VOLUME 31 NUMBER 4 OCTOBER 1992
Articles and Notes
Task-directed and Recreational Underwater Swimming in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by J. R. Anderson, P. Peignot, & C. Adelbrecht...... 1
Evaluation of the Use of Novel Objects by Adult Male Macaca mulatta, Singly Housed in Horsfal Isolators, by S. E. Perkins, D. E. Burnett, T. R. Rice, E. C. Staley, & B. G. Weick...... 5
Non-specific Tuberculin Test Reactions in New World Monkeys, by A. Gozalo, E. Montoya, J. Southers, & L. Revolledo...... 8
Two Squirrel Monkey Toys, by B. W. Adams, E. R. Adair, M. C. Olsen, & M. S. Fritz...... 11
Breeding Nonhuman Primates in Their Indigenous Countries: A Low-cost Alternative for Maintaining Animal Resources, by A. Gozalo...... 13
A Primate Gene Bank, by W. R. Kingston...... 15
Introduction of Two Infant Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) in a Captive Group: Analysis of Their Behavior, by M. C. Riviello...... 17
News, Information, and Announcements
Benjamin D. Blood, 1914 - 1992...... 4
Educational Opportunities: ACLAM Autotutorial Programs...... 10
Request for Primate Material: Tissue Samples Wanted...... 10
Facilities Protection Law...... 14
Editors' Notes...... 16
. . Captive Care Notes; Multi-media Project; Dialogue
Grants Available...... 18
. . Small Grants for Exploratory Research; Lab Animal Small Research Grants; IPPL Hurricane Relief
Meeting Announcements...... 19
. . 1993 ASP Meeting in Massachusetts; NIH Workshop on Humane Care and Use; Lion-tailed Macaques; IPS 1994 Congress; Orang-utan Conservation Workshop; "The Aging Monkey"; Conference on Nocturnal Prosimians
Information Requested and Available...... 20
. . International Directory of Primatology; New World Monkey Usage; Baboon Reintroduction; Animal Management Videos; Tropical Biodiversity
News Briefs...... 21
. . Researchers Contract SIV; "Future of NSF" Commissioners Named
Hurricane Andrew News...... 28
Positions Available...... 71
. . University of Wisconsin, Psychology; Chimpanzee Caretaker
Address Changes...... 7
Recent Books and Articles ...... 22
* * *
James R. Anderson, Patricia Peignot, and Christine Adelbrecht
Universite Louis Pasteur and Universite de Nancy
Several species of macaques are reported to be good swimmers (Roonwal & Mohnot, 1977). Free-ranging macaques may swim across rivers to extend foraging or ranging (Fittinghoff & Lindburg, 1980), and may wade up to their knees while foraging for underwater food items (Estrada & Estrada, 1977). Kawai (1965) documented the development of swimming in free-ranging Japanese macaques, who were enticed to go into the sea to retrieve peanuts thrown there by experimenters. Eventually, some juveniles started playing in the water, and after several years most members of the troop swam. Rhesus macaques on the island of Cayo Santiago also swim for "fun", according to Berman (1977), who described acrobatic diving and play in juveniles.
Gilbert & Wrenshall (1989) mention using a mobile "swimming pool" (a Plexiglas aquarium) as environmental enrichment for captive longtailed macaques: the monkeys dive below the surface to retrieve raisins from the bottom of the pool and play in the water. Here, we present preliminary data from an underwater foraging task with captive rhesus monkeys. Differential learning and performance on the underwater task was observed, as was frequent recreational underwater swimming by most of the monkeys. These results suggest that a small swimming pool may be an excellent environmental enrichment.
Subjects: The subjects were 17 juvenile female Macaca mulatta imported from a captive breeding colony and housed as a group for 7 months. They lived in an indoor-outdoor enclosure with elevated metal and wooden shelves, runways, and swings. Commercial primate food pellets and water dispensers were available ad libitum in the indoor area, and fresh fruit and vegetables were given twice weekly. All observations took place in the outdoor area (7x3x3 m). An iron-framed, 8 mm-glass aquarium (120x50x60 cm) served as the swimming pool. The task consisted of opening an opaque Perspex box (15x15x7.5 cm) by pivoting the lid to one side to reveal eight pieces of fresh banana (see Anderson et al., in press; Fornasieri et al., 1990, for further details). The box was attached to a larger base and secured to the floor of the aquarium.
Procedure: Following several habituation sessions during which the subjects explored the aquarium (without water) and obtained food from the box, 20 15-min tests were conducted using various combinations of four subjects and the baited box submerged in each of the following depths of water: 10, 20, 30, 40, then 50 cm.
The subjects were confined to the indoor area of the enclosure while the box and pool were prepared before each test. Fresh water, between 23~C and 27~C, was put into the pool for each test. To start a test, the subjects were released into the outdoor area and the following behavioral categories of increasing priority were recorded by three cross-checking observers using one-zero sampling (interval: 30 sec) and scoring only the highest-level behavior: contact pool, contact water, partial immersion (at least three limbs and part of torso under water, or swimming on the surface), and contacting the box. Absolute frequencies of the following categories were recorded: head under water, full immersion with head under water (also called diving), open box, obtain food. Latencies to first appearance of each category were recorded.
Each series of 4-subject tests was followed by four 1-h tests with all 17 subjects present. The 17-subject tests were carried out at 1 to 2 hour intervals, with the four tests at a given depth being completed on the same day. Due to individual differences in the subjects' willingness to be confined to the outdoor area in groups of four, there was extreme variability in the frequency of participation in the 4-subject tests. Therefore, only data from the 20 17-subject tests were used for statistical analyses.
"Dominance index" scores (Zumpe & Michael, 1986) were calculated from 1196 intragroup agonistic episodes recorded during unrelated observations. This method of assessing dominance uses the direction of agonistic acts between all possible pairs of animals in the group, and indicates both ordinal and cardinal rank. For analyses of variance, three subgroups were differentiated: high- (index over 70, N =5), intermediate- (index between 51 and 70, N =7), and low-ranking (index below 50, N =5) subjects.
Water-related activities: Simple contact with the water increased with increasing depth (F4,56=13.7, P <0.001). This occured more in dominant- and intermediate-ranking subjects than in the subordinate subgroup (group x depth: F3,56= 59.9, P =0.017). Dominant and intermediate subgroups contacted the water over four times more frequently than subordinates (overall mean number of intervals: 15, 13, 3: F2,14=9.2, P 0.01).
Partial immersion in the water decreased with increasing depth. Intermediate-ranking subjects engaged in this behavior over twice as frequently as dominants (means of 23 versus 9); subordinates immersed themselves infrequently (overall mean: 2) (F8,45=2.2, P<0.4). The first instance of a subject showing "head under water" occurred in 10 cm. This behavior occurred more frequently at greater depths, though several subjects never did it.
Full immersion and diving: The first instance of full immersion occurred in 30 cm of water. This activity, which usually followed a direct plunge or dive from the edge of the pool, was almost invariably accompanied by underwater swimming; it was performed by 10, 13, and 13 subjects at 30, 40, and 50 cm, respectively. There was no overall difference among groups in frequency of diving (means of 6, 8, and 9 dives per individual per test in subordinates, intermediates, and dominants, respectively). A significant group x depth interaction indicated stable rates for subordinates, and peaks in diving in the other two groups, especially dominants, at 40 cm (F4,28=76.9, P<0.01). Latency to first dive ranged from 2 min to 58 min. Missing data precluded statistical analysis, but subordinates usually started to dive later in the tests than the other groups, and all three groups dived soonest in 50 cm of water.
Figure 1: Activities observed in 50 cm of water. a-c: retrieval of food from the submerged box during a dive. d: an onlooker grabs at a subject emerging from the pool. e: retrieval of food by submerging head and arms. f: recreational underwater swimming.
In dominant subjects, 78% of all dives occurred before the food-box was opened. Corresponding scores for intermediate- and subordinate-ranking subjects were 54% and 26%, respectively. These values, along with the fact that only two subjects opened (or even attempted to open) the box under water (see below), suggest that the monkeys, especially subordinates, were motivated to dive and swim under water for reasons other than foraging (Figure 1f). Indeed motivation to plunge into the water was very high: the mean number of dives per subject per hour (excluding non-divers) was 9 (range 1-26), 14 (3-34), and 8 (1-21) in 30, 40, and 50 cm, respectively. Diving animals sometimes ran the risk of aggression from more dominant subjects sitting around the edge of the pool. They tried to avoid such aggression by suddenly plunging into the water, swimming under water, and then leaping out and away from the others, who frequently grabbed at the diver as she emerged or was below the surface (Figure 1d). This grabbing by onlookers may have contributed to the marked preference for swimming under water rather than on the surface. Although many such grabs appeared playful, some threats were directed at submerged subordinates, either from above the surface or through the walls of the pool. The mean duration of dives was 4 sec (range 1-20 sec), 6 sec (1-25), and 5 sec (1-22) at 30, 40, and 50 cm, respectively, with no differences between groups. Some of the longer occurred because a subject approaching the surface ducked down again to avoid others waiting to grab her as she surfaced.
Opening the box and obtaining food: During the 20 tests, only two subjects succeeded in opening the submerged box. The second most dominant subject opened it 12 times (three times at 10 cm, four times at 20 cm, twice each at 30 cm and 40 cm and once at 50 cm). The solution at 50 cm occurred during a goal-directed underwater dive (see Figure 1a-c). The other subject to open the box was a low-ranking subject; her two successes occurred during goal-directed underwater dives at 30 cm and 50 cm.
The subordinate box-opening subject obtained only one piece of banana in three tests. Subjects ranked 1, 2, and 3 in the dominance hierarchy obtained 51%, 34%, and 11% of all pieces of banana, respectively. The most dominant subject never dived, and showed "head under water" only once...to obtain a piece of banana jammed between the lid and the side of the box. However, as soon as another subject opened the box, she sat on the edge of the pool and monopolized most of the pieces of banana that floated to the surface. The second-ranking subject also obtained food in this way, as well as during dives. The most common technique of obtaining food by the third-ranking subject was to submerge her head and arms in the water and remove food from the partly-opened box (Figure 1e).
Although not analyzed formally, the more numerous 4-subject tests gave similar overall results, except that two more subjects dived in these tests, giving a total of 15 out of 17 subjects engaging in diving and underwater swimming. Also in 4-subject tests, the subordinate box-opening subject was responsible for all 15 solutions requiring diving (at 40 and 50 cm), though again most of the released food went to more dominant subjects.
The present results suggest that an underwater food-related task such as the one used here may be promising for the study of social processes in rhesus macaques. Only two individuals solved the underwater task, with most of the immediate benefit going to more dominant individuals. This recalls the paradigm of specially skilled individuals employed by Stammbach (1988) with Macaca fascicularis, and has encouraged us to use the underwater task to study different roles further. It is interesting to note that a task involving progressive degrees of underwater swimming has been developed to study different food-related strategies in groups of food-deprived rats (Colin & Desor, 1986).
The monkeys studied here were not obliged to dive for food; indeed the most striking finding was the frequent diving and underwater swimming shown by most subjects in the absence of food rewards. Motivation for diving was high; subordinates appeared more willing to take risks in this situation than they would in other competitive situations, such as feeding from restricted sources (e.g., Belzung & Anderson, 1986). As reported by Gilbert & Wrenshall (1989), the animals kept their eyes open under water. Also as indicated by Kawai (1965) and Berman (1977), swimming and associated activities appeared to be primarily playful, especially once the food had been eaten. Although no relevant quantitative data were obtained in this preliminary study, when the pool was available both solitary and social play activities clearly increased in the group as a whole, a phenomenon which requires more detailed study.
Finally, this study was conducted during July and August 1991, in mean maximal air temperatures of 28deg C (range 22deg C-35deg C). Dips in the pool almost certainly aided thermoregulation. Facilitating thermoregulation and increasing play are two reasons to consider a swimming facility to be a cheap and clean environmental enrichment, based upon a natural behavioral inclination, for captive macaques.
Anderson, J. R., Fornasieri, I., Ludes, E., & Roeder, J.-J. (in press). Social processes and innovative behaviour in changing groups of Lemur fulvus. Behavioural Processes.
Belzung, C. & Anderson, J. R. (1986). Social rank and responses to feeding competition in rhesus monkeys. Behavioural Processes, 12, 307-316.
Berman, C. (1977). Seaside play is a serious business. New Scientist, 73, 761-763.
Colin, C. & Desors, D. (1986). Differenciations comportementales dans des groups de rats soumis a une difficulte d'acces a la nourriture. Behavioural Processes, 13, 85-100.
Estrada, A. & Estrada, R. (1977). Patterns of predation in a free-ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Relations to the ecology II. Primates, 18, 633-646.
Fittinghoff, N. A. & Lindburg, D. G. (1980). Riverine foraging in east Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In D. G. Lindburg (Ed.), The Macaques (pp. 182-214). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Fornasieri, I., Anderson, J. R., & Roeder, J.-J. (1990). Responses to a novel food acquisition task in three groups of lemurs. Behavioral Processes, 21, 143-156.
Gilbert, S. G. & Wrenshall, E. (1989). Environmental enrichment for monkeys used in behavioral toxicology studies. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 244-254). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
Kawai, M. (1965). Newly-acquired pre-cultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima Islet. Primates, 6, 1-31.
Roonwal, M. L. & Mohnot, S. M. (1977). Primates of South Asia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stammbach, E. (1988). Group responses to specially skilled individuals in a Macaca fascicularis group. Behaviour, 107, 241-266.
Zumpe, D. & Michael, R. P. (1986). Dominance index: A simple measure of relative dominance status in primates. American Journal of Primatology, 10, 291-300.
First author's address: Lab. de Psychophysiologie (CNRS URA 1295),
Univ. Louis Pasteur, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
We thank the Director and personnel of the Centre de Primatologie, Univ. Louis Pasteur, for help and support with the study, and Dr. M. Anthouard for providing and maintaining the aquarium.
* * *
Scott E. Perkins, Dionne E. Burnett, Thomas R. Rice,
E. Christopher Staley, and Barton G. Weick
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
The USDA mandate to enrich the environment of nonhuman primates has created a great demand for information regarding the spatial, social, and instrumental factors that influence their psychological wellbeing. Novel objects are known to have therapeutic effects on abnormal behaviors of caged primates (Bloom & Cook, 1989; Line et al., 1989; Reinhardt, 1989; e.g.).
Behavior involving novel objects may, in fact, replace abnormal behaviors by complementing the limited behavioral repertoire of caged nonhuman primates. While most investigations have examined the effects of these objects on the abnormal behavior of monkeys, we have observed and analyzed the intentional contact of the adult macaque with novel objects (toys), in an effort to learn the types and amounts of attention directed to the toys, effect of time after presentation, variation between individual primates, and relationships between these variables.
Establishing the nature of these relationships could help optimize the effects of our efforts to enrich the behavior of nonhuman primates. For instance, it is important to determine if it is worthwhile to customize an environmental enrichment plan at the level of the individual animal.
Although the regulations will mandate pair or group housing in the future, researchers may apply for exemptions, based on research protocols, to permit individually housing subjects. It is the responsibility of facility veterinarians and their staffs to investigate the environmental enrichment of singly-housed primates. The goal of this study is to provide information that can be used. along with sound management and cost/benefit factors, in designing environmental enrichment programs.
The subjects were four male adult rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years. All were singly caged in Horsfal isolators (top level) in a room containing 18 other primates in isolators. These primates were used only for blood donation and were housed in isolators to protect them from infectious agents known to prevent the culture of lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples. Reflector lamps were placed on the outside of the isolators for better viewing of the subjects. The lamps were turned on for a four-hour period daily for the week before the study began, to adapt the subjects to them. During this same week, the observers presented themselves to the primates in an effort to acclimate the subjects to the observers.
The primates were observed for two 20-minute periods each day. The length of time of intentional physical contact with the novel objects was recorded and totaled for each day and toy or combination of toys.
The novel objects selected were the Nylaring@, Nylaball@ and a medium-size Kong@ toy (R.C. Steele, Brockport, New York). Each subject was given each toy or all three toys together for a 5-day period. Since habituation can profoundly decrease interaction with toys (Markowitz & Line, 1989; Novak & Drewson, 1989; e.g.), toy(s) were removed for two days prior to presentation of new toy(s). The objects were placed in the subjects' cages on the first day (Monday), and, after a one-minute adjustment period, observations were started. The second 20-minute observation period began 20 minutes after the end of the first one. At the end of the second observation period on the fifth day (Friday), the toys were removed. Therefore, during the four-week period, each subject received each toy and the combination of toys once. The observation periods were conducted each day between 9:30 am and 12:00 pm, and the reflector lamps were turned on 90-120 minutes prior to the beginning of the first observation period. The experiment was conducted using a 4 X 5 factorial design so that the main effects and interrelationships between factors could be analyzed. Duncan's New Multiple Range test was used to test for differences among the days of the week.
In general, the subjects manipulated the toys with their hands, feet and mouths. The Nylaring@ was passed between cage bars, placed over the subject's head and left around the neck for some period of time, and handled in a steering wheel position with both hands and rotated. The Nylaball@ was chewed, rubbed, rolled, and tossed about the cage. The Kong@ toy was digitally manipulated along the contours of the toy, rubbed, chewed, and tossed about the cage.
The novel objects seemed to have a positive effect on animals' behavior. Prior to introduction of the toys, the subjects concentrated on the observers, animal care personnel, and other primates in the room, showing signs of dominance and aggression. After introduction of the toys, the primates seemed to be less distracted by occurrences outside of their cages, and one subject who was self-mutilating abstained from that behavior.
+-------------------------------------------------+ |Source df SS MS F | +-------------------------------------------------+ |Subjects 3 315.918 105.306 2.890* | |Day of Week (D) 4 3848.673 962.168 26.405**| |Type of Toy (T) 3 244.955 81.652 2.241 | |D X T 12 218.633 18.219 0.50 | |Error 57 2077.020 36.438 | |Total 79 6705.202 | +-------------------------------------------------+ *P<0.05 **P<0.001
Table I: Analysis of Variance
The day of the week was the most evident factor influencing the contact time of the male rhesus monkeys with the novel objects (Table I). After one day of exposure to the toys (Tuesday), contact times were reduced to 46% of initial contact times. The reductions from initial contact time after two, three and four days of exposure were 27%, 30%, and 29%, respectively. The contact times with specific toys were not different. There was no relationship between day of the week and type of toy. There was a significant difference in the amount of time different animals manipulated the objects (Table I). The range was from 24 to 37% of the total time of observation.
The factorial experimental design was successfully employed to determine the effect of days of exposure to toys after a minimum two days without exposure. Contact times with toys reached a nadir after two days of exposure. Therefore, limiting exposure to one or two days followed by two days without toys, along with alternating toys (O'Neill, 1989), may be helpful in reducing habituation to toys.
The significant effect of subjects suggests that by reducing the error term in the analysis of variance through the exposure of each rhesus monkey to each toy or the combination of toys for a week, main effects and interactions between factors (e.g. type of toy, day of week) may be more readily found. Using a factorial design allowed us to show a difference in contact times between individual animals. This finding suggests that certain rhesus monkeys may have preferences for toys distinct from other rhesus monkeys (Markowitz & Line, 1989). By increasing the number of subjects in future studies it may be possible to find small, but discrete, differences in attention given to one particular toy.
Bloom, K. R. and Cook, M. (1989). Environmental enrichment: Behavioral responses of rhesus to puzzle feeders. Lab Animal, 18, 25-31.
Line, S. W., Clarke, A. S., and Markowitz, H. (1989). Adult female rhesus macaque responses to novel objects. Lab Animal, 18, 33-40.
Markowitz, H., and Line, S. W. (1989). Primate research models and environment enrichment. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Well-being of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 203-212). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
Novak, M. A. and Drewson, K. H. (1989). Enriching the lives of captive primates: Issues and Problems. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Well-being of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 161-182). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
O'Neill, P. (1989). A room with a view for captive primates: Issues, goals, related research and strategies. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Well-being of Captive and Laboratory Primates(pp. 135-160). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques. Lab Animal, 18, 31-33.
First author's Address: MIT Division of Comparative Medicine, 45-149, 37 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139. * * *
Alfonso Gozalo, Enrique Montoya, Jan Southers, and Liliana Revolledo
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and National Institutes of Health
Tuberculosis is a disease of major economic and public health significance for institutions working with colonies of nonhuman primates. It is probably the most expensive disease of these animals, in terms of costs in colony and personnel surveillance programs, animal losses due to disease, and research disruption (Kaufman et al., 1975]. The high susceptibility of many species to tuberculosis often results in destruction of all or part of a colony in which infected animals are found. Personnel directly involved with primates have a much greater incidence of tuberculin conversion than does the general population (Kaufmann & Anderson, 1978). Current programs for management of tuberculosis in primate colonies generally include detection of infected animals by tuberculin testing and radiographic examination, destruction of infected animals, and long term intense monitoring of contact animals (Kaufmann & Anderson, 1978). Such programs are only moderately effective because of the fallibility of the tuberculin test and the long time during which exposed animals must be observed until they either develop diagnosable levels of disease or are proven free of infection. Additionally, during the long quarantine period for contact animals, exposure of personnel and other animals in the facility is a potential problem (Wolf et al., 1988).
In this report we describe results of surveillance for TB in a New World primate center. Using a tuberculin made from human isolates for intradermal use in nonhuman primates, we found tuberculin conversion in monkeys with no lesions of tuberculosis. We discuss the implications of these false-positives for tuberculin use in colony management.
Subjects and Methods
The animal colony at the Center for Reproduction and Conservation of Nonhuman Primates (CRCP) in Iquitos, Peru, contains about 759 monkeys (420 Aotus sp., 70 Saguinus sp., 210 Saimiri sp., and 59 other species), housed in separate buildings by species. Six species (Aotus nancymae, A. vociferans, Saguinus labiatus, S. mystax, Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis, and S. sciureus macrodon) are maintained for breeding, and small numbers of other species for conservation education (2 Ateles paniscus, 1 A. belzebuth, 7 Cacajao calvus, 4 Callimico goeldi, 10 Cebus albifrons, 22 C. apella, and 13 Lagothrix lagocha). The monkeys are kept in open-system breeding units, consisting of concrete and wooden-frame wire-covered pens inside a block construction screened building. Pens are approximately 1 x 1 x 2 m, except those for the larger species, which are double sized or larger. The monkeys are fed a standard, in-house prepared, grain-based baked diet, plus ripe bananas and water ad-lib.
Of 59 people who work at the CRCP, 18 individuals directly handle animals.
In August, 1990, all the monkeys at the CRCP were tested using a tuberculin prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis from human isolates for intradermic use in nonhuman primates (Coopers Animal Health, Inc., Kansas City, KS). The tuberculin was used following the instructions of the manufacturer and NIH guidelines. A positive reaction was defined as an induration (swelling) of the skin at the site of injection (eyelid). The test was interpreted at 72 +/- 6 hours by palpation and observation; additional observations were done at 48, 96, and 120 hours. Positive reactions were reconfirmed by an injection of tuberculin into the skin of the abdomen and examinations at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours (Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 1985). Monkeys with reconfirmed positive reactions were sacrificed and thorough necropsies, with emphasis on lungs and regional lymph nodes, were performed using established techniques (Goss, 1954). Tissue samples from all major organs were taken, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, and processed for hematoxilin and eosin staining.
All tuberculin skin tests on monkeys from the Aotus and Saguinus colonies were negative. In contrast, five Saimiri (3 S. boliviensis peruviensis and 2 S. sciureus macrodon) showed strong positive reactions (marked swelling and induration) to the eyelid and abdomen skin tests. Additionally, 3 Saimiri sp, 1 Lagothrix lagothricha, 1 Cebus albifrons, 1 C. apella, and 1 Cacajao calvus had a mild reaction to the eyelid skin test. All of the monkeys were clinically healthy. The five Saimiri with strong positive reactions were sacrificed and necropsied. Necropsy revealed generally good condition, no gross lesions, and only mild diffuse lung congestion (due to euthanasia). In some cases Dipetalonema sp. filariae were found in the abdominal cavity. All lymph nodes were grossly normal. Histologic examination revealed no lesions. Because of these findings, we decided not to sacrifice the other positive-reacting monkeys, and kept them isolated and under observation for the development of clinical symptoms. Additionally, all persons who worked at the CRCP received a tuberculin test (PPD). Individuals with a suspicious skin test reaction had a radiographic examination of the chest. All persons were found negative to TB infection.
Tuberculin is an antigenic preparation derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has had extremely widespread clinical, epidemiological, and investigative use, both in intracutaneous delayed skin testing and in in vitro stimulation of cultured cells (Snider, 1982). Many of those who use tuberculin do not recognize that it is a nonuniform product that can be standardized only biologically, and that varies considerably in composition and activity from batch to batch (Ma & Daniel, 1983). The lack of specificity of tuberculin reactions observed in some geographic areas has been attributed to the presence in tuberculin of antigenic constituents that are common to M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria (Ma & Daniel, 1983). Nonspecificity is associated with some of the major identifiable antigens of tuberculin (Ma & Daniel, 1983). Nonspecific reactions were observed after intradermal inoculation of tuberculin in nontuberculous macaques (Fox et al., 1982) and squirrel monkeys (Pierce & Dukelow, 1988). Other mycobacteria have been isolated from monkeys that were positive to the tuberculin skin test: M. kansasii in a rhesus monkey (Jackson et al., 1989), and M. gordoneae in two squirrel monkeys (Soave et al., 1981). M. gordoneae belongs to the Runyon Group II mycobacteria that are not pathogenic (Soave et al., 1981; Finegold & Martin, 1982). Atypical mycobacteria are widespread in the environment, in soil, water, plants, and animal excreta. Many are saprophytic or have very low pathogenicity (Benenson, 1980; von Lichtenberg, 1989). Skin test data in humans in the southern United States suggest that many persons with false positive tuberculin reactions have been exposed to such organisms (von Lichtenberg, 1989).
Tuberculins must be recognized as heterogeneous and variable, both in composition and activity, and may be unreliable for tuberculosis testing in New World monkeys. New immunochemical approaches to the preparation of mycobacterial antigens must be developed to avoid the serious losses in time, money, and animals that can be caused by false positive reactions to tuberculin.
Benenson, A. S. (1980). El control de las enfermedades transmisibles en el hombre. 13th ed. Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud, Publicacion Cientifica No. 442.
Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, ILAR (1985). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Bethesda: NIH.
Finegold, S. M. & Martin, W. J. (1982). Diagnostic Microbiology, 6th ed. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.
Fox, J. G., Niemi, S. M., & Murphy, J. C. (1982). A comparison of two tuberculins in nonsensitized macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology, 11, 380-388.
Goss, L. (1954) Necropsy procedure for wild animals. In T. C. Jones & C. A. Gleiser (Eds.), Veterinary Necropsy Procedures (pp. 82-88). Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Jackson, R. K., Juras, R. A., Stiefel, S. M., & Hall, J. E. (1989). Mycobacterium kansasii in a rhesus monkey. Laboratory Animal Science, 39, 425-428.
Kaufmann, A. F. & Anderson, D. C. (1978). Tuberculosis control in nonhuman primate colonies. In R. J. Montali (Ed.), Mycobacterial Infections in Zoo Animals (pp. 227-234). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Kaufmann, A. F., Moulthrop, J. I., & Moore, R. M. (1975). A perspective of simian tuberculosis in the United States -- 1972. Journal of Medical Primatology, 4, 278-286.
Ma, Y. & Daniel, T. M. (1983). Immunochemical analysis of tuberculin purified protein derivative with special reference to United States-Japan Antigen 7. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 148, 500-509.
Pierce, D. L. & Dukelow, W. R. (1988). Misleading positive tuberculin reactions in a squirrel monkey colony. Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 729-730.
Snider, D. E. Jr. (1982). The tuberculin skin test. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 125 (suppl.), 108-118.
Soave, O., Jackson, S., & Ghumman, J. S. (1981). Atypical mycobacteria as the probable cause of positive tuberculin reactions in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Laboratory Animal Science, 31, 295-296.
Von Lichtenberg, F. (1989). Infectious disease. In R. S. Cotran & V. Kumar (Eds.), Robbins' Pathologic Basis of Disease (pp. 307-384), 4th Ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Wolf, R. H., Gibson, W. V., Watson, E. A., & Baskin, G. B. (1988). Multidrug chemotherapy of tuberculosis in rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 25-33.
First author's address: Unidad de Post Grado, Fac. Med.
Vet.-U.N.M.S.M., Apartado 03-5137, Correo de Salamanca, Lima, Peru.
This work was part of the Peruvian Primatological Project funded by the Peruvian Government and the Pan American Health Organization.
* * *
Barbara W. Adams, Eleanor R. Adair, Mildred C. Olsen, and
Michael S. Fritz
John B. Pierce Laboratory, Inc.
Since the Animal Welfare Act was amended in 1985, mandating that the physical environment for captive nonhuman primates in primary enclosures be psychologically enriched, scientists, caretakers, and entrepreneurs have been trying to devise effective enrichment strategies.
The USDA's most recently published rules (1991) suggest "perches, swings, mirrors and objects to manipulate" as a means of increasing cage complexity, thus creating a more stimulating environment. But most of the enrichment objects described in the literature so far have been geared toward the larger primates, e.g., macaques, baboons, and apes. Branches (Reinhardt et al., 1987), food puzzles (Bloom & Cook, 1989), milk crates, (O'Neill, 1987), and even video games (Rumbaugh et al., 1989) have been found suitably stimulating for these larger species. However, they are not necessarily appropriate for the smaller primate. In Fajzi et al.'s review (1989) of enrichment strategies, there is only one squirrel monkey study (Wolff, 1989), describing the suitability of PVC pipe perches. King and Norwood (1989) describe another unusual enrichment strategy for squirrel monkeys: housing in a room with goldfish-stocked wading pools, in which the animals can fish.
Materials and Methods
Our colony of adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) is singly housed in standard stainless-steel wire mesh light primate cages (24" wide x 18" deep x 34" high), fitted with two perches (stainless steel rods) and a wire mesh resting shelf. The cages are hung about 4" apart on stainless steel racks. Lexan panels are inserted between cages to prevent tails and toes from being bitten by animals in adjacent cages. The panels are clear, to maximize the amount of visual contact between animals. The average age of our S. sciureus is 14 years, and there are three sub-adults, ages 3 and 4. They are fed a daily ration of Purina Hi-Protein monkey chow, supplemented with carrots, grapes, oranges, bananas, and raw peanuts at 12:00 h. Late in the afternoon we offer a special milk supplement with two monkey chow biscuits. During the day our primates are given special treats (peanuts, a slice of banana sprinkled with BioServ granules, or a Prima-Treat). These are presented by hand, and allow an opportunity for observation of each individual animal.
In our effort to comply with the new standards we have introduced two enrichment objects (See Figure) to increase cage complexity. We first introduced PVC rings of varying diameters (3 in. to 6 in.) and lengths (1 in. to 4 in.), cut from Schedule 40 PVC pipe, with their edges rounded for safety. We had noticed that many of our S. sciureus would throw their aluminum food pans about the cage. The rings, for the most part, were thrown about the cage as well. However, other behaviors have been observed, e.g., sitting upon the ring, lifting it onto the resting shelf, or rolling it about. One of the sub-adults was seen curled up within the ring.
Squirrel monkeys are arboreal and spend most of their time off the cage floor. They usually move about between the perches and resting shelf. To encourage more species-typical behavior, we next introduced a chain. A 2"-link white polypropylene chain was suspended from the cage top with a 3.5" double-ended brass snap hook. The chain was 32" long. Some of the behaviors we have observed with the chain are: *winding the chain around the perch; *pulling the chain up to the resting shelf and letting it drop off; *throwing it; *rubbing it between the hands; *biting it; *threading it through the wire mesh of the cage; *winding the chain around the body; *dipping the end into the milk supplement and licking it off. Our youngest monkey was observed actually swinging from the chain.
There are several advantages to these two simple plastic objects. They are inexpensive (chain & snap = $3.70; 2" x 6" ring = $.40), and easily constructed. The materials are found in any building supply store. The plastics are durable and safe. They are easily sanitized, and can withstand cage washer temperatures of up to 180deg F, or be cleaned with just soap and water. The designs can be adapted to different cage systems. The objects do not obstruct the handler or caretaker when catching or caring for the animals. We have been using the same rings and chains for almost three years. They show little wear, so the cost of replacement is avoided. The chain and rings are left in the cages, and still continue to interest the animals.
The list of enrichment devices will grow, as more facilities strive for compliance with the new USDA rules implemented August 14, 1991. Manipulative objects are just one part of an effective enrichment plan and are often the most cost-effective means to increase the complexity of the cage environment. The USDA ruling does not differentiate between the great diversity of non-human primate behaviors and species-specific needs. More enrichment devices need to be designed for the smaller primate. It will be the responsibility of individual facilities to devise and define successful enrichment strategies.
What makes a primate "happy"? We can only guess. By providing stimulating environments that eliminate abnormal and stress-related behaviors, we hope we have taken steps in the right direction.
Bloom, K. R. & Cook, M. (1989). Environmental behavioral responses of rhesus to puzzle feeders. Lab Animal, 18, 25-31.
Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V., & Smith, M. D. (1989). A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged primates. Lab Animal, 18, 23-35.
King, J. E. & Norwood, V. R. (1989). Free-environment rooms as alternative housing for squirrel monkeys. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 102-114). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publ.
O'Neill, P. (1987). Enrichment techniques for confined primates. Scientists Center Newsletter, 9, 5-8.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Cowley, D., & Champoux, M. B. (1987). Preliminary comments on environmental enrichment with branches for individually caged rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26, 1-3.
Rumbaugh, D. M., Washburn, D., & Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. (1989). On the care of captive chimpanzees: Methods of enrichment. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 357-375). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publ.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (1991). Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. 9 CFR Part 3, Subpart 3. Federal Register, 56, 6499-6500.
Wolff, A. V. (1989). Polyvinyl chloride piping as perch material for squirrel monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28, 7-8.
Authors' address: John B. Pierce Laboratory, 290 Congress Ave., New Haven, CT 06519.
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Alfonso Gozalo and Enrique Montoya
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
Animal models play an important role in understanding disease and physiology, especially in experiments that cannot be done with human subjects. It is desirable to provide to the scientific community, in a cost-effective manner, adequate numbers of animals of assured genetic integrity, which can only be obtained through well-managed breeding colonies.
To ensure continued availability of primates for biomedical research, and in an effort to reduce depletion of wild populations, a captive breeding program was established in Peru in 1976. Supported by the Peruvian Government and the Pan American Health Organization, this program, called the Peruvian Primatological Project, involves the reproduction and conservation of endangered species and species of nonhuman primates valuable in biomedical research, through captive breeding colonies. A semi-free-ranging colony of moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax) was introduced into Padre Island in the Amazon River in 1980 as an alternative, because of poor results of captive breeding.
Most of the nonhuman primates used in biomedical research come from the wild, especially those species that are difficult to rear and breed in captivity. Wild-caught monkeys come without a known clinical history, and often have a high prevalence of parasitic infections and other pathogens poorly known or dangerous to man (Tantalean et al., 1990; Gozalo et al., 1991). In contrast, monkeys bred on Padre Island have proved to be resistant to stress, readily adapting to captive conditions with lower mortality (3%) than wild-caught ones (10%) during quarantine (Gozalo et al., 1991a), probably because the monkeys were accustomed to the presence of humans on the island and to minimal periodic manipulation for taking body measures. Additionally, fewer pathogenic parasites, especially the thorny-headed worm (Prosthenorchis elegans), were found in the monkeys born on the island (observed by direct fecal smear examination). Breeding monkeys on islands allows additional studies, through continued observation of collar-coded and tattooed animals, of population dynamics, behavior, lifespan, husbandry, social interaction, and feeding. It is also possible to capture the monkeys periodically for taking blood, feces, or other samples for additional studies or for studying spontaneous pathologies that affect these monkeys in the wild. Treatments against parasites or infections can also be performed.
Breeding monkeys on islands require minimal maintenance cost. Food must be provided only for the first week after the animals are released. Gradually they get to know their surroundings and start feeding on insects, reptiles, small mammals, fruits, and vegetables from the island. Prior studies, to determine the monkey-carrying capacity of the island, must be done before introducing the monkeys. Sometimes it is necessary to grow fruit trees to provide an additional source of food. Even so, this program is less expensive than captive breeding. On the other hand, captive breeding produces a standardized, genetically and clinically known individual, free of specific diseases and other pathogens that could interfere with research protocols.
Breeding monkeys in their indigenous countries is less expensive than doing so in laboratories in developed countries. Personnel, feed, and indirect costs, such as electric heat (not always necessary in the jungle), are cheaper in Latin American countries. Buildings for holding monkeys can use local, less-expensive materials. For example, in Peru a total cost of US $168,720 ($140,600 direct costs + $28,120 indirect) is estimated for maintaining 1000 (500 breeding pairs) owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae), which is $168.72 per animal-year ($0.46 per animal day). This cost includes professional and technicians' salaries ($33,600), feed ($96,000), cage replacement ($5000), medicines ($3000), pathology and microbiology support ($3000), building depreciation, electricity, administration, maintenance, computerized record-keeping system, etc. ($28,120). From the 500 breeding pairs, at least 350 (singleton) births can be expected per year (70%), giving a production cost per newborn Aotus of $482.
The breeding program in Peru fulfills the criteria recommended by the Committee on Preservation of Laboratory Animal Resources for identifying valuable laboratory animal resources (Anonymous, 1990).
Psychological well-being is also a matter of concern in our captive breeding colonies. The monkeys at the Primate Center are under the same natural environmental conditions (light cycle, temperature, and humidity) as in the wild. The monkeys also see, through a wide wire mesh window, the forest and gardens surrounding the primate center, providing a more natural environment than that of a laboratory.
The owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) bred in captivity at the Peruvian Primatological Project are used by scientists from institutions in several countries, and in studies of diseases such as malaria, leishmania, trachoma, and oncogenic viruses. The moustached and red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus mystax and S. labiatus) are used principally in viral hepatitis research, and the squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are used in malaria and other studies. We are investigating spontaneous diseases observed in these monkeys and identifying those that could be used as models for studying analogous human diseases, e.g., colitis cystica profunda in tamarins and cardiomyopathies in owl monkeys (in preparation). Additionally, small numbers of endangered primates are maintained for conservation purposes and are intended to be bred in captivity. Unfortunately, in a developing country with serious economic problems, funds for such studies are scarce.
In our experience, breeding monkeys in their indigenous countries is the most reasonable solution to the problem of supply. Necessary funds to run such operations could be obtained through contracts between research centers in developing countries and institutions in developed countries. Critical advice and expertise could be provided by scientists and staff from the breeding center to the investigators using the animals. In turn, scientists from the developing country could travel to the developed country for training on new technologies for studying diseases that affect human and animal populations.
Further studies to determine the prevalence and etiology of spontaneous diseases in both captive and wild primate populations will enable us to more effectively utilize existing breeding colonies and avoid depleting wild populations of potentially endangered species. Furthermore, the study of spontaneous diseases will allow us to find new uses for these animals as models for studying analogous human diseases.
Anonymous (1990). Important laboratory animal resources: Selection criteria and funding mechanisms for their preservation. ILAR News, 32, A1-A32.
Gozalo, A., Block, K., Montoya, E., Moro, J., & Escamilla, J. (1991). A survey for Campylobacter in feral and captive tamarins. In A. Ehara, T. Kimura, O. Takenaka, & M. Iwamoto (Eds.), Primatology Today (pp. 675-676). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Gozalo, A., Moya, L., Ique, C., Moro, J. & Encarnacion, R. (1991a). Breeding the moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) on islands. In A. Ehara, T. Kimura, O. Takenaka, & M. Iwamoto (Eds.), Primatology Today (pp. 401-402). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Tantalean, M., Gozalo, A., & Montoya, E. (1990). Notes on some helminth parasites from Peruvian monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 6-8. -------------------------------------------------------------------
First author's address: Unidad de Post Grado, Fac. Med. Vet.-U.N.M.S.M., Apartado 03-5137, Correo de Salamanca, Lima, Peru.
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W. Robin Kingston
A society has been formed in the United Kingdom to promote setting up a gene bank of plant life. Stocks are to be maintained in botanical gardens worldwide, as well as in the countries to which the plants are native, in order to ensure the survival of the widest possible diversity of species, not only those of commercial value. It is obviously impossible to foresee which species may become valuable in the future. It is even more important to maintain maximum biodiversity to ensure the ecological balance required for a healthy and sustainable environment.
If a botanical gene bank is desirable, surely an animal gene bank must be of equal importance. While I believe that most people would agree with this, the greater logistic difficulties are obvious. The cost of maintaining and reproducing plant life is patently much less than that for animals. Given the difficulties and costs of maintaining many vertebrates, not to mention the vast numbers of invertebrates, there is little doubt that only preservation of natural habitat in sufficient area and diversity is feasible. For many of the larger mammals this is already proving not to be possible, and this includes a number of highly endangered primate species. They have little or no commercial value, but as the animals most nearly related to man they are of immense scientific interest and special concern.
In a paper (Kingston, 1985) I suggested that all species of the Callitrichidae could be bred and sufficient numbers maintained for adequate genetic diversity by a combination of colonies in the countries of origin and zoological institutions elsewhere. This could certainly be extended to the lemurs of Madagascar, and in fact to any primate. The costs would, however, be high for the apes and larger primates. I set out in another paper (Kingston, 1986) my contention, based on actual experience, that breeding can be done at very much lower costs in the country of origin of any primate, given reasonable business attitudes and control. It will be prohibitively expensive, wherever it is done, if designed and managed by well-intentioned people who lack hard practical experience working within a tight budget. In addition, an exaggeratedly anthropomorphic attitude, demanding vast cages planted with vegetation native to the species habitat, will increase costs and make monitoring the young more difficult.
I can understand the concern of those who object to caging primates at all. I entirely agree that solitary primates in featureless metal cages, fed exclusively on a "balanced" pelleted diet, are a very sad sight. On the other hand, 30 years of work with large numbers of a wide range of species have convinced me that properly housed and looked after nonhuman primates appear totally relaxed and comfortable under captive conditions. Anyone who has seen the groups of Alouatta and Chiropotes in the Belem Primate Center, made up from animals rescued from the Tucurui Dam project, could not possibly believe them to be unhappy. Their relaxed social grooming, lack of fear of the staff, excited anticipation when food is forthcoming, breeding success, and, in the case of the Alouatta, magnificent roaring sessions when a storm is imminent surely indicate reasonable contentment.
Unquestionably the conservation of primates would be best achieved by securing the continuity of suitable natural habitat. Unhappily, I do not believe that this is going to be ensured for many species. Before it is too late, programs like that for the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus, should be started immediately. The first requirement is the cooperation of the authorities of the country in which the species is found. The most obvious location for the center would be in or adjacent to the national zoological garden. Properly designed, part of the center could be a tourist attraction, as suggested earlier (Kingston, 1985). The design, overseeing of construction, staff training, stocking, and initial management procedures should be under the guidance of an experienced consultant, who should also be in control of funding from outside sources. Locally available materials should be used, as far as possible, for construction and animal food. Within this framework, maximum national involvement and interest should be encouraged and, when forthcoming, receive international acknowledgement and acclaim. The cooperating zoos that would house the satellite colonies should be prepared, given the exhibition and status value of real involvement in conservation, to house the animals and pay at least the transport costs both from the main center and among themselves, as will be required for proper stud management.
Such a scheme should be affordable and would give at least reasonable assurance of survival of the genotype. In the longer term there is the problem, already evident in Leontopithecus rosalia and Saguinus oedipus, of too many examples of the species in captivity. Only secure reserves and improved reintroduction procedures appear to provide an acceptable solution.
Kingston, W. R. (1985). Conservation of the Callitrichidae. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 24, 1-3.
Kingston, W. R. (1986). Captive breeding of endangered species. Primate Eye, 30, 27-30.
Author's address: The Old Smithy, Bishops Frome, Worcester WR6 5BA, England.
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M. Cristina Riviello
Istituto di Psicologia del C. N. R.
In zoos and laboratories, introductions of primates into established social groups have been carried out with a wide variety of species. In spite of this, such introductions still present many risks. Introduced animals can be attacked and/or marginalized by animals familiar to each other (Bernstein, 1974; Caine & Short, 1981). Moreover the pattern, duration, and frequency of responses to unfamiliar animals depends on the species, age, sex, and number of animals introduced, as well as the composition of the resident group (Box, 1984).
In recent years, several articles have been published about the introduction of a strange monkey into an established captive group (e.g., Visalberghi & Riviello, 1987; Reinhardt, 1991), but few authors described behavioral observations (Becker & Berkson, 1979; Anderson et al., 1991). In this article we describe the behavior of two infant capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) during their successful introduction into a new social group.
The subjects of this study were two tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), one male (Cognac, 9 months old), and one female (Rame, 12 m.o.), born in captivity and reared by their mothers. They were simultaneously introduced into the same social group formed by 1 adult male (10 years old), 2 sub-adult females (7 and 6 y.o.), and 3 juveniles, 2 females (4 y.o. and 21 m.o.) and 1 male (13 m.o.). The group was housed in an indoor-outdoor cage (1.7 x 1.9 x 2.6 m and 1.7 x 3.0 x 2.6 m, respectively). The cage was furnished with swings, perches, bars, panels, and several kinds of toys, offering a rich and stimulating environment.
Instantaneous scan sampling (15-sec intervals) was used to estimate the percentage of time spent by Rame and Cognac in the following behavioral categories: *stress-induced behaviors (pacing, screaming, spatial isolation); *social behaviors (social play, gross body contact, passive grooming, active grooming); *solitary play.
Data were collected for 12 weeks (from introduction on) for a total of 24 30-minute sessions, each consisting of 120 samples for each subject. Data were analysed with a Chi-square test.
For both infants there was a significant variation over time in the frequency of all behaviors considered (p < 0.01). During the 12 weeks of observation, stress-induced behaviors decreased and social behaviors increased. Initially, there was more solitary than social play, but by the end of the observation period social play was more frequent. At the end of the observations, Cognac showed about 45% stress-induced behaviors and 55% play and social behaviors, while Rame's behaviors were about 70% stress-induced and 30% play and social.
Both infants established physical contact with cagemates, and younger monkeys were contacted earlier than older ones. Neither infant showed stereotyped behaviors, neither during introduction nor subsequent to it.
The two capuchin infants integrated themselves successfully into the new social group. The data suggest that the composition of the resident group, especially the presence of juveniles, probably facilitated Rame's and Cognac's integration in the group. Our data confirm the results of Harper (1971), who found that juveniles are the first residents to accept unfamiliar newcomers, followed by the adults; and that, in general, introduced infant monkeys are more tolerated than older ones. Probably the rich and stimulating environment, with objects to handle and structures with which to interact, helped prevent possible pathologic behaviors in the infants.
Anderson, J. R., Combette, C., & Roeder, J. J. (1991). Integration of a tame adult female capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) into a captive group. Primate Report, 31, 87-94.
Becker, J. D. & Berkson, G. (1979). Response to neighbors and strangers by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Primates, 20, 547-551.
Bernstein, I. S., Gordon, T. P. & Rose, R. M. (1974). Aggression and social controls in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) groups revealed in group formation studies. Folia Primatologica, 21, 81-107.
Box, H. L. (1984). Introducing strange individuals into established social units. In H. O. Box (Ed.), Primate Behaviour and Social Ecology (pp. 128-134). New York: Chapman and Hall.
Caine, N. G. & Short, J. (1981). Introducing unfamiliar monkeys (Macaca nemestrina and Macaca radiata) to established social groups. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 20 , 1-4.
Harper, L. V. (1971). The young as a source of stimuli controlling caretaker development. Developmental Psychology, 4, 73-88.
Reinhardt, V. (1991). Group formation of previously single-caged adult rhesus macaques for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Journal of Experimental Animal Science, 34, 110-115.
Visalberghi, E. & Riviello, M. C. (1987). The integration into a social group of a hand-reared Brown capuchin (Cebus apella). International Zoo Yearbook, 26, 232-236.
Author's address: Istituto di Psicologia del C. N. R., Reparto di Psicologia Comparata, Via U. Aldrovandi, 16/b, 00197 Rome, Italy.
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Benjamin D. Blood, D.V.M., 77, retired executive director of the Interagency Primate Steering Committee (IPSC), died January 20, 1992, at his home in McLean, VA, after a heart attack. Ben practiced veterinary medicine in Indiana, and was a veterinary medicine advisor to the South Korean government before joining the Pan American Health Organization in 1949. He left his post as PAHO's chief veterinarian in 1964 to join the U.S. Public Health Service, where he became Associate Director of the International Organization Affairs Division. Transferring to NIH, he directed the IPSC, securing nonhuman primates for scientific research and engaging in primate conservation work.
After retiring from NIH and the PHS in 1979, he was a consultant to the World Health Organization, which honored him for his work in smallpox eradication. The American Veterinary Medical Association also formally recognized his work in 1978. Survivors include his wife, Hollis, four children, 14 grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. -- From the Washington Post, 22 January, 1992.
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University of Wisconsin, Psychology
The Department of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison anticipates making faculty appointments beginning August, 1993 in one or more areas including: Animal Behavior Assistant Professor with research interests in any area of animal behavior; Behavioral Neuroscience Assistant Professor with research interests in the areas of neural plasticity (including learning), neuropharmacology of behavior or primate neurobiology. Candidates should submit a letter of application and curriculum vitae to the Search Committee (name of position) Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1202 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706. Candidates at the Assistant Professor level should arrange to have three letters of evaluation sent to this address. The University of Wisconsin-Madison is an equal opportunity/ affirmative action employer and especially encourages women and minorities to apply. To ensure consideration, applications should be received by November 1, 1992.
The Primate Foundation of Arizona has created a new position as Chimpanzee Caretaker. This job requires a BA or BS in Zoology, Biology, Anthropology, or a related field and the ability to work well with the rest of the staff. Primate or zoo experience is preferred. This person will share the responsibility for maintaining and caring for approximately 86 chimpanzees (Pan troglodtyes), and must be willing to make at least a two-year commitment. Salary is negotiable, and the position will be open until it is filled. All applicants must have a negative T.B. skin test, negative hepatitis B surface antigen blood test, and evidence of a measles booster or natural disease prior to employment. We are an Equal Opportunity Employer, and offer excellent benefits. Send a letter of interest, with requested salary, resume, and three letters of reference to: Jo Fritz, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.
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Harold R. Bauer, Dept. of Psychology, SUNY, Geneseo, NY 14454.
Nancy Caine, Psychology Program, California State Univ., San Marcos, CA 92096-0001.
Anthony M. Coelho, Jr., NIH, NHLBI Westwood Bldg 648A, 5333 Westbard Ave., Bethesda, MD 20892.
Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.
Jack R. Hessler, Exec. Director, Animal Research, Sandoz Research Inst., 59 Route 10, East Hanover, NJ 07936-1080.
Boris Lapin, Inst. of Medical Primatology, Veseloye 1, Adler, Sochi 354597, Russia.
Jaylan S. Turkkan, Div. of Behavioral Biology, Behavioral Biology Research Center, Hopkins Bayview Research Campus, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Suite 3000, Baltimore, MD 21224.
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The American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) autotutorial programs, widely used in training veterinary students, technicians, and investigators, are being completely revised. The program series, produced in the late 1970's, is being revised through the University of Washington Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources. The slide/tape programs will continue to serve as an introductory series on diseases of laboratory animals. Two of the first eight programs, Environmental Enrichment and Biosafety, deal with nonhuman primates, and more will be added as the series of 38 programs are completed by the end of 1992.
A complete description of individual programs and ordering information may be obtained from the Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources Distribution, Univ. of Washington, SB-56, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-685-1186]. -- From the Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, April-June 1992. 3[ 2 ].
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Primate and other mammalian hard and soft tissue remains are needed for clinical and bioanthropological research at the Hard Tissue Research Unit (HTRU) at Hunter College in New York City. The unit was established a little over a year ago and is under the direction of Dr. Timothy Bromage. The HTRU currently houses the Donald Enlow Histology Collection, and is now fully equipped for research employing histology, microscopy and image analysis techniques. We would appreciate any donations of hard and soft tissue, especially from sub-adult animals and fetuses, to use in pending research projects. We would of course pay for any shipping fees involved. Please contact: James McMahon, Dept. of Anthropology, Hard Tissue Research Unit, Hunter Collge, CUNY, 695 Park Ave., New York, NY 10021 [212-772-5525 or 5547; or 212-652-1725; e-mail: jmchc@cunyvm].
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President Bush signed S. 544, the "Animal Enterprise Act of 1992" on August 26. This animal research facilities protection legislation is now Public Law 102-346. Copies of the law will be available in 3-6 weeks from the Senate Document Room, B-04, SHOB, Washington, DC 20051-7106. Send a written request for P.L. 102-346 -- they do not accept phone requests.
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Captive Care Notes
At a session on the welfare of nonhuman primates used in biomedical research at the IPS meeting in Strasbourg this summer, a useful exchange of anecdotes reminded us that the original purpose of the LPN was to encourage the publication of exactly that sort of brief, pithy item. In a later discussion with Hilary Box, the new Chair of the Captive Care Committee of IPS, we suggested a new department in the LPN, to consist of one- to three-paragraph notes, describing incidents, techniques, observations, etc, from laboratories, breeding colonies, and zoos. This could also be a place to publish field workers' observations that have implications for captive care. If we receive submissions, we will begin to publish this new department in the next issue, January, 1993.
One of the interesting exhibits at ASP this June was the "interactive learning" project created by Francis Burton of the Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Toronto, Scarborough. The multi-media project, combining text, sound, and video within a mouse-controlled computer program, is called An Introduction to the Primates. When it is completed, probably this fall, it will present information about the more than 200 species of nonhuman primates, with special attention to: geographic distribution, conservation, taxonomy, fossil record, physical features, food and diet, reproduction, communication, and social behavior. The information is beautifully presented, with photos, maps, and diagrams complementing the text. It is intended as a laboratory adjunct for undergraduates, replacing slides-plus-handouts, but should prove interesting as a special project for younger students. For more information, as it is available, contact Dr. Burton at 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ontario, M1C A14 Canada.
In February of this year, an initiative was proposed to the Swiss electorate, banning animal experimentation. In the wake of the defeat of this initiative, the Schweizer Tierschutz STS (Animal Protection Society) has published a brochure, available in German, Italian, and French, consisting largely of an interview with James Mahoney, chief veterinarian at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates, New York University, and a description of the facilities and procedures at LEMSIP. The Society says, "This brochure is the beginning of a new chapter in the 116-year history of animal research discussion in Switzerland. The keyword is 'Dialogue'." Copies of the brochure, titled, "Greetings, People. We Are So Close!" are available from Schweizer Tierschutz STS, Birsfelderstrasse 45, CH-4052 Basel, Switzerland.
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Small Grants for Exploratory Research
The National Science Foundation is inviting brief, informal applications for small-scale exploratory, high-risk research in all fields, including urgent social and behavioral research requiring immediate data collection after social and environmental upheavals. Applications will be accepted at any time. Grant amounts vary, but the maximum award is $50,000. Investigators at academic and nonacademic institutions and unaffiliated individuals may apply for preliminary work on untested and novel ideas, ventures into emerging research areas, applying new expertise and approaches to old research topics, multidisciplinary work and urgent research requiring immediate data collection or access to facilities or special equipment. Contact the relevant program, or request publication 89-85 from Forms and Publications Unit, Room 232, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC 20550 [202-357-7668].
Laboratory Animal Small Research Grants
The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) Comparative Medicine Program will henceforth accept Small Research Grant (R03) applications at any of the three standard annual application receipt dates (February 1, June 1, and October 1). Such applications have previously been accepted only for the February 1 deadline. These awards are limited to $25,000 direct costs and only one year of support. They are intended to provide support for pilot projects, testing of new techniques, and feasibility studies of innovative research in the areas of laboratory animal biotechnology, normative biology, disease, welfare, and model development. Further information concerning these awards and updated guidelines for applicants may be obtained by sending two self-addressed mailing labels to: Comparative Medicine Program, N.C.R.R., Westwood Bldg, Room 857, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5175].
I.P.P.L. Hurricane Relief
The International Primate Protection League will consider applications for small grants to assist south Florida primate nonresearch facilities. Contact Shirley McGreal at 803-871-2280. -- From email@example.com
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1993 ASP Meeting in Massachusetts
The 1993 meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be held at the Sturbridge Host Hotel, Sturbridge, MA, August 18-21. Sturbridge is approximately an hour from the Boston and Hartford airports. For information and local arrangements, contact Andrew J. Petto, Primate Socioecology Laboratory, Division of Behavioral Biology, Harvard Med. School, NERPRC, P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102 [508-624-8089; FAX: 508-624-8190; bitnet: petto2@husc3].
The 1994 meeting has been set for July 13 in Seattle, WA, and the 1995 meeting will be in Colorado in June.
NIH Workshop on Humane Care and Use
The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks is sponsoring another workshop on Implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, open to institutional administrators, members of IACUCs, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators, and other institutional staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs. A workshop on "Minimizing Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals" will be held December 3-4, 1992, in Nashville, TN, co-sponsored by Vanderbilt University and Meharry Medical College. For more information, contact Ms. Marilyn Dasaro, Div. of Continuing Medical Education, Vanderbilt Univ., D-8211 Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232-2337 [615-822-4030; FAX: 615-343-0809].
The Fourth International Lion-tailed Macaque Symposium will be held in Madras, India, 11-15 October, 1993. The hosts of the symposium will be the Forest Department of Tamil Nadu and CBSG-India and its Lion-tailed Macaque Special Interest Group. For more information, contact the Director, Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Madras 48, Tamil Nadu, India [91-44-402-089], or the Registrar, CBSG--India, Box 1683, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India [91-422-571-087; FAX: 91-422-572-123].
IPS 1994 Congress
The XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society (IPS) will be held in Bali, Indonesia, 19-24 July, 1994. The Congress is being organized by the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, the Indonesian Wildlife Society, and the IPS. For information, contact Dr. Linda Prasetyo, c/o Perth Zoo, 20 Labouchere Rd., Western Australia 6151, Australia [09-368-1916; FAX: 09-367-3921], or Dr. Soegardjito, WWF/US Asia-Pacific Program, 1250 24th St., NW, Washington, DC 20037 [202-861-8300; FAX: 202-223-6971].
The XVIth Congress of the IPS will be held in Madison, WI, in 1996.
Orang-utan Conservation Workshop
A workshop on the conservation of the orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) will be held in Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 14-20 January, 1993. The workshop is being organized by the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, the IUCN Species Survival Commission, and World Wide Fund for Nature. For information, contact Dr. Linda Prasetyo or Dr. Soegardjito (addresses above), Dr. Tom Foose, CBSG Office, 12101 Johnny Cake Ridge Rd., Apple Valley, MN 55124 [612-431-9325; FAX: 612-432-2757], or Widodo Sukohadi Ramono, PHPA Office, Manggala Wanabakti 8th Floor, Jakarta 10270, Indonesia [021-580-3313; FAX: 021-584-818].
"The Aging Monkey"
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health are sponsoring a meeting on "The Aging Monkey: Behavior and Neurobiology," November 16-17, 1992, at the Marriott Inner Harbor Hotel, Baltimore, MD. This meeting will present state-of-the-art data on aging monkeys and explore ways to utilize these findings in the most beneficial and appropriate manner. For further information, contact the Program Coordinator, Office of Continuing Education, Johns Hopkins Medical Inst., Turner Building 20, 720 Rutland Ave., Baltimore, MD 21205-2195 [401-955-2959].
Conference on Nocturnal Prosimians
The Duke University Primate Center is hosting an international conference, "Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians," June 9-12, 1993. To be placed on the mailing list for further information concerning attendance or contributions, contact Lon Alterman or Kay Izard, Duke University Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705 [919-684-2535].
* * *
International Directory of Primatology
The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin--Madison, has just published the first International Directory of Primatology, to enhance communications among the many organizations and individuals involved in primate research, conserva- tion and education. It can be used by primatologists as a desktop working tool or by librarians and other professionals who need to answer questions or direct students to primate programs or other information resources.
The directory is divided into five sections and four indexes. The sections cover (1) geographically arranged entries for major primate centers, laboratories, educational programs, foundations, conservation organizations and sanctuaries, (2) current field sites with program and contact information, (3) members of groups involved with nonhuman primate population management, (4) professional primate societies and (5) major information sources in the field. Access to this information is supported by organization, species, subject, and name indexes.
Copies of the International Directory of Primatology--225 pp., spiral bound--are available in the USA for $10 (includes surface postage and handling). To offset mailing costs, the price to other countries is $18, payable in US dollars. Orders to: Larry Jacobsen, IDP Coordinator, WRPRC Library, 1220 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; FAX: 608-263-4031; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. Make checks payable to: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
New World Monkey Usage
David Lee-Parritz (New England Regional Primate Center, One Pine Hill Rd., Southborough, MA 01772 [508-624-8095; e-mail email@example.com]) is making an informal survey of laboratory use of New World primates. He is looking for the following information (by species): *Total number purchased, *origin of animal (wild-caught, bred in native country, bred in the United States), *previous history (naive, research, breeding), *ultimate disposition (euthanasia, reassignment to experimentation, breeding).
"Thanks in advance for your cooperation. I will gladly share the results of the survey with interested people."
Jane Phillips-Conroy sends the following letter: "On a recent trip to South Africa I was asked for advice on the following situation: There are three small groups of chacma baboons, each comprised of juveniles (oldest about 4 years), which the people there hope to release into the wild. This much is obvious to me--there's no hope at all for these animals without adults in the group (there are leopards in the area in which they will be released). The question is how to introduce adult males and females into these groups of about 20 juveniles: how to schedule the introductions, prepare the groups for introductions, introduce males to males, etc....the questions are obvious. The situation is not urgent, so there is no need to act hurriedly. I have come up with suggestions based on observations of wild baboons and the incorporation of migrants into the group, but to construct a group more or less de novo is pretty foreign to me. Advice and counsel will be much appreciated. Please respond to me personally at Washington Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Box 8108, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St Louis, MO 63110 [314-362-3396; FAX: 314-362-3446; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]."
Animal Management Videos
The Lincoln park Zoological Gardens has a limited number of management VHS videos available at $10 each. They are titled: "To be a Gorilla -- Management of Lowland Gorillas in Captivity"; 22 minutes; includes a reference booklet. Institute of Museum Services, IC 90095-89. "Within Striking Distance -- Keeper Safety". 10 Min. Checks should be payable to the Lincoln Park Zoo Soc. Send to Mark Rosenthal, Lincoln Park Zoo. Gardens, 2200 N. Cannon Drive, Chicago IL 60614. -- From a note on usenet.
Tropical Biodiversity is a new quarterly scientific journal soon to be published by The Indonesian Foundation for the Advancement of Biological Sciences, and intended to promote research and awareness of issues that relate to the understanding and conservation of tropical habitats throughout the world. For information on subscription and paper submission, write to The Managing Editor, Tropical Biodiversity, P.O. Box 103, Depok 16401, Indonesia.
* * *
Researchers Contract SIV
Two laboratory researchers have been infected with SIV, the monkey form of the AIDS virus, but did not develop symptoms of an immune disorder. In "Simian immunodeficiency virus needlestick accident in a laboratory worker" (Lancet, 1992, 340, 271-273), Khabbaz et al. reported that seroreactivity to SIV developed within 3 months of exposure, with antibody titers peaking from the third to fifth month, and declining thereafter. It has recently been reported that this patient is now seronegative. We recently heard of a second case, in which a laboratory worker, who had active dermatitis, was exposed to SIV while handling infected macaque specimens without wearing gloves.
NIH and the CDC are cooperating in a search for other lab workers who may have been exposed. Dr. Robert Eisinger, a microbiologist in the NIH's office of AIDS research, said that "the goal is to determine the prevalence of what we have seen in these two individuals." Eisinger said neither lab worker got sick or showed signs of an immune disorder. But it is not known how long it takes for a monkey to develop AIDS after being infected with the virus; HIV-positive people sometimes go many years with no symptoms of AIDS.
Animal-care and laboratory workers are reminded that they should adhere strictly to recommended procedures to avoid accidental exposures when working with SIV-infected animals or specimens. Omissions in standard safety techniques resulted in both these incidents.
"Future of NSF" Commissioners Named
On 11 September, the National Science Foundation named fifteen nationally known scientists, industry leaders, university administrators, and educators to a Special Commission on the Future of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The commission was convened as part of the long-range strategic planning process now underway at the federal agency. It will examine how NSF can play a larger role in fostering connections between science and technology, and explore new agency directions that would benefit the nation while ensuring that NSF maintains its unique role as the major federal supporter of fundamental research and education. Three commission meetings have been scheduled: September 17, October 16, and November 7. All meetings will be open and held at NSF headquarters in Washington, D.C. The commission will accept written comments until October 15, 1992 on the following questions: *NSF support plays an important role in the health of the nation's academic system, which is the source of new ideas and human resources in science and engineering. How can NSF maintain and enhance the health of this vital resource? *In light of the many changes in both science and world affairs, should NSF build on its traditional mission by pursuing a broader array of research and education objectives and doing more to link academia and industry? If so, what strategies could the agency adopt to move in this direction? Send written comments to the Special Commission on the Future of NSF, Rm 546, NSF, 1800 G St., NW, Washington, DC 20550 [FAX: 202-357-7346; E-mail: email@example.com].
* * *
We received news from Florida, after the August hurricane, mostly by the electronic bulletin board primate talk. Here are some notes:
*Some folks at Zoo Atlanta are making a run down to the Miami Zoo to help out, with the help of Southern Bell corporate jets, taking supplies as well as personnel, and will stay for a few days to help. -- Jackie Ogden, UC San Diego
*TV had stories of local monkey breeders capturing and transporting monkeys to other breeders and sanctuaries up North. Exotic birds were shown being transported to safer quarters for feed, water and shelter. Many of us would like to help and even go down to Homestead, but coordination and directions are needed to keep us from becoming a burden on local facilities. -- Farol Tomson, UF - Gainesville, FL
*Charles River Laboratories' Primate Division issued a "Hurricane Andrew Update" on August 27: "Hurricane Andrew left a trail of destruction behind it in South Florida earlier this week, but we are pleased to report that Key Lois and Raccoon Key suffered no damage whatsoever from this hurricane. All of the monkeys and facilities on these islands are intact.
"As the lines of communication open and more concrete information is available, we will send updated advisories. Charles River Laboratories sincerely thanks its many customers, friends, and colleagues who have offered help and support during this natural disaster."
*Conversations between Dr. F. Doepel (U. Miami), Jean Hunter (Charles River Labs [CRL]), and Associate Editor James Harper: Many outdoor chainlink monkey enclosures were destroyed at U. of Miami's Perrine Primate Center, Mannheimer Foundation, and CRL holding facilities in southern Dade county. More than 200 macaques from Perrine and more than 2000 from Mannheimer/CRL escaped. Initial confusion about the simian retrovirus and lentivirus status of these monkeys led to the destruction of some animals by military and police personnel and local residents. Many staff members at each facility lost their homes, besides the almost total destruction of their research facilities. Some wheeled monkey cages were blown three blocks from where they were stored at Perrine. The Woodstream Corporation has made special extra large traps to assist in the capture of these monkeys. The total number of monkeys lost or killed will not be known for a long time, as efforts to recapture monkeys continue. CRL has moved additional personnel to Florida from other states. So far, more than 1200 monkeys have been recaptured by Mannheimer/CRL, and 50 by Perrine.
* * *
*Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991. 152 pp. [Price: $9.95]
*Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992. 175 pp. [Price: $29.95]
*Paternity in Primates: Genetic Tests and Theories. Implications of Human DNA Fingerprinting. R. D. Martin, A. F. Dixson, & E. J. Wickings (Eds.). Basel: Karger, 1992. xii + 288 pp. [Price: $198.50]
*A Belizean Rain Forest: The Community Baboon Sanctuary. R. H. Horwich & J. Lyon. Gays Mills, WI: Orang-utan Press, 1990. 420 pp. [Price $12 + $2 postage and handling, from Howlers Forever, RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]
*Topics in Primatology. Volume 1. Human Origins. T. Nishida, W. C.
McGrew, P. Marler, M. Pickford, & F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.). Tokyo:
University of Tokyo Press, 1992.
*Topics in Primatology. Volume 2. Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. N. Itoigawa, Y. Sugiyama, G. P. Sackett, & R. K. R. Thompson
(Eds.). Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1992.
*Topics in Primatology. Volume 3. Evolutionary Biology, Reproductive
Endocrinology, and Virology. S. Matano, R. H. Tuttle, H. Ishida, & M.
Goodman (Eds.). Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1992. [Price for
all 3: $215]
. . Proceedings of 15 symposia from the XIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, held in Japan in 1990.
*How Monkeys See the World: Inside the Mind of Another Species. D. L. Cheney & R. M. Seyfarth. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1990. 378 pp. [Price: $24.95]
*Pan paniscus Bibliography: Anatomy, Behavior, Colony Management, Conservation/Ecology, Field Studies, Genetics and Taxonomy. A Selective Bibliography, 1970-1991. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991. 36 pp. (463 citations, subject index) [Price $10. Stock #91-010. Send order to Primate Information Center, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]
*Hepatitis Research in Nonhuman Primates, 1990-1991 Update. S. Cohen. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991. 11 pp. (94 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price $6.50. Stock #91-011. Ordering information same as above]
*Behavioral Observations of Feral and Free-ranging Orang Utans (Pongo pygmaeus). J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1991. 10 pp. (137 citations) [Price $10. Stock #91-012. Ordering information same as above]
*International Directory of Primatology. Madison: Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center, 1992. 225 pp. Spiral bound. [Price: $10 in
U.S., $18 to other countries. Order from L. Jacobsen, WRPRC Library,
1220 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI 53715-1299]
. . A directory, intended for primatologists and information professionals, organized as 5 sections, including primate societies, information sources, field sites, organizations, and individuals; with 4 indexes.
*Directory of the Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos,
1992-1993. D. F. Hardy & D. G. Hughes. 151 pp. [Price: $15, from D.
Hardy, Dept. of Psychology, California State Univ., Northridge, CA
. . List, with several indexes, of persons interested in cooperation between universities, zoos, and aquariums for education and research.
*Resources for Biomedical Research Technology. A Research Resources Directory. Bethesda: National Inst. of Health, 1992. 92 pp. [Free single copies from Research Resources Information Center, 1601 Research Blvd, Rockville, MD 20850]
*19th Edition IATA Live Animals Regulations. [Price: $53 (English), $54 (French/Spanish), from Publications Assistant, International Air Transport Association, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, PQ Canada H3A 2R4]
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
*Gorilla Conservation News. No. 6, August, 1992. Newsletter of the Gorilla Advisory Committee for the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. [K. Stewart, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616]
*Asian Primates, June, 1992, 2 . A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC
Primate Specialist Group. [Ardith A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St., Upland, CA 91786]
. . Includes articles on the future of Japanese monkeys, Thailand's new wildlife law, and gibbon release in Thailand.
Special Journal Issues
*Diseases of the Callitrichidae: A review. Potkay, S. (O.P.R.R., Bldg.
31, Rm. 5B59, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21.
. . The spontaneous diseases of captive callitrichids and those to which these species are experimentally susceptible are reviewed.
*Program and Abstracts of the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, June 19-21, 1992. American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 27.
*Why I Should Stay Awake In Science Class. Foundation for Biomedical
Research. 10 minutes. [$15, from F.B.R., 818 Connecticut Ave., N.W.,
Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]
. . Intended for grades 5 to 9. A teachers' guide is included.
*ABC Nightline. [Price: $14.98 + 3.95 shipping & handling. Phone
800-ABC-9420, and ask for Air Date 8-3-92]
. . This is the program on bonobos and chimps, with Frans de Waal and Lionel Tiger.
*Experimentation with Forest-Dwelling Chimpanzees in the Congo (now
Zaire), 1963. A. Kortlandt & E. G. Bresser (Revised, 1989).
*Experimentation with Forest-Dwelling Chimpanzees in the Congo (now
Zaire), 1964. A. Kortlandt & S. Trevor (Revised, 1986).
*Chimpanzees in the Wild, Guinea 1966-1967. A. Kortlandt, J. van
Orshoven, R. Pfeijffers, & J. C. J. van Zon. (Revised, 1981). [Price
for all 3, in VHS-NTSC format: $180 in the US and Canada; $200 (surface mail) or $230 (air mail) in other countries. Order from the
Audiovisual Library, Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI
15715. For VHS-PAL format, address Dr. Kortlandt, 88, Woodstock Rd.,
Oxford OX2 7ND, England]
. . Each tape is about 45 minutes of film taken from blinds along chimpanzee paths and near feeding areas. Experimental techniques in the von Frisch-Lorenz-Tinbergen tradition, combining intensive observation with nonintrusive experimentation, were used. A short video showing preparatory tests in captivity, reprints relevant to the videos, and transcripts of the spoken commentaries are included in the package.
Anatomy & Physiology
*Sexual dimorphism of the canine roots in the Macaca fuscata. Yoshikawa, Y. & Deguchi, T. (Dept. of Orthodontics, Matsumoto Dental College, Shiojiri, Nagano, 399-07 Japan). Primates, 1992, 33, 121-127.
. . Radiographic analysis of 88 specimens in 44 individuals showed a clear sexual dimorphism in root morphology of the maxillary canines. All male canines were single-rooted, while more than 40% of the female canines were double-rooted.
*Cholesterol metabolism in adult baboons is influenced by infant diet.
Mott, G. E., Jackson, E. M., McMahan, C. A., & McGill, H. C. Jr.
(Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Texas Health Science Ctr, San Antonio,
TX 78284). Journal of Nutrition, 1990, 120, 243-251.
. . Breast-fed baboons, as adults, had lower cholesterol production rates, masses of the rapidly exchanging cholesterol compartment, and neutral steroid excretion rates than those fed formula as infants. Breast and formula feeding differentially influenced the adult metabolic responses to dietary cholesterol or fat saturation.
*Cross-modal transfer in high- and low-risk infant pigtailed macaque
monkeys. Gunderson, V. M., Rose, S. A., & Grant-Webster, K. S. (RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Developmental Psychology, 1990, 26, 576-581.
. . High-risk (low birth rate, failure to thrive, birth trauma, or experimental treatment) and low risk infants were given an object to explore tactually in a darkened room, and then visually presented with that object and a novel object. Looking time at each object was recorded. Results are similar to those obtained for human infants using the same paradigm.
*Role of sympathoadrenal medullary activation in the initiation and
progression of atherosclerosis. Kaplan, J. R., Pettersson, K., Manuch,
S. B., & Olsson, G. (Dept. of Comparative Med., Bowman Gray School of
Med., Winston-Salem, NC 27103). Circulation, 1991, 84[suppl. VI], VI23-VI32.
. . Socially dominant cynomolgus monkeys, when fed an atherogenic diet and subjected to periodic social disruption, developed markedly worsened coronary atherosclerosis in comparison with subordinate animals. The effect was inhibited in similarly aggressive monkeys treated with a beta-adrenergic blocking agent.
*Torsion of the colon in vervet monkeys: Association with an atherogenic Western-type of diet. Fincham, J. E., Seier, J. V., & Lombard,
C. J. (Research Inst. for Nutritional Diseases, Medical Research Council, P.O. Box 19070, Tygerberg, South Africa 7505). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 44-46.
. . Risk of torsion of the colon increased in adult male, but not female, Cercopithecus aethiops when they were fed with an atherogenic Western diet.
*The effect of ovariectomy on spine bone mineral density in rhesus
monkeys. Longcope, C., Hoberg, L., Steuterman, S., & Baran, D. (Dept.
of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Univ. of Massachusetts Medical School,
Worcester, MA 01655). Bone, 1989, 10, 341-344.
. . Ovariectomy in 12 female rhesus monkeys resulted in a relatively rapid diminution of spine bone mineral density, which was not prevented by intermittent hormonal replacement. This species may be an excellent model for studies of osteoporosis.
*Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and percent glycosylated
hemoglobin are unaltered by food restriction in rhesus and squirrel
monkeys. Cutler, R. G., Davis, B. J., Ingram, D. K., & Roth, G. S. (G.
S. R., Gerontology Res. Center, NIH, 4940 Eastern Ave., Baltimore, MD
21224). Journal of Gerontology, 1992, 47, B9-B12.
. . No correlations between glucose levels and the percent of glycosylated hemoglobin could be established in either food restricted or ad libitum-fed monkeys. These results are different from observations made in rats.
*Injection of excitatory amino acid antagonists into the medial pallidal segment of a 1-methyl- 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)
treated primate reverses motor symptoms of parkinsonism. Graham, W.
C., Robertson, R. G., Sambrook, M. A., & Crossman, A. R. (Exp. Neurology & Myology Group, Dept. of Cell and Structural Biology, Univ.
of Manchester Med. School, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PT, U.K.).
Life Sciences, 1990, 47, PL91-PL97.
. . Intracerebral injections of kynurenic acid alleviated symptoms of MPTP-induced parkinsonian symptoms.
*Gender differences in reactivity of adult squirrel monkeys to short-term environmental challenges. Crepeau, L. J. & Newman, J. D. (J. D.
N., P.O. Box 289, NIH Animal Ctr., Bldg. 112, Poolesville, MD 20837).
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 1991, 15, 469-471.
. . Individual adult squirrel monkeys show gender-specific reactivity profiles to threatening stimuli under laboratory conditions. The data indicate that screening of putative anxiolytic drugs in a primate model can be accomplished using efficient, ethologically-based testing procedures in the laboratory.
*Arthritis in rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV/Delta). Roberts, E. D. & Martin, L. N. (Dept. of Pathology, Delta RPRC, Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433). Laboratory Investigation, 1991, 65, 637-643.
. . Immunological and microscopic investigations suggest that SIV/Delta arthritis is a primary viral reaction, making this disease an animal model for the HIV/arthritis observed in humans. In an SIV-infected population of rhesus, 40-45% of animals have joint changes.
*Responses to novelty in phobic and non-phobic cynomolgus monkeys:
The role of subject characteristics and object features. Vochteloo, J.
D., Timmermans, P. J. A., Duijghuisen, J. A. H., & Vossen, J. M. H.
(P. J. A. T., Psychological Lab., Dept. of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, Univ. of Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen,
Netherlands). Behavioural Research and Theory, 1991, 29, 531-538.
. . Phobic (avoided a big paper bag) and nonphobic (approached the bag) subjects were exposed to several big and small novel objects. Phobic subjects avoided, and nonphobic subjects approached big novel objects, while the reaction to small novel objects was independent of "phobic" status.
*"Coo" vocalizations in stumptailed macaques: A controlled functional
analysis. Bauers, K. A. & de Waal, F. B. M. (WRPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715). Behaviour, 1991, 119, 143-160.
. . On the basis of the nonvocal behavioral changes that coo vocalizations predict, coos may be viewed as social tools, used to influence conspecifics. It is suggested that the use of coos to solicit approach may be a convention for the avoidance of aggression.
*Social changes within a group of wild black-capped capuchins (Cebus
apella) in Colombia (II). Izawa, K. (Miyagi Univ. of Education, Aoba,
Sendai 980, Japan). Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena,
Colombia, 1990, 3, 1-5.
. . Changes in the dominance heirarchy are reported in a provisioned group of wild capuchins, from October 1987 through January 1990.
*Self-aggression in stumptail macaques: Effects of frustration and
social partners. de Monte, M., Anderson, J. R., & Charbonnier, H.
(Lab. de Psychophysiologie (URA 1295), 7 rue de l'Universite, 67000
Strasbourg, France). Primates, 1992, 33, 115-120.
. . Self-aggression (SA) was more frequent in adult macaques observing from an adjacent cage while a companion was being tested in a memory task than when they themselves were being tested. Watching a companion being fed by a human also caused SA to increase when subjects were alone, but not when they were with another partner. Subjects of intermediate dominance rank appeared the most prone to bouts of SA. It is concluded that social housing with compatible partners can reduce this abnormal behavior.
*The effects of temporary cover on the behavior of socially housed
stumptailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). Estep, D. Q. & Baker, S. C.
(Animal Behavior Assoc., 4760 S. Meade St., Littleton, CO 80123). Zoo
Biology, 1991, 10, 465-472.
. . When two solid temporary walls, 9.6 m in length, were erected within a compound holding a group of 26 animals, levels of contact aggression, proximity between animals, locomotion, and the ability of the dominant male to monopolize copulations were all reduced from the levels when the walls were simply stacked against one exterior wall of the compound. Other measures of affiliation were not affected.
*Simple toys do not alter the behavior of aged rhesus monkeys. Line,
S. W., Morgan, K. N., & Markowitz, H. (Dept. Comparative Med., Bowman
Gray School of Med., 300 S. Hawthorne Rd, Winston-Salem, NC 27103).
Zoo Biology, 1991, 10, 473-484.
. . Simple toys and sticks have limited effectiveness as environmental enrichment for aged rhesus monkeys. Socialization and/or actively responsive enrichment devices may be more effective in enhancing the lives of captive primates.
*Survey of Saguinus mortality in a zoo colony. Letcher, J. (Lincoln Park Zoo, 2200 N. Cannon Dr, Chicago, IL 60614-3895). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 24-29.
. . Six years of necropsy records for 4 tamarin species showed mean age at death: 4 years; annual mortality rate: 9 to 30%; most common causes of death: peritonitis (26%) and septicemia (14%).
*Mortality causes of the moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) in captivity. Gozalo, A. & Montoya, E. (Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia-IVITA, Apartado 621, Iquitos, Peru). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 35-38.
. . From 1987 through 1990, 125 adult S. mystax died at the Center for Reproduction and Conservation of Nonhuman Primates. Most common causes of death were enteritis/colitis (26%), hypoglycemia/cachexia (19%), and parasitic enteritis (13%), along with purulent peritonitis (9%), lobular pneumonia (8%), and hemorrhagic gastroenterocolitis (6%), confirming the high frequency of gastroenteric lesions reported in Callitrichidae in captivity.
*Social deprivation of infant rhesus monkeys alters the chemoarchitecture of the brain: I. Subcortical regions. Martin, L. J., Spicer, D. M., Lewis, M. H., Gluck, J. P., & Cork, L. C. (Johns Hopkins Univ.
School of Medicine, Neuropathology Lab., 509 Pathology Bldg, 600 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205-2181). Journal of Neuroscience, 1991, 1, 3344-3358.
. . In socially deprived monkeys, neuronal cell bodies and processes immunoreactive for substance P (SP) and leucine-enkephalin were depleted markedly in patch and matrix regions of the caudate nucleus and putamen. The average density of SP-immunoreactive neurons was reduced 58% relative to socially reared monkeys. The altered chemoarchitecture of some basal ganglia regions in adult monkeys that experienced social deprivation as infants suggests that the postnatal maturation of neurotransmitter phenotypes in some structures is influenced by social environment.
*Protection against malaria in Aotus monkeys immunized with a recombinant blood-stage antigen fused to a universal T-cell epitope: Correlation of serum gamma interferon levels with protection. Herrera, M. A., Rosero, F., Herrera, S., Caspers, P., Rotmann, D., Sinigaglia, F.,
& Certa, U. (U.C., Pharma Res. Technology, Hoffman-La Roche, CH-4002
Basel, Switzerland). Infection and Immunity, 1992, 60, 154-158.
. . Immunization of Aotus with 190L gives only poor protection against P. falciparum challenge, but addition by genetic engineering of a universal T-cell epitope to 190L improved immunity. Sera from protected animals contained elevated levels of gamma interferon, suggesting that gamma interferon is directly or indirectly involved in the process of asexual parasite control in vivo.
*Evidence for a lentiviral etiology in an epizootic of immune
deficiency and lymphoma in stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides).
Lowenstine, L. J., Lerche, N. W., Yee, J. L., Uyeda, A., Jennings, M.
B., Munn, R. J., McClure, H. M., Anderson, D. C., Fultz, P. N., &
Gardner, M. B. (Dept. of Pathology, School of Vet. Medicine, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 1-14.
. . Serology, epidemiology, pathology, and virus isolation indicated retrospecively that an epizootic which began in 1976 was associated with a horizontally spread lentivirus infection. A lentivirus, isolated from a rhesus inoculated with lymph node homogenate from a stumptailed macaque, was designated SIVstm and was pathogenic for rhesus macaques. The isolate was antigenically related to other SIVs as well as to HIV-1 and HIV-2.
*Axonal-transsynaptic spread as the basic pathogenetic mechanism in B
virus infection of the nervous system. Gosztonyi, G., Falke, D., &
Ludwig, H. (Inst. fur Neuropathologie, Freie Univ. Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-1000 Berlin 45, Germany). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 42-43.
. . The characteristics of the spread of B virus are similar to those of other members of the herpes virus group.
*Mystery Case No. 23. Comparative Pathology Bulletin, 1992, 24, 1,4.
. . A 14-year-old male lowland gorilla in a zoo died of hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, probably ingested from close association with the definitive host, a cat, dog, or exotic canid.
*Gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of the chacma baboon, Papio
cynocephalus ursinus, from the coastal lowlands of Zululand, South
Africa. Appleton, C. C., Henzi, S. P., & Whitehead, S. I. (Dept. of
Zoology & Entomology, Univ. of Natal, P.O. Box 375, Pietermaritzburg,
3200 South Africa). African Journal of Ecology, 1991, 29, 149-156.
. . Examination of 191 fecal samples revealed low prevalence rates for a high diversity of gastro-intestinal helminths. Results were compared with data from montane baboons.
*Phenotypic and functional differences in NK and LAK cells in the
peripheral blood of sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques. Powell, J.
D., McClure, H. M., Anderson, D., Fultz, P. N., Sell, K. W., & Ahmed-Ansari, A. (Dept. of Pathology & Lab. Medicine, Emory Univ. School of
Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322). Cellular Immunology, 1989, 124,
. . More than 75% of the sooty mangabeys at the Yerkes RPRC are naturally infected with SIV without any apparent clinical symptoms, while experimental infection of rhesus macaques with SIV results in a clinical syndrome similar to human AIDS. Examination of the blood of infected and uninfected animals of both species shows that natural killer cell and lymphokine-activated killer cell activity in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mangabeys were significantly greater than those in rhesus macaques.
*Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection in baboons. Mandrell, T. D.
(Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN
38163). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 506-508.
. . Case history and discussion of five cases of catheter-associated infections in a group of baboons with chronic indwelling venous catheters. All cases were attributed to a contaminated stock solution of cocaine that was administered.
*Baboon lymphoma viruses. Lapin, B. (Inst. of Medical Primatology,
Veseloye 1, Adler, Sochi 354597, Russia). In G. Darai (Ed.), Virus
Diseases in Laboratory and Captive Animals (pp.135-151). Boston:
Martinus Nijhoff, 1988.
. . Analysis and discussion of viruses isolated from the more than 280 fatal cases of lymphoma that have occurred in baboons at Sukhumi Primate Center since 1967.
Instruments & Techniques
*A prospective analysis of endometrial cycle changes by ultrasound in
the female cynomolgus monkey. Foster, W. G., Stals, S. I., & McMahon,
A. (Rm. 311, Environmental Health Centre, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa,
P.O. Canada K1A 0L2). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 30-34.
. . Endometrial thickness, as measured by real-time ultrasound, was correlated with cycle day and serum estradiol and progesterone levels, indicating that ultrasound is a reliable method of diagnosis of endometrial cycle stage.
*Rapid extraction of faecal steroids for measuring reproductive cyclicity and early pregnancy in free-ranging yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus). Wasser, S. K., Monfort, S. L., & Wildt, D. E. (Endocrine Res. Lab., Conservation and Research Ctr, National Zoo.
Park, Smithsonian Inst., Front Royal, VA 22630). Journal of Reproduction & Fertility, 1991, 92, 415-423.
. . Fecal progesterone concentrations measured over several cycles in 2 females increased and decreased in correspondence to visual markers of the luteal phase. Progesterone profiles during early to midgestation in 3 females confirmed pregnancy by 25 days. Compared with previous techniques, these new methods save considerable time in assaying raw material and result in high extraction recoveries of fecal steroids (about 88% for estradiol and 91% for progesterone).
*Subjective assessment of reactivity level and personality traits of
rhesus monkeys. Bolig, R., Price, C. S., O'Neill, P. L., & Suomi, S.
J. (Dept. of Family Relations & Human Development, Ohio State Univ.,
Columbus, OH 43210). International Journal of Primatology, 1992, 13, 287-306.
. . Subjective assessment of reactivity is complementary to that of personality traits. Interrater reliability and convergent validity are established. Ten personality traits can assign all subjects to reactivity level, but as few as 3 traits may be sufficient.
*Changes in the activity of captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus
oedipus) over the breeding cycle. Price, E. C. (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey, GB). Primates, 1992, 33, 99-106.
. . Breeding males showed few major changes, but breeding females reduced levels of locomotion during late pregnancy, and during lactation they spent up to twice as much time feeding and foraging as they did during pregnancy.
*Characteristic features of the reproduction of Koshima monkeys Macaca fuscata fuscata : A summary of thirty-four years of observation. Watanabe, K., Mori, A., & Kawai, M. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484 Japan). Primates, 1992, 33, 1-32.
*Reproductive parameters of female Japanese Macaques: Thirty years data from the Arashiyama troops, Japan. Koyama, N., Takahata, Y., Huffman, M. A., Norikoshi, K., & Suzuki, H. (Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto Univ., Shimoadachi-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606 Japan). Primates, 1992, 33, 33-47.
*Demography and reproductive parameters of a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Katsuyama. Itoigawa, N., Tanaka, T., Ukai, N., Fujii, H. Kurokawa, T., Koyama, T., Ando, A., Watanabe, Y., & Imakawa, S. (Dept. of Comparative and Developmental Psychology, Fac. of Human Sciences, Osaka Univ., Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565 Japan). Primates, 1992, 33, 49-68.
*Catecholamines and uterine activity rhythms in the pregnant rhesus macaque. McNutt, C. M. & Ducsay, C. A. (C. A. D., Div. of Perinatal Biology, Loma Linda Univ., Loma Linda, CA 92350). Biology of Reproduction, 1991, 45, 373-379.
. . Neither maternal plasma nor amniotic fluid catecholamine concentrations was correlated with uterine activity rhythms.
*Natural hybridization between Saimiri taxa in the Peruvian Amazonia.
Silva, B. T. F., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P.
C., Montoya, E., Encarnacion, F., & Salzano, F. M. (Dept. de Genetica,
Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Univ. Federal do Para, Campus Univ. do
Guama, 66076 Belem, PA, Brasil). Primates, 1992, 33, 107-113.
. . A wild population on the border of the distributions of Saimiri sciureus macrodon and S. boliviensis peruviensis was studied in relation to 22 protein loci. These genetic markers provided indications of secondary intergradation between these two taxa. Continued studies in this region on the hybrids' viability and fertility may be important for decisions related to the taxonomy of this genus.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Animal Resources Program,
Division of Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover photo of a 33-year-old male rhesus (Macaca mulatta) with a companion juvenile, by Viktor Reinhardt, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Copyright @1992 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.