Cover Drawing Laboratory Primate Newsletter

VOLUME 33 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1994

CONTENTS

Articles and Notes

Continuous Pair-Housing of Caged Macaca mulatta : Risk Evaluation, by V. Reinhardt...... 1

Introducing Unfamiliar Chimpanzees to a Group or Partner, by J. Fritz...... 5

Primary Forage Feeder for Singly-Caged Macaques, by M. A. Murchison...... 7

Primate Breeding Centers in Vietnam, by V. Weitzel & Vu Ngoc Thanh...... 9

Pig-tailed Macaques and AIDS Research...... 10

Time to Ban Imports? Another Response, by K. Hobbs...... 11

Time Investment for Continuous Implementation of an Effective Environmental Enhancement Plan, by V. Reinhardt...... 13

News, Information, and Announcements

Bibliography on Ethics of Animal Research, by M. Boccia...... 14

Grants Available...... 15
Fyssen Foundation 1993-1994 Fellowships and 1993 International Prize; Conservation Biology Awards; AIDS Research; Conservation Grants

Information Requested and Available...... 16
Primate Foresight; Barbary Macaques? Primate Info Net

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 18
Field Assistant, Grenada; Field Assistants, Puerto Rico; Ethical Issues of Animal Experimentation; Zoo Science Fellowships

News Briefs...... 19
ILAR to Revise Care and Use Guide; Varmus Confirmed as NIH Director; NIH Program to be Accredited; Justice Appeals ALDF vs USDA

Meeting Announcements...... 20
ILAR to Revise Care and Use Guide; 1994 ASP Meeting; Issues in IACUC Protocol Review; Callitrichid Symposium; Biosafety Symposium, Meeting Notes

Funds for Travel to IPS Congress in Bali, Indonesia...... 21

Primate Material Requested...... 22
Pathology Materials; Kidneys Needed

Robin Kingston, by H. O. Box...... 22

Crossword Puzzle, by R. Hamel...... 44

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1994)...... 23

Another "brilliant" cartoon

Departments

Positions Available...... 4
Cognitive Neuroscience Position; Behavioral Observation, Arizona

Address Changes...... 12

Recent Books and Articles...... 33

* * *

Continuous Pair-Housing of Caged Macaca Mulatta: Risk Evaluation

Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center

Introduction

Transferring singly-caged adult macaques to compatible isosexual pair-housing conditions is likely to be one of the least expensive and most effective ways to improve the animals' welfare in research facilities (Line et al., 1990b) by providing them with species-appropriate conditions for the expression of their social disposition (USDA, 1991; CCAC, 1993; IPS, 1993). Pair formation techniques have been described for Macaca mulatta (Reinhardt, 1988; Line et al., 1990a), M. fascicularis (Line et al., 1990b; Crockett et al., 1991), and M. arctoides (Reinhardt, 1990a). The success of these techniques is reflected in the percentage of pairs that are compatible. Compatibility between adult same-sex companions has been assessed during 2- to 36-week periods in all three species with the following results: M. mulatta female pairs 83-90% (Reinhardt et al., 1988; Eaton et al., 1991), male pairs 86% (Reinhardt, 1989); M. fascicularis female pairs 83-100% (Line et al., 1990b; Crockett et al., 1993), male pairs 40% (Crockett, 1993a,b; Crockett et al., 1993); M. arctoides female pairs 83% (Reinhardt, 1990a), male pairs 100% (Reinhardt, 1990a). These reports underscore a high degree of short-term partner compatibility with male M. fascicularis the only exception. (It may be appropriate to point out that all M. fascicularis -- including the relatively incompatible males -- studied by Crockett et al. (1993a,b) were not housed with their companions continuously but for only 7 hours during the day.)

Before recommending the implementation of pair-housing, follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the risk of trauma resulting from possible partner intolerance (cf. Line, 1987; Novak & Suomi, 1988). The present study addresses this issue in adult, previously singly-caged rhesus macaques (M. mulatta) that were transferred to continuous isosexual pair-housing with one or several companions.

Methods

Compatibility was assessed in all female and male adult rhesus macaques that continuously lived in pair situations with adult same-sex partners at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center for more than 3 years.

Pairs were formed by introducing potential partners to each other in an unfamiliar double cage (to avoid possible territorial antagonism) after a short period of noncontact familiarization (to allow establishment of dominance and subordination without any risk of injury). If a subject lost its companion permanently (due to incompatibility, epidemiological management, assignment to terminal study, natural death), it was paired with another animal within 2 weeks. Compatible cagemates were never separated from each other for more than 2 weeks at a time (e.g., for breeding or experimental surgical procedures).

Pairs were housed according to the subjects' body weights in 1.05 sq. m x 0.77 m or 1.45 sq. m x 0.85 m stainless steel cages, each equipped with 2 food boxes or 2 food puzzles, 2 drinking spouts, 1 privacy panel, 2 PVC perches, and 2 gnawing sticks. Males had their canines blunted (to avoid serious injuries during possible fighting). All male pairs were kept in male-only areas (to avoid possible sexual competition).

Room temperature was maintained at 20-22~C with a 12-hr artificial light cycle. The animals received their daily commercial biscuit ration at about 7:00, supplemental fruit and bread at about 15:00.

Pair compatibility was evaluated daily during several brief check-ups. Companions were offered food treats (e.g., peanuts) or supplemental food on these occasions. Partners were considered to be compatible as long as both of them shared food(Figure 1), neither inflicted a serious injury on the other, and neither showed signs of depression. Incompatible animals were not forced to live with each other but were separated and re-paired with different partners.

Nice Photograph Here

Figure 1: Dominant 15-year old Ray (left) and subordinate 10-year-old Max have been cagemates for 4.4 years. They demonstrate their compatibility by sharing two apples.

Results

Seventeen female and 7 male adult (>5 years old) rhesus macaques were housed in isosexual pair conditions an average of 5.5 years (females, 6.4 years; males, 3.8 years; Table 1 ). They lived with 1 to 4 different cagemates during that time in a total of 24 female/female dyads and 10 male/male dyads. Partners were not related and had never lived together (e.g., in same breeding troop) prior to being paired. v Compatibility between females was ascertained in 88% (21/24) of cases throughout follow-up periods of 1 year and longer (Table 1). Nell and Betty were the longest paired; they lived together as compatible partners for 6.3 years. Incompatibility was witnessed in 3 pairs (13%). In two cases (Alma & Willow, Claudia & Point), it was due to inadequate food sharing during the first week after pair formation; and, in another (Alma & Tick), to a serious injury inflicted 3 months after pair formation.

Five mothers raised their offspring together with their companions (8 dyads). In no instance did the presence of the young affect the adults' compatibility. Chip, for example, raised 2 infants together with her first companion Cha in the course of 3.5 years; during the subsequent 2.5 years she raised her next 2 infants with her second companion Flurry, who also raised 2 offspring during that time. There were no signs that Chip's compatibility with either of the 2 cagemates was jeopardized by the young. v Male companions were compatible in 90% (9/10) of cases throughout follow-up periods of at least 1 year. Ray and Max were paired the longest, having lived together compatibly for 4.4 years (Figure 1). The only case of incompatiblity was due to one male intimidating his counterpart to the point of depression during the 5th month of pair formation (Moon & Hugo).

      +---------------------------------------------+
      |  Subject       Time (months) subject lives  |
      |  (months of                with partner     |
      |  continuous     +  subject has offspring    |
      |  pair-housing)  *  partner has offspring    |
      +---------------------------------------------+
      |  FEMALES                                    |
      |                                             |
      |   Chip$     42       Cha$ (compatible)      |
      |             30+*     Flurry (compatible)    |
      |                                             |
      |   Alma      0        Willow (incompatible)  |
      |             60+*     Poke$  (compatible)    |
      |             3        Tick  (incompatible)   |
      |             14+*     Gritti (compatible)    |
      |                                             |
      |   Schi$     35+      Pi    (compatible)     |
      |             16+      Henna (compatible)     |
      |             12+      Carola (compatible)    |
      |             12+*     Elvy  (compatible)     |
      |                                             |
      |   Xantha$   74       Fox$ (compatible)      |
      |                                             |
      |                                             |
      |   Jessy$    71       Jolly$  (compatible)   |
      |             12       Pine  (compatible)     |
      |                                             |
      |   Sissi$    27       Ninni (compatible)     |
      |             53       Tossa$ (compatible)    |
      |                                             |
      |   Claudia$  29       Mimmi (compatible)     |
      |             13       Grabby (compatible)    |
      |             0        Point (incompatible)   |
      |             40       Redface$ (compatible)  |
      |                                             |
      |   Redface$  26       Tilla (compatible)     |
      |             13       Horse (compatible)     |
      |                                             |
      |   Zap$      65       Zip$ (compatible)      |
      |             12       Hippy (compatible)     |
      |                                             |
      |   Nell$     76       Betty$  (compatible)   |
      |                                             |
      |                                             |
      +---------------------------------------------+
      |  MALES                                      |
      |                                             |
      |   Ray$      53       Max$ (compatible)      |
      |                                             |
      |                                             |
      |   Mao$      12       Chu   (compatible)     |
      |             29       Alex  (compatible)     |
      |                                             |
      |   Cloud$    41       Mist$ (compatible)     |
      |                                             |
      |                                             |
      |   Moon$     15       Peter (compatible)     |
      |             21       Greg  (compatible)     |
      |             5        Hugo  (incompatible)   |
      |             12       Prince (compatible)    |
      |                                             |
      |   Nice$     15       Steve (compatible)     |
      |             24       Omo   (compatible)     |
      +---------------------------------------------+
Table 1 : Partner compatibility of female and male adult rhesus macaques that lived continuously in pairs with isosexual adult partners. Pairs are listed in chronological sequence for each subject. Names with $ are those who lived in pair-housing at least three years.

Discussion

Twenty-four previously singly-caged adult rhesus macaques were transferred to continuous pair-housing conditions for 3.3 to 6.9 years. Of 34 dyads tested, incompatibility was noted in 12% of cases, with serious wounding accounting for only 3% (1/34). Pairs were compatible in 88% of cases during the follow-up periods of 1 to 6.3 years. There were no indications that long-term compatibility of male pairs was less than that of female pairs, that partners did not readily adjust to new companions, or that the presence of offspring jeopardized the companions' compatibility. These findings demonstrate that consistent pair-housing of adult M. mulatta does not need to involve undue risk.

The present assessment indicates a remarkable degree of partner compatibility, but it also makes clear that it would be unrealistic to expect unvarying compatibility. Social relationships are dynamic by their very nature and companions had occasional squabbles. Such brief outbursts of antagonism usually did not affect the stability of a relationship (cf. Bernstein, 1991); however, there was no guarantee that they would not escalate into serious aggression (Alma & Tick, Table 1 ) or a gradual deterioration of the pair's relationship (Moon & Hugo). Pair-housed adult rhesus macaques, therefore, require spe- cial daily attention to ensure that their well-being is not jeopardized by unnoticed intolerance (Reinhardt, 1992).

These findings should not be generalized. Any pair-housing program has to be very carefully tested for each species as well as for each sex before general recommendations can be made (Reinhardt, 1990b; cf. Crockett et al., 1993).

References

Bernstein, I. S. (1991). Social housing of monkeys and apes: Group formations. Laboratory Animal Science, 41, 329-333.

Canadian Council on Animal Care (1993). Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, Vol. 1. Ottawa, PO: CCAC.

Crockett, C. M. (1993a). Guest editorial: Primate well-being is not promoted by suit. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 32 [2], 1-2.

Crockett, C. M. (1993b). Rigid rules for promoting psychological well-being are premature. American Journal of Primatology, 30, 177-179.

Crockett, C. M., Bowden, D. M., Bowers, C. L. & Sackett, G. P. (1991). Social pairing of longtailed macaques with preferred, nonpreferred, and randomly assigned cagemates. American Journal of Primatology, 24, 94-95. v Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Bowden, D. M. & Sackett, G. P. (1993). Sex differences in compatibility of pair-housed adult long-tailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 31, in press.

Eaton, G. G., Kelley, S. T. & Axthelm, M. (1991). Assessment of psychological well-being in paired rhesus females. American Journal of Primatology, 24, 97-98.

IPS International Guidelines. (1993). Code of Practice: 1. Housing and environmental enrichment. Primate Report, 35, 7-16.

Line, S. W. (1987). Environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association, 190, 854- 859.

Line, S. W., Morgan, K. N., Roberts, J. A. & Markowitz, H. (1990a). Preliminary comments on resocialization of aged rhesus macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29 [1], 8-12.

Line, S. W., Morgan, K. N., Markowitz, H., Roberts, J. A. & Riddell, M. (1990b). Behavioral responses of female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to pair formation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29 [4], 1-5.

Novak, M. A. & Suomi, S. J. (1988). Psychological well-being of primates in captivity. American Psychologist, 43, 765-773.

Reinhardt, V. (1988). Preliminary comments on pairing unfamiliar adult male rhesus monkeys for the purpose of environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27 [4], 1-3.

Reinhardt, V. (1989). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248.

Reinhardt, V. (1990a). Environmental enrichment program for caged stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29 [2], 10-11.

Reinhardt, V. (1990b). Social enrichment for laboratory primates: A critical review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29[3], 7-11.

Reinhardt, V. (1992). Avoiding aggression during and after pair formation of adult rhesus macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 31[1], 10-11.

Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Eisele, S., Cowley, D. & Vertein, R. (1988). Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 14, 135-140.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (1991). Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6426-6505.

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Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715. Supported by NIH grant RR-00167. Publication number 33-028 WRPRC.

* * *

Introducing Unfamiliar Chimpanzees to a Group or Partner

Jo Fritz
Primate Foundation of Arizona

In the 1970s, it was frequently necessary to resocialize chimpanzees that had been singly housed by introducing them to unfamiliar peers. Following that period of many introductions, there was a period of "stabilization," during which few captive chimpanzees were moved from one institution to another. Within the past five years, the zoological community established a Species Survival Plan for chimpanzees that involved moving them from one zoo to another, with many introductions again occurring. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture issued revised Animal Welfare regulations requiring social housing or periods of socializing for primates. Compliance often required the introduction of previously unfamiliar chimpanzees to each other.

In the early 1970s, the Primate Foundation of Arizona developed a system, used with great success in their resocialization program, for accomplishing introductions. In six years, 85 introductions were made at PFA with no injury to any animal involved. Since then, PFA has been frequently asked for advice or suggestions on introductions. The following Introduction Protocol was developed as a standardized response to those requests; it has been in use for many years. It was also presented and distributed to participants at the 1993 Chimpanzee Behavior Workshop held in August, 1993.

Factors to Be Considered Prior to Introductions

I. WHO? * Individual characteristics (age, sex, dominance rank, mothering experience, breeding experience). * Behavioral characteristics (aggres- sive/irritable, submissive/shy, apprehensive/fearful, confident/secure, curious/playful, tense/watchful). * Social experience (Rearing history: mother-reared [how long], nursery-reared w/peers, nursery-reared alone, other) ( Social history, past and current: alone, in a pair, in a peer group, in a mixed-age group, with opposite-sex partners, with younger animals [particularly infants], with older animals) ( Negative physical and social experience, past and current: What were the circumstances? isolation, impoverished housing, restricted housing, other. What behavioral side effect is present?) * Housing, prior and current (cage or exhibit size).

II. WHAT? * What end result is to be achieved (group size and composition; primarily breeding; primarily social)?

III. WHEN? * Is there a time limit involved (new exhibit; new research study; immediate housing change for animal health or safety; new arrival)? * When are the animals to be introduced (time of day; level of general excitement based upon management routines; female estrus state)?

IV. WHERE? * Does cage/exhibit provide captive management control over introduction? (Can humans intervene to separate animals if aggression is severe? Can humans come close to animals to mitigate conflicts by verbal commands? Do structures obscure human observers' visibility and/or provide little opportunity for emergency intervention? Is area set up for side-by-side living for weeks, if necessary?) (Inside or outside? Cage/exhibit size? Proximity to other animals? Will group encounter environmental changes? Can animals escape attacks or avoid conflict?)

V. WHY? * Why are animals being introduced (new arrivals, minimize or decrease stereotypies, opportunity to become more dominant, social contact, breeding)?

AND FINALLY, THE IMPORTANT VI. HOW? *What steps are necessary to achieve the hoped-for result (What sequence? introduction to exhibit/housing area; introduction to animals in the group)?

Introduction Protocol

Design can facilitate the introduction of unfamiliar animals into an otherwise unstable social group. For safe and effective group introductions, and acclimation of new animals to an existing social group, animal control is an important component to consider.

A Facilities used for introductions should include:

1. Areas that provide full olfactory, visual, and auditory contact while limiting tactile contact between animals.

2. Enclosures that provide some human control and management during the introduction process. * For zoological institutions or open-corral situations an alternate housing area is suggested. This area can contain a series of interconnected cages with access to the main compound. Animals can be housed adjacent to subgroups of unfamiliar animals for initial observation and acclimation. Following acclimation to all unfamiliar animals, incoming animals can be slowly introduced to the new surroundings. * For breeding colonies and research institutions, large laboratory cages with interconnecting doors are useful for introductions and initial acclimation. Once group behavior has stabilized, access can be given to a larger and less controlled area, such as indoor or outdoor play cages. Although some facility managers suggest that increased space provides sufficient area for unfamiliar animals to "flee" aggression, we have had limited success with this. * At our facility, three interconnected cages are attached to a large outdoor play cage. We found aggression increased among adults, when groups were introduced by simply opening the doors to the outdoor areas. When males had enough space to get a good charging display going, they "lit into" females; but when we introduced animals indoors in the interconnected cages, male charging displays were lim- ited and male-female copulation was a more typical behavior pattern. Further, if a male attempted to wound a female, the introduction could be quickly halted by shifting the female to another of the interconnected cages and closing the doors between them.

B For animals unknown to the staff and new arrivals at the facility, we use the following steps:

1. The newly arrived animal (following quarantine, etc.) is caged singly within the colony area. *Origin, rearing, and individual behavior patterns are all taken into consideration. * The newcomer is observed continuously for 3 to 4 days, 8-10 hours/day by both care staff and research staff. Stereotypies and the animal's reactions toward personnel are noted, since these are of considerable importance. It has been our experience that the behavior of the animals toward personnel (e.g., timidity, aggression, extreme agitation) is often the behavior they will initially exhibit toward other chimpanzees. * The results of these observations determine which group or pair the new animal will enter.

2. Unfamiliar animals are transferred to a social group. * The newcomer or transferee is moved into a selected 'social unit' and caged singly for a day next to the cage of a selected member of the group. * This selected member of the existing group is moved in as a cagemate as soon as friendly interactions are consistently observed. * Tactile contact with other members of the group is achieved through the dividing partitions. * Another group member is introduced to the pair in the same way. Then another is introduced to the trio, and so on until the newcomer has met all of them and all dividing guillotine doors are opened. * The process can and should be accelerated if increased social interactions through the dividing partition are observed. * Timing is critical since the newcomer may be accepted in the social unit only within the confines of the introduction cage if allowed to remain there too long. For most group formations at PFA, we were able to complete this process in 7.8 days for groups of 6 animals. * Some initially observed behavior (e.g. extreme fear, withdrawal) may indicate the need for additional rehabilitation prior to placement in a group situation. In this case, an individual or single 'teacher' is selected, usually from the social unit into which the newcomer will eventually move. The 'teacher' is chosen for its own individual characteristics (e.g., gentleness or playfulness) and the specific needs of the newcomer. The selected 'teacher' and 'student' are placed in pair-cages in the anteroom, and their interactions through the dividing mesh are closely monitored. Following positive interaction (e.g., playing or grooming through the mesh) for a maximum of 2 days of adjacent living, the separating guillotine door is opened. The 'student' may exhibit some stress behavior for a short time, but within minutes will experience interaction without fear. During the introduction of student and teacher, separating doors remain open for a brief period to limit stress on the student. Beginning on the third day, the interconnecting guillotine door is left open at all times except during feeding and cleaning. The pair is then moved into the previously selected social unit room, and the steps for introducing other group members are initiated.

3. For animals with prior sensory contact in a single-cage environ- ment, a 'group' is assumed to have been formed through all of the senses (olfactory, visual, auditory) except tactile. * Chimpanzees in this environment are, to some degree, familiar with each other. * Initial observations of this limited group will determine which animals have friendly communication, which exhibit fear of another, etc. These observations, along with an assessment of each animal's origin, rearing, history, and individual behavior patterns, will allow researchers to form groups or pairs rapidly and with minimal risk of injuries.

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Author's address: Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

* * *

Primary Forage Feeder for Singly-Caged Macaques

Mark A. Murchison
University of Washington

Introduction

To promote foraging in our singly-caged macaques, we developed and tested a forage feeder to deliver monkey chow biscuits. The forage feeder (Figure 1) was made from 0.030 stainless steel and replaced the standard feeder box as the primary source of the animals' daily monkey chow ration. It required the animals to use their fingers to maneuver individual biscuits to an access hole in the feeder from which they could then be removed for consumption.

Drawing of Feeder Here

Figure 1: Forage feeder for singly-caged nonhuman primates.

We tested the forage feeders by comparing food consumption and foraging behavior of Macaca nemestrina living alternately in two identical cages that differed only in feeder box design.

The forage feeders were designed to make animals work for their daily allotment of monkey chow. A successful design would increase the time a singly-caged animal worked for food, thus reducing its free time.

The major questions asked by this study were: * Did animals spend more time retrieving food from forage feeders or standard feeders? * Was more food left in forage feeders compared to standard feeders or did subjects continue to work for food after satiation? * Was there less food on the cage floor when subjects used the forage feeder compared to the standard feeder? Less uneaten food in the cage would reduce food waste and the possibility of eating contaminated food.

Materials and Methods

Sixteen colony-born M. nemestrina in two age groups (mean age of juveniles, 2.3 yrs, and of young adults, 4.9 yrs), matched for sex used the forage feeders in a repeated measures design for four 4-day periods and the standard chow feeder for two 4-day periods. On weekends, the animals used the standard feeder. The animals were housed in Group 3 (4.3 ftı floor area) cages for primates (USDHHS, 1985) incorporating a perch and manipulatable toy. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the study and once weekly thereafter.

Animals were fed whole biscuits twice daily at 08:00 and 12:00. Feedings consisted of a known allotment of monkey chow (Purina high protein) that provided the daily caloric requirements of the animals as determined by their body weights and ages. If, at the end of the day, an animal had consumed all the food, an additional measured amount was added to the feeder.

Daily observations were at 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 07:30 the next morning, and determined: * the number of biscuits in the feeder box * the number of biscuits on the cage floor * the number of biscuits beneath the cage or on the room floor * the number of biscuits eaten. The total number of biscuits fed was accounted for at each observation. After the observations, the waste pans under the cages and the room floor were cleaned of dropped biscuits.

A video camera and recorder were used to record foraging behavior and interactions with the feeder boxes. The animals were taped for one hour at 08:00, 10:00, 12:00, and 14:00 during the test periods. This procedure was repeated twice for a total of eight hours of taped observation for each animal. The video tapes were scored for frequencies of foraging behaviors. Foraging was defined as actively removing food from a feeder box or manipulating biscuits in the feeder box to a position where they could be retrieved.

A Student's t-test was used to test group means and variances for food consumption and percent frequencies of behaviors by age, sex, and feeder type (SYSTAT, 1992).

Results and Discussion

The animals quickly learned to retrieve monkey chow from the forage feeders and had no problems in maintaining normal food consumption. The animals retrieved food from the forage feeders more often than from the standard feeders (9 percent vs 2 percent contact frequencies). They left more biscuits in the forage feeders than in the standard feeders (9.44 +/- 7.07 vs 3.98 +/- 7.21). There were fewer biscuits on the cage floors when the animals were using the forage feeders (3.70 +/- 4.61 vs 12.43 +/- 7.40).

The animals spent significantly more time foraging with the forage feeder than the standard feeder (t value = 5.88, d.f. = 91, p = 0.00). Juveniles and young adults both left more chow in the forage feeders (t value = -9.95, d.f. = 501, p = 0.00) with less food on the cage floors (t value = 17.27, d.f. = 356, p = 0.00). Apparently the animals consumed nearly all the food retrieved from the forage feeders, leaving less on the cage floor to become contaminated. They consumed the same amount of chow from either feeder (standard: 64.22; forage: 66.45). There were no differences in animal body weights as a function of feeder type. Males ate more and were fed more than females. Juveniles were fed more and ate more than young adults. Juveniles were more active in retrieving food from the forage feeders than young adults.

It is apparent from many studies that caged primates will work for food (Reinhardt, 1993). Many types of puzzle feeders provide a foraging task while delivering a novel food. A permanent monkey chow forage feeder on an animal cage provides a primary foraging opportunity. The animals in this study used the forage feeder an average of 7% more often than the standard feeder. Animals in single cages could be presented with two foraging tasks to occupy their free time: a permanent forage feeder for monkey chow plus a puzzle feeder which would provide a periodic foraging task for novel foods. Reducing free time can relieve the boredom of cage life by providing a more interactive environment. In addition, when animals manipulate foraging devices, they control events in their immediate environment, perhaps giving them a greater sense of security and a greater range of experiences. We conclude that foraging for monkey chow is an achievable and positive task which should be promoted for caged primates.

References

Reinhardt, V. (1993) Foraging enrichment for caged macaques: A review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 32[4], 1-4.

SYSTAT (1992). Statistics, version 5.2 edition. Evanston, IL: SYSTAT, Inc.

U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (1985). Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Bethesda, MD.

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Author's address: Primate Field Station, Univ. of Washington, Medical Lake, WA 99022-0536. This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grant RR00166. The author gratefully acknowledges Richard Betts for construction of the forage feeders.

* * *

Primate Breeding Centers in Vietnam

Vern Weitzel* and Vu Ngoc Thanh**
*Australian Committee for Scientific Cooperation with Vietnam and Australian Primate Society **Faculty of Biology, University of Hanoi

Vietnam has two centers for the breeding of primates for scientific purposes. It has also exported primates and other animal products through companies associated with the Ministry of Forestry. As part of a program to promote independence in the production of human vaccines, the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (Ministry of Public Health) has a primate breeding center, the Animal Breeding Center No. 2 Cam Pha on an island north of the port city of Haiphong. The Center has operated continuously since the early 1960s and now supplies most of the 200 young stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) required by the Institute's laboratories in Hanoi each year.

Some fourteen workers and their families live on the island. Though they have had little contact with foreign primatologists or scientific literature on primates, these technicians have developed practical expertise in primate handling. About 600 macaques in five troops live in free-ranging conditions and are fed by a combination of provisioning and foraging. Shelters and holding cages are distributed over the island. Animals are transported to the Institute in Hanoi for use in vaccine production. The center has plans for expansion in order to comply with government requirements that agencies become self-funding. Their main product would be live animals for export, though they would also export vaccines.

While the Cam Pha facility was designed to serve domestic health requirements, the second major breeding center, the 8-4 Khanh Hoa Company, expressly supports the export market.

In 1983 the former Soviet Union made an agreement with Vietnam to found a primate research and breeding center in Khanh Hoa Province, central Vietnam. Full operation began in 1986. The center was to provide a continuing supply of primates to the Soviet Union for vaccine production and serve as a base for tropical primate research. The main farm, assembly area, and cage block area were built according to Russian design in suburban Nha Trang City with ample room for expansion. Nha Trang is also home to a number of national institutes and regional research centers (e.g., medicine and veterinary science) which service Vietnam's central provinces.

Primate colonies were established on several nearby islands. Four macaque species are now bred by the Company: Macaca mulatta (the main species sold overseas for vaccine manufacture with about 800 animals currently held), M. fascicularis and M. arctoides (400 animals each) and most recently, M. nemestrina (200 animals).

As the center was designed to work only with its internal stock, providing third and higher generation offspring for sale abroad, it would operate within CITES guidelines. Although the addition of M. nemestrina meant initially stocking the center with animals from the wild, the intention is that animals offered for sale would be later generation offspring. Were the Company to operate at full capacity, it could house some 6000 M. mulatta, providing 700 young (1-year- old) animals to Russia every year. v The Company has 30 staff members, most supporting the island colonies. This number includes four medical doctors and a veterinarian (who is also the dietitian). Many of the professional staff were trained in primate rearing in Moscow and have a good technical background.

Buyers of macaques include France, Hong Kong, and Russia. The company is seeking outside buyers for animals of demonstrated quality produced from captive-bred stock.

Perhaps most important is that both centers are anxious to find sponsors who can help overcome the difficulties, caused by limited resources, in developing a proper food regime, medical support, and (in some cases) caging.

Given the location, basic infrastructure and highly trained staff, these organizations offer good prospects in a joint venture and can serve as centers for tropical primate research.

Addresses

Animal Breeding Center No. 2, Cam Pha, Quang Ninh Province, c/o Nat. Inst. of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin St, Hanoi, Vietnam.

18-4 Khanh Hoa Company, 68 Tran Phu Street, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa Vietnam [22942 - 21227].

Animal Husbandry Association of Vietnam, A1 Phuong Mai, Dong Da-Hanoi, Vietnam [+84 (4) 5.13888; FAX: +84 (4) 5.14319].

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First author's address: GPO Box 161, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. This study tour was supported by the Animal Husbandry Assn of Vietnam, the Inst. for Ecology and Biological Resources (NCSR), and Hanoi University, whose assistance we appreciate.

* * *

Pig-tailed Macaques and AIDS Research

Conservationists, noticing an item in a newspaper saying that AIDS researchers had infected a group of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1), feared that the announcement would trigger a run on wild-caught macaques. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service records obtained through the Freedom of Information Act indicate that in 1992 nearly twice as many pig-tailed macaques entered the U.S. from Indonesia as were provided for under international treaty. Furthermore, some researchers claim that the animals may not, after all, be good models for AIDS (see next column). Last year U.S. primate dealers and research institutions recorded the import of 1,198 Indonesian pig-tailed macaques, although the Indonesian government had reported to CITES authorities that they intended to export only 600 such animals. Officials in Indonesia contend that Indonesia did not use up its export quota in 1991 and that it therefore carried over the unfilled slots to 1992, a practice that CITES allows. Although a large part of the difference could be accounted for in this way, Indonesia still appears to have exceeded its quota by 198 animals.

Indonesia, where pig-tailed macaques are often considered agricultural pests because they eat crops, is the only country that currently exports these animals to the U.S. Although only 200 to 300 were brought in per year in the mid-1980s, demand surged after researchers led by Lawrence Corey (Univ. of Washington, Seattle) announced ( Science, 1992, 257, 103-106) that pig-tailed macaques infected with HIV-1 had developed antibodies to the virus.

Charles River, the largest single importer of pig-tailed macaques in 1992, announced this spring that it plans to pull out of the wildcaught primate business altogether, selling only M. fascicularis bred at its Mauritius colony and M. mulatta bred at its colony in the Florida Keys. Last year NIH's National Center for Research Resources issued a grant, administered by the Regional Primate Research Center at the Univ. of Washington, to establish a breeding colony of pig- tailed macaques in Indonesia. The colony, founded with 200 wild-caught animals, cannot be harvested for at least another year.

Meanwhile conservationists are calling for a systematic survey of the wild Indonesian pig-tailed macaque population, in order to set realistic trade limits. Under CITES countries must establish export quotas they deem unlikely to harm their wild populations of protected animals. Indonesian officials suggest that user countries should contribute to support a census.

But Are They a Good Model for AIDS?

While international wildlife officials try to determine whether Indonesian pig-tailed macaques were overexploited last year for use in research, scientist debate whether the animals are useful models for AIDS.

"The pig-tailed macaque is not a valid model at this point, and I think it probably won't ever be a model" for disease induced in humans by HIV-1, says Patricia Fultz, Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham. "The animals have a very marginal susceptibility to [HIV-1] infection, and once they become infected and seroconvert, many of them lose antibodies, and the virus goes into hiding."

Suzanne Gartner, Henry M. Jackson Foundation in Rockville, MD, is undecided. "I know that other people have had difficulty reproducing last year's report from Seattle, but I think many of the groups did the experiments a bit differently," she says. "My bottom-line feeling is that a lot of the variables need to be controlled before you can say that the model either works or doesn't work."

Michael Katze, one of the Univ. of Washington researchers who first reported infecting pig-tailed macaques with HIV-1, defends his group's work. "For as many people as you've heard say they can't repeat it, we have at least five or six independent confirmations from people who can," he says. "Our animals aren't getting sick from AIDS yet, but we've got several new experiments going, and the data look very promising."

Jonathan Allan, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, has not completely dismissed the pig-tailed macaque as a possible model for AIDS but he has become concerned about the danger of depleting any primate species for use in research. "Perhaps before we go out into the wild and trap large numbers of the species, we ought to make sure that it really is a model," he says.

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From a report by Carol Ezzell in Journal of NIH Research, 1993, 5[6], 29-31.

* * *

Time to Ban Imports? Another Response

Keith Hobbs
BIOSIM

I have always held Robin Kingston in high esteem, but I was very surprised when I read his article in this Newsletter, (1993, 32[3], 9-10). Much of the article dealt with the topic of breeding primates for biomedical purposes as if the subject were of recent concern and nothing positive had been achieved in this direction. In fact quite the contrary is true.

The article seems to imply that breeding laboratory primates is some way off in the future and is not actually happening. When Robin advocates the involvement of the World Health Organization (heaven forbid!) and goes on to say "...at the same time immediate steps should be taken to set up breeding colonies in countries of origin in which the desired species occur," I can scarcely believe what I read! Literally thousands of macaques (cynomolgus and rhesus, which account for 85% of all USA and European research needs) have been produced for some years from breeding colonies in the Philippines, Mauritius, China, and Indonesia.

The SICONBREC (for which BIOSIM consults) operation was established in the Philippines in 1981-82 (see Hobbs, Animal Technology, 1989, 40[1], 55-68) and since 1988 has been exporting cynomolgus from a truly captive-bred situation (groups of 50 females in harem cages); the colonies now stand at 3500 breeding females producing 2000 weaned offspring per year. A similar-sized operation was established some ten years ago in Mauritius and another, separate operation has since been established on that island. In China at least seven breeding centers have been producing cynomolgus and rhesus for many years. The free-ranging island populations of Deli and Tinjil in Indonesia are also producing large numbers of cynomolgus.

The fact is that there is no lack of breeding programs for the commonly used species. Large producers already exist in the countries of origin in addition to the user-country colonies mentioned in the editor's footnote. On the contrary, my personal opinion is that we are near to having a glut of purpose-bred cynomolgus. The research industry can no longer use lack of availability of purpose-bred animals to justify the continuing trade in wild-caught primates of the commonly used species. A possible exception is baboons, but can it be claimed that they are commonly used? The only reason feral animals are still being used is that they are cheaper and are still being made available by authorities in importing and exporting countries. (N.B. The Philippine government proposes to ban the export of ferals starting in 1994, and some European countries have imposed import restrictions on animals that are not purpose-bred.)

Lastly, a comment on the suggestion to involve WHO and national bodies in primate breeding in countries of origin. My own experience in this direction has been disappointing, to say the least, and I believe that only commercially viable operations can produce realistic results. Of course Robin has first-hand knowledge of the Pan American Health Organization project, and I would be most interested to learn of his experiences. Are there any publications describing this project with respect to production and the cost to end users? It would be valuable to compare his notes with our commercial experiences in the Philippines.

I hope to meet Robin here in the UK and discuss this vexatious sub- ject further!

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Author's address: BIOSIM, P.O. Box 1037, Pulborough, West Sussex RH20 1PT, England.

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EDITORS' NOTE: We have also recently received a letter from Mary-Ann Stanley, Managing Director of Bioculture (Mauritius) Ltd (BCM), a company that breeds and exports cynomolgus monkeys from Mauritius ( address: Senneville, Riviere des Anguilles). Ms.Stanley takes issue with Baulu's statement (this Newsletter, 1992, 32[4], 26-27) that Charles River is "...exporting large numbers of these animals to set-up permanent breeding facilities in Texas, rather than helping the local economy by breeding them on Mauritius." She states that Charles River, BCM's current distributor, has shown a great commitment to Mauritius, working with BCM on a technical and marketing level.BCM plans to grow beyond their current 3000 breeding animals in the next five years.

She also states, "With regards to Dr. Kingston (this Newsletter, 1992, 32[3], 9-10), BCM tends to share his belief that the quicker the world switches over to exclusively using bred animals, the better it will be.However, having said that, while demand continues to exist for feral cynomolgus monkeys, it is better that they come from Mauritius." The Mauritius monkeys were introduced over 300 years ago and have become agricultural pests.Animals that were previously shot are now trapped and sent to BCM's sites for breeding or conditioning for export.Ms.Stanley assumes that the complaints that Kingston has heard about BCM's operation were allegations by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. She says that these claims have been investigated and found to be false.She also states that BCM not only helps conservation on Mauritius by removing problem monkeys, but also by contributing $US25 to the Ministry of Agriculture Conservation Fund for every feral or bred monkey exported.

* * *

Time Investment for Continuous Implementation of an Effective Environmental Enhancement Plan

Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center

It is often argued that environmental enrichment for laboratory primates would constitute an undue financial burden. This assumption may serve as justification for not complying with Federal Rules stipulating that "an appropriate plan for environmental enhancement ade- quate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates" must be developed, documented and followed by dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities; the "plan must include specific provisions to address the social needs of nonhuman primates"; and must insure that the physical environment is "enriched by providing means of expressing noninjurious species-typical activities" (USDA, 1991).

I have developed and partly implemented an environmental enhancement plan for the caged macaque colony (approximately 750 Macaca mulatta and 40 M. arctoides) at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center without requesting extra funding:

The provision of animate enrichment is achieved by forming compatible pairs using singly-caged subjects and surplus animals from breeding troops. In order to provide appropriate cage space, passage holes are cut into cage dividers (now functioning as privacy panels) of double-cage modules, or single-cage modules are interconnected with short tunnels. This program includes fostering positive human-animal interactions during the most common handling procedure, in-homecage venipuncture.

The provision of inanimate enrichment is accomplished by: * 1. Installing one diagonally suspended PVC pipe in each standard cage (squeeze back cages require an extra stainless steel socket and sleeve to accommodate the perch). * 2. Remounting the ordinary food boxes in such a way that they function as primary food puzzles for standard food. * 3. Providing one loose red oak branch segment for each subject.

The environmental enhancement plan stimulates the animals to perform noninjurious, species-typical activities more than 1/3 of the 12-hour day. They spend approximately 20% of the time interacting with the companion, 10% perching on the PVC pipe, 7% foraging from the food puzzles, and 4% gnawing at the branch segments.

These enrichment options can be regarded as inexpensive because they require little or no extra material. This conclusion may be deceptive because it does not take into account the cost of personnel. Extra time is required to guarantee the continuous safety and continuous effectiveness of the environmental enhancement plan. Partner com- patibility should be checked daily; subjects who have lost their companions (due to epidemiological management, incompatibility, death, assignment to terminal studies, etc.) should be paired with other partners within 2 weeks; privacy panels (removed during animal transfers) should be replaced; cooperation during in-homecage venipuncture (approximately 40 min time investment for initial training) should be reinforced on a regular schedule (approximately once every month); adequate food retrieval from food puzzles should be evaluated daily and food puzzles re-converted to food boxes if needed (e.g., aged animals, subjects with dental problems), broken perches should be readjusted or replaced; branch segments should be replaced every 3-6 months due to wear; compliance with Federal Rules (e.g., exemptions, cage-space requirements) should be reevaluated continually.

A well-functioning environmental enhancement plan for 1,000 macaques requires a qualified person who commits at least 50% of her/his time to the day-to-day operation of the program. Such a person does not need an academic degree, but has to have a thorough knowledge of macaque behavior and a genuine concern for their well-being. It would be naive to delegate the responsibility for the program to the attending animal caregivers, who are usually highly qualified but overloaded with their routine work and research-supportive services.

Editors' note: The environmental enhancement plan described here has been created and carried out under the direction of a full-time doctoral-level staff person who is, furthermore, unusually dedicated. To establish such a program at any large institution, and train staff to carry it on, would seem to require a person at least as dedicated, if not necessarily as formally educated.

References

U.S. Department of Agriculture (1991). Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6495-6505.

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Author's address: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.

* * *

Positions Available

Cognitive Neuroscience Position

The Program in Psychobiology of the Psychology Department at Emory University invites applications for a full-time, tenure-track faculty position at the assistant professor level in the area of cognitive neuroscience. Applicant research programs may range from molecular/ cellular to whole organism approaches and involve studies of human and/or animal subjects. The ideal candidate will complement and extend current strengths in the department by relating the structure, function and organization of the brain to socially, ecologically or psychologically relevant cognitive processes. Responsibilities include graduate and undergraduate teaching, establishing a strong research program, and involvement in departmental and university service. Send curriculum vitae, three letters of reference, and representative publications to: Psychobiology Search Committee, Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. 30322.

Behavioral Observation, Arizona

A person with a B.A. in psychology, zoology, or anthropology with experience in primate research is sought to be a Staff Observer at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. This person will be responsible for collection of behavioral data for ongoing and scheduled behavioral research projects that add to the knowledge of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and assist in improving captive management methods. S/he will be responsible for entering new data into our computer (Lotus 1,2,3) and miscellaneous clerical tasks. Must work well with peers. We are an equal opportunity employer, accredited by AAALAC, and offer excellent benefits. Annual salary is $13,520. A negative T.B. skin test and negative hepatitis B surface antigen test are required for employment. This position will remain open until filled. Send a letter of interest with requested salary, C.V., and three references to Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

* * *

Address Changes

Jane E. Beirise, 830 Westmoreland Dr., #8, Vernon Hills, IL 60061.

Maria L. Boccia, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Ctr, Univ. of North Carolina, CB No 8180, Hwy 54 Bypass West, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8180.

Canadian Council on Animal Care, Constitution Sq., Tower II, 315-350 Albert, Ottawa ON K1R 1B1 Canada.

Chimpanzoo, Drexel Univ., Abbott Bldg West #29, Rm 233, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Jane Goodall Institute, 310 Main St, Richfield, CT 06877.

Russell J. Gullekson, 1339 N. Forest Rd, Williamsville, NY 14221-2155.

National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230.

Carole Noon, 9150 Chrysanthemum Dr., Boynton Beach, FL 33437.

Dennis R. Rasmussen, Animal Behavior Research Inst., P. O. Box 4974, Auburn, CA 95604-4974.

Karla Russell, 198 Nichewaug Rd, Petersham, MA 01366.

Laura Willingham, 4880 East 29th St, Apt 2209, Tucson, AZ 85711. PA 19104.

* * *

Bibliography on Ethics of Animal Research

Maria Boccia
University of North Carolina

BOOKS

General Ethics, Surveys

Barnette, H. H. (1961). Introducing Christian Ethics. Nashville: Broadman Press.

Geisler, N. L. (1989). Christian Ethics. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.

Lutzer, E. (1989). Measuring Morality: A Comparison of Ethical Systems. Dallas: Probe Books, distributed by Word Publishing.

Sahakian, W. S. (1974) Ethics: An Introduction to Theories and Problems. NY: Barnes & Noble Books, a division of Harper & Row.

Animals in Research

Carruthers, P. (1992). The Animals Issue: Moral Theory in Practice. Cambridge University Press.

Leahy, M. P. T. (1991). Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective. NY: Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc.

Paton, W. (1984). Man and Mouse: Animals in Medical Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Regan, T., (Ed.). (1986). Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Regan, T. & Singer, P., (Eds.). (1976). Animal Rights and Human Obligations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Rodd, R. (1990). Biology, Ethics, and Animals. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Smith, J. A. & Boyd, K. M. (1991). Lives in the Balance: The Ethics of Using Animals in Biomedical Research, The Report of a Working Party of the Institute of Medical Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

ARTICLES

Arnhart, L. (1992). Feminism, primatology and ethical naturalism. Politics and the Life Sciences, 11, 157-170.

Bellenger, C. R. (1993). The ethics of using animals in biomedical research. The Medical Journal of Australia, 158, 222-224.

Donnelley, S. & Nolan, K. (Eds.). (1990). Animals, science, and ethics. The Hastings Center Report, Supplement.

Elshtain, J. B. (1992). Embodied ideas. Politics and the Life Sciences, 11, 171-176.

Herzog, H. (1993). Human morality and animal research. The American Scholar, 62, 337-350.

LaFollette, H. & Shanks, N. (1993). Animal models in biomedical research: Some epistemological worries. Public Affairs Quarterly, April, 113-130.

Loeb, J. M., Hendee, W. R., Smith, S. J. & Schwarz, R. (1989). Human vs. animal rights: In defense of animal research. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 2716-2720.

Matthews, G. B. (1985). The idea of a psychological organism. Behaviorism, 13, 37-51.

Monsen, E. R., Vanderpool, H. Y., Halsted, C. H., McNutt, K. W. & Sandstead, H. H. (1991). Ethics: Responsible scientific conduct. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, 1-6.

Morowitz, H. J. (1988). Jesus, Moses, Aristotle, and laboratory animals. Hospital Practice, January, 23-25.

NIH OPRR/OACU Conference. (1989) Animal Care and Use: Policy Issues in the 1990s.

Orlans, F. B. (1993). Attitudes towards animals. Lab Animal, 22, 42-43.

Parker, J. (1993). With new eyes: The animal rights movement and religion. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 36, 338-346.

Petto, A. J. & Russell, K. D. (1993). Ethics in primatology. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 32 [2], 4-6.

Porter, D. G. (1992). Ethical scores for animal experiments. Nature, 356, 101-102.

Post, S. G. (1993). The emergence of species impartiality: A medical critique of biocentrism. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 36, 289-300.

Rosner, F. (1984). Animal experimentation: The Jewish view. Archives of Internal Medicine, 144, 927-928.

Sapolsky, R. M. (1993). Primate models, supermonkeys, and weaklings. Biological Psychiatry, 33, 311-312.

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Author's address: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Ctr, Univ. of North Carolina, CB No 8180, Hwy 54 Bypass West, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8180. This bibliography was prepared for the Working Conference on Ethics in Primatology, August 17-18, 1993.

* * *

Grants Available

Fyssen Foundation Fellowships

The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "...to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." Grants of up to 100,000 francs per year are awarded for the training and support of young researchers working on topics compatible with the goals of the Foundation, which wishes to support, particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes, their embryonic and post-natal development, and their elementary mechanisms. Anthropology-Ethnology: a) Cognitive aspects of the representations of natural and cultural environments. Analysis of their construction principles and transfer mechanisms. b) Analysis of forms of social organization and their technological systems. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts. Fellowships will be given to French scientists to work abroad and to foreign scientists for work in French laboratories. Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is March 31, 1994.

Conservation Biology Awards

The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund was established by the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the world's threatened wildlife. Each year we award grants of up to $1,000 to individuals or institutions working in conservation biology. Projects and programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain ecosystems receive the highest funding priority. Field studies, environmental education programs, development of techniques that can be used in a natural environment, and captive propagation programs that stress an integrative and/or multi-disciplinary approach to conservation are also appropriate. Proposals for single species preservation, initial surveys, or seed money for technique development are not appropriate.

Recipients are required to acknowledge the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society in any publications that result from the project. Recipients must also submit a progress report that includes an update on the status of the project. This report is due one year after funding.

All proposals must be submitted by May 1, 1994. Applications will be reviewed by a committee of Zoo, RI Zoological Society, and outside advisors. Grants will be awarded in July, 1994. For applications and further information contact Dr. Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo, Elmwood Ave, Providence, RI 02905 [401-785-3510; FAX: 401-941-3988; e-mail: bi599132@brownvm.brown.edu].

AIDS Research

The American Foundation for AIDS Research (AmFAR) solicits targeted grant applications from not-for-profit institutions located primarily within the United States, its territories, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Applications from other geographic areas may also be considered if the investigator is uniquely qualified or the institution is uniquely capable of carrying out research projects of particular interest. Ordinarily grant applications will not be accepted unless a Letter of Intent document is submitted and approved. For information and to receive announcements of programs, contact AmFAR, 5900 Wilshire Blvd, 23rd Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90036-5032 [213-857-5900; FAX: 213-857-5920].

Conservation Grants

Primate Conservation, Incorporated (PCI), a new not-for-profit foundation, provides support for original research that can be used to formulate conservation plans for the species studied. Priority will be given to projects that study, in their natural habitat, the least known and most endangered species, and which involve citizens from the country in which the primates are found. PCI will grant seed monies or provide matching grants for graduate students, qualified conservationists, and primatologists. PCI is currently seeking proposals for work in Asia and western Africa. Grants will average $3,000 to $5,000, and do not support conferences, travel to scientific meetings, legal actions, tuitions or salaries at institutions, or overhead costs.

Deadlines for applications are March 1 and October 1. For information and application materials, contact Primate Conservation, Inc., Box 1707, East Hampton, NY 11937 [516-267-6856; FAX: 516-267-2024].

* * *

Information Requested and Available

Primate Foresight

Thomas Suddendorf, who studies primate cognition and evolution at the University of Auckland, writes: "Wolfgang Koehler claimed in 1925 that the time in which chimpanzees live is limited in past and future. In order to examine whether or not this statement is consistent with our current knowledge of primates, I sent a questionnaire to about 80 primatologists requesting anecdotes that may indicate anticipations of remote futures. In particular, I wanted to know whether there is any indication of an ability to imagine future needs or drives (as we frequently imagine future hunger, say), because Norbert Bischof in 1985 proposed this to be the limit of animal forethought. The forethought at issue is, of course, distinct from instinctual (i.e. not-experience-based, species-specific, domain-specific, such as hibernation) or learned (stimulus-response) behavior. Rather, it is the abil- ity to cognitively represent future scenarios. Thus, I am looking for examples of innovative problem-solving behavior that appears to be explicable only (or best) if one assumes that the animal used such mental processes. As yet, to my knowledge, only the widely known anecdote of the chimpanzee Franje suggests the existence of a capacity to anticipate future needs: 'It is November and the days are becoming colder. On this particular morning Franje collects all the straw from her cage (subgoal) and takes it with her under her arm so that she can make a nice warm nest for herself outside (goal). Franje does not do this in reaction to the cold, but be- fore she can have actually felt how cold it is outside' (de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics, p.192, NYC: Harper and Row, 1982).

"Of course, even this anecdote can be explained in terms of learned behavioral contingencies, but more anecdotes of this type would indicate the need (and perhaps set the stage) for further experimental inquiries. Thus, if you are aware of any further empirical (anecdotal) information relevant to this matter, I would be grateful if you could send it to me. Do you think apes are or are not capable of anticipating their own future states of need, desire or drive?

"Thanks in advance for your responses and thanks to all who took time to reply to my first (more formal) survey." -- Thomas Suddendorf, Univ. of Auckland, Dept. of Psychology, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand [e-mail: psy tsuddendorf@ccnov1.auckland.ac.nz].

Barbary Macaques?

The Old World Monkey Taxon Advisory Group of the American Associa- tion of Zoological Parks and Aquariums is seeking information regarding Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvana) located in North America. We are extremely concerned about their status both in captivity and in the wild and are considering the possibility of establishing an organized captive breeding effort. We are aware of only fifteen animals within North America, nine at the Toronto Zoo, four at the South Nevada Zoo, and two at the Monkey Jungle in Florida (which may be loose in Florida since the hurricane). We have heard rumors of other collections but have no positive information.

We would appreciate any information about other Barbary macaques in North America. Contact Laurence Gledhill, Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, 5500 Phinney Ave North, Seattle WA 98103 [206-684-4826; FAX: 206-684-4896; e-mail: gledhill@u.washington.edu].

Primate Info Net

The Library at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) is pleased to announce the availability of a new Internet Gopher server called Primate Info Net (PIN). Gopher is a system for using Internet resources that can be used to can search phone books of the world and library catalogs, get travel advisories, etc. It is international in scope and can be thought of as a switching point for information sources. Among the resources accessible in PIN are: *A taxonomy of the primates * The current issue of Laboratory Primate Newsletter (LPN) * Info on ordering WRPRC Audiovisual Materials * Info on accessing archives of Primate-Talk and LPN * Info about the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse and the Primate Information Center * A gateway to Envirolink * Animal Welfare Act and Amendments [forthcoming] * Other information pertinent to the field.

We are interested in other resources in primatology that we could add to this server, such as bibliographies, data files and directories. We also welcome ideas about connections to other servers, such as Envirolink, which have related materials.

To make suggestions or for more information about Primate Info Net, contact Larry Jacobsen, Head of Library Services, Primate Center Library, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; FAX: 608-263-4031; Email: jacobsen@pri- mate.wisc.edu].

If you have gopher client software available on your machine or supported by your institution, you should set your gopher client to point to: gopher.primate.wisc.edu (not an email address). If you have telnet access, you can reach PIN at telnet.wiscinfo.wisc.edu / login ID: wiscinfo / password: not required. Once you are connected to the Wiscinfo menu, choose UW-Madison Information Servers. A good book for understanding what resources are available on the Internet is The Whole Internet, by Ed Krol (O'Reilly, 1992).

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities

Field Assistant, Grenada

A field assistant is needed, to begin as soon as possible, for a mona monkey project in Grand Estang National Park, Grenada. Responsibilities will be to assist the principal investigator with the collection of natural history data, and assist the field manager with general logistics. Minimum qualifications are a B.A. or B.S. in anthropology, wildlife biology, or a related biological science, but an M.A. or M.S. and some field experience would be preferred. No foreign language is required, but the candidate needs to be in good physical condition and able to hike steep, muddy terrain. The project will run until August, 1994. Room and board at the Field Station in the rainforest will be provided, but no stipend or transportation costs to and from Grenada. Contact Mary Glenn, Foundation for Field Research, P.O. Box 771, St. George's, Grenada, West Indies.

Field Assistants, Puerto Rico

Field assistants are needed for an unpaid internship, doing observational research on the social behavior of free-ranging rhesus macaques at the Caribbean Primate Research Center, Cayo Santiago, PR. No experience is required; extensive training in observational field technique will be provided. The project will run from 1994 to August 1995. Preference will be given to individuals who can work for five months or longer, but summer interns will be considered. Send a letter of interest, resume, and name, address and phone number of one reference by January 30, 1994 to Katherine Hardy, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Dept of Psychology, 3815 Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 [215-222-2244 (evenings); email: hardy@cattell.psych.upenn.edu].

Ethical Issues of Animal Experimentation

A summer course on Ethical Issues of Animal Experimentation will be held July 9-13, 1994, at Georgetown University, Washington, DC. The course, funded by the National Science Foundation, is open to college faculty who would like to improve their skills in teaching about ethical issues surrounding animal experimentation to graduate and undergraduate students. Emphasis will be on how to use course materials in classroom instruction. Topics include the moral status of nonhuman animals, the justifications for using animals in research and education, student objections, the use of alternatives, animal harms and pain, and legal issues. Varying points of view will be presented in a well-balanced fashion. The course directors are F. Barbara Orlans and Tom L. Beauchamp (Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown Univ.) and Alan I. Faden (School of Med., G. U.). Scholarships are available. For more information contact Marc Favreau, Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC 20057 [202-687-6771; FAX: 202-687-6770].

Zoo Science Fellowships

The Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens of Chicago offers three science fellowships for undergraduates or individuals who receive their undergraduate degree within 6 months of beginning their fellowship. Candidates are expected to conduct scientific research projects at the zoo for a 12-week period. Projects may be coordinated with a candidate's academic program and schedule. Academic credit may be possible through the candidate's home institution. Fellowships may commence as early as 1 May 1994 and all fellowship work must be completed prior to 1 April 1995. Each fellowship carries a stipend of $2500 for 12 weeks. A small amount of money is available for project supplies and library work. All living and other expenses are the responsibility of the fellow.

Through its annual grant from the Dr. Scholl Foundation, the zoo also offers two graduate level fellowships for research projects con- ducted at the zoo. Projects may, but need not, be an integral part of the thesis or dissertation research. Each fellowship associated with a thesis or dissertation project has a duration of one year and carries a stipend of $5000. A small amount of money is available for supplies and library work.

Projects may be specific to the candidate's interests as they reflect the needs of the zoological gardens determined by the zoo staff. Potential projects exist in the fields of animal behavior, nutrition, reproduction, physiology, conservation, population biology and computer modelling of zoo populations, and veterinary medicine. For a brochure and application information write to Science Fellowships, Dir. of Conservation and Science, Lincoln Park Zool. Gardens, 2200 N. Cannon Dr., Chicago, IL 60614-3895. Deadline for receipt of undergraduate fellowship applications is March 14; for receipt of graduate fellowship applications, March 21.

* * *

News Briefs

ILAR to Revise Care and Use Guide

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), a component of the National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, announces that the National Institutes of Health and other federal sponsors have asked that a committee be appointed to revise the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. For information about how to make recommendations to this committee, see "Meeting Announcements" on p. 16 of this issue.

Varmus Confirmed as NIH Director

The United States Senate confirmed Nobel laureate Harold E. Varmus as director of the National Institutes of Health by unanimous consent on November 19. Dr. Varmus, the first Nobel laureate to be named to this position, shared the 1989 Prize for medicine with J. Michael Bishop for their research showing that a retrovirus gene that causes cancer in chickens first existed as a normal gene in chickens and even in mammals. Early in its evolution, the virus acquired genetic material from one of its hosts and incorporated this information in its own genetic code, altering it in such a way that it often produces cancer. The discovery put retroviruses in a new light and suggested ways of exploring the genetic causes of cancer.

NIH Program to be Accredited

The NIH Intramural Research Program, which includes the National Center for Research Resources' Veterinary Resources Program, has been recommended for full accreditation by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC). The recommendation was announced during a July visit to NIH by a team of AAALAC inspectors. The AAALAC team was particularly impressed by the primate enrichment program.

Justice Appeals ALDF vs USDA

The US Department of Justice has decided to pursue a full appeal of Judge Charles Richey's February 1993 decision in the case, Animal Legal Defense Fund et al. vs the USDA Secretary, DHHS Secretary and OMB Director. Judge Richey's original decision struck down existing USDA animal welfare regulations applicable to laboratory dogs and nonhuman primates. The National Association for Biomedical Research will be joining the Department of Justice appeal. The Association of American Medical Colleges will be filing an amicus brief in the case. The American Psychological Association's (APA) legal council is reviewing the information on the case to determine if APA will sign on as a co-amicus. -- From an APA mailing.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

ILAR to Revise Care and Use Guide

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), a component of the National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, announces that the National Institutes of Health and other federal sponsors have asked that a committee be appointed to revise the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. One of the first priorities of the Committee will be to meet with those who wish to make recommendations regarding the content of the seventh edition of the Guide. The first of these public meetings was held in December 1993. Two more meetings are scheduled for February 2 in San Francisco and February 3 in St. Louis. If you wish to attend a public forum, please contact ILAR as soon as possible to indicate which meeting you would prefer. ILAR will then send you information on the meeting of your choice as soon as it is available.

If you wish to address the committee, you are encouraged to provide a written manuscript (any length) at the time of testimony and limit your presentation to approximately 5 minutes. All written testimony is confidential and not subject to Freedom of Information requests.

For additional information contact: Thomas L. Wolfle, ILAR, NAS 347, 2101 Constitution Ave, N.W., Washington, DC 20418 [202-334-2590; FAX: 202-334-1687; e-mail: Twolfle@NAS.edu].

1994 ASP Meeting

The 1994 American Society of Primatologists meeting will be July 27-31 in Seattle, Washington. The conference, hosted by the University of Washington Regional Primate Research Center and Department of Psychology, will include scientific sessions on nonhuman primate anatomy, behavior, biomedicine, conservation, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, husbandry, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, and systematics. A joint session with the Animal Behavior Society will be held on July 27-28. Seattle is an excellent departure point for Bali, Indonesia, the site of the XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society (Aug. 3-8). All members of the American Society of Primatologists should have received registration information about the 1994 ASP meeting in December 1993. To become a member, contact Jeffrey A. French, ASP Treasurer, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha NE 68182-0274, email: jfrench@unomaha.edu. To submit a nonmember abstract, contact Nancy Caine, ASP Program Chair, Psychology Program, CSU San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096-0001, email: nancy caine@csusm.edu. Nonmembers not submitting an abstract and those seeking local information should contact: Carolyn Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-2211, FAX: 206-685-0305; email: crockett@u.washington.edu]. Deadline for abstract submission is 1 February 1994.

Issues in IACUC Protocol Review

NIH's Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPPR) is cosponsoring an Animal Welfare Education Workshop with North Carolina State Univ. in Raleigh, NC, February 24-25, 1994. The topic will be "Current Issues in IACUC Protocol Review." Some of the topics for the one-and-a-half day program are: Assessing number of animals during protocol review, Death as an endpoint, Exposure routes in toxicology studies, Consideration of alternatives, and Frequently cited deficiencies related to IACUCs.

The workshop is open to institutional administrators, members of IACUCs, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators, animal/research technicians, as well as any person sharing responsibility for the management of a sound institutional animal care and use program. The regular registration fee for the program is $150.00. Animal/Research technicans, graduate students and postdoctoral students may register for $50.00. Registration fee includes workshop materials, lunch, and refreshment breaks. For information about registration, contact Ms. Kathryn Byrd, Director, Continuing Education and Public Program Office, NCSU-CVM, 4700 Hillsborough St, Raleigh, NC, 27606 [919-829-4421; FAX: 919-829-4452]. For information about meeting content, Dr. Thomas Hamm, Jr., Dir, Lab. Animal Resources, NC State Univ., [919-829-4280; FAX: 919-829- 4283].

Callitrichid Symposium

A symposium on the primate family Callitrichidae will be held by the New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums on 1 May 1994, preceding the 1994 Northeastern Regional meetings of the AAZPA in Hershey, PA. The symposium will focus on the topics of husbandry, nutrition, behavior, reproduction, and field research. Poster, video, and oral presentations are invited. Deadline for submission of abstracts is 15 February 1994. Registration fee will be $25. For more information, contact Andy Baker or Beth Bahner, Philadelphia Zoo, 3400 W. Girard Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19104 [215-243-1100; FAX: 215-243-0219].

Biosafety Symposium

The Office of Health and Safety, CDC, in conjunction with the American Biological Assn and the American Industrial Hygiene Assn, announces the Third National Symposium on Biosafety, Feb. 27 to Mar. 2, 1994, at the Swissotel Atlanta, Atlanta, GA. Workshops will be held on such subjects as "Developing biosafety programs in biomedical labs," and "Emerging issues/reasonable solutions in animal facilities." Preregistration fee (by Feb. 4) is $150; on-site registration fee is $175. For more information, contact Professional and Scientific Associates, 2635 Century Pky, Suite 990, Atlanta, GA 30345-3112 [404-633-6869, 800-772-8232; FAX: 404-633-6477].

Meeting Notes

Studbook I, SSP Coordinator Training and Science of Zoo and Aquarium Animal Management Courses, 22-26 February 1994 at the AAZPA Conservation Academy, St. Louis, MO. Contact Debra Boyster, AAZPA Conservation Academy, St. Louis, MO 63110 [314-781-0900, X 297].

Biodiversity and Systematics in Tropical Ecosystems, 2-7 May 1994, in Bonn, Germany. Contact Franz Krapp, Adenauerallee 150-164, 53113 Bonn, Germany [49-228-912-2294; e-mail: unb700@ibm.rhrz.uni-bonn.de].

Society for Conservation Biology and Association for Tropical Biology, Joint Annual Meeting, 7-12 June 1994 in Guadalajara, Mexico. Contact B. Benz or E. Jardel, SCB-ATB, Lab. Natural Las Joyas, Univ. de Guadalajara, Apdo. Postal 1-3933, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 44100, Mexico [FAX: +52-5-548-5259] or E. Santana, Dept of Wildlife Ecology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 [608-262-2671; FAX: 608-262-6099].

* * *

Funds for Travel to IPS Congress in Bali, Indonesia

The International Primatological Society is applying for funds from the National Science Foundation, through its International Travel Grant Program, to help support travel expenses of U.S. participants in the IPS's Congress scheduled for August 3-8, 1994, in Bali, Indonesia. IF! IPS receives the grant, it will be for $500 per person. Use of U.S. carriers will be mandatory.

Individuals wishing to be considered for these travel awards should prepare an application that contains: (a) their name, social security number, title, institutional affiliation, and address (including e-mail, FAX and telephone numbers); (b) a brief outline, NOT TO EXCEED ONE PAGE, of their proposed participation in the Congress (and/or in Pre- and Post-Congress activities that are part of the Congress' scheduled program) (include one copy of each submitted abstract); and (c) when an NSF travel grant was last awarded. These applications should be sent to: Dr. Reinhold J. Hutz, Treasurer, IPS, Dept of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413 [414-229-6880 (messages); FAX: 229-3926; e-mail: rjhutz@csd4.csd.uwm.edu].

The deadline for receipt of applications is February 14, 1994. All applications will be reviewed by an ad-hoc committee of IPS, and all awards will be made primarily on the basis of proposed participation in the Congress' overall schedule. Decisions regarding awards will be made in accordance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its regula- tions prohibiting discrimination against any person on the grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin. The grants are limited, however, to U.S. citizens and permanent U.S. residents.

* * *

Primate Material Requested

Pathology Materials

Prof. B. Lapin and his co-workers from the former Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy AMS in Sukhumi (now Institute of Medical Primatology RAMS, Sochi) have been working for many years with primate lymphomas. They will be very much obliged to every pathologist, virologist, or immunologist who can and will send them pathological materials (paraffin embedded, slides, wet archive - formalin fixed from lymphomatous tissues) of any primate species. If you can share your material, please include the number of cases, age, sex, pathological diagnosis, and immunological typing, if available. Sera samples would be useful, too. Please send the materials to Dr. D. M. Bowden, Director, RPRC, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195, marked "for Dr. B. Lapin." He will forward the material. Dr Lapin and his staff thank everyone in advance and will acknowledge all gifts. -- As posted to primate-talk.

Kidneys Needed

Dr. P. S. Thombre is studying virus reproduction in nonhuman primate kidney cells. He will provide a container with medium and pay for overnight delivery of fresh kidneys. He would also like to be in contact with anyone who is using other organs for research. Contact him at Advanced Clinical Diagnostics, 1021 Broadway, Toledo, OH 43609 [419-243-2854; 419-536-9746; FAX: 419-535-3110].

* * *

Robin Kingston

Hilary O. Box
University of Reading

W. Robin Kingston received the Senior Biology and Conservation Award for 1993 from the American Society of Primatologists. The award was presented to him at the scientific meeting of The Primate Society of Great Britain in the Meetings Room of the Zoological Society of London in Regents Park on December 1, 1993.

A plaque and honorarium check were presented by Dr. Jeffrey T. Lutz, the Counselor for Environmental, Scientific and Technological Affairs at the United States Embassy in London.

After the ceremony, members of the Council of the Primate Society of Great Britain and their guests entertained Robin and his wife, Iris, to lunch in a floating Chinese restaurant on the canal near the Zoo. It was a very festive occasion and one that PSGB was very happy to arrange on behalf of the American Society of Primatologists.

Robin received many letters of recommendation in strong support of his nomination for this award. Those of us who have known him for many years are well aware of his contributions to primate conservation through the promotion of captive breeding programs. Expertise in captive breeding, together with considerable personal drive, enabled him to make substantial contributions in Britain. These characteristics continued to serve him well in 1972, when he was appointed as the first director of the NIH/PAHO sponsored Breeding and Conservation Project in Iquitos, Peru and, subsequently, in the Belem Primate Center in Brazil.

It is not possible to list here the achievements of someone who has been active in biology for more than thirty years. Suffice it to say that very many of us welcomed the opportunity to applaud his achievements publicly. For some of us also, and I am one, it was a good personal experience to thank the man who had set us up' in primate research. We have always appreciated his skills, his enthusiasm, his drive, charm, and irrepressible sense of humor.

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Author's address: Dept of Psychology, 3 Earley Gate, Whiteknights Rd, Reading RG6 2AL England. Hilary Box is President of the Primate Society of Great Britain.

* * *

Primate Puzzle

Ray Hamel
Wisconsin Regional Primate Center Library

    ACROSS                       DOWN
    1.  ___snub-nosed monkey     2.  Presbytis  species
    8.  Howler genus             3.  What a gorilla walks on
    9.   ___-tailed macaque      4.  British diaper
    10. Howler species           5. ___'s gibbon
    11. Thanksgiving bird        6.  Site of Yerkes Primate Center
    12. Chimpanzee or bonobo     7.  Proboscis monkey genus
    13. More endangered          13. Variety of marmoset: 2 wds
    16. Harvests                 14. Howler sound
    19. He played Tarzan on TV   15. Uakari or Lucille Ball?
    20. African antelope         17. Variety of tamarin
    21.  ___talapoin             18.  Presbytis  species
    22. Skin                     20. Rhesus monkey's home country
    23.  Colobus  genus
    24. He upset baboons in "The Omen"
 
 
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |1  |2  |***|3  |***|4  |***|***|5  |***|6  |***|7  |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |***|   |***|   |***|8  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |***|9  |   |   |   |   |***|***|   |***|   |***|   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |***|   |***|   |***|10 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |11 |   |   |   |   |   |***|***|   |***|   |***|   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |***|   |***|   |***|***|12 |   |   |***|   |***|   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |13 |   |14 |   |15 |***|***|***|16 |17     |18 |   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |   |***|   |***|19 |   |   |***|***|   |***|   |***|
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |   |***|   |***|   |***|***|20 |   |   |   |   |   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |21 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |***|   |***|   |***|
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |   |***|   |***|   |***|***|22 |   |   |   |   |***|
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |23 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |***|   |***|   |***|
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |   |***|   |***|   |***|***|   |   |   |   |   |   |
  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

--------------------------------------------------------------------

The solution to this puzzle will appear in the next issue. The asterisks indicate black boxes.

* * *

DIRECTORY OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN PRIMATOLOGY AND PRIMATE RESEARCH (1994)

ARIZONA

*Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.A. and Ph.D. in Anthropology. Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional anatomy, and primate evolution. Facilities include a breeding colony of Galago senegalensis, extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, and a variety of specimens for dissection. Faculty interests include relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, functional anatomy and locomotion. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, galagos, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (physical anthropology, primate anatomy, paleoanthropology, human evolution, growth and development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Drs. Leanne T. Nash or Mary W. Marzke, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 [602-965-6213; Dr. Nash: 602-965-4812; e-mail atltn@asuacad. bitnet; atltn@asuvm.inre.asu.edu; Dr. Marzke: 602-965- 6237; e-mail: atmwm@asuacad.bitnet; atmwm@asuvm.inre.asu.edu].

*Primate Foundation of Arizona, in association with Arizona State University.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: A private, non-profit, breeding colony pursuing research in social behavior and development to improve captive management and the quality of life and reproductive potential of captive chimpanzees. Internships: Minimum of 30 days. No stipend. Study the behavior, biology, and management of captive chimpanzees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jo Fritz, Director & Research Director; Leanne Nash, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (social behavior); Mary Marzke, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (physical growth and development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

CALIFORNIA

*California State University, San Marcos, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME: Master of Arts in General Experimental Psychology, proposed for fall, 1994.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Nancy Caine (callitrichid behavior), with possibilities for collaboration with primatologists at the San Diego Zoo and Wild Animal Park.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Nancy Caine, Dept. of Psychology, CSU San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096.

*University of California, Berkeley, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Primate Studies Program. A comprehensive program in primate studies emphasizing behavior, development, and ecology, focused on primate species as integrated systems.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Phyllis Dolhinow (development and behavior of human and nonhuman primates, primate evolution); Katharine Milton (energetics, behavior and ecology of human and nonhuman primates, special interest in dietary questions).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Office, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

*University of California, Davis, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME: Comparative Psychology and Physiological Psychology are specializations within the Psychobiology program.
FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leo M. Chalupa (central mechanisms of vision, prenatal development of sensory systems in the mammalian brain); Richard G. Coss (developmental psychobiology, evolution, experimental aesthetics, antipredator behavior); Michael S. Gazzaniga (cognitive neuroscience); Kenneth R. Henry (audition, physiological psychology, behavioral genetics, developmental psychobiology, aging); George R. Mangun (human cognitive neurophysiology); Robert M. Murphey (behavior of domesticated ungulates, genetic correlates of behavior, psychopathology); Donald H. Owings (communication and antipredator behavior, ground squirrel behavior); Sally P. Mendoza (behavioral endocrinology, physiological basis of primate social relationships, stress and reproduction); Robert Sommer (environmental psychology, abnormal psychology, action research); Niels G. Waller (behavior genetics, psychometrics, and personality).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

FLORIDA

*University of Florida, Psychology Department
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology, experimental analysis of behavior).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 [904-392-6731].

GEORGIA

*Emory University, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME & DESCRIPTION: Psychobiology Program. All faculty hold joint appointments with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center and do research at either the Main Station on the Emory Campus or at the Field Station, 30 miles away in Lawrenceville, GA. All students receive full stipend support ($11,000 in 1993) and tuition for four years. Four students are accepted in Psychobiology each year, usually two in primate research. There are currently nine primate research students.
FACULTY & THEIR SPECIALTIES: Ronald Boothe (development of primate vision); Harold Gouzoules (primate communication); Frans de Waal (primate social systems & reconciliation); Kim Wallen (primate behavioral endocrinology & development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Harold Gouzoules, Program Director, Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-7444; e-mail: psyhg@unix.cc.emory.edu].

*Emory University, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Behavior and Biology of Primates Training Program: Postdoctoral training is available in several sciences that contribute to our understanding of the behavior and biology of primates. These include: primate behavior, including learning, memory, cognition, communication, social behavior and psychopharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrinology; neuro- biology, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and psychophysics, particularly as related to visual processes; pathology and primate models of human diseases. Training facilities: Training facilities of the Yerkes Center including its Field Station, as well as a wide variety of other laboratories at the Main Station, are available. Funding for Research Associates and Research Fellows generally is derived from individual research grants at the center or fellowships awarded by public and private agencies.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Director, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.

*Georgia State University, Language Research Center, Dept. of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Biobehavioral and cognitive studies of nonhuman primates.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh (primate cognition, biopsychology, primatology); Duane M. Rumbaugh (project director); Rose Sevcik (developmental comparative psychology); Shelly Williams (learning and communication); David Washburn (psychology); Daniel Rice (cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303-3083.

*University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology and Anthropology Departments
PROGRAM NAMES: Biopsychology with a specialty area in primatology; Biological Anthropology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Psychology: Irwin S. Bernstein (primatology, social organization, aggression, sex, dominance); Roger K. Thomas (cognition, intelligence, concept use, learning and memory); B. E. Mulligan (sensory psychology, animal communication, human factors psychology); Joseph D. Allen (human psychophysiology, animal learning, adjunctive behavior, laboratory, instrumentation); Dorothy Fragaszy (primate behavior, cognition, development, motor skills, social behavior); Dawn Rager (psychoneuroimmunology). Anthropology: Carolyn L. Ehardt (biological anthropology, primate social organization, affiliation, kinship, epidemiology); Ben G. Blount (primate communication, socialization); Charles R. Peters (physical anthropology, human origins, ecology, primate diet, Africa). We also enjoy full cooperation with other departments and universities within the University of Georgia System, as well as collaboration with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University and the Atlanta Zoo.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Biopsychology Program, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3013 [706-542-2174; FAX: 706-542- 3275]. Graduate Coordinator for Anthropology (Biological Anthropology Program), Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 [706-542-3922].

ILLINOIS

*Northwestern University Medical School, Department of CMS Biology
PROGRAM NAME: Integrated Graduate Program in the Life Sciences
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: L. R. Cochard (dental allometry); M. Dagosto (prosimian evolution, systematics, locomotion); M. J. Ravosa (experimental functional morphology, skull form); B. T. Shea (growth, allometry, Miocene and recent hominoids).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above faculty or Dr. A. Telser, Director, IGP, at: Dept CMS Biology, Northwestern Univ. Med. School, 303 E. Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 [1-800-255-4166].

*University of Chicago, Dept. of Anthropology, Dept. of Ecology & Evolution, Committee on Evolutionary Biology.
PROGRAM NAMES: Doctoral programs, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology & Evolution
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Stuart Altmann (Evolutionary Biology: behavioral ecology of primates, especially foraging); Jeanne Altmann (Evolutionary Biology: life histories and behavioral ecology, especially maternal behavior and behavioral ontogeny); Martha McClintock (Biopsychology, Evolutionary Biology, Human Development: menstrual synchrony, pheromonal communication); Russell Tuttle (Anthropology, Evolutionary Biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior). Leigh Van Valen (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Michael J. Wade (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Carole Ober (Obstetrics & Gynecology, Anthropology: human and nonhuman primate genetics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above at Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 940 E. 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637.

MASSACHUSETTS

*Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy. The Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology offers a Ph.D. in anatomy. In addition, there is an active post-doctoral training program, with emphasis on neuroanatomy. While a variety of species is utilized in the research projects conducted within the department, a number of members of the faculty (Drs. Pandya, Rosene, Moss, Peters, and Feldman) have programs focused on the rhesus monkey.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: D. N. Pandya (the organization and thalamocortical relations of the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys); D. L. Rosene (organization of the limbic system in the rhesus monkey, particularly the connections and histochemistry of the hippocampus and amygdala); M. B. Moss (neuronal plasticity and neurobiology of memory); A. Peters (the intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of cerebral cortex and aging changes in monkey cerebral cortex); M. F. Feldman (aging in brain stem auditory nuclei and cochlea of the rhesus monkey).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Peters, Chairman, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston Univ. Sch. of Med., Boston, MA 02118.

MISSISSIPPI

*University of Mississippi Medical Center, Department of Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Ph.D. in Anatomy. The program is intended to provide a broad background in biomedical science, to provide expertise in a selected area of research, and to develop the skills and insights necessary to become an effective teacher and independent investigator. The core curriculum consists of human gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and neuroanatomy. Faculty members conduct active research in a variety of areas, including sensory and motor systems neurobiology, and the role of cells and extracellular matrix in cell, developmental, and cardiovascular biology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: There are 21 faculty members associated with the department, including the following working with primates: Duane E. Haines (cerebellar interconnections with somatic and visceral relay centers); W. Michael King (vestibular and oculomotor physiology); James C. Lynch (functional organization of association cortex); Terence P. Ma (neural control of primate eye movements); Paul J. May (neural control of extraocular and intraocular musculature); Gregory A. Mihailoff (role of the basilar pons in motor control); Susan Warren (neural basis of somatosensory information processing).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Paul J. May, Anatomy Graduate Coordinator, Department of Anatomy, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216-4505 [601-984-1662, Dr. May; 601-984-1640, main Department office; 601-984-1655, FAX].

NEW MEXICO

*University of New Mexico
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral study through admission to either the Biological or the Human Evolutionary Ecology Programs of the Department of Anthropology. Program foci are either primate systematics, biogeography and paleobiology (Biological) or primate life history strategies and socioecology (Human Evolutionary Ecology). Master's level students with thesis option and more applied focus are also admitted to the Biological Program.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jeffery W. Froehlich (primate paleontology, alpha systematics, and biogeography, North and Central America, Indonesia); Jane B. Lancaster (human evolutionary ecology, primate social behavior, evolution of human behavior, life history strategies, reproductive effort, mating and parental investment).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Secretary, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1986 [505-277-4524].

NEW YORK

*City University of New York, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

*Columbia University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

*Cornell University, Ecology and Systematics Section of the Divisionof Biological Sciences; Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Human Biology Program: Primate studies appear in Cornell University's Section of Ecology and Systematics of the Division of Biological Sciences, and in the Department of Anthropology. The primate studies are in both the Human Biology Program for undergraduates and in the graduate program. There are courses, laboratories, and seminars in comparative primate anatomy, primate evolution, primate ecology, and primate paleontology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (primate comparative anatomy, paleontology, and evolution). We curate collections of skeletal material, casts of fossil nonhuman and human primates, and some brains for teaching and research purposes. There are faculty members in the Department of Psychology at Cornell University who have research and teaching programs in primate studies. Persons to contact in Psychology are Drs. Robert Johnston and Barbara Finlay, Uris Hall, Cornell University. Comparative anatomy courses involving primates are offered by Dr. John Bertram in the College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University's Ithaca campus. Also near the campus at the Research Park facility, Dr. Julian M. Humphries, Jr. curates primate skeletal collections in his capacity as Research and Curatorial Associate.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Ecology and Systematics, Division of Biological Sciences, Corson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-6582]; and Meredith Small, Department of Anthropology, McGraw Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-5137].

*Fordham University, Biological Sciences
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Ecology. Fordham University is part of the New York City Doctoral Consortium. Ph.D. students at Fordham may take classes at C.U.N.Y., N.Y.U. and Columbia. It is also possible to do tutorials at the Bronx Zoo across the street from the University.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Carey Yeager (Feeding ecology, social structure, conservation, Asian primates, particularly Nasalis larvatus, field station in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia). Other faculty with overlapping interests: Truman Young (plant-herbivore interactions, forest dynamics, conservation, field station in Kenya); David Burney (paleoecology, extinctions, environmental change, field work in Madagascar and Kenya).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Burney and departmental information: Dept of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458; Drs. Yeager or Young: The Louis Calder Center of Fordham University, Box K, 53 Whippoorwill Road, Armonk, NY 10504.

*New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: NYCEP is a graduate training program funded by NSF. It consists of 3 degree-granting institutions--City University of New York (CUNY), Columbia University (CU), and New York University (NYU)--in collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), a division of the New York Zoological Society. Our focus is human as well as nonhuman primates from the perspectives of comparative morphology, paleontology and systematics, molecular and population genetics, behavior and ecology, and conservation biology. Students in this program will take courses in all these areas at the three universities, attend seminars that draw upon the staff of all five cooperating institutions, and have the opportunity to engage in original research in laboratories, museums, and in the field. NYCEP will offer up to six renewable fellowships yearly (to US citizens, nationals, and permanent residents), each with a stipend of $12,000 and full tuition waiver. Members of groups underrepresented in science are especially encouraged to apply. In addition, the graduate programs of the three collaborating universities offer full financial aid programs with regular fellowships as well as special opportunities for minority students and all highly qualified applicants regardless of nationality. NYCEP further offers lab and field internships, special funds for summer research and meeting participation, and additional funds for minority support. Appropriate undergraduate majors for NYCEP applicants include biological anthropology and other life sciences. Applicants not accepted by NYCEP will be considered for regular financial aid and may participate in many of the special programs. Students apply jointly to NYCEP and to one or more cooperating university.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Patricia S. Bridges, CUNY (skeletal biology and paleopathology of human populations); Tim Bromage, CUNY (paleoanthropology and developmental morphology); Marina Cords, CU (primate behavior, especially African cercopithecids); Eric Delson, CUNY (paleoanthropology; catarrhine systematics and evolution, biochronology); Rob De Salle, AMNH (molecular systematics); Todd R. Disotell, NYU (molecular systematics and evolution, catarrhine primates); Terry Harrison, NYU (catarrhine systematics, comparative morphology and primate paleontology); Ralph L. Holloway, CU (paleo- neurology, human evolution); Clifford J. Jolly, NYU (genetics, systematics, and comparative morphology of primates); Warren G. Kinzey, CUNY (behavior, ecology, and morphology of South American primates); Fred Koontz, WCS (Conservation biology, translocation and reintroduction of primate populations); Jeffrey T. Laitman, CUNY (paleoanthropology, evolution of speech); Ross D. MacPhee, AMNH (development and systematics of primates and other mammals); Don J. Melnick, CU (population genetics and molecular evolution of higher primates); Hilary Simons Morland, WCS (tropical conservation, primate behavior and ecology, especially Malagasy lemurs); Michael Novacek, AMNH (systematics of mammals and early primates); John F. Oates, CUNY (ecology and behavior of catarrhine primates, tropical forest conservation); John G. Robinson, WCS (conservation biology, neotropical primates); Frank Spencer, CUNY (history of biological anthropology); Sara Stinson, CUNY (population biology of living humans); Frederick S. Szalay, CUNY (morphology, paleontology, and systematics of primates and other mammals); Ian Tattersall, AMNH (systematics and evolution of lemuriform primates and hominids); John A. Van Couvering, AMNH (geochronology and stratigraphy of the Old World Cenozoic); Amy Vedder, WCS (conservation biology, gorillas, African colobines); Ward Wheeler, AMNH (molecular systematics); Field adjuncts: Marcio Ayres, WCS-Brazil (conservation biology and ecology of neotropical primates); Elizabeth Bennett, WCS-Malaysia (conservation biology and leaf monkey ecology); Bill Bleisch, WCS-China (conservation biology and Chinese snub-nosed monkey ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Eric Delson, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 [212-769-5992; FAX: 212-769-5233].

*New York University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

NORTH CAROLINA

*Duke University, Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME: Graduate Study in Biological Anthropology and Anatomy.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Matt Cartmill (anthropoid and primate origins, history of ideas about animal consciousness); Kenneth E. Glander (ecology and social organization); William L. Hylander (functional and evolutionary morphology of the masticatory apparatus); Richard F. Kay (anthropoid phylogeny, based especially on cranial and dental anatomy, through paleontological field research); Mary Maas (mammalian evolution, dental functional morphology); Theresa R. Pope (interrelationship between social organization, behavioral ecology, and genetic structure of primate populations); Elwyn L. Simons (primate paleontology); Kathleen K. Smith (vertebrate evolutionary morphology); John W. Terborgh (tropical forest ecology); Carel P. van Schaik (socioecology); Frances J. White (behavioral ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Director of Graduate Studies, Box 3170 Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

OHIO

*Kent State University, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME: Experimental psychology
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: F. Robert Treichler (primate learning and retention mechanisms; retention of concurrently learned tasks; interference effects in complex retention).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Psychology, Kent State Univ., Kent, OH 44242.

*The Ohio State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Graduate work in primatology is part of the specialization of the Ph.D. program in physical anthropology. Students receive training in primate ethology, primate evolution and primate conservation.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frank E. Poirier (primate ethology, particularly socialization; conservation of endangered species; primate evolution); Paul Sciulli (primate dentition, primate evolution, primate genetics). Additionally, students are advised to take courses in the departments of psychology and zoology and the School of Natural Resources, all of which have faculty interested in primatology.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Frank E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, Lord Hall, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210.

OREGON

*Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train pre- and postdoctoral students in using primates for biomedical research. The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center is one of seven federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health problems through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive biology and behavior, neuroscience, perinatal physiology, and infectious diseases. The Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland is the host institution of the Center. It provides an academic affiliation, and many ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the OHSU School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 48 scientists with Ph.D., M.D., or D.V.M. degrees, as well as 126 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathology, electron microscopy, radioimmunoassays, flow cytometry, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, and medical illustration.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Center employs four full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care of 2,024 nonhuman primates and small laboratory animals.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006. [503-645-1141].

PENNSYLVANIA

*Bucknell University, Program in Animal Behavior, Departments of Biology and Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Bucknell offers the MA or MS in each of the departments and the program. Full-time only, starting with the fall semester. The program requires two years of full-time study, including courses and thesis. Continuing lab or field work is required. Long-standing resident colonies of Papio hamadryas, Macaca fuscata, and S. sciureus in indoor/outdoor group settings. Other work with animals includes eusocial insects, rodents, birds (pigeons), arachnoids, marine mammals, and crustacea.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Douglas K. Candland, evolution of cognition and emotion. Additional appointment expected for 1994.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Douglas K. Candland, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pa 17837.

*University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Anthropology, Biology, and Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a Ph.D. with a specialization in Primatology in any of the three sponsoring departments; their graduate program will conform in structure and content to the requirements of each department. A group of core interdisciplinary courses is also offered for Primatology students, in addition to courses that pertain to their specialty (e.g., cognition, ecology, behavior). Other resources include the Veterinary School, the Medical School, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and the Philadelphia Zoo.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dorothy L. Cheney (Biology: behavior, communication, cognition); Robert S. O. Harding (Anthropology: ecology, behavior); Robert M. Seyfarth (Psychology: behavior, communication, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the appropriate person at the department of interest, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA 19104, or cheney@cattell.psych.upenn.edu; rharding@pennsas.upenn.edu; or seyfarth@cattell.psych.edu.

*University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME: Physical Anthropology Graduate Program
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Steven J. C. Gaulin (evolution of behavioral adaptations, particularly those that differ between the sexes; use of evolutionary theory, behavioral ecology, and comparative psychology to model the evolution of human behavior); Mark P. Mooney (craniofacial and development biology, comparative anatomy, experimental morphology, physiological adaptations to extreme environments, development of animal models for facial clefts); Jeffrey H. Schwartz (method, theory, and philosophy in evolutionary biology; origin and diversification of primates; human and faunal skeletal analysis; dentofacial growth and development); Michael I. Siegel (craniofacial biology, with a clinical speciality in cleft palate; functional anatomy; animal models; physiological adaptation).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Nancy J. Stugan, Graduate Admissions Coord nator, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.

TENNESSEE

*University of Memphis (formerly Memphis State University), Department of Psychology.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.S. and Ph.D. in Psychology with specialty concentration in Biopsychology. Within Biopsychology, training is available in comparative studies of brain and behavior in primates with emphasis on laterality, visual perception, comparative cognition, individual differences and aging. A large breeding colony of small-eared bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii) and a smaller colony of galagos (Galago moholi) are available for study. Research opportunities are principally in the study of behavior but there is a large archive of serial sections of brains of primates and other mammals available.
FACULTY: Jeannette P. Ward
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION:Dr. Jeannette P. Ward, Dept of Psychology, Memphis State Univ., Memphis, TN 38152 [901-678-2375; FAX: 901-678-2579; e-mail: wardjp@ memstvx1.bitnet].

*Vanderbilt University, Dept. of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Psychology Department offers a Ph.D. program in which research activities concentrate on sensory and cognitive aspects of primate behavior and the anatomical and physiological substrates for such behavior. Special interests are in the development and evolution of complex sensory-cognitive systems in primates. Research involves Prosimians and several species of Old World and New World monkeys. Methods include computer-assisted studies of behavior, microelectrode recordings from behaving animals, and current anatomical and physiological procedures.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: V. A. Casagrande (development of the visual system, behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology); S. Florence (development of somatosensory system); J. H. Kaas (plasticity of sensory motor systems; normal organization, evolution of complex systems); J. Schall (neural activity during behavior, visuomotor systems).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jon H. Kaas, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Psychology Building, Nashville, TN 37240.

TEXAS

*University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Dept.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.A. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, evolution, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud A. Bramblett (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); John Kappelman (physical anthropology, paleobiology, primate evolution, functional morphology); Liza Shapiro (physical anthropology, primate evolution, functional morphology, locomotion).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.

WASHINGTON

*Central Washington University, Chimpanzee & Human Communication Institute, Experimental Psychology, Dept. of Psychology.
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: M.S. in Psychology includes opportunity for research in the following areas: chimpanzee language, cognition, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Roger S. Fouts (chimpanzee language).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Roger S. Fouts, Chimpanzee & Human Communication Institute, Central Washingon University, Ellensburg, WA 98926 [e-mail: chimplab@cwu.bitnet].

*University of Washington, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Animal Behavior Program at the University of Washington is dedicated to providing the best possible graduate training including research techniques, theory, and actual investigative work with animals both in the laboratory and in their natural habitat or zoos. The program leads to the Ph.D. in Psychology, with special training in animal behavior (including primate social behavior). It is administered by the core faculty in animal behavior, listed below. One of the great assets of the Animal Behavior Program is the interest and competence of faculty in departments other than Psychology. Cordial and cooperative relationships exist with behavior-oriented colleagues in Zoology, Sociology, Anthropology, Wildlife Science (College of Fisheries and Forest Resources), the Institute for Environmental Studies, and the Regional Primate Research Center. Excellent relations and research potential also exist with the Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan S. Lockard (primate social behavior, human ethology, zoo animal behavior, neurobehavior); Michael D. Beecher, (animal communication, avian sociobiology and ecology); Gene P. Sackett (primate development and behavior); David P. Barash (sociobiology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior and evolution); Robert C. Bolles (animal behavior, learning, and motivation); Eliot A. Brenowitz (animal behavior, neuroethology, neuroendocrinology, animal communication).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joan S. Lockard, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology NI-25, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95.

WISCONSIN

*University of Wisconsin, Madison, Psychology, Anthropology and Zoology Departments
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Several Departments have programs related to primatology in addition to the Primate Center. Subjects for captive research include rhesus macaques, squirrel monkeys, cotton-top tamarins and pygmy marmosets. Active field research programs are current in Colombia, Brazil, and Rwanda. A masters program in Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development has a strong emphasis on primate conservation.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Walter Leutenegger (Anthropology: evolutionary biology, morphological adaptations); Karen B. Strier (Anthropology: primate behavioral ecology); Christopher Coe (Psychology: Director, Harlow Primate Laboratory, psychoimmunology); Charles T. Snowdon (Psychology and Zoology: communication, reproductive biology and behavior); Timothy Moermond (Zoology: Director, Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development, behavioral ecology, foraging behavior, community ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the faculty members listed for each program, or the Admissions Secretary of the appropriate department: University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

*University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, comparative anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. DNA analysis for paternity determination of nonhuman primates. Evolution, behavior, and functional morphology of non-human primates. More than 500 embalmed and skeletonized specimens of Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercocebus albigena, Papio cynocephalus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus albifrons, and Saguinus nigricollis. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Fred Anapol (primate functional morphology, muscle biology, skeletal analysis); Trudy R. Turner (DNA analysis, nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics); Neil C. Tappen, emeritus (primate anatomy, ecology, and evolution; structure and function of bone and muscle).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

*University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may conduct research at the Center by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and by choosing a faculty advisor with Center affiliation. Appropriate departments for graduate students hoping to do research at the Center include Psychology, Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology, Pathology, Veterinary Science, and Meat and Animal Science, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program and the Neuroscience Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center has approximately 120 (Midwest, national and international) Ph.D., M.D. and D.V.M. level staff. Research Group Chairs only are listed here. John P. Hearn, Director, and Chair, Reproduction and Development Research Group, [608-263-3500]; David H. Abbott, Chair, Physiological Ethology Research Group, [608-263-3583]; Christopher Coe, Chair, Psychobiology Research Group, [608-263-3550]; Richard Weindruch, Chair, Aging and Metabolic Disease Research Group, [608-262-0788]; David Pauza, Chair, Immunology and Virology Research Group, [608-262-9147]; Peter Spear, Chair, Neurobiology Research Group, [608-262-0837].
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: John P. Hearn, Director, Wisconsin Primate Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.

ACT, AUSTRALIA

*Australian National University, Canberra, Department of Archaeology & Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: M.A. (by coursework and thesis, or by thesis alone) and Ph.D. programs in Biological Anthropology, including Primatology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Colin P. Groves (Primate taxonomy, evolution, functional morphology, behavior, ecology); Robert Attenborough (behavior, genetics, epidemiology). Collaboration is also possible with Simon Easteal (John Curtin School of Medical Research,same university), specializing in Primate genetics, including DNA.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr C. P. Groves, Dept. of Archaeology & Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.

ALBERTA, CANADA

*University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: M.A. in Anthropology. The Department awards an M.A. in Anthropology for primatology studies (in addition to more traditional anthropological fields). The orientation is towards behavioral and behavioral ecological approaches, but work in primate anatomy and in palaeoprimatology is also acceptable. The program is nominally of two years duration and requires completion of coursework (3 full course equivalents / 6 term credits), a formal research proposal defense, research (which is normally in the form of field work), and the preparation and defense of a thesis. Students in the department have conducted field research on howler monkeys, captive gorillas, captive bonobos, and Japanese macaques. Special relationships exist with the South Texas Primate Observatory (Arashiyama "A" troop). A Ph.D. program is in preparation, and Special Ph.D. applications will be considered by the Dean of Graduate Studies.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Pamela J. Asquith (Japanese primatology, cultural effects on science); Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology, ecology); Mary McDonald Pavelka (behavior, social dynamics, Japanese macaques); James D. Paterson (behavioral ecology, thermobiology, allometry and bioenergetics, postural studies, evolutionary and taxonomic theory, computers, methodology and data acquisition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: U. Fleising, Head, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4, or via e-mail contact paterson@acs.ucalgary.ca or pavelka@acs.ucalgary.ca.

SCOTLAND

*Universities of Edinburgh, St Andrews and Stirling
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Scottish Primate Research Group. Increasing collaboration over recent years has led to the formation of this research group with a core membership of fieldworkers from the 3 universities. Each institution provides funds for regular attendance at joint research meetings. Field studies are carried out at several African sites, especially in Gabon, Kenya, and Rwanda.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Elizabeth Rogers (Zoology, Edinburgh: Feeding ecology of African apes); Richard Byrne (Psychology, St Andrews: Cognition in primates, manual skill and laterality, forag ing behavior); Andrew Whiten (Psychology, St Andrews: Developmental behavioral ecology, social learning, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Prof. C. Culler, Postgraduate Admissions, Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland.

* * *

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)

Books

* Language Comprehension in Ape and Child. E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh, J. Murphy, R. A. Sevcik, K. E. Brakke, S. L. Williams, & D. M. Rumbaugh, with commentary by E. Bates and a reply by the authors. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1993, 58[3-4]. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 256 pp. [Price: $18.50]
. . Systematic experimental comparisons of the language comprehension skills of a 2-year-old child and an 8-year-old bonobo (Pan paniscus) which was raised in a language environment similar to that in which children are raised, but specifically modified to be appropriate for an ape. Both subjects were exposed to spoken English and lexigrams from infancy, and neither was trained to comprehend speech. A common caretaker participated in the rearing of both subjects. Without prior training, subjects were asked to respond to the same 660 novel sentences. All responses were videotaped and scored for accuracy of comprehension of the English language. The results indicated that both subjects comprehended novel requests and simple syntactic devices. These results are discussed in light of a model of the evolution of language that suggests that the potential for language comprehension preceded the appearance of speech by at least several million years, before changes in the laryngeal tract made speech physically possible.

* Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution. Advances in Primatology. W. H. Kimbel & L. B. Martin (Eds.). New York: Plenum Press, 1993. 560 + xv pp. [Price: $115]
. . "Our goal was to demonstrate that many of the debates in primate evolutionary biology today are not resolvable simply by adding new data to the stockpile. Instead, the essence of any number of these debates can be understood by analyzing the marked differences in the underlying interpretation of the species concept."
. . Contents: I. Species in Evolutionary Theory. What, if anything, is a species? by N. Eldredge. Species concepts: The tested, the untestable, and the redundant, by F. S. Szalay. Primates and paradigms: Problems with the identification of genetic species, by J. C. Masters. II. Speciation and Variation among the Living Primates. Species, subspecies, and baboon systematics, by C. J. Jolly. Speciation in living hominoid primates, by C. P. Groves. Geographic variation in primates: A review with implications for interpreting fossils, by G. H. Albrecht & J. M. A. Miller. Speciation and morphological differentiation in the genus Lemur, by I. Tattersall. Squirrel monkey (genus Saimiri) taxonomy: A multidisciplinary study of the biology of species, by R. K. Costello, C. Dickinson, A. L. Rosenberger, S. Boinski, & F. S. Szalay. Measures of dental variation as indicators of multiple taxa in samples of sympatric Cercopithecus species, by D. A. Cope. Catarrhine dental variability and species recognition in the fossil record, by J. M. Plavcan. Multivariate craniometric variation in chimpanzees: Implications for species identification, by B. T. Shea, S. R. Leigh, & C. P. Groves. III. Species and Species Recognition in the Primate Fossil Record. Species concepts and species recognition in Eocene primates, by K. D. Rose & T. Bown. Anagenetic Angst: Species boundaries in Eocene primates, by L. Krishtalka. Cladistic concepts and the species problem in hominoid evolution, by T. Harrison. Species discrimination in Proconsul from Rusinga and Mfangano islands, Kenya, by M. F. Teaford, A. Walker, & G. S. Mugaisi. Species recognition in middle Miocene hominoids, by L. B. Martin & P. Andrews. Taxonomic implications of sexual dimorphism in Lufengpithecus, by J. Kelley. IV. Species and Species Recognition in the Hominid Fossil Record. The importance of species taxa in paleoanthropology and an argument for the phylogenetic concept of the species category, by W. H. Kimbel & Y. Rak. Early Homo: How many species? by B. Wood. Morphological variation in Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens in the Levant: A biogeographic model, by Y. Rak. V. Summary. Species and speciation: Conceptual issues and their relevance for primate evolutionary biology, by W. H. Kimbel & L. B. Martin.

* Primates and Their Relatives in Phylogenetic Perspective. (Advances in Primatology). R. D. E. MacPhee (Ed.). New York: Plenum, 1993. 383 + xiii pp. [Price: $85]
. . This book aims to bring together methodological, theoretical, and empirical studies that bear on the phylogenetic placement of primates and their relatives. Contents: The importance of methods: Archontan phylogeny and cladistic analysis of morphological data, by N. B. Simmons. Origin and evolution of gliding in early Cenozoic Dermoptera (Mammalia, Primatomorpha), by K. C. Beard. The implications of the propatagial muscles of flying and gliding mammals for Archontan systematics, by J. G. M. Thewissen & S. K. Babcock. Ontogeny of the tympanic floor and roof in Archontans, by J. R. Wible & J. R. Martin. Developmental evidence from the fetal membranes for assessing archontan relationships, by W. P. Luckett. Cranioskeletal morphology of archontans, and diagnoses of Chiroptera, Volitantia, and Archonta, by F. S. Szalay & S. G. Lucas. A molecular examination of archontan and chiropteran monophyly, by R. M. Adkins & R. L. Honeycutt. A Molecular view of primate supraordinal relationships from the analysis of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences, by M. J. Stanhope, W. J. Bailey, J. Czelusniak, M. Goodman, J-S. Si, J. Nickerson, J. G. Sgouros, G. A. M. Singer, & T. K. Kleinschmidt. Phylogeny through brain traits: Interordinal relationships among mammals including Primates and Chiroptera, by J. I. Johnson & J. A. W. Kirsch. The role of the neurosciences in primate evolutionary biology: Historical commentary and prospectus, by T. M. Preuss. Summary, by R. D. E. MacPhee.

* Principles of Laboratory Animal Science: A Contribution to the Humane Use and Care of Animals and to the Quality of Experimental Results. L. F. M. van Zutphen, V. Baumans, & A. C. Beynen (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1993. 384 pp. [Price: $185.75 hardbound, $77.25 paperback]

Audiovisual Material

* Putting Primates in the Classroom. Madison: Wisconsin RPRC. [May be borrowed for 14 days for a $10 service fee. Ray Hamel, Library, WRPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299]
. . Three sets of 72 slides with annotated script, suggestions for classroom activities, bibliographies, etc. for grades 6 to 12. Titles are Primate Behavior, Primate Conservation, and Primate Taxonomy.

* Isla Tigre: an Island for Tamarins. 1 hour. D. R. Rasmussen. [Price: $20, from Animal Behavior Research Inst., 314 S. Randall Ave, Madison, WI 53715]
. . Documents the development of an island in Gatun Lake, Panama, for study of the social ecology of tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi) and for environmental education.

Bibliographies

* Parkinson's Disease: Studies in Nonhuman Primates. A Bibliography, Annual Update, September 1993. McLean, M. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1993, 13 pp. (145 citations, primate index) [Price: $6.50. Stock #93-005. Order from PIC, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195] * Spontaneous Diseases of Aged New World Primates: A Selected Bibliography, 1970-1993. Johnson-Delaney, C. 8 pp. (67 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #93-006. Ordering information same as above] (206) 543-4376 Fax (206) 685-0305

Booklets

* Sourcebook for the Use of Animals in Physiological Research and Testing. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1993. 16 pp. (APS, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814).
. . This booklet covers a variety of areas in animal research including preparation by investigators and institutions, handling media inquiries, and a resource directory.

Directories

* Educational Resource Directory. Washington, DC: Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1993. 280 pp. [Price $30, from the Foundation for Biomedical Research, 818 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]
. . A wide variety of resources, from a diverse group of organizations, to educate the public, from young students to educators, on the use of animals in biomedical research.

* Annual Resource Guide 1993. Special edition of Continuing Listings. September, 1993. [PSIC, PIC, RPRC, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]
. . Listings of suppliers (of animals, equipment, etc.), facilities, information sources, and services.

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

* Primate Report, No. 36, May 1993. [Price: $12]
. . Annual Scientific Report of the German Primate Center (DPZ), includes: Infant mortality in captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas), by D. Zinner, W. Kaumanns, & B. Rohrhuber; and Neuropharmacological studies on vocal behavior in the periaqueductal gray, by U. Jurgens & C.-L. Lu.

* Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 1993, 7. [Price: $20 from PsyETA, P.O. Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297]
. . Articles include: Resocialization & rehabilitation of primates, by W. W. Swett; Psychological wellness for captive chimpanzees, by J. Fritz & S. M. Howell; Primate enrichment with recycled materials, by F. B. Bercovitch & M. J. Kessler; An alternative to invasive monitoring of reproductive function in captive & free-ranging wildlife, by J. F. Kirkpatrick & B. L. Lasley; and Good ways to monitor the health of captive individuals living in a social group, by H. L. Shaw. PsyETA's Humane Innovations and Alternatives Annual Award for 1993 has been given to Peggy O'Neill Wagner, of the NIH Animal Center, Poolesville, MD.

* ASP Bulletin, 1993, 17[3].
. . Includes notes and minutes from the 1993 Sturbridge meeting.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1993, 1[3]. (Conservation International, Ave. A. A. Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil)

*Pan paniscus/ Bonobo News, Fall, 1993, 3[1]. (E. O. Vineberg, 10603 Sunset Ridge Dr., San Diego, CA 92131-2378)

* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. June, September, 1993, 3[1,2]. [A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
. . Includes articles on the primates of Bali and Vietnam, and announcements about conservation issues in several countries.

* The Newsletter, 1993, 5[2]. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027)
. . Includes "Cage top feeding for primates," by A. Britt.

* Gorilla Gazette, 1993, 7[1]. (Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Dr., Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400)
. . Articles and announcements.

* SCAW Newsletter, 1993, 15[3]. (Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 4805 St. Elmo Ave, Bethesda, MD 20814)
. . Includes Part 3 of a Summary of New Animal Welfare Regulations, by R. R. Smeby.

* IPPL News, 1993, 20[3]. (International Primate Protection League, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484)
. . Includes a special 20th Anniversary Supplement.

New Journals

* Sulawesi Primate Newsletter. [Price: $5/year, 3 issues. N. Bynum, Ed., 1126 John Jones Rd, Bahama, NC 27503]
. . A newsletter to facilitate communication and collaboration among those interested in Sulawesi and its primates. Volume I, numbers 1 and 2, have been published.

Special Journal Issues

*Nonhuman primate models for AIDS V. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22[2/3].
. . Selected papers, edited by Jorg Eichberg, from the meeting held 17-20 November, 1991 at the Caribbean Primates Center, Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan. Contents: Long-term protection of macaques against high-dose type D retrovirus challenge after immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing envelope glycoproteins, by R. E. Benveniste, L. Kuller, S. T. Roodman, S-L. Hu, & W. R. Morton. Type D SRV-2 virus-specific CD8+ CD4- CD8- cells that regulate virus-induced T cell proliferation in Celebes macaques, by A. Malley, N. Pangares, S. K. Mayo, M. Zeleny-Pooley, J. V. Torres, E. Benjamini, & M. K. Axthelm. The importance of nonhuman primate research in the battle against AIDS: A historical perspective, by M. B. Gardner. Protection of vaccinia-primed macaques against SIVmne infection by combination immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus and SIVmne gp160, by S.-L. Hu, V. Stallard, K. Abrams, G. N. Barber, L. Kuller, A. J. Langlois, W. R. Morton, & R. E. Benveniste. Whole inactivated SIV vaccine grown on human cells fails to protect against homologous SIV grown on simian cells, by P. Putkonen, C. Nilsson, K. Hild, R. Benthin, M. Cranage, A. M. Aubertin, & G. Biberfeld. Immunisation of macaques with SIV env recombinants: Specificity of T cell and antibody responses and evaluation of protective efficacy, by K. H. G. Mills, M. Page, P. Kitchin, L. Chan, W. Jones, P. Silvera, T. Cor- coran, B. Flanagan, C. Ling, C. Thiriart, M. DeWilde, C. Bruck, E. Rud, B. Clark, & E. J. Stott. Immunization of Macaca fascicularis with inactivated SIV preparations: Challenge with human- or monkey-derived SIV and the effects of a longer immunization schedule, by F. Titti, M. L. Koanga Mogtomo, A. Borsetti, A. Geraci, L. Sernicola, G. Panzini, G. P. Turillazzi, S. Baroncelli, A. Giovannetti, R. Zamarchi, A. Amadori, F. Dianzani, L. Chieco-Bianchi, G. B. Rossi, & P. Verani. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes shared between HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV, by F. Gotch, D. Nixon, A. Gallimore, S. McAdam, & A. McMichael. Detection of serum antibodies in Ethiopian baboons that cross- react with SIV, HTLV-I, and type D retroviral antigens, by R. E. Benveniste, R. W. Hill, W. B. Knott, C-C. Tsai, L. Kuller, & W. R. Morton. SIV envelope glycoprotein epitopes recognized by antibodies from infected or vaccinated rhesus macaques, by J. V. Torres, D. E. Anderson, A. Malley, B. Banapour, M. K. Axthelm, E. Benjamini, & M. B. Gardner. Dynamics of the immune system response in cerebrospinal fluid and blood of SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys, by S. Sopper, S. Hemm, J. Meixensberger, C. Coulibaly, C. Stahl-Hennig, G. Hunsman, B. Fleckenstein, V. ter Meulen, & R. Dorries. The combined assessment of cellular apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and proliferative response to pokeweed mitogen has prognostic value in SIV infection, by A. M. del Llano, J. P. Amieiro-Puig, E. N. Kraiselburd, M. J. Kessler, C. A. Malaga, & J. A. Lavergne. Pathogenesis of SIVmacª¥© after atraumatic inoculation of the rectal mucosa in rhesus monkeys, by C. D. Pauza, P. Emau, M. S. Salvato, P. Trivedi, D. MacKenzie, M. Malkovsky, H. Uno, & K. T. Schultz. Intra-amniotic inoculation of pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fetuses with SIV and HIV-1, by H. D. Ochs, W. R. Morton, L. D. Kuller, Q. Zhu, C-C. Tsai, M. B. Agy, & R. E. Benveniste. Clinical and pathologic findings in infant rhesus macaques infected with SIVsmm by maternal transmission, by S. A. Klumpp, F. J. Novembre, D. C. Anderson, M. A. Simon, D. J. Ringler, & H. M. McClure. Early hematologic changes in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of SIVmac, by C. P. Mandell, M. C. Jain, C. J. Miller, M. Marthas, & S. Dandekar. Distribution of SIV infection in the gastrointestinal tract of rhesus macaques at early and terminal stages of AIDS, by C. Heise, P. Vogel, C. J. Miller, A. Lackner, & S. Dandekar. The resistance of HIV-infected chimpanzees to progression to AIDS correlates with absence of HIV-related T-cell dysfunction, by J. Heeney, R. Jonker, W. Koornstra, R. Dubbes, H. Niphuis, A-M. Di Rienzo, M-L. Gougeon, & L. Montagnier. Editorial note, by J. Moor-Jankowski. First updated and revised survey of worldwide HIV and SIV vaccine challenge studies in nonhuman primates: Progress in first and second order studies, by J. T. Warren & M. Dolatshahi.

Animal Models

*A primate model for acute and late cerebral vasospasm: Angiographic findings. Delgado-Zygmunt, T. J., Arbab, M. A.-R., Shiokawa, Y., & Svendgaard, N.-A. (N.-A. S., Neurosurg. Dept, Karolinska Sjukhuset, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden). Acta Neurochirurgica, 1992, 118, 130-136.
. . A reproducible biphasic vasospasm can be produced in the squirrel monkey and evaluated by repeated angiographic examinations.

*Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa endobronchitis in rhesus monkeys: II. A histopathologic analysis. Cheung, A. T. W., Moss, R. B., Kurland, G., Leong, A. B., & Novick, W. J., Jr. (Dept of Med. Pathology, U.C. Davis Med. Ctr (PAT-1), 2315 Stockton Blvd, Sacramento, CA 95817). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 257-262.
. . Rhesus monkeys treated with bronchoscopic instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-embedded agar beads developed chronic neutrophilic endobronchitis similar to chronic PA endobronchitis in cystic fibrosis (CF). Histopathologic studies further confirmed similarities to chronic PA endobronchitis in CF.

*Parkinsonism produced by tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) or the analogues. Yoshida, M., Ogawa, M., Suzuki, K., & Nagatsu, T. (Dept of Neurology, Jichi Med. School, Tochigi 329-04 Japan). Advances in Neurology, 1993, 60, 207-211.
. . TIQ administered to monkeys and mice produced motor disturbances that were reversed by levodopa administration; biochemical changes in the substantia nigra of monkeys; and neuropathological changes in the substantia nigra of the mice. Unlike MPTP, TIQ occurs in nature and has been found in a variety of foods.

*Unilateral MPTP-induced Parkinsonism in monkeys: A quantitative autoradiographic study of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and re-uptake sites. Przedborski, S., Jackson-Lewis, V., Popilskis, S., Kostic, V., Levivier, M., Fahn, S., & Cadet, J. L. (Black Bldg, Rm 307, College of Phys. & Surg., Columbia Univ., 630 W. 168th St, New York, NY 10032). Neurochirugie, 1991, 37, 377-382.
. . Unilateral intracarotid injection of MPTP caused rigidity and bradykinesia of the contralateral limbs, but the animals were able to eat and drink without levodopa therapy.

*Elevated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in AIDS encephalitis induced by simian immunodeficiency virus. Sasseville, V. G., Newman, W. A., Lackner, A. A., Smith, M. O., Lausen, N. C. G., Beall, D., & Ringler, D. J. (D. J. R., Harvard Med. School, New England RPRC, P. O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102). American Journal of Pathology, 1992, 141, 1021-1030.
. . The presence of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in both brain and cerebrospinal fluid was uniformly associated with SIVmac-induced disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and this expression may, at least in part, influence monocyte and lymphocyte recruitment to the CNS during the development of AIDS encephalitis.

*Relapsing hepatitis A in saimiri monkeys experimentally reinfected with a wild type hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prevot, S., Marechal, J., Pillot, J., & Prevot, J. (J. Prevot, Inst. Pasteur, Virologie Medicale, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France). Archives of Virology, 1992, 4[Suppl], 5-10.
. . Squirrel monkeys were inoculated 3 times with hepatitis A virus and observed for 16 months. The animals developed recurrent hepatitis involving liver damage and cycles of HAV antigen shedding in stools. The relapses were presumably due to immune response effects.

*Evaluation of the bioeffects of prenatal ultrasound exposure in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis): III Developmental and Hematological Studies. Tarantal, A. F., O'Brien, W. D., & Hendrickx, A. G. (California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616-8542). Teratology, 1993, 47, 159-170.
. . Infants exposed to ultrasound in utero showed transient reductions in body wieghts up through 4 months of age; no statistically significant differences in muscle tone; white blood cells transiently reduced on days 3 and 21. No direct effects were evident in bone marrow aspirates collected on days 3, 9, and 21.

*Embryotoxicity studies of norfloxacin in cynomolgus monkeys. II. Role of progesterone. Cukierski, M. A., Hendrickx, A. G., Prahalada, S., Tarantal, A. F., Hess, D. L., Lasley, B. L., Peter, C. P., Tarara, R., & Robertson, R. T. (Address same as above). Teratology, 1992, 46, 429-438.
. . Norfloxacin, an orally active fluoroquinolone antimicrobial, has been reported to be embryolethal but not teratogenic when administered to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys prior to gestational day 36 at doses >=200 mg/kg/day. Studies reported here examined the role of progesterone in this effect. Apparently the developmental toxic effects are specific to pregnancy and directly related to placental-derived progesterone production.

*Absorption, distribution and elimination of selenium as L-selenomethionine in non-human primates. Willhite, C. C., Hawkes, W. C., Omaye, S. T., Choy, W. N., Cox, D. N., & Cukierski, M. J. (Dept of Toxic Substances Control, California EPA, 700 Heinz St, Suite 200, Berkeley, CA 94710). Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1992, 30, 903-913.
. . L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet) is under investigation as a potential anti-cancer drug. 20 adult female Macaca fascicularis were given oral doses of L-SeMet equivalent to 0, 25, 150, 300, and 600 microg. Se/kg body weight, and plasma, erythrocyte, hair, fecal, and urine Se concentrations were determined. Systemic toxicity necessitated dose reduction in several animals. Animals that were given 25 microg/kg for only 30 days experienced various degrees of body weight loss, dermatological disorders, and menstrual irregularities. Total tissue Se increased 13 to 28-fold in macaques given the highest concentration.

*Neuroplasticity of the adult primate auditory cortex following cochlear hearing loss. Schwaber, M. K., Garraghty, P. E., & Kaas, J. H. (Vanderbilt Univ. Med. Ctr, S-2100 Med. Ctr North, Nashville, TN 37232-2559). American Journal of Otology, 1993, 14, 252-258.
. . Tonotopic organization of the primary auditory area (A1) of adult macaque monkeys was mapped, before and 3 months after the animals were deafened for high frequencies using kanamycin and furosemide. Results indicate that the deprived area of A1 undergoes extensive reorganization and becomes responsive to intact cochlear frequencies. The region of cortex that represents the low frequencies was not obviously affected by the cochlear hearing loss.

*The evaluation of compartmental syndromes using somatosensory evoked potentials in monkeys. Present, D. A., Nainzedeh, N. K., Ben-Yishay, A., & Mazzara, J. T. (Hospital for Joint Diseases, Orthopaedic Inst., 301 E. 17th St, New York, NY 10003). Clinical Orthopaedics, 1993, 287, 276-285.
. . Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) of the medial, deep peroneal, and tibial nerves were recorded in experimentally-induced compartmental syndromes in nine Macaca mulata. Significant changes in SEP waveforms were seen at pressures as low as 30 mm Hg as early as 45 minutes. Pressures of 35 and 40 mm Hg led to more pronounced abnormalities in SEP waveforms, with marked decreases in wave amplitudes and variability in the time to onset of these changes. Somatosensory evoked potentials are noninvasive, sensitive, and dynamic determinations of nerve function and may have clinical significance in the early detection of nerve dysfunction in compartment syndromes.

Behavior

*Long-term study of infant-carrying behavior in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Effect of nonreproductive helpers on the parents' carrying performance. Rothe, H., Darms, K., Koenig, A., Radespiel, U., & Juenemann, B. (Inst. of Anthropology, Univ. of Gottingen, Burgerstrasse 50, D-3400 Gottingen, Germany). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 79-93.
. . Four families were studied over six to eight litters. Infant-rearing experience of nonreproductive helpers seems to be more important for the parents' relief from infant-carrying than the overall number of helpers. Breeding males benefited most and from every helper, while breeding females benefited most from adult helpers. A group member's participation in infant-carrying is influenced by housing conditions and the demographic history of the group.

*Seasonal influences on rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) behavior. Bernstein, I. S. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 383-403.
. . Seasonal differences in morphology and behavior cannot be attributed to a single variable, like temperature, level of gonadal hormones, or sexual competition, and may reflect a broader adaptation to seasonal variables.

*A modest proposal: Displacement activities as an indicator of emotions in primates. Maestripieri, D., Schino, G., Aureli, F., & Troisi, A. (Address same as above). Animal Behaviour, 1992, 44, 967-979.
. . A review of current knowledge about primate displacement activities, pointing to their potential value as a behavioral indicator of emotional states associated with social interactions.

Conservation

*Primates in northern Viet Nam: A review of the ecology and conservation status of extant species, with notes on Pleistocene localities. Nisbett, R. A. & Ciochon, R. L. (Dept of Anthropology, Iowa State Univ. of Science & Tech., Ames, IO 50011-1050). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 765-795.
. . The authors discuss the distribution of living and fossil primates in northern Viet Nam, integrating new localities into the known ranges, addressing the ecological parameters and status of extant primate species and interpolating fossil specimens from Pleistocene cave sites into the discussion of current ranges. They also review the effects of anthropogenic threats to nonhuman primates in Viet Nam.

*Macaques may have a bleak future in North American zoos. Lindburg, D. G. (San Diego Zoo, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112). Zoo Biology, 1993, 12, 407-409.
. . Discussion of the actual danger posed to zoo employees by Herpes B infected macaques, and the threat to captive survival plans caused by zoos' response to that danger.

Development

*Depressive behavior and serum cortisol of Macaca fascicularis after maternal separation and housing with a "nurse". Koyama, T., Terao, K., & Sackett, G. P. (Kawamura Gakuen Woman's Univ., Sageto, Abiko-shi, Chiba-ken, 270-11, Japan). Primate Research, 1991, 7, 1-11.
. . Data revealed marked between-infant variability in growth, behavior, cortisol, and behavior-cortisol associations following social separation. Whether for husbandry, psychological well-being, or research, valid characterization of individual reactions to social loss requires assessment of clinical symptoms, physiology, and behavior.

*Psychological stress of maternal separation in cynomolgus monkeys: I. The effect of housing with a nurse female. Koyama, T. & Terao, K. (Address same as above). In Topics in Primatology, Vol. 2: Behavior, Ecology and Conservation (pp. 101-113). N. Itoigawa, Y. Sugiyama, G. P. Sackett, & R. K. R. Thompson (Eds.). Tokyo: Univ. of Tokyo Press, 1992.
. . Presence of an unfamiliar adult female during separation from mother, moving to a new cage, and meeting unfamiliar agemates was partially effective in ameliorating adverse responses of infants, but it failed to reduce the occurrence of diarrhea. It also appeared to restrict locomotion and delay onset of social interactions.

*Psychological stress of maternal separation in cynomolgus monkeys: II. Effects on natural killer cells. Terao, K., Murayama, Y. & Koyama, T. (Tsukuba Primate Ctr for Med. Science, NIH, Ibaragi, Japan). Topics in Primatology, Vol. 2: Behavior, Ecology and Conservation (pp. 115-125). N. Itoigawa, Y. Sugiyama, G. P. Sackett, & R. K. R. Thompson (Eds.). Tokyo: Univ. of Tokyo Press, 1992.
. . Maternal separation and exposure to a new environment, which causes psychological stress in infants, affect CD16+ NK subset levels as well as NK activity.

*Morphometrical study of physical growth of laboratory-bred cynomolgus monkeys: A longitudinal study during the first 6 years of life. Shimizu, T., Yoshida, T., Cho, F., & Goto, N. (Corp. for Production & Research of Lab. Primates, 1 Hachimandai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1993, 42, 151-158 (Japanese with English abstract and tables).
. . Seventeen variables measured over six years in 12 females and 10 males.

Disease

*Arthritis in New World monkeys: Osteoarthritis, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, and spondyloarthropathy. Rothschild, B. M. & Woods, R. J. (Arthritis Ctr of NE Ohio, 5701 Market St, Youngstown, OH 44512). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 61-78.
. . Analysis of 1040 skeletons of 10 species of New World monkeys show that osteoarthritis and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease are predominantly diseases of animals raised in artificially constrained environments. v *Acute gastric dilatation in two black and white colobus monkeys. Farah, I. O., Chege, G. K., & Riday, A. M. (Inst. of Primate Research, Nat. Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 278-279.
. . Two black and white colobus monkeys died at night with no prior history of illness. Necropsies revealed acute gastric dilatation. ingestion of low fiber feeds seems to have precipitated the condition. These monkeys have ruminant-like stomachs in which pre-gastric fermentation occurs. Currently there are no commercial high fiber feeds available.

* Arcobacter (Campylobacter) butzleri -associated diarrheal illness in a nonhuman primate population. Anderson, K. F., Kiehlbauch, J. A., Anderson, D. C., McClure, H. M., & Wachsmuth, I. K. (Div. of Pathobiology & Immunobiology, Yerkes PRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Infection and Immunity, 1993, 61, 2220-2223.
. . Over 8 months, 532 diarrheal specimens from 222 macaques were cultured, as well as 76 colonic specimens as part of a necropsy protocol. Fifteen Arcobacter butzleri isolates were obtained from 14 animals; 7 animals were coinfected with Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni. A. butzleri was not isolated from normal feces. These and other data suggest that A. butzleri may be endemic in this primate population in juvenile and adult macaques with diarrhea, and it may present an opportunity to study the pathogenesis of this organism, which appears to be associated with persistent diarrhea in humans.

*A spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Sasseville, V. G., Pauley, D. R., Spaulding, G. L., Chalifoux, L. V., Lee-Parritz, D., & Simon, M. A. (Harvard Med. School, New England R.P.R.C., P. O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 272-275.
. . Immunohistochemical analysis of a squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity of an adult female squirrel monkey demonstrated cytokeratin and vimentin, but not S100 or desmin in the neoplastic epithelial cells.

*Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the envelope proteins of an immunodeficiency virus of African green monkeys, SIVagmTYO-7. Otteken, A., Nick, S., Bergter, W., Luke, W., Stahl-Hennig, C., Peters, J. H., Voss, G., & Hunsmann, G. (Abt. Virologie u. Immunologie, DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, D-W-3400, Gottingen, Germany). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 263-268.
. . The first report on monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for SIVagm-gp130. Studies of cross-reactivities revealed that the epitopes recognized by the env-directed mabs are conserved species-specifically in SIVagm isolates, so these mabs can be used to distinguish SIVagm strains from other virus groups.

*Multifactorial etiology of anemia in SIV-infected rhesus macaques: Decreased BFU-E formation, serologic evidence of autoimmune hemolysis, and an exuberant erythropoietin response. Hillyer, C. D., Klumpp, S. A., Hall, J. M., Lackey, D. A., III, Ansari, A. A., & McClure, H. M. (Emory Univ. Hospital Blood Bank, 1364 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30338). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 253-256.
. . Data suggest that the cause of anemia in SIV-infected rhesus macaques is multifactorial, that there may be a defect in erythropoiesis, and that, serologically, an IgG mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia is also present.

*Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection in a chimpanzee. Abe, K., Kagei, N., Teramura, Y., & Ejima, H. (Dept of Pathology, Nat. Inst. of Health, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 237-239.
. . A solitary firm nodule, which histology revealed to be a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma with a trabecular pattern, was found in a female chimpanzee that had been in captivity 10 years, and that was negative for hepatitis B and C virus infections.

*Environmental correlates of gastrointestinal parasitism in montane and lowland baboons in Natal, South Africa. Appleton, C. C. & Henzi, S. P. (Dept of Zoology & Entomology, Univ. of Natal, P. O. Box 375, Pietermaritzburg, 3200 South Africa). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 623-635,
. . While montane animals harbored a smaller number of species, judging from fecal analysis, helminth egg-output rates were higher in them than in the lowland animals. The difference in helminth egg output may be due to a combination of food shortage and the high proportion of soil-contaminated items in the diets of montane animals.

* Pasteurella multocida infections in baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Bronsdon, M. A. & DiGiacomo, R. F. (R.P.R.C., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Primates, 1993, 34, 205-209.
. . Pasteurella infections were associated with surgical procedures, chronic catheterization, and chair restraint. The organism was also detected in 2 of 15 clinically healthy baboons, suggesting that the organism is harbored naturally and that exudative infections can occur secondary to specific procedures.

General

*Baboon livers and the human good. Post, S. G. (Center for Biomed. Ethics, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Med., 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106-4976). Archives of Surgery, 1993, 128, 131-133.
. . The author addresses the question: Would it be morally conscionable to raise baboons in comfortable surroundings to serve human transplant needs?

Genetics and Taxonomy

*Phylogeny of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis. Zhang, Y-p. & Shi, L-m. (Lab. of Cellular & Molecular Evolution, Kunming Inst. of Zoology, Acad. Sinica, Kunming 650107, China). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 587-605.
. . Integrating data from current and previous studies, the authors suggest that rhesus monkeys in China, Vietnam, and Burma may be classified into six subspecies, and that rhesus monkeys in India may be another valid subspecies. The taxonomic status of the Hainan monkey and that of the Taiwan monkey require further investigation.

*Protein electrophoretic variability in Saimiri and the question of its species status. Silva, B. T. F., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Montoya, E., Encarnacion, F., Callegari-Jacques, S. M., & Salzano, F. M. (F. M. S., Depto de Genetica, Inst. de Biociencias, UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15053, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil). American Journal of Primatology, 1993, 29, 183-193.
. . An electrophoretic survey of 15 protein systems (22 loci) in 9 populations (441 individuals) of three sub-species of S. sciureus. The data suggest there is only one large, polytypic species of squirrel monkeys in South America, forming a contiguous ring of geographical races or subspecies. Two of the most differentiated forms meet at the Peruvian Amazonia where natural hybrids and secondary intergradation have been reported.

Instruments & Techniques

*Characterization of cardiac alterations in nonsedated cynomolgus monkeys. Macallum, G. E. & Houston, B. J. (Parke-Davis Research Inst., Div. of Warner-Lambert Canada, Inc., Mississauga, P.O. L5K 1B4 Canada). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1993, 54, 327-332.
. . Electrocardiograms were recorded on 31 male and 31 female cynomolgus monkeys while they were restrained without sedation in a primate chair, twice within a week. Each monkey was fitted with a carrying jacket and Holter recording, and records were made for 16 to 24 hours, twice within a week. Heart rates were higher and QT intervals shorter than those in the literature, which were, however, collected from sedated animals. Prevalence of ventricular ectopic beats in the Holter recordings was higher than in the ECG. This was attributable to a longer monitoring period and less human intervention during the recording period. Ventricular ectopic beats and sinus arrythmia can occur without apparent cause in monkeys. Holter monitoring identifies higher prevalence of these abnormalities than routine ECG does.

*Flow cytometric characterization of lymphocyte subpopulations in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Bleavins, M. R., Brott, D. A., Alvey, J. D., & de la Iglesia, F. A. (Clinical & Molecular Pathology, Pathology & Exp. Toxicology, Parke-Davis Pharm. Research, 2800 Plymouth Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 1993, 37, 1-13.
. . A direct immunofluorescence technique adaptable for routine and repeated monitoring, faster and using less volume than conventional methods.

Nutrition

*Protein composition of rhesus monkey milk: Comparison to human milk. Kunz, C. & Lonnerdal, B. (Forschunsinst fur Kinderernahrung, Heinstuck 11, 4600 Dortmund 50 Germany). Comparative Biochemical Physiology, 1993, 104A, 793-797.
. . Rhesus milk is higher in protein concentration, and lower in non-protein nitrogen, secretory IgA, lactoferrin, serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, and lysozyme than human milk. The casein subunit pattern is more complex in the rhesus milk. There is a protein with molecular weight 21,600 which is a major component in monkey whey, but not found in human milk.

*Radiographic changes in rhesus macaques affected by scurvy. Morgan, J. P. & Eisele, P. H. (Dept of Radiol. Sci., School of Vet. Med., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616-8742). Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 1992, 33, 334-339.
. . Spontaneous scurvy was recognized in juvenile rhesus monkeys maintained on a commercial diet with low levels of vitamin C. Some of the animals were radiographed repeatedly up to day 300 following detection of the disease, and results are provided.

Pharmacology & Anesthesia

*6-Dimethylamino-9-(--D-arabinofuranosyl)-9H-purine: Pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity in simian varicella virus-infected monkeys. Soike, K. F., Huang, J-l., Lambe, C. U., Nelson, D. J., Ellis, M. N., Krenitsky, T. A., & Koszalka, G. W. (Tulane RPRC, Tulane Univ., 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433). Antiviral Research, 1993, 20, 13-20.
. . ara-DMAP effectively prevented the development of rash and appreciably reduced viremia in simian varicella virus-infected African green monkeys. Doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg/day were highly effective. The lowest dose, 20 mg/kg/day, was much less effective in preventing moderate virema, but did prevent rash in two of three monkeys. All three doses reduced liver infection.

*Age-related changes in hepatic function: Implications for drug therapy. Woodhouse, K. & Wynne, H. A. (Univ. Dept of Geriatric Med., Univ. of Wales College of Med., Cardiff, Wales). Drugs & Aging, 1992, 2, 243-255.
. . A review seeking evidence to explain the age-related decrease in the liver's ability to clear many drugs.

*Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin on behavior of monkeys in peer groups. Schantz, S. L., Ferguson, S. A., & Bowman, R. E. (Inst. for Environ. Studies, Univ. of Illinois, 1101 W. Peabody, Urbana, IL 61801). Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1992, 14, 433-446.
. . Juvenile rhesus monkeys exposed in utero to TCDD initiated more rough-tumble play, retreated less during play bouts, were less often displaced from preferred positions, and engaged in more self-directed behaviors than control monkeys. Juveniles born to the same mothers a year after their exposure showed no behavioral differences when socialized with control monkeys, but some behavioral changes did emerge when they were placed in social groups containing only TCDD-exposed monkeys.

*Postural changes in venous pressure gradients in anesthetized monkeys. Terada, N. & Takeuchi, T. (Dept of Physiology, Yamanashi Med. College, Tamaho, Nakakoma, Yamanashi 409-38, Japan). American Journal of Physiology, 1993, 264, H21-H25.
. . During head-down tilt, the gravitational shift of venous blood is impeded by the passage of the inferior vena cave through the central tendon of the diaphragm, and venous pressure around the hepatic vein increases significantly. Head-up and head-down tilt do not induce symmetrical but opposite influences on vena caval pressures.

Physiology

*Diurnal pattern of pulsatile luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Influence of the timing of daily meal intake. Mattern, L. G., Helmreich, D. L., & Cameron, J. L. (J. L. C., Dept of Psychiatry, School of Med., Univ. of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213). Endocrinology, 1993, 132, 1044-1054.
. . Results of fasting and changing meal times suggest that nutritional/metabolic signals may be part of the normal physiological mechanism regulating the daily activity of the reproductive axis, rather than just signals that influence the activity of the reproductive axis in pathological situations of undernutrition.

*Lack of seasonality in day and night serum levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, testicular size, and body weight of adult bonnet monkeys (M. radiata) maintained in captivity. Kholkute, S. D., Katkam, R. R., & Puri, C. P. (Endocrine Res. Ctr, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824). Primates, 1993, 34, 71-76.
. . Data from seven adult bonnet monkeys maintained under controlled photoperiod and temperature over a period of 12 months.

*Parathyroid hormone, ionised calcium, and potentially interacting variables in plasma of an Old World primate. Fincham, J. E., Wilson, G. R., Belonje, P. C., Seier, J. V., Taljaard, J. J. F., McIntosh, M., Kruger, M., & Voget, M. (Primate Unit: Exp. Biology Prog., MRC, P.O. Box 19070, Tygerberg, South Africa, 7505). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 246-252.
. . Description of acute phase parathyroid responses to manipulation of blood ionized calcium, and of reference values for potentially interacting variables, in vervet monkeys.

*Hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian function in female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in the non-mating season. Torii, R. & Nigi, H. (Inst. for Exp. Animals, Shiga Univ. of Med. Science, Seta tsukinowacho Ohtsu-shi, Shiga 520-21, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1993, 42, 143-149 (Japanese, with English abstract and figures).
. . Serum LH levels increased markedly in five females after a single IV injection of LH-RH in the mating season, but not at all in the nonmating season, even when five times the dose was administered.

Reproduction

* 1992 International Studbook, Golden Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia. J. D. Ballou, (Studbook Keeper). Washington DC: Nat. Zool. Park, 1993. 135 pp. (English and Portuguese)

*Gestation length in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Silk, J., Short, J., Roberts, J., & Kusnitz, J. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 95-104.
. . Data from about 700 pregnancies give an average gestation length of 166.5 days. Older females with higher parities had significantly longer pregnancies and significantly heavier infants compared to other females.

*Reproductive senescence and terminal investment in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Salem. Paul, A., Kuester, J., & Podzuweit, D. (Inst. fur Anthropologie, Univ. Gottingen, Burgerstrasse 50, 3400 Gottingen, Germany). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 105-124.
. . Data from 207 females in a large outdoor enclosure in southwest Germany show a significant relationship between age and fecundity. There was a significant decline in fertility from prime age (7-12 yr) to mid-age (13-19 yr), and from mid-age to old age (10-25 yr). Reproductive senescence and menopause are more common among nonhuman primates than has been widely believed.

*Inbreeding avoidance in rhesus macaques: Whose choice? Manson, J. H. & Perry, S. E. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1993, 90, 335-344.
. . Data from Cayo Santiago show that adult male rhesus monkeys breeding in their natal groups experienced high copulatory success, but copulated less with females of their own matrilineages than with others. Adult females were never observed to copulate with males of their own matrilineage during their fertile periods. Natal males sometimes courted their relatives, but females chose unrelated natal males over male kin.

*Myometrial contractile responsiveness to oxytocin after dexamethasone suppression of circadian uterine activity in pregnant rhesus macaques during late gestation. Ducsay, C. A., Ervin, M. G., Kaushal, K. M., & Matsumoto, T. (Div. of Perinatal Biology, School of Med., Loma Linda Univ., Loma Linda, CA 92350). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1992, 167, 1636-1641.
. . There is a differential sensitivity to oxytocin between morning and evening; dexamethasone-induced loss of the uterine contractile rhythm is not the result of a loss of myometrial sensitivity to oxytocin or to a suppression of plasma oxytocin concentrations.

*Use of GNRH agonists and antagonists for the suppression of testicular function in monkeys and men. Nieschlag, E., Weinbauer, G. F., & Behre, H. M. (WHO Collaborating Ctr for Human Reproduction, Steinfurterstr. 107, D-440 Munster, Germany). Contraception, 1992, 46, 189-192.
. . Review of pre-clinical and clinical tests of GNRH agonists, antagonists, and combinations.

*Stillbirth of twins in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis). Biben, M. (Lab. of Comparative Ethology, Bldg 112, Rm 205, NIH Animal Ctr, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1993, 22, 276-277.
. . First published report of twinning in a squirrel monkey.

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In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.
Phone: 401-863-2511
FAX: 401-863-1300
Judith_Schrier@brown.edu

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover drawing of black and white colobus monkey
(Colobus guereza kikuyensis) by Penny Lapham.

Copyright @1994 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.

* * *