus Box 8007, Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID 83209-0009 [208-236-3895; FAX: 208-236-4570].
NABR Education Conference
The National Association for Biomedical Research's 1992 conference, October 4-6, in Washington, DC, will be titled, "Making the Grade with Students -- What Biomedical Researchers Are Doing". The program will include reviews of animal rights literature currently circulated in schools, interviews with science teachers and representatives from student organizations, and examples of outreach programs to offer an understanding of the place of animal research in science. For more information, contact NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006 [202-857-0540; FAX: 202-659-1902].
Alternatives and Animal Use
A World Congress on "Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: Education, Research and Testing" is being planned by a consortium of scientists representing the geographical areas of Australia,
the United Kingdom, Europe, North America, and the Pacific Rim. The
Congress will take place November 14-19, 1993, in Baltimore, MD, and
will include lectures, workshops, round-table discussions, and point/counter point sessions, as well as scientific posters and trade exhibitions. The purpose of the Congress is to
*Review the progress made toward refining, reducing, and replacing the use of animals in education, research, and safety testing;
*Develop a realistic understanding of the validity and status of alternatives;
*Create the understanding that, in research-animal use, clinical studies and in vitro methods advance science and our basic understanding of biology and disease;
*Develop a dialogue between the animal welfare movement and the scientific community. To be placed on the mailing list for further information, contact World Congress, Office of Continuing Education, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 720 Rutland Ave., Turner 20, Baltimore, MD 21205-2195 [410-955-2959; FAX: 410-955-0807].
PSGB Scientific Meetings
The Winter meeting of the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) will be held December 3-4 1992 at the London Zoo. It will be a joint meeting with the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour and will be organized by Dr. Robin Dunbar (Dept. of Anthropology, University College London). The topic of the meeting will be "Ecology of Social Systems." The main focus will be on the way in which ecological variables determine and/or constrain behavioral strategies in the social domain. There will be a number of invited speakers from Europe and the USA, as well as a full program of local speakers. The Society's Osman Hill Memorial Lecture will be given by Dr. John Crook (Bristol University) and ASAB's Tinbergen Memorial Lecture will be given by Professor E. Curio (Ruhr-Universitat Bochum).
The 1993 PSGB Spring Meeting will be held in Durham. It will have the general topic of "Energetics" and papers are invited on any aspect of primate and/or human energetics. Please send any enquiries or suggested contributions to: Caroline Ross, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Durham, 43 Old Elvet, Durham DH1 3HN [091-374-2853].
* * *
Postdoctoral Positions Anticipated
Three postdoctoral positions are anticipated (subject to availability of funding) for 2 October 1992, as part of the developing Nebraska
Behavioral Biology Group, a cooperative effort of the University of
Nebraska at Omaha (UNO), the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), and
Creighton University (CU). Positions are available for scientists
interested in working at the interface between neural mechanisms and
behavior with a strong emphasis on functional considerations. Ph.D.
in biology, psychology, or related field required. Applications from
individuals working in any area that involves integrating mechanistic
and functional approaches are welcome. Areas of special interest
* Neuroendocrine function and reproduction (UNO), and
* neural bases of cognitive functioning (UNL). Send curriculum vitae, copies of publications, and names, addresses and telephone numbers of three references postmarked by 6 July to: Alan C. Kamil, Nebraska Behavioral Biology Group, Manter Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118. Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.
Of interest to primatologists is the Callitrichid Research Facility at the UNO, and Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo, which just opened the world's largest rainforest building and is chock-full of nonhuman primates. For additional information on the program in general or on the position in reproduction at UNO, contact Jeff French [402-554-2558; FAX: 402-554-3296; E-Mail: email@example.com].
Three faculty positions are also anticipated, which will be posted in the fall of 1992 for start in August '93. The areas and institutions are similar to those described above. -- From the electronic bulletin board primate-talk.
The German Primate Center (Deutsches Primatenzentrum) carries out biological and medical research on and with primates. It maintains extensive colonies of nonhuman primates, not only for its own use but also to supply other research institutes. The Center has close collaborative links with the University of Gottingen, and has excellent laboratory and support facilities. To set up a new working group on Ethology and Ecology, they are seeking a Research Leader. This person will be in charge of coordinating the establishment of the team, which will perform its own independent research program, complementary to and possibly supporting of the research of the divisions of Reproductive Biology and Neurobiology. The working group is expected to carry out or support field research, so the leader should have personal experience working in the countries of origin of the primates.
The position will be funded according to the German government employees' scale, at a level according to age, qualifications, and experience, initially for a period of 5 years. Applications with the usual curriculum vitae and a list of pubications should be sent to Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Geschaftsfuhrung, Kellnerweg 4, D-3400, Gottingen, Germany.
Research Assistant, Cayo Santiago
There is an immediate opening for a Research Assistant at Cayo Santiago, part of the Caribbean Primate Research Center. Duties will include data collection for an ongoing study of mating tactics, mate choice and paternity, and computerization of the data base. Qualifications include at least a B.A. in a primate-related field (Anthropology, Zoology, or Psychology), or equivalent education and experience, and knowledge of computers. Please send a letter, curriculum vitae and names of three references to John Berard, Ph.D., Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 906, Punta Santiago, PR 00741. -- From the ASP Bulletin, March, 1992
Conservation Education Administrator
The Karisoke Research Center in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda is searching for a Conservation Education Administrator to oversee research projects conducted by Rwandan university students, to conduct workshops and training sessions for Rwandan students, to help plan and oversee site visits by Rwandan officials and personnel of other USAID projects, and to assist in the administrative work of the USAID grant. Requirements include a Masters degree or higher in biology or related life science field, fluency in French, work experience in an African setting, and background assisting with basic research projects. 1 to 2 year contract available, with a starting date of January 1993.
For more information on the duties, requirements, or salary/benefits of this position, please write to: CEA Position, The Digit Fund, 45 Inverness Dr., East, Suite B, Englewood, Colorado 80112. -- From the electronic bulletin board primate-talk.
Ph.D. Seeks Position
Primatologist (anthropologist and psychologist) Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Sterling (Great Britain), 1989, seeks teaching, research, or nonacademic position. Doctoral research on sociosexual behavior of stumptail macaques in Mexico. Behavioral research on rhesus macaques at Cayo Santiago, PR. Postdoctoral interest in male aggression toward females in primates including humans. Previous Adjunct Assistant Professorship and M.A. in Anthropology. Teaching skills; publications; grant recipient; referee of manuscripts submitted for publication in professional journals; lectured by invitation. Professional affiliations; widely traveled; extensive archaeological and ethnographic experience in Alaska, California, and Nevada. Curriculum vitae, references, and other pertinent materials provided on request. Alyn Robert Brereton, 913 Carrigan Ave., Modesto, CA 95350 [209-577-4624].
* * *
Carolyn Harvey Lingeman
The first U.S. animal welfare legislation, assigned to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), was enacted in 1966 (Public Law 89-544). Known as the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), it regulated trade in dogs and cats procured for laboratory research, as well as dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates held by certain research facilities. Birds, laboratory rats and mice, and domestic farm animals were exempted. Amendments in 1970 broadened coverage to other warmblooded animals. An amendment in 1976 (Public Law 94-279) further extended coverage, notably over live-animal transportation. The Act was amended in December 1985 for the third time when the "Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act" was passed as part of the Food Security Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-198). This amendment requires that dogs in research facilities be exercised regularly and that primates be kept in "an environment that stimulates their psychological well-being." It also requires that an institutional animal committee (IACUC) be established in each facility to approve protocols, monitor research projects, and enforce certain restrictions and prohibitions relating to the administration of drugs. Institutions are required to develop standards for minimizing pain and distress, assure that alternatives to painful research are considered, ensure the proper use of tranquilizers, analgesics, and anesthetics, and require consultation with a doctor of veterinary medicine in the use of such drugs. They are also required to provide proper pre- and postsurgical care of animals and restrict the use of animals for multiple surgical procedures. The USDA was further directed to develop regulations assuring humane care and treatment of animals including minimum standards of handling, housing, feeding, watering, sanitation, ventilation, shelter, separation of incompatible animals, veterinary care, and transportation.
In September of 1988, administration of the AWA became the responsibility of a new organizational unit of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), named Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care (REAC). Inspections are handled by a field force of REAC Veterinary Medical Officers, Animal Care Specialists, and Animal Care Inspectors--non-veterinarians--who are directed by Sector Supervisors. Standards are enforced through regular, unannounced inspections. Facilities whose major deficiencies are not corrected within a reasonable period of time are charged with violations. Field inspectors are trained by APHIS staff members and outside faculty with specific areas of expertise.
Most registered research facilities are State-owned or private clinics, hospitals, laboratories, colleges and universities, drug firms, contract testing firms, and diagnostic laboratories. Federal agencies are exempt from registration but must comply with USDA standards, relying on their own internal systems for monitoring compliance. All research facilities must have an attending veterinarian actively involved in the care of laboratory animals; he or she must be a consultant or a member of the staff and a member of the IACUC. Research facilities are required to submit annual reports by December 1 of each year, which must verify that the attending veterinarian and IACUC have approved the types and amounts of anesthetic, analgesic, or tranquilizing drugs used; if pain relief is not provided, the report must document that the use of such drugs would interfere with the intended purpose of the experiments or tests. In 1983, APHIS inspectors cited 12 registered research facilities for violations. To correct violations, APHIS may issue a warning notice, offer a stipulation agreement, or prosecute through administrative proceedings. APHIS may issue press releases when a case has been resolved. APHIS also responds to requests for information from the public; in 1983, 144 requests (75 of which were from humane societies) resulted in the release of 6107 documents. In 1990, under the Freedom of Information Act, APHIS received 665 requests in addition to responding to 44,325 correspondence inquiries on animal welfare.
Funding for animal welfare enforcement for FY 1983 was $4.88 million, but only $4.63 million in 1986. In 1988 and 1989 the total appropriations were $6.19 million each year, and $7.46 million in 1990. Of the $5.88 million appropriated in 1987, $750,000 was appropriated to the National Agricultural Library for the development of the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), established under the 1985 amendment. AWIC provides information for employee training, prevention of unintended duplication of research, and improvement in methods of animal experimentation, with emphasis on methods that could reduce or replace animals and minimize their pain and distress. We compared data from several of the USDA's annual reports listing numbers of animals used in each registered facility. Numbers of registered facilities ranged from 975 in 1980 to 1158 in 1990 (see Table 1) (figures include those from U.S. government facilities, although
+--------------------------------------------------+ |Year Total Dogs Cats Primates Registered | |(F) Facilities | +--------------------------------------------------+ |1975 1378030 154489 51439 36202 985 | |1978 1687201 197010 65929 57009 1072 | |1980 1661904 188783 68482 56024 975 | |1983 1680242 174542 53344 54926 1005 | |1984 2074133 201936 56910 55338 1108 | |1985 2153787 194905 59211 57271 1105 | |1986 1778403 176141 54125 48540 1126 | |1987 1969123 180169 50145 61392 1183 | |1988 1635288 140471 42271 51641 1091 | |1989 1754456 156443 50812 51688 1004 | |1990 1578099 109992 33700 47177 1158 | +--------------------------------------------------+
they are not required to undergo inspections by the USDA). Total numbers of animals have fluctuated from a low of 1.4 million in 1975 to a high of 2.2 million in 1985, with 1.6 million used in 1990. Primates housed or used in registered facilities showed a gradual decrease over the 16-year period from a high of 61,392 in 1987 to a low of 47,177 in 1990 (there were 36,202 used in 1975). Numbers of cats also showed a gradual decline, from a high of 68,482 in 1980 to a low of 33,700 in 1990, while dogs decreased by almost half between 1984 (201,936) and 1990 (109,992). While pressure from animal welfare advocates and animal rights groups have no doubt influenced some of these figures, it is also likely that enforcement of the AWA has had an impact. In particular, IACUC encouraged researchers to seek alternative procedures that decrease the numbers of animals used or eliminate them entirely. It is likely that research scientists themselves, through educational activities and development of new technology, have found ways to decrease numbers of animals and to improve the well-being of those animals that are under their care. The information in this report was derived entirely from the Animal Welfare Enforcement Report of the Secretary of Agriculture to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, APHIS, USDA, FY 1975, 1978, 1980, 1983-1990.
Reprinted with permission from the SCAW Newsletter, Winter 1991, 13. Carolyn Lingeman is a retired physician.
* * *
Scientific Cooperation with Japan
To increase the number of American scientists and engineers who
cooperate with Japan, the National Science Foundation gives awards
*Long-term research stays in Japan.
*Short-term visits for collaborative research.
*Summer Institute in Japan for graduate students in science and engineering. The awards are for U.S. citizens or permanent residents. For more information, contact the Publications Unit, Room 232, NSF, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 [202-357-3619; FAX: 202-357-7492; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org!], and ask for the Japan program announcement (NSF 90-144).
Primatology on Grenada
The Foundation for Field Research announces an opportunity for research on the Caribbean island of Grenada. A population of mona monkeys, Cercopithecus mona, introduced from Africa, exists on the island. The Foundation will support a graduate student or professional for the time periods January 1-June 1 and October 1-December 15, 1993. Support will consist of the use of the Foundation's research center on the island, vehicle use, food, airfare, and a small stipend. Deadline for applications is July 15. For more information, contact Foundation for Field Research, P.O. Box 2010, Alpine, CA 91903 [619-445-9264; FAX: 619-445-1893].
* * *
Do you need a literature search to prepare a grant proposal? Would you like to regularly scan the newest results in your specific research area? Do you want to find out which primate might make an acceptable (or unacceptable) animal model for your research? Do you need to complete a literature survey for your dissertation, or to prepare a bibliography for a class or lecture? Are you a colony manager or veterinarian who needs to know of the latest breeding techniques or current health issues related to your animals and staff? Perhaps you just want to see what a colleague or competitor has done lately?
If you have said *yes* to any of the above, then the answer to your needs may well be the PRIMATES database from the Primate Information Center (PIC). PRIMATES is a database of almost 45,000 records on all aspects of nonhuman primate research published since 1985. It is available for on-site leasing to institutions. The database runs on MS-DOS computers having at least 50 megabytes of free hard disk space. Each record consists of full citation information plus associated indexing based on the PIC's controlled vocabulary. Taxonomic indexing is particularly strong, with indexing down to the species and sometimes the subspecies level.
The newest version of PRIMATES, released in March, represents a quantum improvement over the original release. If you haven't seen PRIMATES lately, then you really haven't seen PRIMATES at all.
Searching capabilities are powerful and extremely fast. Most searches, even those retrieving thousands of records, take just a few seconds. searches can be retricted to specific fields (e.g., author or title keyword searches) or default to any word string in the record. Searching can be free text or controlled vocabulary, and the full range of Boolean operators can be used, including complex nested searches, suffix truncation, and using previously created sets in search statements.
If all this sounds complicated, it's not. PRIMATES utilizes a customized version of the Concordance database from Dataflight. PRIMATES is simple enough that a relatively unsophisticated end-user can perform productive searches with just a few minutes of instruction. The program is fast, powerful, and easy to use.
All commands are accessible by drop down menus (or alternatively by function key commands), and special help messages are available. End-users cannot inadvertently damage or alter the database in any way. Errant keystrokes or commands are simply ignored.
PRIMATES is available for lease to institutions. Monthly updates, equivalent to Current Primate References listings but with full subject indexing, are available by yearly subscription. The lease allows for unlimited searches for all persons DIRECTLY associated with the leasing institution. However, searches cannot be done for other persons. No standalone bibliographies may be published or distributed. Naturally, all search results may be used in the reference section of professional publications.
The PIC also produces paper bibliographic products. Each month 400-750 new citations are listed in Current Primate References (CPR), our bibliographic journal. CPR has more than 500 subscribers worldwide. Each issue has author and taxonomic indexes.
The PIC performs customized searches for individual researchers using our 80,000 record computerized database. An additional 20,000 records prior to 1972 can be manually searched. Searches can be one time retrospective searches, or on-going monthly searches of the newest literature.
Finally, the PIC produces an extensive list of Topical Bibliographies on subjects of current research interest. A complete list is available upon request. The PIC is funded in part by NIH grant RR00166. As a division of the Washington Regional Primate Research Center in Seattle, the PIC has been serving the primate research community since the early 1960s. We are a nonprofit governmental and educational service. Contact: Jackie Pritchard, Manager, Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-4376; Fax: 206-685-0305; E-mail: email@example.com].
* * *
PongoQuest, the newsletter of the Orangutan Foundation International, will now include information on captive orangutans as well as continuing to inform readers on current issues concerning the wild population of this endangered species. The News and Notes column, edited by Melanie Bond, a great ape keeper at the National Zoo, will be a compilation of birth announcements, translocations, exhibit openings, environmental enrichment tips, research opportunities, and anything else of interest to those concerned with the captive orangutan population.
To contribute information, ideas, or articles, contact Melanie Bond, Primate Unit, National Zoo, Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008. For information on obtaining the newsletter or membership in the Foundation, contact Gary Shapiro, The Orangutan Foundation, 822 S. Wellesley Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90049 [213-207-1655].
Registry of Comparative Pathology
The Registry of Comparative Pathology, which promotes the study of disease processes utilizing animal models of human disease, has just celebrated its 25th anniversary. The Registry publishes a quarterly newsletter, "Comparative Pathology Bulletin," which highlights new animal models of human disease, as well as special research features, "mystery cases," announcements of educational courses and publications, and other news items.
The annual subscription fee for the Bulletin is $10, payable to UAREP, Inc. (Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology, Inc.), the sponsoring organization for the Registry, which is supported in part by NIH. Subscription fees and mailing addresses should be sent to: The Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000.
The Registry also publishes a directory, "Educational Opportunities in Comparative Pathology -- United States and Foreign Countries," which is available free of charge upon request to students and professionals. Directors of pathology programs are invited to submit information to this directory. For a form, contact Linda K. Johnson at the address in the previous paragraph, or phone 202-576-2452.
Vocalization recordings of more than 45 nonhuman primates are available at the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. For information about rental or research use, contact Andrea L. Priori, Technical Support Specialist, Library of Natural Sounds, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, New York 14850 PH: 607-254-2404. -- R. Krishnamurthy on primate-talk.
Unusual Gorilla Behavior
During research with gorillas at the Denver Zoo, Sue Woods (Department of Anthropology, Campus Box 233, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309) noticed that one of the adult female gorillas puts her hands or arms up along the sides of her head, covering her ears for a few seconds, sometimes ducking her head slightly. Although this is a rare behavior, it increased in frequency following a change in the composition of the social group. Sometimes it appears to be a reaction to a noise, but many times this does not appear to be the case. It seems to occur in response to stress. Woods would appreciate hearing from anyone who has noticed a similar behavior exhibited by any primate, either in captivity or in the wild.
New Quarterly Journal
The Universities Federation for Animal Welfare announces a new quarterly international scientific journal, Animal Welfare. It is expected to be of interest to those concerned with the management, care, and welfare of animals, on farms, in laboratories or zoos, as companions, or as managed in the wild. It will contain original scientific and technical reports, short communications, interpretive and review articles, along with factual animal welfare-oriented materials. For subscription and/or submission information, contact UFAW, 8 Hamilton Close, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3QD, UK [0707 48202; FAX: 0707 49279].
Educational Resource Directory
The National Association for Biomedical Research is gathering information for a directory that will offer sources of information, materials, and ideas that are available concerning the use of animals in education. It will serve as a guide for teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and the general public. Resources range from pamphlets to speakers' bureaus to grants, as well as model programs and ideas. NABR has a questionnaire, and would also like samples of publications, models of projects, etc., to display at a conference in October. Contact Brenda O'Connor, NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006 [202-857-0540; FAX: 202-659-1902] for more information, or to contribute.
The Genetics Laboratory for Typing Nonhuman Primates helps maintain accurate pedigree records for colonies by definitely determining the parentage of individuals, monitoring inbreeding and loss of genetic variability, and developing breeding programs for specific research protocols. The laboratory can type for 18 different genetic systems, including blood groups, serum proteins, isoenzymes, and DNA polymorphisms. This resource has been supported by the Comparative Medicine Program of the National Center for Research Resources for the last 4 years, has provided services for about 30 research projects, and is currently collaborating on 15 projects. For further information about the Laboratory, contact Dr. William H. Stone or Dr. John J. Ely, Dept. of Biology, Trinity Univ., 715 Stadium Dr., San Antonio, TX 78212 [512-736-8347]. -- From the Research Resources Reporter, 1992, 16.
Forum on International Cooperation
Ethel Tobach, editor of the International Journal for Comparative Psychology and of the Advances in Comparative Psychology, both publications of the International Society for Comparative Psychology, has been promoting a philosophy within the society and within its publications for the development of a responsible program and policy for comparative psychologists and all others who study the behavior of animals in the field. That philosophy is to recognize that for the proper management of natural resources, for the welfare of humans, and for the benefit of scientific understanding of their problems, and how these relate to the study of the evolution and development of behavior, it is necessary to develop relationships with the people of the countries in which we would like to work. These relationships have to be developed in mutual collaborative discussions and planning. Issues raised in Indonesia are a prime example of those which must be addressed: the threat to the environmental and human welfare of the area because of logging, oil, and other pressures on the government and people; concern about the fact that we need to know more about the place of orangs in the ecological system; and concern for activities with animals that brutalize people. If anyone is interested in participating in a forum of discussion on these problems in any part of the world, please write to Ethel Tobach, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79 Street, New York, New York, 10024-5192; please mark envelope: ISCP. The papers will be reviewed and published when accepted.
* * *
Nancy A. Ator, Div. of Behavioral Biology, Hopkins Bayview Research Campus, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Suite 3000, Baltimore, MD 21224.
Mike R. D'Amato, 10 Kettle Hill Rd, Amherst, MA 01002.
Judith Masters, 60 Second Ave., Westdene, 2092, South Africa.
Donna A. Steiner, 3915 N. Park Ave, Apt. 6, Tucson, AZ 85719.
Janet D. Thomas, 886 Grape Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94087.
Ellen Mary Wilson, NIH/NCRR, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.
* * *
The requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, to provide for the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates, have encouraged colony managers and behavioral scientists to create devices, objects, and puzzles that improve the home environment of the laboratory primate. Managers must recognize, however, that increasing the complexity of the environment increases potential hazard to the animal.
Puzzles and toys that are suspended by cables or chains increase the risk of entanglement and accidental asphyxia. We have found that the following modifications minimize the risk of injury from suspended objects either inside or outside the cage. *Swivels at the point of attachment to the chain and to the toy make chains and cables less likely to entrap the animal. *Single-link chain is less likely to kink and tangle than double-link chain. *The chain should be of a size suitable to the age and strength of the animal. *Chain length should be shortened to allow manipulation of the toy and minimize the possibility of forming entangling loops within the cage. *Plastic sheathing reduces the flexibility of the chain and thus the risk of entanglement. *A cover guard on the cage prevents chains and cables from being pulled between bars to create entangling loops. *A chain suspended within the cage should be centrally positioned to prevent potential loops from forming if the chain is passed through nearby gaps in the cage. *Toys should be strongly attached to the chains to prevent accidental ingestion.
A variety of collapsible and fixed perches are now available for incorporation into the caging system, but all pose a risk to the partially sedated animal, which should ideally be placed in recovery cages that are free of encumberances, and returned to the home cage only when they are fully alert. If placed in enriched cages for recovery, they should be closely observed until ambulatory.
Animal safety is a paramount concern when new objects are introduced into the primate environment. Solutions to the problems of safety should be shared to avoid accidents associated with enrichment device design. Like children's toys, primate toys must be considered from the point of view of the worst case scenario before being introduced. -- Joseph T. Bielitzki, M.S., D.V.M., Senior Veterinarian, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
* * *
* Applying Ecological Principles to Captive Primate Environments. B.
Clark. 1992. [Price: $15.50 in U.S.; U.S.$17.00 to other countries.
Order from B. Clark, 1958 Brame Place, Toledo, OH 43613-4515]
. . This book is a revision of the author's master's degree thesis in biology, and is based on over a decade of experience working with primates as a zookeeper, as well as extensive literature review. Topics covered include sensory capacities and perception, communication, social structure and related psychobiology, propagation and captive reproduction, area usage and activities, and environmental design considerations.
* Paternity in Primates: Genetic Tests and Theories. Implications of Human DNA Fingerprinting. R. D. Martin, A. F. Dixson, & E. J. Wickings (Eds.). Basel: Karger, 1992. xii + 288 pp. [Price: $198.50]
* The Capped Langur in Bangladesh: Behavioral Ecology and Reproductive Tactics (Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 26). C. B. Stanford. Basel: Karger, 1991. xviii + 180 pp. [Price: $98.50]
* Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research
and Testing: An Annotated Bibliography. G. J. Cosmides, R. S. Stafford, & P.-Y. Lu. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991. (186
citations, with abstracts) [Quarterly bibliographies are available
from P.-Y. Lu, Toxicology Information Response Center, Oak Ridge
National Lab., P.O. Box 2008, MS6050, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6050]
. . An edited, condensed version of the National Library of Medicine quarterly bibliographies, printed in the ILAR News, 1991, 33.
* Animal Research & Human Health: Understanding the Use of Animals in
* Animal Research & Human Health: The Use of Animals in Product Safety Testing.
* Animal Research & Human Health: Caring for Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1992. [These papers are available for $1 each, prepaid, from the Foundation for Biomedical Research, 818 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]
* Karger Gazette, 1992, No. 54. [Free subscription: S. Karger, P.O.
Box 529, Farmington, CT 06085, or P.O. Box, CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland]
. . This issue, edited by Robert Martin, focuses on recent primatology books.
* NCRR Access Guide: A Research Resources and Grants Directory.
Bethesda, MD: NIH, 1991. 40 pp.
* Resources for Biological Models and Materials Research: A Research Resources Directory. Bethesda, MD: NIH, 1991. 16 pp.
. . Single copies of either are free from Research Resources Information Center, 1601 Research Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850.
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
* Threatened Endemic Mammals of the Atlantic Forest Region of South-East Brazil. W. L. R. Oliver & I. B. Santos. Wildlife Preservation
Trust Special Scientific Report No. 4, 1991. 126 pp.
. . Information on the present and former occurrence, habitats, and threats to the survival of twelve species, including tufted-ear marmoset, golden-headed lion tamarin, masked titi monkey, tufted capuchin monkey, brown howler monkey, and muriqui.
* Primate Report, No. 31, October 1991. [Annual scientific report of
the German Primate Center (DPZ). Price: $8]
. . This issue contains abstracts of papers presented at the Second Congress of the Gesellschaft fur Primatologie, and the following papers: Distribution and status of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) on the Ivory Coast, by B. Hoppe-Dominik; Justification for reclassifying Geoffroy's tamarin from Saguinus oedipus geoffroyi to Saguinus geoffroyi, by C. Skinner; Integration of a tame adult female capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) into a captive group, by J. R. Anderson, C. Combette, & J. J. Roeder; Encounters between neighbouring mixed species groups of tamarins in northern Bolivia, by H. M. Buchanan-Smith; Macro-amylase in primates, by J. T. Gatesman; Breeding success in a polygynous group of Callithrix jacchus (L. 1758) in the Allwetterzoo Munster -- A short report, by H. J. Adler & S. Jammrich; and The role of maternal rank and infant sex in rearing strategies of semi-free-ranging Barbary macaque mothers (Macaca sylvanus, L. 1758), by A. Timme.
* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. March, 1992, 1. [Ardith A. Eudey, Ed., 164 Dayton St., Upland, CA 91786]
* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter. January-March 1992, 3 . [National Agricultural Library, AWIC, Room 205, Beltsville, MD 20705]
* The Newsletter, 1992, 3. Primate Foundation of Arizona.
. . Includes "Use of positive behavioral techniques in primates for husbandry and enrichment," by G. E. Laule; and "Renovations of a chimpanzee facility for cognitive/behavioral research," by S. T. Boysen & M. Hannan.
* Implementation Strategies for Research Animal Well-Being: Institutional Compliance with Regulations. L. Krulisch (Ed.). Washington,
DC: WARDS, 1992. [Price: $20, from WARDS, Inc., 1660 L St., N.W.,
Washington, DC 20036-5603]
. . Summary of a conference, co-sponsored by WARDS and SCAW, held December 5-6, 1991, in Baltimore, MD.
Special Journal Issues
* Nonhuman primate models for AIDS IV. Journal of Medical Primatology,
. . Selected papers from the meeting held November 6-9, 1991, at the Washington RPRC, edited by Jorg Eichberg.
* Training medical behaviors in Orang-utans at Brookfield Zoo. 8 min.
VHS only. [Price: $10, from Ceil Wilson, 3300 Golf Rd., Brookfield
Zoo, Brookfield, IL 60513. (708) 485-0263 ext. 445. Make check payable to Chicago Zoological Society.]
. . Shows clearly and in detail the step by step conditioning process as two diabetic orangs are trained to accept insulin injections.
Anatomy and Physiology
* Liposomes as carriers of antigens and adjuvants. Alving, C. R.
(Dept. of Membrane Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Inst. of Research,
Washington, DC 20307-5100). Journal of Immunological Methods, 1991,
. . A review. The natural tendency of liposomes to interact with macrophages has served as the primary rationale for utilizing liposomes as carriers of antigens. Liposomes containing both appropriate antigens and major histocompatibility gene complex molecules can induce antigen-specific genetically restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Liposomes can substitute for antigen presenting cells, and are now being used in immunization procedures, and as vehicles for candidate vaccines.
* Endogenous blockade of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-receptor binding in
New World primate cells. Gacad, M. A. & Adams, J. S. (J.S.A., B-131,
Cedars-Sinai Med. Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90048).
Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1991, 87, 996-1001.
. . Data indicate that some New World primate cells contain a soluble protein that prevents intracellular 1,25(OH)ª-Dœ-VDR binding. Quantitative differences in the expression of this protein may be responsible for 1,25(OH)ª-Dœ and other steroid hormone resistant states of variable severity in New World primates.
* Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon. Yu, J.-H., Eng., J., & Yalow, R. S.
(R.S.Y., S. A. Berson Research Lab., Veterans Affairs Med. Center,
130 W. Kingsbridge Rd., Bronx, NY 10468). Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences, USA, 1990, 87, 9766-9768.
. . Substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those found in the owl monkey. The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in this immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. Squirrel monkey glucagon is identical with that found in Old World mammals.
* Normal vaginal aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora of the rhesus
macaque (Macaca mulatta). Doyle, L., Young, C. L., Jang, S. S., &
Hillier, S. L. (C.L.Y., CPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 409-413.
. . The vaginal flora of 37 rhesus monkeys differ from those reported for 5 other primate species. A 2-year retrospective review of clinical cases or vaginitis and metritis found E. coli and coagulase positive Staphlococci to be the most common pathogens isolated.
* Effects of age and gender on the location and orientation of the
foramen magnum in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Masters, A. V.,
Falk, D., & Gage, T. B. (Dept. of Anthropology, SUNY, Albany, NY
12222). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1991, 86, 75-80.
. . The foramen magnum migrates from a rostral to a caudal position and its angle changes during postnatal development. Angles and relative positions of the foramen magnum are similar for both genders of infants and of adults, but the adult values are reached by females by 4.7 years, and not until 7.1 years by males.Quantification of these effects has potential implications for research on human development, and for interpretation of juvenile specimens in the hominid fossil record.
* Normal serum biochemical and hematological parameters in Macaca fascicularis. Perretta, G., Violante, A., Scarpulla, M., Beciani, M., &
Monaco, V. (Ist. di Medicina Sperimentale, C.N.R., c/o AMB-BIO-ANIM,
E.N.E.A., Casaccia, S.p. Anguillarese km 1.3, 00060 Rome, Italy).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 345-351.
. . Among 56 animals, no significant sex effects were observed for biochemical values, and no changes were found in male hematological parameters in relation to age. Most values of females during pregnancy were within normal ranges. Several biochemical and hematological parameters were affected by food intake.
* Protein concentration in urine of normal owl monkeys. Weller, R. E.,
Malaga, C. A., Buschbom, R. L., Baer, J. F., & Ragan, H. A. (Developmental Toxicology Sect., Battelle, Pac. Northwest Labs, P7-50, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 365-369.
. . In measurements on 62 animals, determination of the urine protein to urine creatinine concentration ratio in a urine specimen was found to be an acceptable diagnostic technique for detection and quantitative estimation of proteinuria.
* IL-8 in septic shock, endotoxemia, and after IL-1 administration.
Van Zee, K. J., DeForge, L. E., Fischer, E., Marano, M. A., Kenney, J.
S., Remick, D. G., Lowry, S. F., & Moldawer, L. L. (L.L.M., Lab. of
Surgical Metabolism, Dept. of Surgery, Cornell Univ. Med. College, 525
E. 68th St., Rm. F2016, NY, NY 10021). Journal of Immunology, 1991,
. . IL-8, a novel cytokine, appears in the circulation of baboons during septic shock, sublethal endotoxemia, and after the administration of IL-1ï. The magnitude of the IL-8 response correlates with the severity of the insult. It is concluded that IL-8 is a participant in the cytokine cascade elicited by sepsis and inflammation and, as such, may play a significant role in host defense and disease.
* In vivo stimulation of platelet production in a primate model using
IL-1 and IL-3. Monroy, R. L., Davis, T. A., Donahue, R. E., & MacVittie, T. J. (Immunobiology & Transplantation Dept., Naval Medical
Research Inst., Bethesda, MD 20889-5055). Experimental Hematology,
1991, 19, 629-635.
. . A combination of factors may be required to enhance platelet production, stimulating not only the formation of megakaryocytes, but also stimulating the production and release of platelets into the peripheral blood.
* Reversibility of cardiac xenograft rejection in primates. McManus, R.
P., Kinney, T., Komorowski, R., & Hunter, J. (Dept. of Cardiothoracic
Surgery, 8700 W. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226). Journal of
Heart and Lung Transplantation, 1991, 10, 567-576.
. . Four baboons transplanted with cynomolgus hearts, with no immunosuppression, survived a mean of 9 days, while six such baboons, with immunosuppression, lasted from 3 to 392 days (mean, 94). Use of antithymocyte globulin was associated with temporary resolution of rejection, but progressive increases in lymphocytotoxic antibody led invariably to eventual graft loss despite rare long-term survival. Associate Editor's note: The severity of these rejections, and the ethics of using nonhuman primates, should argue against using xenografts from nonhuman primates to humans.
* Collagen-induced arthritis in an outbred group of rhesus monkeys comprising responder and nonresponder animals: Relationship between the
course of arthritis and collagen-specific immunity. Bakker, N. P. M.,
van Erck, M. G. M., Botman, C. A. D., Jonker, M., & 't Hart, B. A.
(ITRI-TNO Primate Center, P.O. Box 5815, 2280 HV Rijswijk, Netherlands). Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1991, 34, 616-624.
. . Ten of 15 monkeys immunized with bovine type II collagen (B-CII) developed polyarthritis. Susceptible animals showed a T cell response to B-CII; resistant animals did not.
* A chimpanzee-passaged human immunodeficiency virus isolate is cytopathic for chimpanzee cells but does not induce disease. Watanabe, M.,
Ringler, D. J., Fultz, P. N., MacKey, J. J., Boyson, J. E., Levine, C.
G., & Letvin, N. L. (N.L.L., New England R.P.R.C., Southborough, MA
01772). Journal of Virology, 1991, 65, 3344-3348.
. . In vitro replication to high titers with concomitant loss of CD4+ cells is not necessarily a correlate of pathogenicity.
* Recognition and alleviation of pain and distress in laboratory animals. Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, ILAR, NRC,
NAS. ILAR News, 1991, 33, 71-74.
. . Synopsis of the report, which will be released this summer, of a 10-member committee.
* Prolonged water deprivation: A case study in decision making by an IACUC. Orlans, F. B. (Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC 20057). ILAR News, 1991, 33, 48-52.
* Symposium: Animal welfare and alternatives to animals -- current
knowledge and research needs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1992, 200, 659-676.
. . Contents include: Introduction, by K. M. Kerr. The welfare of excess animals: Status and needs, by G. W. Thornton. Research and development to enhance laboratory animal welfare, by R. A. Whitney, Jr. Standards for animal research: Justification and assessment for alternatives, by R. Dresser. Alternatives to the use of conventional research animals in neoplasia research, by W. C. Ladiges.
* Sterilization and its behavioral effects on free-ranging female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Wolfe, L. D., Kollias, G. V., Collins,
B. R., & Hammond, J. A. (Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC 27858). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 414-418.
. . To control population rates, some of the free-ranging rhesus females of Silver Springs, FL, were sterilized and released. Five of these sterilized females were compared with five intact females a year later. While there were differences between the behaviors of the sterilized and intact females, the differences can be attributed more to differences in age, rank, and other factors than to sterilization. Clinical data collected and reported is unremarkable.
* Contributions to infant care in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus): The influence of age, sex, and reproductive status.
Price, E. C. (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey, Channel Islands). International Journal of Primatology, 1992, 13, 125-141.
. . Fourteen litters were observed from birth to 12 weeks, and contributions to infant carrying and food-sharing by all family members were measured. Results are interpreted in the light of hypotheses concerning the reproductive and dispersal strategies of callitrichid species.
* Greeting, aggression, and coalitions between male baboons: Demographic correlates. Colmenares, F. (Dept. de Psicobiologia, Univ.
Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28023 Madrid, Spain).
Primates, 1991, 32, 453-463.
. . Changes in interactions among males suggest that greeting and coalition behaviors may be strategies that are used in the negotiation of changes in competitive social relationships, as social tactics alternative to direct aggression.
* Female-male social interactions in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys:
Benefits and costs of group living. O'Brien, T. G. (Dept. of Ecology &
Evolutionary Biology, Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544). Animal
Behaviour, 1991, 41, 555-567.
. . The relative importance of male and female dominance rank, age, and other socio-demographic variables to female-male social interactions was examined for a wild population of Cebus olivaceus in Venezuela. Social preference for the dominant male appears to reflect breeding preference; females do not receive improved access to resources or infant care as a result of this preference, but they may minimize the chance of infanticide.
* Factors in the rejection and survival of captive cotton top tamarins
(Saguinus oedipus). Johnson, L. D., Petto, A. J., & Sehgal, P. K.
(NERPRC, 1 Pinehill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772). American Journal of
Primatology, 1991, 25, 91-102.
. . Among 659 live colony-born infants, those born into family groups or reared in families were rejected at a significantly lower rate than those born to parents alone. High survival of infants who were not rejected was correlated with rearing by or being born into family groups and also higher parity and older age of sires.
* Female rank instability in newly formed groups of familiar sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus atys). Gust, D. A. & Gordon, T. P.
(Yerkes RPRC Field Station, Emory Univ., 2409 Taylor Rd., Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Primates, 1991, 32, 465-471.
. . The formation of two new groups of sooty mangabeys comprised of individuals removed from their large natal group led to dominance rank challenges with aggression and severe wounding, but only after an interval of months. These events suggest that although sooty mangabeys do not exhibit strong kin preferential behavior among adults, they do have defined relationships within the long term, stable group. Removal from those defined relationships allows social reorganization that may be mediated by serious aggression.
* Not all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show self-recognition. Swartz,
K. B. & Evans, S. (Dept. of Psychology, Lehman College, New York, NY
10468). Primates, 1991, 32, 483-496.
. . Only one of 11 chimpanzees given mirror exposure and a mark test touched the mark during the test, although several showed self- directed behavior using the mirror to guide their movements. Experimental factors such as mirror size, position, or temporal spacing of the mirror exposure, and subject variables such as age, sex, previous social experience, and subspecies were insufficient to explain the difference between present and previous findings. It is suggested that further consideration of the factors contributing to mirror recognition in chimpanzees, and the development of additional tests for self-recognition, are needed.
* Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Problem seeking versus the bird-in-hand, least-effort strategy. Menzel, E. W. Jr. (Dept. of Psychology,
SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2500). Primates, 1991, 32, 497-508.
. . Adult chimpanzees would sometimes attempt to solve a two-choice object discrimination problem for a quantity of food rather than simply taking a visible, accessible, equal quantity.
* Behavior of nursery/peer-reared and mother-reared rhesus monkeys from
birth through 2 years of age. Champoux, M., Metz, B., & Suomi, S. J.
(Lab. of Comparative Ethology, NICHHD, NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box
289, Poolesville, MD 20837). Primates, 1991, 32, 509-514.
. . Nursery-reared neonates were more awake, active, and irritable than mother-only reared monkeys. As juveniles living in large social groups, they were indistinguishable, except for more self-directed behaviors in the nursery/peer-reared monkeys. The behavioral similarity of the juveniles may be a function of maturation or due to the rehabilitative effect of the large social group.
* Threats to observers, keepers, visitors, and others, by zoo mangabeys
(Cercocebus galeritus chrysogaster). Mitchell, G., Obradovich, S. D.,
Herring, F. H., Dowd, B., & Tromborg, C. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ.
of California, Davis, CA 95616-8686). Primates, 1991, 32, 515-522.
. . Keepers were treated like familiar conspecifics, observers like familiar neighbors, while visitors were treated like interlopers. The implications of these findings for captive management and for observational methods in behavioral primatology are discussed.
* Deception and hiding in captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla
gorilla). Mitchell, R. W. (Dept. of Psychology, Eastern Kentucky
Univ., Richmond, KY 40875). Primates, 1991, 32, 523-527.
. . Two adult males apparently used deceit to gain access to an infant in their group. Either one or both males at times concealed their actions toward the infant, inhibited their attention to it, created a neutral image to get it, or interacted with it to tease the mother.
* Tool use and predation of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) by the
tufted capuchin, Cebus apella apella, in brackish water mangrove
swamp. Fernandes, M. E. B. (Dept. de Zoologia, Museu Paraense E.
Goeldi, Cx. Postal 399-66040, Belem, Para, Brasil). Primates, 1991,
. . It is suggested that behavioral adaptability on mangrove resources is a key factor in the success of the tufted capuchin in this ecosystem.
* Avoiding undue cortisol responses to venipuncture in adult male rhesus macaques. Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., & Scheffler, J.
(WRPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1223 Capital Ct., Madison, WI 53715).
Animal Technology, 1991, 42, 83-86.
. . Venipuncture caused significant increases in serum cortisol concentrations in 6 animals when it was done in a restraint apparatus, but not when done in the home cage.
* Social enrichment for aged rhesus monkeys that have lived singly for
many years. Reinhardt, V. (Address same as above). Animal Technology,
1991, 42, 173-177.
. . Ten female and 5 male rhesus, 22 to 33 years old and deprived of physical contact with any other conspecific for more than 10 years, were socialized with weaned infants or with each other. Pairs were compatible, after 7 non-injurious aggressions during the first hour, throughout a 1 year follow-up period.
* Impact of a privacy panel on the behavior of caged female rhesus monkeys living in pairs. Reinhardt, V. & Reinhardt, A. (Address same as
above). Journal of Experimental Animal Science, 1991, 34, 55-58.
. . Paired partners spent significantly more time in the same half of their cage, engaged more in affiliative interactions, and had fewer agonistic interactions, when a "privacy" panel partly divided half of the cage.
* Serum cortisol concentrations of single-housed and isosexually pair-housed adult rhesus macaques. Reinhardt, V., Cowley, D., & Eisele, S.
(Address same as above). Journal of Experimental Animal Science,
1991, 34, 73-76.
. . Cortisol concentrations of paired animals were not significantly different from those of singly-caged animals, and dominant partners' concentrations did not differ from subordinates'.
* Group formation of previously single-caged adult rhesus macaques for
the purpose of environmental enrichment. Reinhardt, V. (Address same
as above). Journal of Experimental Animal Science, 1991, 34, 110-115.
. . Twelve animals were formed into two groups. Members were given ample opportunity to physically interact with each other on a one-to-one basis and were considered ready for group formation only when they had demonstrated compatibility and clear-cut dominance-subordination relationships. However, in the groups, some animals challenged others to whom they had originally been subordinate. Both groups had to be split within an hour, to avoid fatal consequences. "There is no guarantee that well-established dyadic relationships do not break down within the more complex social structure of the group."
* Environmental enrichment: An overview of theory and application for
captive non-human primates. Clark, B. (Toledo Zoo, Toledo, OH 43609).
Animal Keepers Forum, 1990, 17, 272-282.
. . "...Probably the single most important item for the enrichment of captive primates is to give them some control over their environment..."
* The Public Health Service responds to commonly asked questions from
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees. ILAR News, 1991, 33, 68-70.
. . Answers to eight questions about procedures and regulations.
* Categorical replies to categorical questions by cross-fostered chimpanzees. Gardner, R. A., Van Cantfort, T. E., & Gardner, B. T. (Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0062). American Journal of Psychology, 1992, 105, 27-57.
. . Answers to Wh-questions by 4 chimpanzees, reared under human cross-fostering conditions that included use of American Sign Language, are analyzed to show a pattern of replies that closely matched the pattern found in the replies of young children.
* Adolescent depression and depressive symptoms: Insights from longitudinal studies with rhesus monkeys. Suomi, S. J. (NIH, Bldg. 31, Rm.
B2B-15, Bethesda, MD 20892). Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1991,
. . Species-normative patterns of social changes as rhesus monkeys pass through puberty; developmental changes in depressive-like behavioral and physiological responses to separation as they become adolescents; issues of developmental continuity and risk factors for depressive symptomology; and the issue of sex differences that emerge in adolescence.
* The growth hormone secretory response to growth hormone releasing
factor in the developing rhesus monkey. Styne, D. M. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 338-344.
. . Newborns demonstrated higher baseline GH and responses to GHRH than animals of any older age. Developmental patterns of serum GH are similar to those known in the human.
* Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in the developing rhesus monkey. Styne, D. M. (Address same as above). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 334-337.
. . Serum IGF-1 values were lower in infants with a significant rise at puberty. The rhesus monkey has a pattern of serum IGF-1 concentrations similar to that of the human.
* Social context and reaction to separation in peer-reared pigtail
macaques: Some preliminary observations. Boccia, M. L., Reite, M. L.,
Kaemingk, K., Held, P., Laudenslager, M. L. (Dept. of Psychiatry,
C-268-68, Univ. of Colorado Health Sci. Center, 4200 E. 9th Ave., Denver, CO 80262). Primates, 1991, 32, 255-263.
. . Responses of 2 pairs of peer-raised infant monkeys to 4 3-day separations suggest that the presence of social support, in the form of a familiar peer, can ameliorate the response to separation, and that with repeated separations, the responses of the animals change significantly.
* Early social environment may alter the development of attachment and
social support: Two case reports. Boccia, M. L., Reite, M., & Laudenslager, M. L. (Address same as above). Infant Behavior and Development, 1991, 14, 253-260.
. . Two bonnet macaque infants were raised in a social environment designed to restrict social networks. Observation during 7-day maternal separations suggests that systematic manipulation of the early social environment may alter the development of the mother-infant bond, affect development of attachment to other adults, and diminish social support available during separation.
* Application of an enzyme immunoassay for detecting antibodies in sera
of Macaca fascicularis naturally exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Corcoran, K. D. & Thoen, C. O. (US Army Med. Research Inst. of
Chemical Defense, Vet. Med. & Lab. Resources Div., Aberdeen Proving
Ground, MD 21010-5425). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 404-408.
. . Antibodies were detected in 2 of 2 culture-positive monkeys, in 9 of 10 tuberculin test-suspect monkeys (culture-negative), and in 5 of 10 tuberculin test-negative monkeys (culture-negative).
* Pachyonychia congenita-like disorder in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). Brack, M. & Klensang, H. (DPZ, Kellnerweg 4,
3400 Gottingen, Germany). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 399-401.
. . A spontaneous genodermatosis in 13 tamarins appeared as alopecia, pigmentary disturbances, and claw dystrophy. The disease seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, becoming clinically apparent around adolescence. In certain families the neonatal mortality rate was also very high.
* Herpesvirus simiae contamination of primary rhesus monkey kidney cell cultures: CDC recommendations to minimize risks to laboratory personnel. Wells, D. L., Lipper, S. L., Hilliard, J. K., Stewart, J. A., Holmes, G. P., Herrmann, K. L., Kiley, M. P., & Schonberger, L. B. (CDC, Div. of Viral Diseases, Bldg. 6, Rm. 100, MS-A32, Atlanta, GA 30333). Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 1989, 12, 333-336.
* Rapid identification of Ebola virus and related filoviruses in fluid
specimens using indirect immunoelectron microscopy. Geisbert, T. W.,
Rhoderick, J. B., & Jahrling, P. B. (Disease Assessment Div.,
USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011). Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1991, 44, 521-522.
. . This method is as sensitive as the ELISA, sensitive enough to show viruses in most acute phase sera. It can differentiate among antigenically distinct filoviruses in less than 3 hours.
* Isolation of a simian immunodeficiency virus related to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 from a West African pet sooty mangabey. Marx,
P. A., Li, Y., Lerche, N. W., Sutjipto, S., Gettie, A., Yee, J. A.,
Brotman, B. H., Prince, A. M., Hanson, A., Webster, R. G., & Desrosiers, R. C. (NMRPRL, New Mexico State Univ., Holloman Air Force Base,
NM 88330-1027). Journal of Virology, 1991, 65, 4480-4485.
. . SIVsmLIB1, a member of the SIVsm/human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)/SIVmac group of primate lentiviruses, was isolated from one of two healthy pet sooty mangabey monkeys found to be seropositive to SIVmac. Sequence comparisons revealed extensive genetic diversity among SIVsm isolates, similar to that observed previously in SIV isolates from naturally infected African green monkeys. This is more evidence for monkey-human cross-species transmission of SIVsm as the source of HIV-2 infection in humans.
* Serological survey for two simian retroviruses in macaques and African green monkeys. Krugner-Higby, L., Kucera, L., Lerche, N., Sever,
J., Fucillo, W., Allan, J., & Benveniste, R. (Dept. of Comparative
Medicine, Wake Forest Univ. Med. Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1990, 40, 24-28.
. . Of 682 macaques in Bowman Gray colonies tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), 170 were positive for SRV-1, while 49 of those were positive by western blot. 54 of 152 African green monkeys tested positive by IFA.
* Endometriosis and stromal tumor in a baboon (Papio hamadryas). Shalev, M., Ciurea, D., & Deligdisch, L. (Center for Lab. Animal Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Med., New York, NY 10029). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 204-208.
. . In nonhuman primates most cases of endometriosis are discovered after death without significant preceding clinical signs. In the current case, radiographic examination was not helpful in diagnosis, and the animal died before a diagnosis was made.
* Diagnostic exercises: Sudden death in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Iliff-Sizemore, S. A., Axthelm, M. K., & Edwards, J. L. (Div. of Primate Medicine, Oregon RPRC, Beaverton, OR 97006). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 202-203.
. . Death following treatment of an abcess was found to be due to an atrioventricular gas embolism, the result of irrigation with hydrogen peroxide.
* Combined simian hemorrhagic fever and Ebola virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys. Dalgard, D. W., Hardy, R. J., Pearson, S. L., Pucak, G. J., Quander, R. V., Zack, P. M., Peters, C. J., & Jahrling, P. B.
(Hazleton Washington, Vienna, VA 22180). Laboratory Animal Science,
1992, 42, 152-157.
. . Detailed report on the epizootic which occurred in Reston, VA and Alice, TX, 1989-90.
* Activation of B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) in chronically immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys. Chellman, G. J., Lukas, V. S., Eugui, E.
M., Altera, K. P., Almquist, S. J., & Hilliard, J. K. (Inst. of Toxicologic Sciences, Syntex, Inc., Mailstop R2-ITS, 3401 Hillview Ave.,
Palo Alto, CA 94303). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 146-151.
. . Three of 14 animals experimentally immunosuppressed for a toxicology study developed B virus oral lesions. Approaches for virological monitoring of primates as well as ensuring optimal safety for primate handlers are discussed.
* Typhlitis due to Balantidium coli in captive lowland gorillas. Lee,
R. V., Prowten, A. W., Anthone, S., Satchidanand, S. K., Fisher, J.
E., & Anthone, R. (Dept. of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Buffalo,
219 Bryant St., Buffalo, NY 14222). Reviews of Infectious Diseases,
1990, 12, 1052-1059.
. . Inflammation of the cecum, caused by Balantidium coli, required surgical resection in 3 captive gorillas. B. coli is widely distributed geographically among mammals. Asymptomatic commensalism predominates, but invasion of the colonic mucosa can produce diarrhea and dysentery and set the stage for local or systemic spread.
* Isolation of an arenavirus from a marmoset with callitrichid hepatitis and its serologic association with disease. Stephensen, C. B.,
Jacob, J. R., Montali, R. J., Holmes, K. V., Muchmore, E., Compans, R.
W., Arms, E. D., Buchmeier, M. J., & Lanford, R. E. (Dept. of Public
Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294). Journal of Virology, 1991, 65, 3995-4000.
. . Callitrichid hepatitis (CH) is an acute, often fatal infection of callitrichids, of unknown etiology. An arenavirus (here called CHV) is implicated here as the etiologic agent.
* Identification, using sera from exposed animals, of putative viral
antigens in livers of primates with callitrichid hepatitis.
Stephensen, C. B., Montali, R. J., Ramsay, E. C., & Holmes, K. V.
(Address same as above). Journal of Virology, 1990, 64, 6349-6354.
. . Three CH-specific antigens were identified in sera and livers of infected animals, and not in the livers of uninfected animals. Results suggest that at least 5 of the 6 outbreaks of callitrichid hepatitis considered here were caused by the same virus or by an antigenically related virus.
* Effect of prior infection with virulent Shigella flexneri 2a on the
resistance of monkeys to subsequent infection with Shigella sonnei.
Formal, S. B., Oaks, E. V., Olsen, R. E., Wingfield-Eggleston, M.,
Snoy, P. J., & Cogan, J. P. (Walter Reed Army Inst. of Research, Walter Reed Army Med. Center, Washington, DC 20307-5100). Journal of
Infectious Diseases, 1991, 164, 533-537.
. . Significant cross-protection against widely diverse serotypes of shigellae cannot be achieved, but heterologous protection might occur between selected serotypes of S. flexneri, where major cross-reactions of somatic antigens occur.
* [Psoriasis in a female chimpanzee.] Biella, U., Haustein, U.-F., Seifert, S., Adler, J., Schuppel, K.-F., & Eulenberger, K. (Univ.-Hautklinik, Liebigstrasse 21, O-7010 Leipzig, Germany). Hautarzt, 1991, 42, 322-323. [German]
. . After years of captivity, a chimpanzee developed lesions which showed histologically characteristic features of psoriasis.
* The veterinary management of a laryngeal air sac infection in a free-ranging mountain gorilla. Hastings, B. E. (Dept. of Veterinary Science, Zool. Soc. of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 361-364.
. . A purulent laryngeal air sac infection was treated successfully with administration of antibiotics via blow dart and surgical drainage in the field. The case occurred during an outbreak of respiratory disease of undetermined etiology in this and other gorillas in the population.
* Metabolic disorder as early consequence of simian immunodeficiency
virus infection in rhesus macaques. Eck, H.-P., Stahl-Hennig, C., Hunsmann, G., & Droge, W. (W.D., Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Inst.
fur Immunologie und Genetik, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-6900 Heidelberg, Germany). The Lancet, 1991, 338, 346-347.
. . Within one week of infection, 23 infected animals had significantly lower mean plasma thiol and higher glutamate concentrations than 18 uninfected controls.
* Cryptosporidiosis. Current, W. L. & Garcia, L. S. (Infectious Disease
Research, Lilly Research Labs., Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN
46285-0428). Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 1991, 4, 325-358.
. . The concept of Cryptosporidium spp . has changed dramatically within the past 8 years because of improved diagnostic techniques, increased awareness within the biomedical community, and the development of basic research programs in many labs. When appropriate diagnostic tools are used, Cryptosporidium parvum is now thought to be one of the three most commonly found enteropathogens causing diarrheal illness in humans worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the severity and length of diarrheal illness and because no effective therapy has been identified, cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the most ominous infections associated with AIDS. The natural history, epidemiology, biology, and immunology of Cryptosporidium spp., as well as the clinical features, pathogenicity, and treatment of cryptosporidiosis are reviewed in this paper.
* Availability of primate species, research, and management in China.
Shen, P. & Yin, L. (Yunnan National Lab. Primate Center of China, Wandaquiao, Renmindonglu, Kunming, PRC). Journal of Medical Primatology,
1991, 20, 382-385.
. . Approximately 30 institutions are currently engaged in primate research and management in China. Twenty species of primates and their distribution in China have been recorded.
* Anti-human red cell monoclonal antibodies produced by macaque-mouse
heterohybridomas. Blancher, A. & Socha, W. W. (Centre Reg. de Transfusion Sanguine, CHU Purpan, B. P. 3210, 31052 Toulouse Cedex, France).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 352-356.
. . Macaques can become a source of monoclonal antibodies capable of defining blood group polymorphism in anthropoid apes, especially chimpanzees. In view of the close homology among human and chimpanzee red cell antigens, it seems reasonable to expect that further experiments will develop macaque monoclonal antibodies, type-specific for human red blood cells (RBCs), using either chimpanzee or human RBCs as immunogens.
Instruments & Techniques
* Salivary progesterone for the assessment of the ovarian function in
the capuchin monkey(Cebus apella). DiGiano, L., Nagle, C. A., Quiroga, S., Paul, N., Farinati, Z., Torres, M., & Mendizabal, A. F.
(C.A.N., Centro de Investigacion en Reproduccion Humana y Experimental, Galvan 4102, Buenos Aires , Argentina). International
Journal of Primatology, 1992, 13, 113-123.
. . Levels of progesterone in the saliva of the capuchin monkey follow a pattern similar to that for plasma progesterone, reflecting the free steroid fraction, offering an alternative to plasma determination for the assessment of ovarian function.
* Increased intake of water and NaCl solutions in omega-3 fatty acid
deficient monkeys. Reisbick, S., Neuringer, M., Connor, W. E., &
Iliff-Sizemore, S. (Section of Clinical Nutrition-L465, Oregon Health
Sciences Univ., 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Pk. Rd., Portland, OR 97201).
Physiology & Behavior, 1991, 49, 1139-1146.
. . Deficient monkeys drank at least twice as much of all NaCl concentrations as controls. Overall intake decreased as salt concentration increased. Increased intake was not a result of renal failure or diabetes insipidus. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may affect drinking through changes in neural membrane function or matabolism of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids.
* Restoration of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion after fasting
in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Dependence on size of refeed
meal. Parfitt, D. B., Church, K. R., & Cameron, J. L. (J. L. C., Dept.
of Psychiatry, Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Med., 3811 O'Hara St.,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213). Endocrinology, 1991, 129, 749-756.
. . After a day of fasting, LH pulse frequency, mean circulating LH, and testosterone concentrations progressively increased as the size of the refeed meal was increased. These findings indicate a very strong relation between the level of nutritional intake and the level of central drive to the reproductive axis during nutritional recovery from fasting.
Pharmacology & Anesthesia
* Kinetic study of serum gentamicin concentrations in baboons after single-dose administration. Watson, J. R., Stoskopf, M. K., Rozmiarek, H., & Strandberg, J. D. (Univ. Lab. Animal Resources, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 100 Blockley Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1991, 52, 1285-1287.
. . Preliminary pharmacokinetic data on the use of gentamicin sulfate administered IM to baboons. A dosage of 3 mg/kg (rather than the recommended dosage for dogs, 4.4 mg/kg) every 6 to 8 hours, is suggested.
* 1990 International Studbook: Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). G. M. Mace (Compiler), J. J. C. Mallinson (Studbook holder). Trinity, Jersey, Channel Islands: Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, 1990. 80 pp.
* Quality of oocytes from superovulated rhesus monkeys. Johnson, L.
D., Mattson, B. A., Albertini, D. F., Sehgal, P. K., Becker, R. A.,
Avis, J., & Biggers, J. D. (NERPRC, 1 Pine Hill Rd., Southborough, MA
01772). Human Reproduction, 1991, 6, 623-631.
. . Serum estradiol response, follicle size, and cumulus morphology were shown to be unreliable predictors of maturation of rhesus oocytes. Triple fluorochrome staining provided a valuable assay for the meiotic status of fixed oocytes.
* Collection and analysis of semen from the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Cui, K.-H., Flaherty, S. P., Newble, C. D., Guerin, M.
V., Napier, A. J., & Matthews, C. D. (Dept. of OB/GYN, Univ. of Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, South Australia). Journal
of Andrology, 1991, 12, 214-220.
. . Examination of semen of 16 common marmosets showed that considerable inter- and intra-male variation can be expected. It is therefore important to examine several samples from each animal to obtain an accurate seminal picture.
* Twinning in the karyotype I night monkey (Aotus nancymai). Malaga,
C. A., Weller, R. E., & Buschbom, R. L. (Animal Resources Center, Univ.
of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1991, 20, 370-372.
. . Monthly weights of a pregnant female and of her twins are compared to those of pregnant females and their single birth offspring of the same sex and karyotype.
* Mate selection, consortship formation, and reproductive tactics in
adult female savanna baboons. Bercovitch, F. B. (Sabana Seca Field Station, Caribbean PRC, P. O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00952). Primates, 1991, 32, 437-452.
. . Based on a 19-month study in Kenya, sexual solicitations by females had a positive impact on the probability that males would establish consort relationships; the most preferred mating partners were young, high ranking, newcomer males, but these same males did not have the highest mating success; female savanna baboon reproductive tactics appear to be based upon maximizing the probability that males will provide care for offspring.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are taken from those of the authors.
* * *
Cover photo of a 33-year-old male rhesus (Macaca mulatta) with a companion juvenile, by Viktor Reinhardt, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Copyright é1992 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. (Phone: 401-863-2511)
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program, Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.