Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Tool Use to Acquire Drinking Water by Free-Ranging Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), by H. Fitch-Snyder & J. Carter...... 1

Empirical Use of Liquid Supplemental Nutrition for Aged Macaques, by R. Vertein & V. Reinhardt...... 3

Nonspecific Diarrhea in the Alpha-Male of a Breeding Troop: A Case Report, by V. Reinhardt...... 4

A New Response to an Ethical Issue, by K. E. Chambers...... 6

Potential Animal Hazard with Ring Toys, by M. A. Murchison...... 7

The Disappearing Ice Cube, by J. Fritz & S. Howell...... 8

News, Information, and Announcements

Erratum...... 2

Information Requested and Available...... 5
. . Infant Primate Technician's Manual, Chimp Blood Samples, Rehabilitating Chimpanzees, Advice on Transmitters, Eclampsia and Pre-Eclampsia in Primates

Requests for Primate Material...... 8
. . Placental Tissue, Primate Skeletons

Diana Monkey Questionnaire, by M. Stevenson...... 9

Hurricane Damage...... 10

News Briefs...... 11
. . Microchip Marking, Aye-Aye Born at Duke University

Letter from a Friend...... 11

Grants Available...... 12
. . Small Grants for Exploratory Research, Biomedical Research Facilities, National Geographic Society, American Diabetes Association Awards, NAS East-West Exchanges Program

European Marmoset Research Group: Letter...... 13

Garner's Contributions on African Apes Reassessed, by H. S. R. Glaser...... 13

Meeting Announcements...... 14
. . 1993 ASP Meeting in MA, Cebidae Symposium, Seminars in Primatology, Humane Care & Use Workshops, SCAW Symposium at AAAS, Lentiviral Infections, Conference on Environmental Enrichment

Conference on Ethics and Primatology...... 15

Fyssen Foundation 1993-1994 Fellowships and 1993 International Prize...... 16

Editors' Notes...... 16
. . Price Change: Back Issues, Gifts Acknowledged, Mailing List Update

Research and Education Opportunities...... 17
. . Opportunity in Venezuela, Ecology Summer Programs

Biochemical Values During Pregnancy Period in Squirrel Monkeys...... 28


Address Changes...... 7

Positions Available...... 10
. . Veterinarian in AZ; Duke University; Conservation Education Outreach; South Carolina

Recent Books and Articles...... 18

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Tool Use to Acquire Drinking Water by Free-Ranging Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus)

Helena Fitch-Snyder and Jeffery Carter
Zoological Society of San Diego and Georgia Southern University


Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) are capable of a variety of goal-directed object manipulation (Westergaard & Lindquist, 1987). They also spontaneously manufacture tools and use them intelligently (Westergaard, 1988). Green and Minkowski (1977) observed them obtaining water in the wild by licking leaf surfaces or drinking from natural bowls in the forks of trees. However, there have been no reports of lion-tailed macaques using more complex techniques for water acquisition.

The defining characteristics of a tool, as described by Beck (1980), are that it be an external object free of any fixed attachment to the substrate, and that it be held, carried, or manipulated by the user. The user must hold or carry the tool during or just before use, and establish the proper and effective orientation between the object and the incentive.

The use of tools to obtain water has been reported only in the apes, with numerous written accounts of wild chimpanzees. Goodall (1986, p. 544) and McGrew (1977) described wild groups using leaves to collect drinking water. The leaves were chewed to make a leaf "sponge", immersed in water, and sucked; or an unmodified leaf was dipped into the water and the drops licked off.

The free-ranging lion-tailed macaques described in this report used leaves to acquire drinking water from tree holes, a behavior much like the water collecting observed in apes.

Materials and Methods

A group of eight lion-tailed macaques (6 males and 2 females) was studied on St. Catherine's Island, one of the barrier islands off the coast of southern Georgia. Observations took place over a four-week period during July and August. The animals, all captive-born, had been released on the island one year previously. The island is about 10 mi. long by 2 to 3 mi. wide, but the group tended to stay within 300 yards of the release site. The area is forested primarily with pine, oak, palm, holly, and laurel. Hollows have formed in large trees when limbs broke off and wood decayed. The holes trapped rain water, which the macaques were observed drinking. The macaques were provisioned with monkey chow, fruits, and vegetables daily. They also had continuous access to automatic drinkers at the release site. The closest fresh water pond was one mile from the area, and was inhabited by many alligators. The only other naturally occurring ground water nearby was a small freshwater pool about 30 yards from the release site.


A six-year-old male was observed climbing onto an oak tree branch approximately 30' off the ground. The animal inserted its arm into a hole filled with water and licked drops of water off the fur on the back of its hand. This is the "dipping-and-licking" method that has been described in several other primate species.

All observations of tool use for collecting water took place in one particular oak tree. One water hole was about 20' from the ground and at a 45~ angle from the trunk. A second hole was located about 10' higher than the first, at the base of two branches. A four-year-old male macaque was seen grasping a handful of wet oak leaves, repeatedly dipping them into a cavity and licking off the dripping water. The leaves were left in the hole when the animal departed, and a two-year-old female was also seen using leaves as a sponge to obtain water from this hole.

On another occasion, the same four-year-old male threw his handful of leaves to the ground when he finished with them. One of the mature males visited the water hole immediately after. He grabbed another handful of leaves from the bottom of the knothole and dropped them back in after using them several times to collect water.

Other troop members were observed lowering their heads into larger water holes in oak trees, as observed in howlers (Glander, 1978) and other primate species. On one occasion, a four-year-old male was seen putting his arm in a freshwater pool and licking off the water. The macaques did not generally drink ground water, even though they did eat vegetation and hunt for small frogs and insects close to the freshwater pool. The wild group in Green & Minkowski's study (1977) acquired water from arboreal sources during monsoon seasons, and drank from the banks of streams and rivers during dry seasons.


The free-ranging lion-tailed macaques in this report used leaves to collect drinking water from holes in trees. Their techniques are compatible with Beck's (1980) definition of tool use. The macaques in this study were all captive-raised, and the tool-use behavior appeared spontaneously within a year of their release.

It was not determined whether the oak leaves in the water holes had accumulated there naturally or been dropped in previously by a macaque. Leaves could have collected in the upper, more horizontally open site as they fell from upper branches. The lower opening, however, was nearly parallel to the side of the trunk, and it is less likely that leaves collected there naturally. The earlier research done by Westergaard (1988) suggests that it is possible that leaves were deliberately carried into the vertical opening by the macaques. It is conceivable that this method of acquiring water was discovered accidentally by one or more troop members, and other macaques learned by observing them.

The manufacture of tools to collect water as described for chimpanzees (e.g. Goodall, 1986) was not observed here. Since it has been established that lion-tailed macaques are capable of manufacturing tools to achieve their goals (Westergaard, 1988), we assume that a handful of dripping leaves provides enough water to satisfy the monkeys' needs without modification.


Beck, Benjamin B. (1980). Animal Tool Behavior: The Use and Manufac- ture of Tools by Animals. New York: Garland Publishing.

Glander, K. E. (1978). Drinking from arboreal water sources by mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray). Folia Primatologica, 29, 206-217.

Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Green, S. & Minkowski, K. (1977). The lion-tailed monkey and its South Indian rain forest habitat. In H. S. H. Rainier III & G. Bourne (Eds.), Primate Conservation (pp. 289-337). London: Academic Press.

McGrew, W. (1977). Socialization and object manipulation of wild chim- panzees. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. Poirier (Eds.). Primate Bio-social Development: Biological, Social, and Ecological Deter- minants (pp. 261-288). New York: Garland.

Westergaard, G. C. (1988). Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) manufacture and use tools. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 101, 159-168.

Westergaard, G. C. & Lindquist, T. (1987). Manipulation of objects in a captive group of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). American Journal of Primatology, 12, 231-234.

First author's address: Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, P. O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.
The authors thank the New York and San Diego Zoological Societies for providing the opportunity to conduct this study. We acknowledge the St. Catherine's Island Foundation and the E. J. Knoble Foundation for their support, and are also thankful to John Iaderosa, Don Lindburg, Lydia Flewelling, James Doherty, and the staff at the Wildlife Survival Center for their ideas and assistance.

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Empirical Use of Liquid Supplemental Nutrition for Aged Macaques

Russell Vertein and Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center

Progressive weight loss is a natural phenomenon in aged macaques. Usually this process is gradual, without immediate impact on the individual's general health. Occasionally, however, the loss in body weight progresses so quickly that the animal's vitality becomes seriously jeopardized (weakness, apathy). Animals in this condition show a markedly reduced interest in their standard food (e.g., commercial monkey biscuits supplemented with fruit, bread and whole peanuts); providing them with a larger quantity of it would therefore be useless. Increasing their daily intake of energy via balanced nutrition, however, is very important in order to avoid fatal consequences.

For several months we have used a commercial liquid nutrition (Ensure) to support individuals at such risk. Ensure is a nutritionally balanced, pleasantly flavored drink that is readily accepted by the animals.

* Graph of Weight Changes Here *

Four aged subjects (30 years and older) received 250 cc of Ensure in stainless steel bowls five times a week. The response was positive in all cases. Weight-loss stopped and the subjects regained their vitality (without showing adverse side effects such as diarrhea), and, in fact, gained weight steadily (Figure 1). Two subjects had been moderately dehydrated and periodically had very hard, pellet-like stools. Regular consumption of the liquid diet corrected this condition within a few days.

These encouraging responses prompted us to prophylactically offer supplemental Ensure for all aged rhesus macaques at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center in an attempt to sustain their overall health during the remaining years of their lives.

Authors' address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison WI 53715.
We are thankful to Bob Dodsworth for preparing Figure 1.

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Nonspecific Diarrhea in the Alpha-Male of a Breeding Troop: A Case Report

Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center

Nonspecific diarrhea is a major problem in the health care of rhesus macaques (Holmberg et al., 1982). Diseased animals eat and drink normally but progressively deteriorate; their stool is watery but free of specific enteropathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Campylobacter (Reinhardt et al., 1987). The etiology of nonspecific diarrhea has not been elucidated. Empirical evidence suggests that social distress may play a facilitative role in the manifestation of the disease (cf. Reinhardt et al., 1987). The present case report provides an example.

Bob was born in 1978. He became the top ranking animal of a breeding troop at the age of 7 years. At this time, the group was comprised of 10 adult females with infants, 4 adult males and 1 subadult male. Aggressive tensions prompted the removal of 3 lower ranking males in 1988, 1989, and 1990 and of 2 females in 1989 and 1990. Bob was the undisputed alpha-animal throughout this time. He developed nonspecific diarrhea in 1990. Treatment with metronidazole was temporarily effective (cf. Henrickson, 1984). Bob suffered 12 relapses, spaced by metronidazole-induced incomplete recoveries, in the course of the following 2 years. His body weight was reduced by approximately 20% during that period (Figure 1). It was decided to remove Bob from the troop in April, 1992 when he required another treatment. He had lost his assertiveness, and spent much of his time sitting in a hunched position avoiding social interactions. Along with Bob, another adult male was removed to serve as a companion. The two males were pair-housed in a 85x170x85cm cage.

Bob suffered no further diarrhea during the 6-months after he was taken out of the troop. His body weight increased steadily (Figure 1) and he soon once again became a prime rhesus male.

* Graph of Weight Changes Here *

Bob's prompt recovery from intractible diarrhea upon being removed from his troop suggests that asserting his role as alpha-animal constituted a chronic social challenge that may have altered his resistance to facultative pathogens and/or colonic autonomic neural tone, to produce diarrhea.


Henrickson, R. V. (1984). Biology and diseases of old world primates. In J. G. Fox, B. J. Cohen & F. M. Loew (Eds.), Laboratory Animal Medicine (pp. 491-494). Orlando: Academic Press.

Homberg, C. A., Leininger, R., Whelldon, E., Slater, D., Henrickson, R. & Anderson, J. (1982). Clinico-pathological studies of gastrointestinal disease in macaques. Veterinary Pathology, 19 (Supplement 7), 163-170.

Reinhardt, V., Houser, W. D., Sadoff, D. A., Scheffler, J. & Eisele, S. G. (1987). Treatment of nonspecific diarrhea with metronidazole in rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology, 16, 311-316.

Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.
I am thankful to Bob Dodsworth for preparing Figure 1.

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A New Response to an Ethical Issue

Karen E. Chambers
Pennsylvania State University

All investigators involved in the use of nonhuman primates and other animals for biomedical research must face the question of whether such practices are ethically justifiable. That the use of nonhuman primates in laboratory research has had a significant and positive impact on humanity cannot be denied. Biomedical research using nonhuman primates has been responsible for advances in the understanding and control of diseases including, among others, polio, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS (Office of Technology Assessment, 1988).

In the study of some diseases and their cures, nonhuman primates are infected with pathogenic microorganisms. Other research requires dietary restriction, surgery, maintenance in restricted quarters, and the lack of opportunity for group socialization. These costs to nonhuman primate species have produced strong arguments for the cessation of such research.

Another issue, generally dealt with as an unrelated problem in a separate arena, may provide a basis for reconciliation between these two viewpoints. This is environmental and species conservation. Companies benefiting from the use of nonhuman primates might consider policies such as the following: 1) matching part of the funds used to procure laboratory animals with donations to primate and environmental protection organizations (see Trzyna & Gotelli, 1989, or Lanier-Graham, 1991); 2) matching employee gifts to such organizations; 3) designating a percentage of the proceeds from products developed through the use of nonhuman primates for conservation efforts. Canvassing employees for similar ideas will certainly produce additional suggestions while allowing employees at all levels to have some influence on company policy.

When reciprocal investments in the futures of the species that have helped to improve our own future are made, the costs imposed upon nonhuman primates cease to be unilateral and can better be described as equitable. -- [ Editor's Note: Some research labs have already set aside funds to provide for the "retirement" of their nonhuman primate subjects.]


Lanier-Graham, S. D. (1991). The Nature Directory: A Guide to Environmental Organizations. New York: Walker and Co.

Trzyna, T. C. & Gotelli, I. M., Eds. (1989). World Directory of Environmental Organizations. Claremont, CA: California Inst. of Public Affairs.

U. S. Office of Technology Assessment (1988). Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Author's address: Dept. of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State Univ., 409 Carpenter Bldg, University Park, PA 16802-3404.

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Potential Animal Hazard with Ring Toys

Mark A. Murchison
Washington Regional Primate Research Center

Institutions housing captive nonhuman primates are required to enrich the primary enclosures of their animals. One method is to supply manipulative devices for play and exploration (USDA, 1991). The University of Washington Regional Primate Research Center's environmental enhancement plan provides that animals housed singly or in groups be given toys for play and manipulation.

Toys chosen for animals at the Center must be practical and, of paramount importance, must not harm the animals. The toys must be interesting to the animals and manipulable by hands, feet, and teeth, yet not interfere with husbandry routines, medical treatment, or experimental procedures. They must be able to withstand chewing, bending, and impact, and be made of impervious materials so they can be sanitized during cage or room washing. Toys for singly-caged animals should be large enough not to fit through cage openings and small enough not to restrict use of a squeeze-back apparatus. Room toys need to be large enough not to go down the drain.

At the Primate Field Station (PFS) we chose four toys (5.5" diameter Nylarings1, 4.25" length Plaque Attackers1, 2.5" diameter plastic dumbbells2, and 4" diameter Boomer Balls3 for use by our singly-caged animals. The first three toys were used in most cages and the Boomer Balls were reserved for large animals in group IV (6 sq-ft floor area) and V (8 sq-ft floor area) cages (USDHHS, 1985). Since December, 1991, our singly-caged animals have had Nylarings.

Recently one animal, a 2-year-old pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), approximate weight 3.1 kg, became trapped inside a Nylaring. The ring went around the neck, across the body, and under one arm. Since the animal was apparently unable to remove the ring, he was anesthetized and the ring manually removed. The animal was placed back in the cage with a different toy.

We are now concerned that rings used in single cages as toys, or suspended in cages as swings, may pose an entrapment hazard to animals using them. This one case shows that rings with an inside diameter (I.D.) larger than the animal's head and approximate to the animal's width across the shoulders pose the greatest danger. Rings with I.D. smaller than the animal's head appear safe to use as toys. We have taken the precaution of removing all 5.5" diameter Nylarings from cages, replacing them with different toys. We have experienced no problems with our other cage toys. The author seeks information from other primate facilities concerning their successes and failures with toys in cages.


U.S. Department of Agriculture (1991). Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6499-6500.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1985). Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Bethesda, MD.

Author's address: University of Washington, Primate Field Station, P.O. Box P, Medical Lake, WA 99022-0536.
1TM Nylabone Corp., Neptune, NJ. 2TM Classic Products, Oxnard, CA. 3TM Boomer Ball, Grayslake, IL.

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The Disappearing Ice Cube

Jo Fritz and Sue Howell
Primate Foundation of Arizona

At the Primate Foundation of Arizona, hot, dry summer weather challenges us to find occupational coolers for the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). For over 10 years, single ice cubes, made in refrigerator trays, were handed to the individual chimpanzees to suck on during the warm afternoons. The chimpanzees seemed to look forward to these special, but short-lived, treats.

Last year, a donation enabled us to purchase a small automatic ice machine that makes 195 pounds of cubes per day. We no longer are restricted to single cubes. Instead, just before the animals go back outside after their mid-day meal, the care staff carry buckets of cubes to the outdoor cages. Cubes are distributed across the floor, hidden in high plastic barrels (we call these igloos), tucked into corners of the cages, etc. As the animals come out, the excitement of the hunt starts and continues until the last ice cube is found. Hoarders clutch them to their chests, dropping a few here and there as they become more slippery with melting water. Some animals surround themselves with cubes, much as they would make a nest, and sit in the puddle as the cubes melt. Others fill their mouths and carry the cubes to the top of the cage, where they lay them down and watch carefully as the cubes get smaller and smaller. Still others have learned to "skate" through the puddles, making mad dashes in order to slide further and further. To see the surprised expression on the face of a full-grown male lying on his back after a skid went out of control, and then to watch the youngsters attempt to imitate the skid...and fall down, worth the effort of carrying the buckets. Other animals sit quietly sucking on their cubes while watching the antics of the more adventurous.

We have carefully monitored, and have found no detrimental effects, e.g., choking on small pieces or harming teeth, of providing the ice cubes. In fact, one of the benefits is increasing the animals' fluid intake during the dry days. Once the initial investment in the machine is made, the operation is very economical. Whether made in trays in small quantities or used in the larger quantities described above, we encourage the use of ice cubes as a seasonal occupational enrichment for chimpanzees, and perhaps for other animals.

Authors' address: Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

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In the Address Changes on page 7 of the last issue, Volume 4, num- ber 1, Jack Hessler should be "Executive Director of Animal Resources".

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Benjamin Among the Bonobos

Benjamin my son, at 11, is Aware:
and like anyone learning the content of a Truth,
modeling insouciance to cover amazement
at a world he never knew, speaks often to shock.
When he heard the (for him) salient truth about pygmy chimps
--that love, given, received, is its own reward--
his first response was Can we get a pair for pets?--
knowing this impossible, but wanting me to laugh,
ask him what we'd do with a family of apes,
fornicating under our roof.

But when he turned the pages of the book,
saw the photograph
of the (for them) salient moment,
he looked up at me,
his face silent, sobered by wonder,
as if to ask This is it?--and I nodded yes.

He stared, robbed by wonder of a glib reply,
seeing the moment that eradicates pain
and initiates pain:
looked at me again, pointed at the lower of the two,
whispered, She looks like she's smiling.
She is, I said, I think she is,
someday you'll know, like we all do.
And I think Ben got the point:
that when I said We, I included them:
joined the bonobos to the House of Life
in the sacred celebration of mortality,
brought them into the rickety, windblown shelter
of us who love with our bodies,
if we're lucky with our souls:
and who, as Ben has proclaimed himself,
are apes who imitate humans, bonobos of the spirit.

Kenneth Wolman, December 13, 1992

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Information Requested and Available

Infant Primate Technician's Manual

The Infant Primate Research Laboratory at the Washington RPRC has produced a second edition of theirResearch Protocol & Technician's Manual. See page 18 for details.

Chimp Blood Samples

Mitochondrial DNA studies can disclose information about the evolutionary history of populations, as has recently been seen for humans. Although studies indicate that there is minimal variation in mitochondrial DNA types among humans, there appears to be substantially (perhaps 3 to 5 times) greater diversity in chimpanzee populations. Greater diversity in chimp mtDNA could be attributable to population dynamics. An alternative explanation is that there exists a different mode or tempo of mtDNA evolution in chimps. To date, only four chimpanzees (of the species Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus) have had their entire mtDNA D-loops studied. At Penn State University in the Department of Anthropology, we are sequencing the D-loop region in Pan to measure diversity, to study evolution of this region, and to shed light on population history. Although we have had great success in collecting blood samples from wild-caught chimpanzees of unknown geographic origin, any samples from animals of known geographic origin (that is, place of capture or port of export) would be extremely useful in assessing phylogeographic relatedness of mitochondrial types. If your institution can help in providing samples (10 ml of whole blood collected during a routine health survey) or information as to sources of samples, please contact Terry Melton at 409 Carpenter Bldg, University Park, PA 16801 [814-865-1531]. We will be able to defray shipping and modest collection costs.

Rehabilitating Chimpanzees

A new law, enacted in February, 1992, allows the Italian Ministry of Forests and Agriculture to confiscate endangered species listed in CITES. Seven young chimps are among the animals that have been confiscated under this law. The chimps are being kept at the Garda Zoo (Parco Natura Viva, Bussolengo). According to the Ministry the zoo should be temporary housing for these animals. They would like to rehabilitate and perhaps introduce the chimps into the wild. They know it's a very hard task (but perhaps they don't know how hard) and they have asked Antonella Lunardini to gather information on places in Africa where people are trying to introduce chimps back into the wild. Dr. Lunardini would like any relevant information. She asks if it would be a good idea to contact the Jane Goodall Institute or the Committee for Conservation and Care of Chimpanzees. Contact her at Dipartimento di Scienze del Comportamento Animale e dell'Uomo, Sezione di Antropologia, Via S. Maria 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy [e-mail:].

Advice on Transmitters

Augusto Vitale has been involved in studies on tool use in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) with Dr. Elisabetta Visalberghi. They are now exploring the possibility of starting a project on physiological correlates of behavior in these monkeys. They are looking for advice on the following questions:
*Would it be possible to implant a 25 gram transmitter, 20 cc in volume, 53 mm in diameter, and 10 mm thick, in a tufted capuchin weighing between 2 and 5 kg?
*If so, where is the best place to implant it? What kind of precautions should be taken before, during, and after the implantation?
*If this is not possible, we could use smaller transmitters to record daily activities of socially housed tufted capuchins, in a 3.0x2.8x2.4 m cage. Can you give any advice on this?
*The transmitter we intend to use is manufactured by Mini-Mitter, and requires a maximum cage size of 1x1x1 m, in order to receive the signal. Does anyone know about smaller transmitters with similar requirements for maximum cage size? Please send any information to Augusto Vitale, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Reparto di Fisiopatologia Comportamentale, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome, Italy [39-6-4990 Ext. 447; FAX: 39-6-4957821; e-mail: fos@irmiss].

Eclampsia and Pre-Eclampsia in Primates

The human diseases pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (characterized by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria in pregnancy, with convulsions another symptom of the latter) are generally considered to be species specific. Although convulsions have been observed in other species, attributed to nutritional and electrolyte deficiencies, the human diseases occurs in the absence of any such simple abnormalities, and their etiology remains obscure. However, there have been occasional reports of possible eclampsia in gorillas, whose births in captivity are usually well documented, and Dr. Jim Thornton of the University of Leeds is compiling a register. Other large primates, such as chimpanzees, should also be studied, but their births are rarely reported in detail. Dr. Thornton would like to hear from any breeders of chimpanzees with pregnancy records in which the presence or absence of convulsions, proteinuria, high blood pressure, or edema was recorded. Please send any reports to Jim Thornton, Inst. of Epidemiology and Health Services Research, Univ. of Leeds, 34 Hyde Terrace, Leeds LS2 9LN, U.K.

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Address Changes

AAALAC, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035.

Jeffrey L. Edwards, PAL-PATH Laboratory, 1331 Record Crossing Rd., Dallas, TX 75235.

Alan J. Keddle, 50 Burnside Drive, Burnage, Manchester M19 2L2, UK.

Russell J. Gullekson, 481 Longmeadow Rd., Amherst, NY 14226-2448.

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Requests for Primate Material

Placental Tissue

Ted Golos writes: My lab is examining trophoblast differentiation and the evolution and regulation of placental hormone gene transcription and we are interested in obtaining frozen preterm or term placen- tal tissue from any prosimians or primates other than humans or rhesus macaques. Ideally, the tissue would have been frozen at -70 C soon after collection but other circumstances may be acceptable. Two to three grams of tissue are desired, and it is critical that the tissue is not thawed once frozen. If you or someone you know has such samples, please contact me: Thaddeus G. Golos, Univ. of Wisconsin, Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3567 (office)/3537 (lab); FAX: 608-263- 4031; e-mail:].

Primate Skeletons

The Department of Anthropolgy at the University of Alaska Anchorage would like donations of complete or partial non-human primate skeletons (no carcasses, please) for teaching purposes. Please contact Susan Steen, Univ. of Alaska, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 [907-786-1344; FAX: 907-786-1378; e-mail:].

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Diana Monkey Questionnaire

Miranda Stevenson
Edinburgh Zoo

As the International Studbook Keeper and EEP co-ordinator for the diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana diana, I have sent the following questionnaire to all collections that I know are currently keeping these monkeys. If there are any keepers of diana monkeys who did not receive that mailing, would they please complete the questionnaire below and return it to me? Studbook data indicate that the population is not breeding as well as it should. Any information on establishing successful captive-bred breeding pairs or trios could prove important. I realize that completing and returning this takes time and effort. I would be grateful, however, if you could return it as soon as possible. I would like to have the analysis ready sometime in 1993. All institutions responding will, of course, receive a copy of the results of this work. Many thanks for your trouble.


When referring to individual animals please give studbook numbers wherever possible.

Enclosure: (Please enclose a diagram, with dimensions, if possible)

1. Indoor enclosure only
(a) area (in meters)
height (in m) num. of exits to outside area. is area subdivided in any way?
(b) structure of cage sides/doors (mesh, solid, etc.)
(c) substrate (bark, sawdust, shavings, etc.)

2. Outdoor enclosure only
(a) area (in meters) height (in m)
(b) substrate
(c) nature of barriers (mesh, moat, etc.)
(d) nature of access to outside area
. . Animals always locked inside at night?
. . Animals only locked in at night in winter?
. . Animals allowed access all year around?
. . Comments on access:

3. Inside and outdoor enclosures
(a) Temperature . . Inside . . Outside
. . Minimum
. . Maximum
. . Is there a minimum temperature when you do not allow animals outside? If so, what?
(b) Drinking water supply (how is it presented and where?)
(c) Cleaning method.
(d) Rough description of climbing material, enrichment devices, etc. Please provide diagram or photo, if possible.

4. Do you consider the outside and inside areas to be large enough for the number of animals in them? If not, what sizes would you regard as optimal? What improvements might be made:
(a) Inside enclosure?
(b) Outdoor enclosure?

Feeding and Diet:

1. Basic diet per adult female per day (give food and daily weight offered, and details of proprietary foodstuffs offered). Is browse (branches with leaves) offered?

2. Method of presenting food
. . In dishes? On shelves/floor?
. . On ground level/higher?
. . Number of locations where food is presented?
. . Are scatter feeds presented? If so, how?
. . Number of feedings/day?
. . Comments:

3. Hand rearing diet.

4. Diet related problems.
. . Have any problems been encountered which may be due to diet?
. . Have any foods caused problems?
. . Do you feel your diet may need altering?

Behavior, Social Organization:

1. Please give details of group structures you have had in your zoo, especially the number of adult females kept together with a male, and if the male needs to be separated from the females.

2. At what ages have you mixed animals for breeding?
. . Age sex result
. . 1-2 yr
. . 2-3 yr
. . 3-4 yr
. . 4+ yr

State if the result was mating/young, mating/no young, no mating, fighting, other.
Please complete for each pairing/grouping you have tried.

If the pairing resulted in the production of offspring, give details of any previous successful breedings of either partner.

3. What problems have you encountered when mixing animals?

4. If you have records of mating, please list months and frequency of observations and NOTE IF CONCEPTION RESULTED.
Give details if you think that a behavior pattern may be relevant in determining whether a pair will be successful in breeding or not -- e.g., frequencies (high or low) of vocalizations, proximity of another group of the same or related species.
. . List any notes on courtship behaviors.
. . Detail any estimates of gestation period.

5. What ages have you removed offspring from adults?
. . List, with reasons for removal, sex and studbook number of removed animals, and group size and composition at time of removal.


Describe identification methods used, e.g. tags, tattoos, microchips.


Please give details of the following:
(a) Inoculations (type and schedule).
(b) Worming procedures and parasite control.
(c) Tail loss, biting.
(d) Stereotypic behaviors.
(e) Major health problems encountered.
(f) Any interesting veterinary details.
(g) Have you collected data which may be of use to other collections, e.g. hematology results?


If any studies have been carried out on your animals, please give details and list any publications.

Any interesting points not covered in this questionnaire.

Author's address: Curator, Edinburgh Zoo, Corstorphine Rd., Edin- burgh EH12 6TS.

* * *

Positions Available

Veterinarian, Arizona

The Primate Foundation of Arizona is seeking a full-time Staff Veterinarian for their chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) breeding colony. This person will be responsible for coordinating preventative medicine programs, managing clinical cases, and complying with Federal regulations, and will write S.O.P.s, carry out research, and publish. Clini- cal experience is required, along with an interest in behavioral research and the ability to work without supervision. Computer experience and interest are desirable. Salary is negotiable; the position will be open June 15, 1993, and will remain open until filled. All applicants must have a negative T.B. skin test and negative hepatitis B surface antigen blood test. We are an Equal Opportunity Employer, and offer excellent benefits. Send a letter of interest, with requested salary, C.V., and three letters of reference to: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

Duke University

The Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy at Duke University anticipates filling several ONE-YEAR teaching slots with Visiting Assistant Professors during the Fall of 1993 in the following areas:
*Primate Behavior and Socioecology,
*Primate Morphology,
*Primate or Human Evolution. A Ph.D. or anticipated award of Ph.D. within 2 months of appointment is necessary. Salary will be competitive and commensurate with qualifications. The starting date is September 1993. Send letters of application, current C.V. and at least 3 letters of reference to: Richard F. Kay, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy, Box 3170, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710. Duke University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. Deadline: March 15, 1993 -- From the electronic bulletin-board primate-talk

Conservation Education Outreach

The Zoo Conservation Outreach Group, an independent 501(c)3 organization, is dedicated to improving Central American zoos financially, technically and programmatically to enable them to reach their more than 3 million annual visitors with meaningful conservation messages. The Board of Directors is seeking a bilingual (Spanish-English) individual with knowledge of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums zoo community, experience in running a membership-based organization and working in Central America, and with excellent public speaking and fund raising skills to administer all aspects of the Zoo Conservation Outreach Group.

Send cover letter, C.V., and references to Tony Vecchio, Chairman ZCOG, c/o Roger Williams Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Ave., Providence, RI 02907-3600.

South Carolina

Two positions are available at LABS, Laboratory Animal Breeders & Services, P.O. Box 557, Yemassee, SC 29945.
*Primate Behavioral Technician: BA and/or primate experience required. Full benefits, pension plan, health insurance.
*Senior Behavioral Technician: MA, graduate work, or comparable work experience required. Full benefits, pension plan, health insurance. Contact Dr. Patrick Mehlman, Director of Primate Breeding and Behavior [803-589-5190; FAX: 803-589-5290]. -- From the electronic bulletin-board primate-talk

* * *

Hurricane Damage

The DuMond Conservancy for Primates and Tropical Forests lost its entire primate library to the wind and water of Hurricane Andrew. If you have any duplicate primate articles, books or magazines, please consider donating them to the DuMond Conservancy's Library/Education Center. Contact: Sian Evans, DuMond Conservancy, 14805 SW 216 St, Miami, FL, 98373 [305-238-9981]. -- From New Listings, PSIC, Issue 22, Nov. 23, 1992.

* * *

News Briefs

Microchip Marking

At the Conference of the Parties to CITES, March 2-13, 1992, in Kyoto, Japan, recommendations from the Animals Committee and the IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group on the use of coded microchip implants for marking live animals in trade resulted in a draft resolution submitted by Australia. A great deal of debate focused on this issue, notable comments being made on the high cost of the necessary equipment, the need for funding to subsidize its use, and the incompatibility of much available equipment. Eventually, acknowledging that the use of other marking techniques would be more suitable in some cases than others, the Parties agreed to a Resolution (Conf. 8.13) recommending the use of implantable transponder microchips for the identification of live Appendix I animals subject to international trade and, when appropriate, to Appendix I and II animals used in travelling exhibitions or circuses. Among various other provisions, it was agreed to consider advice from the IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group regarding a standard system and implant location and it was proposed that microchip codes be recorded on permits and in CITES annual reports. Funding would be sought for the introduction of this technique and further developments would be monitored by the Animals Committee.

Aye-Aye Born at Duke University

Duke University Primate Center reports the birth of a male Aye-Aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) on 6 April. This represents the first recorded captive birth anywhere in the world. The mother, received in December 1991, is believed to have conceived in the wild. Both mother and infant are doing well.

Duke's colony of Aye-Ayes consists of 8 (4.4) animals, including 3 (1.2) recently wild-caught in Madagascar. By all standards, this species is considered extremely endangered, with no real population estimates available due to the secretive nature of the animals.

Aye-Ayes are found in only five institutions worldwide: Duke, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Vincennes Zoo in Paris; and Parc Tzimbazaza and Parc Ivoloina, both in Madagascar. The total captive population is 19 (8.11). -- Submitted by J. Drake to AAZPA Communique, July, 1992. Reported by L. Jacobsen on primate-talk.

* * *

Letter from a Friend

I remember one day in Bangalore. We were living on the eighth floor of a hotel. I was alone in the room and decided to take a walk in the hallway. I left the door open. Returning about two minutes later I saw the biggest brute of a monkey getting out of our room carrying a mango. He was not the least bit surprised to see a lesser primate coming to the room. I was too surprised to do anything. Calmly and with dignity, he made for the stairs and reached the ground floor in what seemed to me a blink of the eye. I was watching the stairwell from above and what I saw was a brownish blur racing down and depositing mango peels in its wake. He got out of the hotel building with practised ease, mingled with the crowd and was soon untraceable.

Upon returning from wherever they had gone, certain members of my family were prone to look on this story as a rather nonstandard explanation of the missing mango. But the excellent man who came to sweep the room in the evening bore out my story and warned us not to leave rooms open at any time. He added that by keeping rooms closed he meant locking all the doors and windows and ensuring that the keys were not available to the general public, for most monkeys he had met around that place were exceedingly cunning devils and applied their brains in ingenious ways to procure their daily nourishment.

Anyone who wants evidence of this story can contact that man, a great friend whose name I have now forgotten, at Hotel Sindhu on Subhedar Chatram Road. -- Tushar Samant, Mathematics Department, University of Chicago.

* * *

Grants Available

Small Grants for Exploratory Research

The Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society sponsor a small grants program for projects in conservation biology. The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund awards $1000 grants in the areas of conservation, education, training, captive propagation and technique development. Applications must be received by May 1, 1993. For more information, contact Anne Savage, Roger Williams Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Ave, Providence, RI 02907-3600 [BITNET: bi599132@brownvm].

Biomedical Research Facilities

Awards are available from the National Cancer Institute under a one-time solicitation for the renovation or construction of new facilities or the acquisition of equipment needed for "urgent" biomedical research. Areas of program interest include the heart, lung, vision, cancer, blood, and AIDS. For more information contact: Kenneth Brow, Research Facilities Branch, Division of Cancer Biology, Diagnosis, and Centers, NCI, Rm. 300, Executive Plaza North, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-8534].

National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society's Research Grants Program provides grants-in-aid for basic, original, scientific field research covering a broad spectrum of disciplines from astronomy to marine zoology. Particular emphasis is placed on multi-disciplinary projects of an environmental nature. Collectively, all of the research projects fostered through this program involve time, space, and scale. Thus, all have a geographical scope. Applications may be submitted ANY TIME. For more information contact Steven S. Stettes, Secretary, Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society, 17th and M Streets, NW, Washington, DC 20036 [202-857-7439].

American Diabetes Association Awards

The American Diabetes Association Research Award Program assists investigators, new or established, who have a particularly novel and exciting idea for which they need support. Proposals may be related to a current area of investigation as long as it represents a novel idea. Feasibility studies, i.e., those with high risk of failure or those where additional data need to be generated to allow the investigator to apply for NIH funding will be considered under this category. Investigators who have not previously worked in the field of diabetes and who have an imaginative proposal related to any aspect of diabetes research are eligible for up to 2 years of support amounting to $20,000 to $50,000 per year. Funds can be used for equipment, supplies, salaries of technical assistants, and up to $1,000 for travel to scientific meetings. Grant period begins July 1, 1993 (Additional Deadline: August 1). For information, contact the ADA National Center, Div. of Scientific Affairs, 1660 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314 [703-549-1500; 800-232-3472; FAX: 703/886-7439] Attention: Lauren Smith.

NAS East-West Exchanges Program

The National Academy of Sciences' New Mechanisms of Support for East-West Exchanges are intended to facilitate exchange that will lead to significant joint scientific publications by U.S. and foreign colleagues. Awards are also intended to provide American and foreign scientists access to colleagues, specialized facilities, unique databases, and geographical areas that can significantly enrich research and publications of interest to the scientific community. Finally, programs should contribute to development of sustained cooperative research between U.S. and foreign scientists. Eligibility is open to individual scientists in Eastern Europe who are working in fields including biological sciences, anthropology, and psychology. Awards are made for survey and research visits (not for presenting lectures or for conference attendance) of 1-6 months, for those travelling to the former USSR for 2-week project development visits. Deadline for applications for survey and research visits is February 28; deadlines for application for project development visits are February 28 and September 30 for visits July through December and January through June, respectively. Office of International Affairs, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 [202-334-3884; 3680 for application requests; FAX: 202/334-2614. Attention Soviet & East European Affairs].

* * *

European Marmoset Research Group: Letter

Leah Scott (Convenor of the Captive Care Working Party of the Primate Society of Great Britain) and I have founded the European Marmoset Research Group. Over the last six months a loose plan of action was developed, resulting in an informal discussion involving a group of delegates at the recent Congress of the International Primatological Society (Strasbourg, August 15-21, 1992). All of those present were either biologists, veterinarians, or pharmacologists who work with marmosets and/or tamarins in fundamental or applied research or in zoos.

Leah and I gave a short presentation of our views regarding the need to establish a multi-disciplinary forum under the banner, "The European Marmoset Research Group", and what its terms of reference should be.

Three main aims were identified. These were:
*To increase mutual awareness of the existence of groups of marmoset workers in other disciplines, with a view to identifying "marmoset experts" in specialized fields who would be willing to act as advisers in their own speciality.
*To clarify the relative merits and limitations of the marmoset as a research model, particularly in biomedical research.
*To apply the information acquired in order to improve the welfare of marmosets in captive housing. This would involve the concept that enlightened care is essential for marmosets and therefore fundamental to any scientific investigation in which marmosets are used as models.

As a result of the very positive and enthusiastic response with which these three aims were received by those present in Strasbourg, we are pleased to announce the formation of the European Marmoset Research Group. We would now very much like to hear from anybody working with the marmoset in Europe who would be interested in contributing to this group and helping it to achieve its stated aims. Please address your comments to me -- Dr. Christopher Pryce, Anthropologisches Inst., Univ. Zurich-Irchel, Winterthurstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

* * *

Garner's Contributions on African Apes Reassessed

H. S. Robert Glaser

In 1893 Richard L. Garner tried to teach a chimpanzee four spoken words by shaping. Earlier he had recorded vocalizations of capuchins (Cebus spp.) and other monkeys and noted their responses to playback. He described the differentiated use of chalk, pencil, and pen by chimpanzees and their ability to fit differently shaped pegs into matching holes. He was critical of the instinct concept and imputed self-rewarding activation for some learned behavior. He observed differences in laryngeal air sacs for chimps and gorillas. His second-hand report of "white" gorillas was substantiated by the capture in 1966 of a blue-eyed near-albino, "Copito de Nieve".

His appreciation of individual variability, especially in the personality of apes, was antithetical to the typological thinking of his time.

Garner has been dismissed historically because of his ill-conceived venture of observing apes in Gabon from inside a cage, with questionable results. This and his unorthodox background and style may account for his failure to be recognized for pioneering contributions which have been generally credited to later workers.


(1896) Gorillas and Chimpanzees. London: Osgood, McIlvaine & Co.

(1901) Apes and Monkeys. Boston: Ginn & Co.

Author's address: Justus-Liebig-Universitat, Gutenbergstr. 24-Biol., D(W)-6300 Giessen, Germany.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

1993 ASP Meeting in Massachusetts

For information about travel, hotel accommodations, child care, roommate-matching, rates, etc., at the American Society of Primatologists meeting to be held 18 to 22 August 1993, at Sturbridge, MA, contact A. J. Petto, Div. of Behavioral Biology, Harvard Med. School, New England RPRC, PO Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102 [508-624-8089; FAX: 508-624-8190; BITNET: petto2@husc3]. For information about abstracts and meeting registration materials, contact Nancy Caine, ASP Program Chair, Psychology Dept, California State Univ., San Marcos, CA 92096-0001 [619-752-4200; FAX: 619-752-4030].

Cebidae Symposium

A "Symposium on the Primate Family Cebidae" will be held by the New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group on May 2, 1993, preceding the 1993 Northeastern Regional AAXPA conference in Pittsburgh, PA. The one-day symposium will focus on the topics of captive husbandry, nutrition, field research, and reproduction. Poster, video, and oral presentations are invited. The deadline for submission of abstracts is February 15, 1993. Registration will be $25. For more information, contact Ken Kaemmerer, Cebid Symposium Coordinator, Dallas Zoo, 621 East Clarendon Drive, Dallas, TX 75203.

Seminars in Primatology

The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP) and the New York Regional Primatology Group invite you to attend the following seminars, all of which will be held on Wednesdays (except as noted) at the CUNY Graduate Center, 33 W. 42nd Street (between 5th and 6th Avenues).
*21 January 1993, 7:45 pm, Room 1100. "The use of satellite imagery to assess deforestation in Madagascar": Robert Sussman, Anthropology Dept, Washington Univ.
*18 February 1993, 7:45 pm, Room 1100. "History, phylogeny and lemur ecology": Alison Richard, Anthropology Dept and Peabody Museum, Yale University.
*25 March 1993, 7:45 pm, Room 1100. "Tooth wear and tooth use in modern and fossil primates": Mark Teaford, Dept of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins Univ.
*22 April 1993, 7:45 pm, Room 1100. "Feeding ecology and conservation biology of the Guizhou golden monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi)": Bill Bleisch, Wildlife Conservation International.
*11 May 1993 (Tuesday), 7:45 pm, Room 207 "Gossip, groups and brain size: a new theory for the evolution of language": Robin Dunbar, Anthropology Dept, University College London. Parking becomes available on 42nd Street at 7 pm. You're welcome to gather for dinner/drinks on the 18th floor prior to the meetings. Questions? Contact Marina Cords [212-854-7337; e-mail:].

Humane Care and Use Workshops

The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks announces two more in their continuing series of workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, Salk Institute, will cosponsor a workshop entitled "Science and Animals: Addressing Contemporary Issues," addressing such issues as Herpes B and SIV in nonhuman primates, at the Sheraton Grande Torrey Pines, La Jolla, CA, 21-22 January 1993 (contact: Janie Partridge, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation/MB, 10666 N. Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037-000 [619-554-8048; FAX: 619-554-8841]. The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine will cosponsor a workshop on a to-be-announced topic at the Oklahoma City Marriott, 10-11 June 1993 (contact: Marilyn Perry, Asst to Director for Compliance, Div. of Animal Resources, BMSB/Room 203, Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Ctr [405-271-5185; FAX: 405-271-3032].

SCAW Symposium at AAAS

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare will sponsor a symposium on "Responsibilities of Institutions Toward Animals in Research", Feb. 12, 1993, at 8:30 am at the AAAS annual meeting in Boston. Topics will include the role of the USDA in enforcing standards, PHS guidelines, self-regulation of animal care by professionals, the role and ethical responsibilities of IACUCs, and the public's view of the responsibilities of research institutions for animals at their facilities.

Lentiviral Infections

A symposium, "Comparative Pathobiology of Lentiviral Infections" will be held June 14-15, 1993, at the Hyatt Regency, Bethesda, MD. The program will address current understanding of the pathology and pathogenesis of lentivirus diseases in humans and animals. Speakers will discuss historical importance, clinical and pathologic features, host-virus interaction, and comparison among lentiviral infections. Contact: Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000 [202-576-2452] for more information.

Conference on Environmental Enrichment

The First Conference on Environmental Enrichment is being organized by Drs. David Sheperdson and Jill Mellen for July 16-20 in Portland, OR. This conference will be specifically focused on environmental enrichment for zoo and aquarium animals. Topics to be covered: Husban- dry, research, exhibit design and construction, psychological well-being, conservation, visitor education, putting environmental enrichment into practice. Two days of formal sessions and posters will be followed by two days of workshops organized along taxonomic lines. $200 registration includes sessions/workshops, ice-breaker, salmon babecue, box lunches, and a copy of the conference proceedings. Housing will be reasonable, at Portland State University and Nendel's Hotel. For information contact the organizers at Metro Washington Park Zoo, 40001 SW Canyon Rd, Portland, OR 97221. [503-220-2446; 503-226-1561; FAX: 503-226- 0074]. -- From a posting to primate-talk

* * *

Conference on Ethics and Primatology

A day-long conference on ethics and primatology will be held on August 18, 1993, in conjunction with the 1993 meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) at Sturbridge, MA. The chief objective of the program is to bring together ASP members at all levels to discuss ethical considerations in the context of our professional practice. A second objective is to bring together primatologists and practicing ethicists and philosophers to explore areas of mutual benefit to both fields from a consideration of ethical issues in primatological research and education. This program will be unique in that it will strive to identify both the contributions that the study of ethics can make to professional primatology and the contributions that professional primatology can make to the study of ethics.

As scientists for whom nonhuman primates are the central and ultimate focus of our studies, we believe that practicing primatologists have a unique and essential contribution to make to this debate. Rarely, however, does our research training or professional development provide us with the theoretical framework and the practical experience of having to recognize or trying to resolve ethical conflicts. For these reasons, it is vitally important to nurture a dynamic dialogue among primatologists in all disciplines about the ethics of primatological research in the context of our regular scientific meetings and to include ethicists and philosophers to help guide this dialogue.

For more information or to submit an abstract for the conference, contact: Andrew J. Petto, Division of Behavioral Biology, New England Regional Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102. [508-624- 8089; FAX: 508-624-8190; Email:] . The deadline for abstracts is February 3.

This conference was underwritten by a major gift from Judith Schrier in memory of her late husband, Allan Schrier, and their parents, Jean Schrier, Bernard Sanow, and Ruth Sanow. Partial support is also provided from the Edna Tompkins Trust and NIH Grant RR00168 to NERPRC.

* * *

Fyssen Foundation 1993-1994 Fellowships and 1993 International Prize

1993-1994 Fellowships

The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." The Fyssen Foundation awards grants of up to 100,000 francs per year, for the training and support of young researchers working on topics compatible with the goals of the Foundation, which wishes to support, particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes, their embryonic and post-natal development, and their elementary mechanisms. Anthropology-Ethnology: a Cognitive aspects of the representations of natural and cultural environments. Analysis of their construction principles and transfer mechanisms. b Analysis of forms of social organization and their technological systems. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.

Fellowships will be given to French scientists to work abroad and to foreign scientists to work in French laboratories.

Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, 194 rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is March 31, 1993.

International Prize

An International Prize of 200,000 ff will be awarded annually to a scientist who has conducted distinguished research in the areas supported by the Foundation. It was awarded to Professors A. Leroi-Gourhan (1980), W. H. Thorpe (1981), V. B. Mountcastle (1982), H. C. Conklin (1983), R. W. Brown (1984), P. Buser (1985), D. Pilbeam (1986), D. Premack (1987), J. C. Gardin (1988), P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1989), J. Goody (1990), and G. A. Miller (1991). The discipline considered for the 1993 prize is Evolution and Cognition. Nominations should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation at the above address before September 1, 1993.

* * *

Editors' Notes

Price Change: Back Issues

Creeping inflation has caught up with the price of back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. The price has been $2 per issue since we began publishing in 1962. Beginning January 1, 1993, it will be $3 per issue. All back issues are available, from the address inside the front cover. Please send checks in U.S. dollars, made out to Brown University.

Gifts Acknowledged

We would like to thank Jeff Froelich, M. Stonerook, Kevin Ivester, Tom Wing, R. J. Gullekson, Jane Beirise, Karon Kennedy, Gwen Choi, Lab. Animal Breeders and Services, and the R. W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Inst. for recent gifts to help pay mailing costs to foreign institutions and individuals who simply cannot afford them. We are still hoping for leads to a single annual donation of about $1200, which would enable us to eliminate all bookkeeping for foreign subscriptions, which is currently a large drain on time and energy.

Mailing List Update

We are enclosing with this issue a card that must be returned in order to continue receipt of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter. Our mailing list gradually collects names of persons who have moved or changed to other fields of study. It will be especially helpful if you will return the card, indicating whether you do or do not wish to remain on the list. We will stop sending copies to those whose cards are not received by April 1, 1993. Please help us optimize the use of our slim resources by letting us know when you no longer need the Newsletter.

* * *

Research and Education Opportunities

Research Opportunity in Venezuela

Robert Hardingwrites in primate-talk: "Hato Pinero is a 100-square-mile cattle ranch in the llanos region of Venezuela, about six hours' drive over tarmac roads from Caracas. In the more than 40 years since it has been under its present ownership, there have been strict controls placed on hunting, burning, and environmental disturbance, so that there are now large populations of animals, from birds (>340 species) to predators.

"Large parts of Hato Pinero are covered with tropical deciduous forests, home to populations of wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus) and red howlers (Alouatta seniculus). Since August 1988 field studies have been carried out intermittently on one subset of capuchin groups. More than 250 hectares of forest have been gridded with trails, covering an area used by as many as 12 capuchin groups, all habituated to the presence of humans. Studies to date have concentrated on feeding ecology, most recently Lynne Miller's PhD dissertation (UC Davis).

"Substantive studies of social behavior have not yet been possible because no group confines its range to the gridded area. Experimental darting and radiocollaring during the summer of 1992 proved successful, however, and when the trail system is extended in accordance with the radio-collar data, there is every likelihood that this particular obstacle can be overcome.

"I am seeking one or more individuals to take part in the capuchin research for a period of at least a year, to start at any time in the reasonably near future. I cannot provide any financial support other than indirectly, through the use of an Isuzu Trooper, darting equipment, radiocollars, two-way radios, etc., so that a PhD student coming with his or her own grant would be ideal.

"Life in the forest is not always pleasant -- much of it is flooded during the rainy season (June-October), with consequent mosquitos; in the dry season, the mosquitos are replaced by ticks and chiggers. However, after more than 20 years of fieldwork in Kenya and Sierra Leone, this is the plushest place I have ever worked. The owners of the ranch are extremely receptive to visiting scientists of all kinds and have in fact just completed a science center which includes facilities for up to 18 scientists (running water, electricity, etc.). Still under construction are an air-conditioned herbarium (to house a collection made by a distinguished Venezuelan botanist), and a library. Most important, the people are all nice and incredibly supportive.

"Anyone who is interested and/or would like to know more can reach me as: Robert S. O. Harding, Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6398 [215-898- 6982; messages: 215-898-7461; FAX: 215-898- 7462; e-mail:]."

Ecology Summer Programs

The University of Florida Overseas Studies office and Center for African Studies are offering a six week course focusing on understanding tropical forest ecology, selective logging & forest regeneration, primate and duiker censusing, primate behavioral ecology, mist netting, plant enumeration, seed predation, social forestry, forest tourism and conflict resolution as well as problems of conservation implementation. Dates of the program are June 1 - July 14, 1993, and it is open to students who have completed their junior year, seniors, and graduate students as well as other interested professionals. Students will receive six semester hours of U.F. transfer credits.

Another program for undergraduate students who have completed their freshman year or higher, as well as interested educators, is on the Spanish language and ecology of the Yucatan. One year of Spanish language is required. The program is offered in conjunction with the faculty of the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan in Merida, Mexico. Students may live with local families and attend courses that combine both classroom and field experiences. Participants receive U.F. transfer credits for five semester hours of Spanish and four of ecology.

For information and applications for both programs, contact Dr. Thomas Struhsaker, c/o U.F. Overseas Studies, 123 Tigert Hall, Gainesville, Fl. 32611 [904-392-5206; FAX: (904)392-5575; bitnet: Jellis@nervm (attn: Jim Ellis)]. Application deadline is March 15, 1993.

* * *

Biochemical Values During Pregnancy Period in Squirrel Monkeys

In their paper, "Canonical discriminant analysis for hematological and serum biochemical changes during pregnancy period in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciurea), " in Experimental Animals, 1991, 40, 315-322 (Japanese, with English summary), Takashi Yoshida, Masaaki Hamano, Keiko Ohtoh, Fumiaki Coh, and Nobuo Goto analyzed data from nonpregnant, pregnant, and post-partum squirrel monkeys. All animals were of wild origin and had been maintained under uniform environmental conditions. Items with statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between months were: red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hematocrit value (Ht), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC), albumin concentration (ALB), blood urea nitrogen concentration (BUN), total cholesterol concentration (T-CHO), triglyceride concentration (TG), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and calcium concentration (Ca). Total protein concentration (TP), albumin-globulin ratio (A/G), and glucose concentration (GLU) were statistically not significant (N.S., p>0.05). The following table summarizes their results.

 Month     TP           ALB           A/G           BUN        GLU
 -11    6.73+/-0.86   3.91+/-0.12   1.30+/-0.09   24.9+/-5.8   68+/-25
 -9     7.06+/-0.45   3.98+/-0.12   1.30+/-0.12   23.3+/-5.2   70+/-24
 -7     6.82+/-0.31   3.82+/-0.10   1.28+/-0.10   22.9+/-5.0   77+/-28
 -5     7.37+/-0.50   4.00+/-0.20   1.19+/-0.08   20.9+/-3.3   97+/-34
 -4     7.30+/-0.48   4.03+/-0.13   1.24+/-0.11   19.1+/-2.4   66+/-25
 -3     7.20+/-0.59   3.98+/-0.18   1.24+/-0.11   16.8+/-4.3   69+/-11
 -2     6.88+/-0.25   3.86+/-0.12   1.28+/-0.05   14.5+/-1.6   90+/-11
 -1     6.68+/-0.27   3.75+/-0.10   1.28+/-0.06   12.9+/-3.6   95+/-28
  0     6.60+/-0.37   3.72+/-0.09   1.30+/-0.12   13.5+/-3.0   93+/-31
 +5     6.93+/-0.37   3.91+/-0.15   1.30+/-0.09   25.2+.-7.6   76+/-17
Proba-     >0.05         0.001         >0.05         0.001      >0.05
Month      T-CHO         TG         ALP           Ca          RBC
 -11     158+/-37     50+/-13    12.7+/-3.7    9.3+/-0.4    635+/-83
  -9     182+/-38     48+/-10    17.7+/-6.4    9.3+/-0.4    646+/-65
  -7     184+/-28     47+/-14    16.8+/-5.3    9.4+/-0.4    635+/-80
  -5     191+/-16     54+/-22    13.8+/-4.0    9.4+/-0.4    642+/-54
  -4     184+/-58     56+/-34    11.5+/-3.3    8.8+/-0.2    606+/-81
  -3     150+/-54     76+/-21     7.9+/-2.2    9.2+/-0.3    594+/-66
  -2     123+/-24    100+/-18     6.9+/-1.7    9.1+/-0.6    552+/-36
  -1     101+/-23     55+/-16     6.9+/-2.2    7.9+/-0.3    487+/-77
   0     118+/-35     51+/-6      9.9+/-2.0    8.0+/-0.3    438+/-69
  +5     188+/-28     50+/-16    18.6+/-1.9    9.1+/-0.3    587+/-52
Proba-     0.001        0.001        0.001         0.001       0.001
Month          Ht             MCV            Hb             WBC
 -11       39.6+/-3.9       62+/-3       12.4+/-1.5      8.8+/-3.3
  -9       38.8+/-3.3       60+/-3       12.7+/-0.6     12.3+/-4.3
  -7       39.6+/-4.0       62+/-3       12.8+/-0.9     12.6+/-4.7
  -5       39.7+/-2.0       62+/-2       12.9+/-0.5     11.4+/-4.3
  -4       37.6+/-4.2       62+/-2       12.2+/-0.8      8.1+/-2.3
  -3       37.4+/-3.6       63+/-1       12.7+/-1.0     12.9+/-2.7
  -2       34.5+/-1.4       62+/-2       11.5+/-0.7     12.9+/-3.2
  -1       31.5+/-4.0       65+/-3       10.1+/-1.4     12.1+/-2.8
   0       29.3+/-4.3       67+/-2        9.7+/-1.4      8.0+/-4.5
  +5       36.3+/-2.6       61+/-2       11.6+/-1.1      6.9+/-0.6
Proba-        0.001          0.003          0.001          0.007

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


Chimpanzee Conservation and Public Health: Environments for the Future. J. Erwin & J. C. Landon (Eds.). Rockville, MD: Diagnon/Bioqual, 1992. [Price $40]

Audiovisual Material

Animal Care Matters. Animals Big & Small. [Price: $5 each. $4 each if ordering more than one. Order from AAALAC, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
. . These 18"x22", four-color posters feature animals and their gifts to scientific research while emphasizing the importance and responsibilities associated with their care. Companions to the Animal Well- Being is Essential poster which was introduced last year and is still available.


Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing: An Annotated Bibliography. G. J. Cosmides, R. S. Stafford, & P.-Y. Lu. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992. (31 citations, with abstracts) [Quarterly bibliographies are available from P.-Y. Lu, Toxicology Info. Response Center, Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., P.O. Box 2008, MS6050, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6050]
. . An edited, condensed version of the National Library of Medicine quarterly bibliographies, printed in the ILAR News, 1992, 34[3].

Tool Use by Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography, 1983-1992. J. B. Williams. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1992. 18 pp. (226 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Stock #92-004. Order from PIC, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]


Annual Resource Guide 1992: Special Edition of CONTINUING LISTINGS. Sept. 14, 1992, 17:92 Supplement. [Free from same address as above]


Research Protocol & Technician's Manual: A Guide to the Care, Feeding, & Evaluation of Infant Monkeys (second edition). G. C. Ruppenthal & G. P. Sackett. Seattle: Infant Primate Research Laboratory at the University of Washington, 1992. 83 pp., 48 forms, and index. [Price: $15, same address as above]
. . This document evolved over twenty-two years of work, and has been revised to include new procedures. It is used in training and to document testing protocols, providing continuity over time.

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

The management of acute diarrhea in children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations and Reports, 1992, 41[RR-16]. 20 pp. [Price: $1 from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325]
. . Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was first proven to be effective in the outpatient management of patients with severe dehydrating diarrhea 24 years ago. Although ORT implies rehydration alone, in view of present advances, knowledge, and practice, CDC's definition has been broadened to include maintenance fluid therapy and nutrition. This important booklet details therapies and case management, specifically for pediatric patients, but most of the information is of general use.

Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 1992, 6. [Price: $20 from PsyETA, P.O. Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297]
. . Articles include: Non-food enrichment, by H. Shaw; Promoting psychological well-being in a biomedical research facility: Sheep in wolves' clothing, by A. Petto, K. Russell, L. Watson, & M. Lareau-Alves; Enriching the lives of captive primates, by L. Brent; Quantitatively tested environmental enrichment options for singly-caged nonhuman primates: A review, by V. Reinhardt & A. Reinhardt; and Improving implementation of "The Third R", refinement, by L. Hart.

Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter. July-September 1992, 3[3]. [National Agricultural Library, AWIC, Room 205, Beltsville, MD 20705]

Primate Report, No. 32, January 1992. [Price: $8]
. . Papers presented at a symposium held at the XIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Brasilia, 1988, on the topic, "Long-term studies of Old World monkeys".

Primate Report, No. 33, April 1992. [Annual Scientific Report of the German Primate Center (DPZ). Price: $8]
. . Besides reports on the divisions of the Center, the following articles are included: On the central control of vocal motor coordination in the squirrel monkey, by U. Jurgens & J. Dressnandt. Antibiotic resistance in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. of simian origin, by M. Brack & F. Hosefelder. Spontaneous locomotor activity measured by a computer assistant video system, by A. Soliman & E. Fuchs.

Australian Primatology, January, 1992, 6[4]. (G. Crook, CSRIO Div. of Human Nutrition, Majors Rd, O'Halloran Hill, S.A., 5158, Australia)
. . Includes an article on behavioral enrichment of a lone orangutan at Adelaide Zoo.

Gorilla Gazette, September 1992, 6 [2]. (Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Dr, Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400).

IPPL Newsletter, April, 1992, 19[1]; August, 1992, 19 [2]. (IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484)


Implementation Strategies for Research Animal Well-Being: Institutional Compliance with Regulations. Lee Krulisch (Ed.). Bethesda, MD: SCAW/WARDS; 1992. [Available from SCAW, 4805 St. Elmo Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814. Price: $20; 6 or more: $15 each; foreign postage $5]
. . Proceedings of a conference held in Baltimore, MD on December 5-6, 1991 about compliance with USDA regulations for the well-being of canines and nonhuman primates in research. Pages 5-75 are devoted to dogs, but some of the material is of interest to primatologists. Pp. 77-178 are about enrichment strategies for nonhuman primates. Topics and panelists in the primate section are: Current regulations (D. E. Beasley); Biosafety issues (J. Y. Richmond); Physiological and behavioral needs (S. L. Dexter); Psychological well-being of captive primates: Developing a facility plan to address social needs (M. A. Novak); Effective, safe and inexpensive environmental enrichment and improved handling of research rhesus macaques (V. Reinhardt); Planning, implementation, and monitoring (K. A. L. Bayne, J. M. Erwin, & K. Weld); Large colonies vs. small colonies (N. S. Lipman); Quality time for nonhuman primates: Perspectives on psychological well-being from the large research facility (T. D. Mandrell, A. J. Petto, K. H. Drewsen, & L. M. Watson).

Special Journal Issues

Migration and dispersal. International Journal of Primatology, 1992, 13[4].
. . Papers presented at the XIIIth Congress of the I.P.S. in Kyoto, Japan, July 1990. Contents: Introduction: Migration and dispersal, by E. O. Smith & D. S. Sprague. Dispersal, nepotism, and primate social behavior, by J. Moore. Differences in male and female macaque dispersal lead to contrasting distributions of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, by D. J. Melnick & G. A. Hoelzer. Male life history and intergroup mobility among ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta), by R. W. Sussman. Dispersal pattern in Costa Rican mantled howling monkeys, by K. E. Glander. Life history and male intertroop mobility among Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), by D. S. Sprague. Migration of male hamadryas baboons into anubis groups in the Awash National Park, Ethiopia, by J. E. Phillips-Conroy, C. J. Jolly, P. Nystrom, & H. A. Hemmalin.

Issues in genetic research on nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 27[2].
. . Contents: Introduction, by B. Dyke. The genetic demography of a chimpanzee colony, by S. Williams-Blangero, J. W. Eichberg, & B. Dyke. Genetic structure of three populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Implications for genetic management, by P. S. Gill, J. Blangero, G. S. Manis, J. Scheffler, M. E. Keeling, & W. H. Stone. Variability in nuclear DNA among nonhuman primates: Application of molecular genetic techniques to intra- and inter-species genetic analyses, by J. Rogers, G. Ruano, & K. K. Kidd. Genetic analysis of sexual dimorphism in serum apo AI and HDL-C concentrations in baboons, by B. Towne, J. Blangero, & G. E. Mott. Assessing the effects of candidate genes on quantitative traits in primate populations, by J. Blangero, S. Williams-Blangero, & J. E. Hixson. Uncertain paternity in primate quantitative genetic studies, by L. W. Konigsberg & J. M. Cheverud. Primate population studies at Polonnaruwa. II. Heritability of body measurements in a natural population of toque macaques (Macaca sinica), by J. M. Cheverud & W. P. J. Dittus.

Understanding Chimpanzees: Diversity and Survival. Bulletin of The Chicago Academy of Sciences, 1992, 15[1]. [Price: $4.50]
. . Abstracts of papers and video presentations at the symposium held December 11-15, 1991, in Chicago.

Anatomy & Physiology

Postpartum lactational anovulation in a nonhuman primate (Macaca fascicularis): Endogenous opiate mediation of suckling-induced hyperprolactinemia. Gordon, K., Hodgen, G. D., & Richardson, D. W. (Jones Inst. for Reproductive Med., Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 601 Colley Ave., Norfolk, VA 23507). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1992, 75, 59-67.
. . A study of six animals suggests that opiate peptides are released in response to the suckling stimulus in the cynomolgus monkey and that they mediate the effects of suckling on PRL secretion in both gonadal-intact and agonadal cynomolgus monkeys. A lack of effect of opiate blockade on gonadotropin concentrations suggests that multiple pathways may be involved with the inhibition of the GnRH pulse generator during lactational anovulation.

Animal Models

Complications of monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy: The importance of primate studies. Jonker, M., Schellekens, P. T., Harpprecht, J., & Slingerland, W. (P.O. Box 5815, 2288 HV Ryswyk, Netherlands). Transplantation Proceedings, 1991, 23, 264-265.
. . A comparison of the side-effects of murine monoclonal antibodies of different specificities in humans, rhesus monkeys, and chimpanzees.

Lethal E. coli septic shock is prevented by blocking tissue factor with monoclonal antibody. Taylor, F. B. Jr., Chang, A., Ruf, W., Morrissey, J. H., Hinshaw, L., Catlett, R., Blick, K., & Edgington, T. S. (Cardiovascular Biology Research, 825 N.E. 13th St., Oklahoma City, OK 73104). Circulatory Shock, 1991, 33, 127-134.
. . 500 microgm/kg of either immunoglobulin G or Fab fragments of a monoclonal antibody against tissue factor (TF) administered to baboons as a pretreatment attenuates the coagulopathy and protects against LD-100 Escherichia coli. This study provides direct evidence of an essential effector role for TF in septic shock.

Moderate zinc deficiency in rhesus monkeys: An intrinsic defect of neutrophil chemotaxis corrected by zinc repletion. Vruwink, K. G., Fletcher, M. P., Kenn, C.L., Golub, M. S., Hendrickx, A. G., & Gershwin, M. E. (M.P.F., Div. of Rheumatology, Allergy, & Clinical Immunology, Univ. of California, TB 192, School of Med., Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Immunology, 1991, 146, 244-249.
. . Data from fourteen subjects indicate that zinc deficiency is associated with an intrinsic polymorphonuclear leukocyte defect that specifically affects chemotaxis and is corrected with dietary zinc repletion.

Pathophysiologic, morphometric, and biochemical studies of the premature baboon with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Coalson, J. J., Winter, V. T., Gerstmann, D. R., Idell, S., King, R. J., & Delemos, R. A. (Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Texas Health Sci. Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr., San Antonio, TX 78284-7750). American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 1992, 145, 872-881.
. . Baboons were delivered at 75% of gestation, and ventilated with positive-pressure ventilation at a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 1. After 7 days the FIO2 was reduced to 0.8 and maintained for 14 more days. These animals showed metaplastic or hyperplastic epithelial lesions in airways and an alternating pattern of atelectatic but more normal appearing saccules and alveoli interposed between foci of thickened overexpanded saccular walls with no alveolarization. The patterns in this study probably represent those seen in surviving human neonates with mild to moderate clinical bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Neurotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to MPTP on the dopaminergic systems of the marmoset brain. Perez-Otano, I., Oset, C., Herrero, M. T., Luquin, R. R., Kupsch, A., Oertel, W., Obesto, J. A., & Del Rio, J. (J.D.R., Dept of Pharmacology, School of Med., Univ. of Navarra, 31080 Pamplona, Spain). European Journal of Pharmacology, 1992, 217, 211-213.
. . Prenatal exposure to MPTP produced a marked dopamine depletion in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, showing that MPTP is able to cross the placental barrier in primates.

Animal Welfare

The controlled water access paradigm. Desimone, R., Olson, C. & Erickson, R. (Section on Behavioral Neurophysiology, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). ILAR News, 1992, 34, 27-29. Rejoinders to "The controlled water access paradigm." Orlans, F. B. (Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC 20057). ILAR News, 1992, 34, 30-31.
. . Responses to an earlier paper by F. B. Orlans (ILAR News, 1991, 33, 48-52).

Scientific merit review: The role of the IACUC. Prentice, E. D., Crouse, D. A., & Mann, M. D. (Dept. of Anatomy, Univ. of Nebraska Med. Center, Omaha, NE 68105). ILAR News, 1992, 34, 15-19.
. . Conclusion: Optimally, a research institution should appoint one or more expert peer review committees who are specifically charged with scientific merit review. If, however, that is not possible for any reason, the obligation to perform scientific merit review falls by default to the IACUC. PHS Policy requires merit review by any institution that is the recipient of PHS funds. Furthermore, the public demands and deserves accountability in animal research. Institutions must be responsive to that demand in order to preserve their privilege to use animals in research for the benefit of humankind or animals.

Correction and clarification. The Washingtonian, December, 1991, 35-36.
. . Corrections and clarifications of statements made in Katie McCabe's article, "Beyond cruelty," published in the February, 1990 issue of the same journal. Certain accusations of fraud against PETA in that article have not been sustained.


Vigilance, predator detection and the presence of supernumerary males in vervet monkey troops. Baldellou, M. & Henzi, S. P. (S.P.H., Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 43, 451-461.
. . To determine whether adult males provide females with anti-predator behavior in return for inclusion in a group, a free-ranging troop of Cercopithecus aethiops was observed for 9 months. Males were more vigilant than females, and spent more time either isolated or exposed at the tops of trees. They were not vigilant because they were exposed, but moved into such positions in order to scan the surroundings. Despite this, males were no more efficient than females at detecting predators. The top-ranking male was the most vigilant and active against predators. Although females benefit from this vigilance, they are not capable of controlling male numbers, and troops contain a number of supernumerary males who may well be the beneficiaries of the vigilance of others.

Anxiety in rhesus monkey infants in relation to interactions with their mother and other social companions. Maestripieri, D., Martel, F. L., Nevison, C. M., Simpson, M. J. A., & Keverne, E. B. (Sub-dept. of Animal Behaviour, Univ. of Cambridge, High St., Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, U.K.). Developmental Psychobiology, 1992, 24, 571-581.
. . Rhesus infants were administered an anxiogenic drug ((-CCE), an anxiolytic drug (midazolam), and saline solution. (-CCD was associated with an increase in time spent by the infant with its mother and a concomitant reduction in proximity with other individuals and in social play. Midazolam did not affect the mother-infant interaction, but increased the infant's locomotor activity away from the mother and its proximity and social play with juveniles and subadults when compared to peers. Results suggest that, although infant anxiety can be experimentally induced, it is not a major component of the mother-infant relationship. Infant anxiety, however, might affect the formation of other social bonds and play a part in the development of avoidance responses toward other individuals.

Interplay between various aspects in social relationships of young rhesus monkeys: Dominance, agonistic help, and affiliation. Janus, M. (Psychiatric Research Unit, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave., Toronto, Ont. M5G 1X8 Canada). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 26, 291-308.
. . It is argued that the time monkeys spend interacting with each other in affiliative interactions increases their familiarity and thus promotes close relationships between them. On the whole, young monkeys' relationships, like those between adults, are influenced strongly by their kinship and position in the dominance hierarchy.

Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): I. The social events. Aureli, F. & van Schaik, C. P. (Ethology & Socioecology, Univ. of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80086, 3508 TB Utrecht, Netherlands). Ethology, 1991, 89, 89-100.
. . Victims of agonistic conflicts showed reconciliation: they had more affiliative contacts with the aggressor after a conflict than in control periods. Aggressors were the only group members with which the victim increased the grooming exchange relative to other group members. The victim characteristically showed an increase of agonistic behavior in post-conflict situations (redirection), frequently toward the aggressor's kin. Results indicate that achieving reconciliation has the highest priority for the victim, and that aggressors are more likely to grant reconciliation after the victim has redirected aggression.

Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): II. Coping with the uncertainty. Aureli, F. & van Schaik, C. P. (Address same as above). Ethology, 1991, 89, 101-114.
. . Post-conflict social events (reconciliation and redirection) reduced the rate of tension-related activities such as scratching, body-shaking, and self-grooming, suggesting a faster termination of the stress response.

Removal from natal social group to peer housing affects cortisol levels and absolute numbers of T cell subsets in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Gust, D. A., Gordon, T. P., Wilson, M. E., Brodie, A. R., Ahmed-Ansari, A., & McClure, H. M. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., 2409 Taylor Rd., Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 1992, 6, 189-199.
. . Six naive juvenile rhesus monkeys removed from their group of 80 animals were compared to six controls left in the group. The experimental animals, housed together, showed behavioral as well as physiological changes, similar to those previously shown by subjects removed to individual caging. One reason for the lack of a social modulation effect may be the fact that peers designated from the group were chosen at random, rather than making close relationships, such as kin or established social partners, a criterion of subject selection.

Chimpanzee mothers and infants: A case history. Brent, L. & Stone, A. M. (Dept. of Lab. Animal Med., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78284). The Newsletter, 1992, 4[2], 1-2.
. . An experienced mother chimp neglected and abused her infant during a temporary change of environment.

Sociophysiology of relationships in squirrel monkeys. I. Formation of female dyads. Saltzman, W., Mendoza, S. P., & Mason, W. A. (S.P.M., CRPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616-8542). Physiology & Behavior, 1991, 50, 271-280.
. . Physiological and behavioral consequences of formation of female-female pairs were investigated in adult squirrel monkeys. Basal cortisol levels underwent a marked and sustained reduction following formation of pairs, independent of both dominance status and the quality of social interactions between pairmates. Adrenocortical responsiveness was not altered by social conditions, except briefly. Findings contrast with results of a parallel study of male squirrel monkeys, suggesting that isosexual relationships in males and females are associated with different sociophysiological processes.


Skeletal lesions and anemia associated with ascorbic acid deficiency in juvenile rhesus macaques. Eisele, P. H., Morgan, J. P., Line, A. S., & Anderson, J. H. (Address same as above). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 245-249.
. . A diagnosis of vitamin C deficiency in 13 animals was based on clinical signs (swellings and instabilities involving the ends of long bones, physeal fractures, anemia), feed analysis, radiographic lesions, and response to therapy (vitamin supplements, diet change, cage rest, and support bandages).

Effect of temporary restricted social housing on later reproductive behavior in adolescent chimpanzees. Fritz, J., Nash, L. T., & Howell, S. M. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027). Lab Animal, 1992, 21[5], 21-24.
. . Male and female chimpanzees housed alone or with a single cagemate during the early juvenile period and subsequently housed socially often develop adequate sexual behavior. It is possible, with proper husbandry, to create a population for both biomedical research and later breeding, though opposite-sex pairings of young animals may inhibit later breeding between such pairs.


Association of Ebola-related Reston virus particles and antigen with tissue lesions of monkeys imported to the United States. Geisbert, T. W., Jahrling, P. B., Hanes, M. A., & Zack, P. M. (Div. of Virology, USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011). Journal of Comparative Pathology, 1992, 106, 137-152.
. . Analysis of electron microscopic and immunohistochemical examinations of tissues collected from cynomolgus monkeys infected in the Reston, VA epizootic involving a filovirus closely related to Ebola virus.

Eosinophilic fasciitis in a rhesus macaque. Anderson, S. T. & Klein, E. C. (Rheumatology Service, Wilford Hall USAFMC, San Antonio, TX 78236). Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1992, 35, 714-716.
. . Case report and discussion.

Prevalence and distribution of latent simian varicella virus DNA in monkey ganglia. Mahalingam, R., Clarke, P., Wellish, M., Dueland, A. N., Soike, K. F., Gilden, D. H., & Cohrs, R. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Colorado School of Med., 4200 E. 9th Ave., Campus Box B-182, Denver, CO 80262). Virology, 1992, 188, 193-197.
. . Polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the prevalence and distribution of latent simian varicella virus (SVV) in ganglionic and nonganglionic tissues from 9 African green monkeys experimentally infected with SVV. SVV DNA sequences were detected in trigeminal ganglia from 7 monkeys, and in thoracic ganglia from 7. Results indicate that SVV becomes latent primarily in ganglia at multiple levels of the neuraxis, and more than one region of the SVV genome is present in latently infected ganglia.

Susceptibility of owl monkeys to Plasmodium falciparum in relation to hemoglobin and karyotype. Weller, R. E., Baer, J. F., Valentine, N. B., Buschbom, R. L., Ragan, H. A., & Malaga, C. A. (Developmental Toxicology Section MSIN P7-52, Batelle, Pacific Northwest Labs, Richland, WA 99352). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1992, 46, 366-370.
. . Five karyotypes of owl monkey were evaluated on the basis of the electrophoretic mobility of their major and minor Hb components. Significant differences exist among karyotype I animals and those with karyotypes II, III, and V, particularly with regard to their HbA2 concentrations. Karyotype I animals are considered to be less susceptible to infection with human strains of P. falciparum than karyotypes II, III, and V, which are viewed as being highly susceptible.

Protection of macaques with a simian immunodeficiency virus envelope peptide vaccine based on conserved human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequences. Shafferman, A., Jahrling, P. B., Benveniste, R. E., Lewis, M. G., Phipps, T. J., Eden-McCutchan, F., Sadoff, J., Eddy, G. A., & Burke, D. S. (Dept of Biochem., Israel Inst. of Biological Research, Ness-Ziona, 70450, Israel). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1991, 88, 7126-7130.
. . Peptides, selected from regions of the SIV envelope that are hydrophilic, immunoreactive, and highly homologous with corresponding conserved envelope sequences of the HIV, induced virus-neutralizing and peptide-specific antibodies. After challenge with virulent virus, controls became virus positive and developed gradually rising antibody titers to SIV over 63 weeks. Immunized macaques developed a postchallenge anamnestic response to SIVenv antigens within 3-6 weeks followed by a gradual, fluctuating decline in SIV antibody titers and partial or total suppression of detectable SIV. The conserved nature of the HIV and SIV peptides and the similar humoral immunoreactivity in the respective hosts suggest that homologous HIV peptides may be important components of a successful immunization strategy.

Liver disease in rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus. Gerber, M. A., Chen, M.-L., Hu, F.-S., Baskin, G. B., & Petrovich, L. (Dept. of Pathology, Tulane Univ. School of Med., 1430 Tulane Ave., New Orleans, LA 70112-2699). American Journal of Pathology, 1991, 139, 1081-1088.
. . A prospective study to define the pathology, course, and pathogenesis of liver disease after I.V. inoculation with the standardized isolate SIV/DeltaB670. The most conspicuous hepatic lesions were bile duct damage and dense lymphocytic infiltration of terminal hepatic venules and sublobular hepatic veins. The venulitis was far more extensive than the mild endothelitis of terminal hepatic venules and portal veins in some children with AIDS. Immunologic mechanisms may be involved in liver damage. Degenerative and inflammatory lesions of small bile ducts and of hepatic veins and venules resemble the alterations seen in the liver in graft-versus-host disease or in hepatic allograft rejection.

Cognitive and motor impairments associated with SIV infection in rhesus monkeys. Murray, E. A., Rausch, D. M., Lendvay, J., Sharer, L. R., & Eiden, L. E. (Lab. of Neuropsychology, NIMH, Bldg. 9, Rm 1E104, Bethesda, MD 20892). Science, 1992, 255, 1246-1249.
. . Juvenile rhesus macaques infected with SIV were found to exhibit cognitive and motor deficits characteristic of HIV infection. Impairment on motor skill tasks was the most reliable indicator of infection. Histological evaluation of the brains of the infected monkeys revealed a variety of pathological alterations, ranging from minimal perivascular lymphocytic inflammation and choroid plexitis to typical SIV meningoencephalitis, with macrophages and multinucleated (syncytial) giant cells. Changes are specific to SIV infection and are unlikely to be due to a general lack of motivation or poor health. Animals exhibited significant behavioral deficits well before evidence of opportunistic infection or signs of progressive clinical disease.

Isolation and characterization of a new chimpanzee lentivirus (simian immunodeficiency virus isolate cpz-ant) from a wild-captured chimpanzee. Peeters, M., Fransen, K., Delaporte, E., Van den Haesevelde, M., Gershy-Damet, G.-M., Kestens, L., van der Groen, G., & Piot, P. (Dept. of Microbiology, Inst. of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestr. 155, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium). AIDS, 1992, 6, 447-451.
. . One of 44 wild-captured chimpanzees tested in Belgium and Cote d'Ivoire had antibodies that cross-reacted with HIV-1. A lentivirus, referred to as SIVcpz-ant, differing from SIVcpz-gab, discovered in Gabon, was isolated. It is concluded that natural infection of wild-captured chimpanzees with an HIV-related virus may not be uncommon. The diversity of the two isolates, the different geographical origin, and the absence of disease all suggest that chimpanzees have not recently become SIVcpz-infected.

Lack of protective immunity against reinfection with hepatitis C virus. Farci, P., Alter, H. J., Govindarajan, S., Wong, D. C., Engle, R., Lesniewski, R. R., Mushahwar, I. K., Desai, S. M., Miller, R. H., Ogata, N., & Purcell, R. H. (Hepatitis Viruses Sec., Lab. of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Science, 1992, 258, 135-140.
. . Markers of viral replication and host immunity were studied in 5 chimpanzees sequentially inoculated over a period of 3 years with different HCV strains of proven infectivity. Each rechallenge of a convalescent chimpanzee with the same or a different HCV strain resulted in the reappearance of viremia, which was due to infection with the subsequent challenge virus. Apparently HCV infection does not elicit protective immunity against reinfection with homologous or heterologous strains.

The natural history of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chimpanzees: Comparison of serologic responses measured with first- and second-generation assays and relationship to HCV viremia. Farci, P., London, W. T., Wong, D. C., Dawson, G. J., Vallari, D. S., Engle, R., & Purcell, R. H. (Address same as above). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1992, 165, 1006-1011.
. . HCV infection was transient in 4 chimpanzees and became chronic in 2. All developed antibodies to HCV detectable by 2nd-generation assays, while only 5 of the 6 became positive by 1st-generation. 2nd-generation were consistently more sensitive than 1st-generation assays for the early diagnosis of primary HCV infection. The pattern observed with 2nd-generation assays was not influenced by the outcome of HCV infection, but 1st-generation antibody response was variable: it usually disappeared after loss of viremia, whereas its presence paralleled HCV viremia in chimpanzees with chronic infection.

Detection of the hepatitis C virus genome in acute and chronic experimental infection in chimpanzees. Schlauder, G. G., Leverenz, G. J., Amann, C. W., Lesniewski, R. R., & Peterson, D. A. (Exp. Biology Research, D-90D, Bldg L3, Abbott Labs, N. Chicago, IL 60064). Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1991, 29, 2175-2179.
. . In a chimpanzee with acute hepatitis C, signals detectable by cDNA polymerase chain reaction appeared 1 week before characteristic ultrastructural changes visualized by electron microscopy, persisted throughout the peak alanine aminotransferase levels, and diminished with the disappearance of alterations visualized by electron microscopy. In contrast, the HCV genome was consistently detectable in chimpanzees with chronic HCV infection for up to 10 years after infection.

Enteric non-A, non-B virus hepatitis in India: Current experiences in various settings including transmission studies in the rhesus monkey. Nayak, N. C. & Panda, S. K. (Fac. of Medicine, Kuwait Univ., Kuwait). In T. Shikata, R. H. Purcell, & T. Uchida (Eds.), Viral Hepatitis C, D and E (pp.247-257). New York: Elsevier, 1991.
. . Review of 20 epidemics and some animal transmission studies. The latter indicate that Macaca mulatta should be a good model for studies on hepatitis E.

Follow-up of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees: Determination of viraemia and specific humoral immune response. Hilfenhaus, J., Krupka, U., Nowak, T., Cummins, L. B., Fuchs, K., & Roggendorf, M. (Behringwerke AG, P.O. Box 11 40, D-3550 Marburg, Germany). Journal of General Virology, 1992, 73, 1015-1019.
. . Seven chimpanzees were inoculated intravenously with the H strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In all animals, viremia occurred several weeks before a significant increase in serum alanine transferase (ALT) activity, whereas the first circulating anti-HCV antibodies became detectable at the time of significant increase in ALT levels. The animals could be assigned to two groups: those in which viremia disappeared in conjunction with or shortly after seroconversion, and those remaining viremic for many weeks after the appearance of antibodies.

An epizootic of histoplasmosis duboisii (African histoplasmosis) in an American baboon colony. Butler, T. M. & Hubbard, G. B. (Dept. of Lab. Animal Med., Southwest Foundation for Biomed. Res., San Antonio, TX 78228). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 407-410.
. . Histoplasmosis duboisii, a chronic granulomatous disease, was diag- nosed in 21 baboons at a large primate colony. Diagnosis was based on finding 8 to 15 micrometer-diameter yeast cells in histologic sections. Therapy with drugs was unsuccessful. Surgical removal was the primary treatment. Epidemiologic data suggest the incubation period to be at least 9 months. The most likely route of infection was oral, during grooming by the animals.

Spontaneous fatal coccidioidomycosis in a native-born hybrid baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis/Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus). Bellini, S., Hubbard, G. B., & Kaufman, L. (G. B. H., address same as above). Laboratory Animal Science, 1991, 41, 509-511.
. . Coccidioides immitis is a fungus known to infect human and nonhuman primates and wild and domestic animals in the southwestern U.S., northern Mexico, and areas of Central and South America. This second case of fatal coccidioidomycosis in a baboon at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in a period of 6 years emphasizes current diagnostic techniques, establishes baboons as a species susceptible, and illustrates that this fungus is a biologic hazard about which handlers of nonhuman primates should be aware.

Tuberculosis in a tuberculin-negative rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) on chemoprophylaxis. Dillehay, D. L. & Huerkamp, M. J. (Div. of Animal Resources, Dept. of Pathology & Lab. Medicine, Emory Univ. School of Med., Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1990, 21, 480-484.
. . An adult male rhesus monkey received isoniazid and ethambutol prophylactically for 9 yr, and had 120 consecutive negative tuberculin tests, including those at 1, 3, and 6 mo. prior to death. Drug therapy was stopped 12 mo. prior to death. Miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed at necropsy.

Prevalence of ophthalmic lesions in wild-caught cynomolgus monkeys. Kuhlman, S. M., Rubin, L. F., & Ridgway, R. L. (Hazleton Washington, 9200 Leesburg Pike, Vienna, VA 22182). Progress in Veterinary & Comparative Ophthalmology, 1992, 2, 20-28.
. . One hundred eighty-five abnormal findings were recorded over a 4-year period in 167 of 2100 apparently healthy, wild-caught M. fascicularis. Most (140) of the lesions were of the fundus, with a few occurring in each of the following: conjunctiva, cornea, iris/anterior chamber, lens, and vitreous. Most abnormalities seemed to cause no visual impairment.

Evidence for an alpha-herpesvirus indigenous to mountain gorillas. Eberle, R. (Dept. of Vet. Parasitology, Microbiology, & Public Health, College of Vet. Med., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 246-251.
. . Sera from seven wild mountain gorillas were screened for antibodies reactive with primate alpha-herpesviruses. Four individuals (58%) were positive. Analysis by competition ELISA indicated that these gorillas had experienced infection with a virus antigenically similar but not identical to HSV-2.

Spontaneous cardiomyopathy and nephropathy in the owl monkey (Aotus sp.) in captivity. Gozalo, A., Dagle, G. E., Montoya, E., Weller, R. E., & Malaga, C. A. (Center for Reproduction and Conservation of Nonhuman Primates, Inst. Vet. de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura, Univ. Nac. Mayor de San Marcos, Iquitos, Peru). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 279-284.
. . Review of clinical and pathologic data for 72 owl monkeys that died over 40 months. Hypertrophic cardiac disease, dilative cardiomyopathy, and nephropathy were the most common diagnoses. The incidence of all 3 diseases appeared to increase with time in captivity. Nephropathy was less severe in colony-born animals.

Activation of B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) in chronically immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys. Chellman, G. J., Lukas, V. S., Eugui, E. M., Altera, K. P., Almquist, S. J., & Hilliard, J. K. (Inst. of Toxicologic Sciences, Syntex, Inc., Mailstop R2-ITS, 3401 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94303). Laboratory Animal Science, 1992, 42, 146-151.
. . Three of 14 cynomolgus monkeys given the highest dose of an immunosuppressive drug in a 6-month toxicology study developed B virus oral lesions after 3 months of dosing. The incidence and severity of parasitic (Oesophagostomum sp.) lesions of the large intestine also increased in high-dose animals. Both B virus and Oesophagostomum are enzootic in macaques, and the lesions caused by them were considered secondary to chronic immunosuppression brought on by the test compound.

Instruments & Techniques

Noninvasive measurement of blood pressure in conscious cynomolgus monkeys. Chester, A. E., Dorr, A. E., Lund, K. R., & Wood, L. D. (Address same as above). Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 1992, 19, 64-68.
. . A Dinamap monitor, Model 1846SX/P, was used to record treated and untreated monkeys by the oscillometric method. Each monkey was placed in a restraining tube with the cuff placed on the base of the shaved tail. Although the oscillometric method was not as sensitive as a catheter, used for comparison, it detected changes in the correct direction for all drugs administered.

Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Tollner, T. L., VandeVoort, C. A., Overstreet, J. W., & Drobnis, E. Z. (E.Z.D., Reproductive Biology & Med., Suber House, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1990, 90, 347-352.
. . Three egg-yolk diluents, which have been used successfully in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa, were compared for their ability to protect macaque semen against cryodamage. TEST (Tes + Tris + egg yolk), TEST with 20% skim milk (TSM), and egg yolk-citrate (EYC), each with 3% or 5% glycerol, were compared using 12 ejaculates from 6 male cynomolgus. The 3% glycerol level gave superior results to 5%. EYC, which is widely used for cryopreservation of human spermatozoa, was not suitable for cynomolgus semen. Artificial insemination with semen cryopreserved in TSM resulted in a healthy, full-term infant.

Isotypic analysis of humoral immune responses in rhesus monkeys to an adult microsomal antigen of Schistosoma mansoni: An indicator of successful treatment. Wilkins, P. P., Maddison, S. E., Slemenda, S. B., & Tsang, V. C. W. (Parasitic Diseases Br., Div. of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1991, 45, 629-635.
. . Fifteen animals were infected with S. mansoni, and 10 treated with a curative dose of praziquantel. Serum samples were longitudinally collected and specific Ig isotypes were quantified with an adult microsomal antigen of S. mansoni using the FAST®-ELISA. A ratio of pretreatment IgG1 absorbance values to post-treatment IgG1 absorbance values was generated for each monkey. All successfully treated monkeys, determined to be worm-free by perfusion, had IgG1 ratios at week 53 greater than 2.4 (range 2.4-181). The untreated monkeys and one monkey that was a treatment failure had IgG1 ratios less than 2.1 (range 0.09-2.05) for the same time period.

Age determination of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) by radiographic examination of skeletal development. Nassar-Montoya, F., Sainsbury, A. W., Kirkwood, J. K, & du Boulay, G. H. (Dept. of Vet. Science, Inst. of Zoology, Zoological Soc. of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, England). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 259-264.
. . Seventy-four animals were examined radiographically to determine the skeletal development from 6 months of age. The animals were divided into 9 groups, according to age, and a table of the stage of ossification by age was produced, which may be used for determining the ages of animals of unknown history.

New method for in vivo recording of myometrial activity in the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus. Crane, L. H., Kuehl, T. J., & Dukelow, W. R. (W. R. D., Endocrine Research Center, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824). American Journal of Primatology, 1992, 28, 73-78.
. . Videolaparoscopy was used to visualize the reproductive tract contractility of the squirrel monkey. This technique gives information on the nature, direction of propagation, duration, and frequency of contractions.

Behavioral effects of intracerebral dopamine injections in the long-tailed macaque. Bowden, D. M. & Dubach, F. (R.P.R.C., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). In K. V. Sudakov, D. Ganten, & N. A. Nikolov (Eds.), Emotions and Behavior: A Systems Approach (pp.355-367). New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1989.
. . A method for repeated stereotaxic injections of neuropharmaceuticals.

Pharmacology & Anesthesia

Effects of prostaglandins F2-alpha, A2, and their esters in glaucomatous monkey eyes. Wang, R.-F., Camras, C. B., Lee, P.-Y., Podos, S. M., & Bito, L. Z. (C.B.C., Dept. of Ophthalmology, Box 1183, Mt. Sinai School of Med., One Gustave L. Levy Pl., New York, NY 10029). Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 1990, 31, 2466-2471.
. . The effect of prostaglandin (PG) F2-alpha -isopropyl ester (IE), PGA2, or PGA2-IE on intraocular pressure was tested in 8 cynomolgus monkey eyes with argon laser-induced glaucoma. The ocular hypotensive effect of these PGs progressively became more pronounced during the course of twice-daily dosing, with a significant reduction maintained at least 17 hours after some doses. No more than trace aqueous flare and no cells were observed in any eye during the course of treatment.


1991 Black Howler Monkey International Studbook. B. Baker. (Pittsburgh Zoo, P.O. Box 5250, Pittsburgh, PA 15206). 65 pp.

Assessment of semen quality in a baboon (Papio anubis) breeding colony. Schaffer, N. E., McCarthy, T. J., Fazleabas, A. T., & Jeyendran, R. S. (Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL 60614). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 47-48.
. . Data from nine adult male baboons.

In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in the rhesus monkey. Wolf, D. P., VandeVoort, C. A., Meyer-Haas, G. R., Zelinski-Wooten, M. B., Hess, D. L., Baughman, W. L., & Stouffer, R. L. (Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006). Biology of Reproduction, 1989, 41, 335-346.
. . Techniques used on 23 rhesus females, resulting in one pregnancy, which proceeded normally to the unassisted delivery of a male off- spring 170 days after the LH surge. The production of putative antibodies to human gonadotropins limits the repeated use of monkeys in the hyperstimulation protocol, but the model system should facilitate further studies on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryogenesis in primates.

Periovulatory time courses of serum LH in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Nigi, H. & Torii, R. (Div. of Wild Animal Med., Nippon Vet. and Animal Science Univ., 1-7-1 Kyonan-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1991, 40, 401-405.
. . Serum LH, E2-17beta, and progesterone concentration were measured in 16 cycles of 16 female Japanese monkeys. Three of the 16 cycles were ascertained to be anovulatory. Ten of the 13 ovulatory cycles showed LH peaks varying from 26 to 280 ng/ml. However, in the remaining 3 cycles, LH peaks could not be determined, probably because of a lag in the blood-sampling schedule. E2beta peaks were detected 0-30 hr before LH peak in 8 cycles, but 13 or 20 hr after LH peak in 2 cycles. Time-intervals from LH peak to ovulation ranged from 0 to 48 hours. No correlation was detected between concentrations of LH and progesterone in the luteal phase.

Determination of the time of ovulation in chimpanzees by measurement of LH, estrone sulfate, and pregnanediol 3alpha-glucuronide in urine: Comparison with serum hormone patterns. Steinetz, B. G., Ducrot, C., Randolph, C., & Mahoney, C. J. (NYU Med. Center, LEMSIP, Tuxedo, NY 10987). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1992, 21, 239-245.
. . Peaks of estrogens and LH and the rise of pregnanediol 3alpha-glucuronide in urine accurately reflected the peaks of estradiol-17beta and LH and the subsequent rise in progesterone in the serum of the same animals during the same menstrual cycles, and can be used to predict and verify the occurrence of ovulation, thus avoiding the repeated tranquilizations necessary to obtain daily blood samples.

In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.
Phone: 401-863-2511
FAX: 401-863-1300


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover drawing of Japanese "snow" monkeys (Macaca fuscata)
by Anne M. Richardson

Copyright ©1993 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.