Cover drawing Laboratory Primate Newsletter

VOLUME 33 NUMBER 3 JULY 1994

CONTENTS

Articles and Notes

Environmental Enhancement for Research Macaques: A Survey of Institutional Compliance, by V. Reinhardt...... 1

Karisoke and the Mountain Gorilla Amidst Turmoil in Rwanda, by H. D. Steklis...... 2

Responses to Survey on Ethical Principles in Primatology, by A. J. Petto...... 3

A Case of Adoption by an Adult Male Rhesus Macaque, by C. Schwind, L. L. Taylor, & S. M. Lehman...... 8

News, Information, and Announcements

Workshop Announcement: Animal Use Workshops...... 7

Editor's Note: LPN Grant Renewed...... 7

News Briefs...... 11
Rabies in the United States; Preventing HIV Transmission in Pregnancy; New Director at Oregon RPRC; Richey Decision Overturned; Changes at TNO; Animal Rights Groups Seek Representation; Spanish Primatology Association; Hanoi Joins CITES

Meeting Announcements...... 12
AALAS Annual Meeting; European Marmoset Research Group; 1994 ChimpanZoo Conference

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 13
Pathology of Lab Animals Course; Medicine for the Third World Traveler

Information Requested and Available...... 14
Physiological References; Food and Sex; Nocturnal Mammals; Free Access to NLM AIDS Databases; Aging in Rhesus and Squirrel Monkeys; Orangutan Field Projects

Resources Available: Caribbean Primate Research Center...... 15

Travelers' Health Notes: Herb Remedy for Drug-Resistan Malaria?...... 16

Grants Available...... 17
Low Cholesterol States; Service Awards for Postdoc Fellows; Mechanisms of AIDS Pathogenesis; Gorilla Conservation Grants

Address Changes...... 18

Recent Books and Articles......19

* * *

Survey of Environmental Enhancement for Research Macaques

Viktor Reinhardt

Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center

USDA Animal Welfare Rules pertaining to "environmental enhancement to promote psychological well-being" of nonhuman primates (sc3.81) were published in the Federal Register, 1991, 56[32]. They stipulate, among other things, that: "The environmental enhancement plan must include specific provisions to address the social needs of nonhuman primates of species [such as macaques] known to exist in social groups in nature" (sc3.81,a); and "The physical environment in the primary enclosures must be enriched by providing means for expressing noninjurious species-typical activities" (sc3.81,b). A survey of housing conditions of caged macaques was conducted in March 1994 in an attempt to evaluate compliance with these Rules.

Questionnaires with stamped, self-addressed return envelopes were sent to attending veterinarians of 22 facilities listed in the International Directory of Primatology (Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1992) that had at least 10 animals of one macaque spe- cies. The veterinarians were asked in a cover letter to return the questionnaire "if an Environmental Enhancement Plan has been implemented at your institution". The following questions were asked: * 1. What is the approximate percentage of caged animals that are permanently exposed to environmental enrichment objects? What enrichment objects do you use? * 2. What is the approximate percentage of caged subjects housed in pairs or small groups? * 3. Have you ever tried transferring singly caged adult subjects to permanent isosexual pair-housing? What method did you use? What was your approximate percentage of successful pairings of female partners? of male partners?

Eleven of the 22 questionnaires were filled out and returned within one month. The remaining veterinarians had not returned the questionnaires after three months. The 11 institutions that responded were dealing with four different macaque species: rhesus (Macaca mulatta; 11 institutions), long-tailed (M. fascicularis; 7 institutions), pigtailed (M. nemestrina; 5 institutions), and stump-tailed (M. arctoides; 2 institutions) macaques.

 
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|             M. mulatta  M. fascicularis  M. nemestrina  M. arctoides|
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|% of caged                                                             |
|animals:                                                               |
|exposed to                                                             |
|enrichment                                                             |
|objects       92.7% (n=11)  84.7% (n=7)    79.0% (n=5)    75.0% (n=2)  |
|                                                                       |
|housed in                                                              |
|pairs/groups  56.1% (n=11)  16.3% (n=7)    23.0% (n=5)    47.5% (n=2)  |
|                                                                       |
|% of successful                                                        |
|adult pair                                                             |
|formations:                                                            |
| female pairs  82.2% (n=5)  91.3% (n=3)    80.0% (n=1)    100% (n=1)   |
| male pairs    88.3% (n=3)  80.0% (n=1)    80.0% (n=1)    100% (n=1)   |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

Table 1: Summary, by species, of questionnaires returned

The percentage of caged macaques permanently exposed to enrichment objects ranged from 17.9% to 100% with a mean of 86.3 +/- 24.0% (Table 1). The following objects were used as environmental enhancers: Kong toys, perches, puzzle feeders, grooming boards, turf boards, branch segments, mirrors, chains, balls, supplemental food treats, fleece toys, and natural bedding material.

The percentage of caged macaques permanently housed in pairs or small groups ranged from 0% to 98.0% with a mean of 37.6 40.1%. Rhesus macaques had the highest, long-tailed macaques the lowest score (Table 1).

Isosexual pair-housing of adult female as well as of adult male macaques was successfully attempted by seven institutions. In all cases, partners were introduced to each other after a carefully monitored non-contact familiarization period. Pair formations were successful in 66.0% to 100% of cases, with a mean of 86.9 9.8%. Success rates of the four different species and of the two sexes showed no distinctive differences (Table 1).

This survey indicates that environmental enhancement has not yet been consistently implemented. It also shows that many facilities are willing to provide caged macaques simple environmental objects, but are reluctant to house them in pairs or groups. This unwillingness to "address the social needs" of caged macaques is surprising, given the fact that seven institutions reported remarkable success rates when transferring singly-caged adult subjects to permanent isosexual pair-housing, and that it has been documented in the scientific literature that pair-housing improves the animals' behavioral health without compromising their physical health and safety and without jeopardizing routine husbandry and common research protocols.

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Author's address: 4605 Crescent Rd, Madison WI 53711.

* * *

Karisoke and the Mountain Gorilla Amidst Turmoil in Rwanda

H. Dieter Steklis

The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund

As many of you know, for the second time in just over a year, we have had to evacuate our expatriate staff and researchers from the Karisoke Research Center. What all of us thought was at long last a road toward peace in Rwanda turned, within a few hours following the assassination of both Rwanda's and Burundi's presidents, into a surrealistic, nighmarish speedway to Armageddon. The scale of the human tragedy in Rwanda is unparalleled in recent history, and all of us who have worked there and have formed strong friendships with the Rwandan people are left in a state of shock and deep sadness.

Yet, we, The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund (DFGF), remain as committed as ever to continue our partnership with the Rwandan people and to aid and join them in their efforts to preserve their natural resources, including the mountain gorilla. For the time that our expatriate staff cannot return to Rwanda, we have taken several steps to ensure continued conservation activities at Karisoke and in the Virunga volcanos region. Our Rwandan field assistants and anti-poaching team agreed to conduct daily patrols through the forest, make contact with the gorilla groups normally monitored by us, and guard Karisoke by day, although it is too dangerous to remain there at night. With the help of other conservation organizations, we have remained in contact with our Rwandan staff and have been able to support them financially. The DFGF is also providing emergency funds to Rwandan park rangers who have courageously committed thmenselves to continue their patrols throughout the park. To the best of our knowledge, these acitivities are continuing successfully and will be carried out for as long as fighting does not spread into the park. Though there are periodic reports of battles in and around the nearby town of Ruhengeri, the fighting has not touched the park itself and, happily, there are, despite recent rumors, no reports of any gorilla casualties.

We are also exploring the establishment of an interim base of operations in the town of Goma, just on the other side of the Virungas in Zaire. This would allow us to remain in contact with our Rwandan staff, to keep them supplied, and to help monitor the health of the gorillas. (It is of historical note that Dian Fossey first established a camp in Zaire but the outbreak of civil war in Zaire forced her to flee to Rwanda to continue her work.) Dr. Pascale Sicotte (Karisoke Director) and I plan to travel to Goma this summer to explore the feasability of such a base of operations.

Here at home, mountain gorilla conservation activities are continuing as well. The space shuttle Endeavor during its April flight took radar images of the Virunga region, which will form a critical component of a Geographic Information System (GIS) established collaboratively with Drs. Scott Madry and Netzin Gerald at the Remote Sensing Center, Rutgers University. The GIS is a high-powered conservation tool that, eventually, will make possible the quantification and interrelation of data such as vegetation zones, gorilla ranging patterns, poaching activity, woodcutting and other forms of human use or environmental degradation for the entire mountain gorilla habitat.

Finally, for the longer term, we plan to resume our full activities at Karisoke just as soon as it becomes possible and safe to do so. Hopefully, the turmoil in Rwanda will cease before the damage to the people, their economy, and their natural resources becomes irreparable.

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Author's address: Dept. of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New- ark, NJ 07102.

* * *

Responses to Survey on Ethical Principles in Primatology

Andrew J. Petto

University of Wisconsin

Introduction

At the 1993 meetings of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP), nearly 50 people took part in a premeeting conference on ethics in primatology. Among the issues raised were the questions of how working primatologists viewed the field of ethics as it pertains to their research and professional lives and how these views were reflected in their attitudes toward research, the profession, the public, and their nonhuman primate subjects.

In an attempt to answer these questions, Shelly Williams developed a survey that was mailed and/or transmitted electronically to readers of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter (LPN) and the participants on the email discussion list primate-talk. The survey questions were meant to elicit a sense of the readers' responses to these questions, not a definitive statement of the "ethics of primatologists." However, the survey results present us with some interesting information and tantalizing questions about these pressing issues. This report is a preliminary analysis of data collected by that survey.

Materials and Methods

Each copy of the January 1994 issue of LPN contained an insert with the survey, an introductory statement about it and its goals, and instructions on where to route it (Williams and Petto, 1994). These items were also contained in electronically distributed versions of the Newsletter. In March, 1994, another copy of the survey was distributed via the internet discussion group, primate-talk -- an unmoderated list maintained by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center in Madison.

The subscription list for postal and electronic delivery of the LPN includes about 1,200 individuals. By this writing, 105 completed surveys had arrived: 76 of the original printed surveys, and 29 electronic versions. We assigned a case number to each survey, coded the replies, and entered the results into an interactive data analysis program (ADP, 1989).

Questions 1, 3, and 5 on the survey ("How many years...? How often...?") were coded on an ordinal scale. All other variables were coded on a nominal scale. For the questions that allowed more than one answer, each answer was coded as a separate variable to allow more flexibility in the coding and the analysis.

For the free-form questions, we constructed groups of similar responses, assigned numerical codes to the responses in order of their appearance, and analyzed these also as nominal variables. For questions that allowed more than one response per survey (e.g. 10, 11, 15), we entered the first three responses in any survey as separate variables (to preserve the relative order of the response), but combined them in many analyses to reflect the overall importance of a particular response. Many of the written responses to the survey questions were thoughtful and reasoned, and we tried to construct categories that reflected closely the main concern in those responses, but we recognize that the nominal categories can be only approximations of the depth and complexity of those responses.

The analysis of the data consisted initially of simple descriptive statistics. One-way frequencies are represented as proportions of the usable responses to any particular question. For more complex analyses, we used distribution-free and categorical data analysis techniques. We report the preliminary results using the Chi test of independence (Daniel, 1978) and statistical power analysis (Cohen, 1977).

Usable responses are those that are legible and that address the question in some fashion. Examples of unusable responses are, "In this space? You've got to be kidding!" and "Humans are primates!" Others included comments on the design and execution of a proper survey which, while edifying and accepted in the spirit of collegiality, did not help us determine what the respondent's reply was to the question. We used all 105 returns in our analyses, but on some questions there were as few as 30 usable answers. Details are shown in the "Results" section.

Results

The results of the descriptive statistics are given in Table 1. Some of the questions allowed more than one answer; most percentages are given as a proportion of the responses rather than of the responders. But in the question regarding the most helpful approach to public education, respondents were invited to choose up to five options, so results are presented as the proportion of the respondents; the total of these options is far greater than 100%.

 
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|1.  How many years have you worked with primates?                   |
|    *  0-5 (23.8%)  *  6-10 (17.1%)  *  < 10 (59%)                  |
|                                                                    |
|2.  Where do you spend most of your working time with primates?     |
|    *  field (15.2%)  *  zoo (14.3%)  *  laboratory  (75.2%)        |
|    *  other (11.4%)                                                |
|                                                                    |
|3.  Have special interest groups interfered with your research?     |
|    *  never (68%)  *  1-3 times (14.6%)   *  > 3 times (17.5%)     |
|                                                                    |
|4.  Been asked to speak about primates to special interest groups?  |
|    *  never (40%)  *  1-3 times (32.4%)   *  > 3 times (25.7%)     |
|                                                                    |
|5.  Is the general public ignorant about primate issues?            |
|    *  yes (85.3%)   *  no (12.8%)  *  don't know (2%)              |
|                                                                    |
|6.  Is it the scientist's responsibility to help educate the lay    |
|    person?                                                         |
|    *  yes (90.5%)   *  no (8.6%)  *  don't know (1%)               |
|    To help educate other scientists?                               |
|    *  yes (94.2%)  *  no (5.8%)                                    |
|                                                                    |
|7.  If yes, which methods would be most helpful to the lay person?  |
|    *  publications (42.3%)  *  tours (44.2%)   * talks (77.9%)     |
|    *  videos (54.8%)  *  documentaries (56.7%)                     |
|                                                                    |
|8.  What would you be willing to undertake if funding were          |
|    available?                                                      |
|    *  public lectures (24.5%)  * informal public workshops (19.5%) |
|    *  formal teaching (18.9%)  *  tours (8.8%)  *  others (27.7%)  |
|                                                                    |
|9.  Staff in primate facilities  are trained adequately in:         |
|    *  federal regs (41.8%)  *  primate behavior (30.1%)            |
|    *  psychological well-being (20.6%)  *  stress and              |
|    diseases (29.4%)   *  human/primate interaction (28.4%)         |
|                                                                    |
|10. Most important ethical issues:                                  |
|    *  species preservation (24.2%)  *  biomed. research (21.5%)    |
|    *  captivity  issues (20.7%)   *  biotechnology (10.2%)         |
|    *  appropriate use (6.3%)  *  others (16.5%)                    |
|                                                                    |
|11. Most difficult responsibilities of primatologists today?        |
|    *  communication (20.7%)  *  funding (20.3%)  *  issues of      |
|    *  captivity (16.8%)  *  species preservation (16.4%)           |
|    *  federal regs (11.7%)  *  others (14.1%)                      |
|                                                                    |
|12. Should primatologists be involved in relevant politics?         |
|    *  yes (93.2%)  *  no (5.8%)                                    |
|                                                                    |
|13. Should the ASP be involved in environmental issues?             |
|    *  fully (65.7%)  *  some (24.2%)  * little, none, or           |
|    no opinion (10.5%)                                              |
|                                                                    |
|14. Should all primates be viewed as having "rights"?               |
|    *  yes (44.3%)  *  no (53.6%)  *  don't know (2.1%)             |
|    Should monkeys have the same rights as apes?                    |
|    *  yes (78.2%)  *  no (21.8%)                                   |
|                                                                    |
|15. If nonhuman primates should have rights, what should they       |
|    include?                                                        |
|    *  highest welfare standards (29.6%)  *  freedom from pain,     |
|    suffering, injury (14.8%)  *  appropriate social situation      |
|    (11.8%)  *  limit usage to special cases  (8.9%)                |
|    *   others  (12.5%)                                             |
|                                                                    |
|16. Is ethics education of students, personnel, and scientists      |
|    important?                                                      |
|    *  extremely  (24.3%)   *  a lot  (17.5%)   *  some (54.4%)     |
|    *  little  (2.9%)   *  don't know  (1%)                         |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Table 1: Summary of survey responses

In several replies to question 3, respondents specifically mentioned the IACUC as the "special interest group" interfering with the research.

Respondents' answers to the first part of question 14, whether all primates should be viewed as having rights, did not necessarily jibe with responses to the second part of the question. That is, the prior opinion on the existence of rights for nonhuman primates did not affect the likelihood that respondents would assign different responsibilities toward monkeys and apes (Chi for 1 df; power = .684). And, despite the relatively low frequency of responses in support of nonhuman primate rights in direct response to question 14, 74 of the 105 respondents provided at least one example of such rights.

The analyses that follow explore the differences in attitudes toward ethics, responsibilities, and rights among respondents who 1) worked in different types of facilities or settings; 2) worked in the discipline different lengths of time; and 3) who supported or denied the general notion of "rights" for nonhuman primates.

All respondents designated species conservation and captive care as high priorities, but those working in academic labs differed from the other respondents in giving equal weight to issues in biomedical research and also by identifying biotechnology and appropriate use as significant issues. (Chi for 51 df; alpha = .014; power > .995). Respondents in the other settings identified these issues at a much lower rate. There were similar patterns among work sites in the responsibilities identified by respondents in different work environments. Again, all the respondents generally agreed on the importance of species preservation and captive care. However, respondents from academic labs were more likely also to identify federal regulations, education (public and interdisciplinary), and ongoing funding as important priorities (Chi for 39 df; alpha = .005; power > .995).

The length of time that the respondent had spent working with nonhuman primates also had a statistically significant effect on which ethical issues were identified as the most important (Chi-square for 34 df; alpha = .036; power > .995). All respondents gave highest priority to species preservation and issues of primates in captivity. Those with the shortest time also rated biomedical research as an area of great ethical import, while those with 6-10 years' experience gave additional emphasis to issues of use. Those with more than 10 years' experience shifted their emphases to biotechnology and appropriate use. There was no statistically significant effect of length of time working with nonhuman primates on the distribution of the primatologists' responsibilities, the rights that should be ascribed to nonhuman primates, or whether the respondent agreed or disagreed that nonhuman primates should have rights at all.

Discussion

This survey should be considered a preliminary sounding of opinion among primatologists. The most significant problem with the instrument is that a number of important questions intended to be open-ended were "contaminated" by the inclusion of examples that acted for at least some respondents as multiple choice options. However, for the contaminated questions, there was no statistically significant difference in ethical issues or responsilibities identified as most important by the respondents with different a priori attitudes about rights. These data are the most tantalizing and the most frustrating, because the issues receiving the highest frequency of responses were the ones suggested by the questions. And yet, almost half the responses to these questions were different from the suggestions. Most intriguing is the trend toward more concern within the lab setting rather than the opposite, in which we expect to see an increasing desensitization over time. There is also the possibility "species preservation" means something quite different to lab-based, field- based or zoo-based primatologists.

There are a number of other interesting and surprising findings in the results. The first of these is the overwhelming interest in outreach to the public and other professionals about nonhuman primates and the commitment across all specialties to various activities for disseminating information about nonhuman primates. This is evident among respondents in a wide variety of situations. Not only are the respondents concerned with the level of understanding of primatology and related issues, but they showed a willingness to respond with specific action to address those needs in society.

Second, the general expectations about professional researchers' attitudes toward animals and animal use are not upheld by these responses. For example, one would expect that prolonged exposure to the research use of animals, especially in an academic laboratory, would decrease their sensitivity to the needs of research animals. In general, there is very little to distinguish the attitudes toward the ethics of research with nonhuman primates among those with very different work environments or with significant differences in the length of time they have worked with primates.

However, when work environment and time in the discipline do have an effect on respondents' sense of ethics and responsibilities, these effects are statistically significant in only three of the eight comparisons. In all the cases of differences related to work environment, the differences in identification of ethical issues showed a greater sensitivity to the ethical importance of biomedical and biotechnological issues among those who worked in academic research laboratories. This is the opposite of what one might predict.

On the other hand, the workplace-related differences in perceptions of responsibilities toward nonhuman primates do reflect expected differences in the working environment. Those in academic laboratories show a much greater concern for the issues of federal regulation, appropriate use, and outreach and education activities. Again, these contradict the general expectation that laboratory primatologists are unconcerned about these issues.

Finally, the responses indicate that the main effect of increased time and experience in primatology is a significant change in how ethical issues are identified and framed. As these respondents report more time in the discipline, we see a shift away from the more general concerns, such as biomedical research, and toward more specific aspects of research animal use, such as biotechnology and xenografts, and issues of appropriate use.

However, the most interesting and unexpected findings from this survey have to do with the duties due nonhuman primates from these researchers. Although over half denied that these animals could be said to have any "rights", there was no statistically significant difference between those who accepted and those who rejected rights for nonhuman primates in any of the other analyses. These included their assessment of the most important ethical issues, the most urgent or difficult responsibilities, and the specific "rights" or duties due nonhuman primates.

From this, it seems that these respondents were very uncomfortable with "rights talk", but not uncomfortable with specific duties and obligations toward nonhuman primates. In fact, in no analysis could the prior stance on rights for these animals be used to predict the outcome on any other variable. This suggests that these researchers are more at home with concrete statements of specific duties toward these animals than the abstract notion of rights.

The apparent contradictions in this view are expressed by Rosemary Rodd (1990, p. 3) when she writes, "the view is that if we have duties to animals, then they have corresponding rights." She continues, "...[A] person who believes that animals do have rights is not in any way committed to a general opposition to scientific enquiry....For a theory of animal rights in relation to scientific use, it is necessary only to consider to what extent these rights ought to limit the kinds of experiments which are ethically justifiable; as indeed scientists have almost universally accepted in the special case of experiments involving humans" (Rodd, 1990, p. 144). Some of the reluctance to use the word "rights" in this context may arise from the problems Midgley (1989, p. 14) points out as arising from adapting for use with animals of moral language designed for use in human relations. Further, Leahy (1991, p. 12) reminds us that the proper adaptation of such language from human to nonhuman animals is no trivial matter. Since the reluctance to accept the use of the word "rights" in respect to these general duties does not significantly affect the respondents' views of their duties to the nonhuman primates they study, it is very likely that these respondents are expressing sentiments much more in keeping with Rodd's position than they imagine when considering the word "rights" in association with animal research.

Conclusions

The questions we asked grew out of the 1993 working conference, Ethics in Primatology (Petto and Russell, 1993), and are based on questions and concerns presented at that conference (Petto, 1994). Any interpretation of the findings must take into account the relatively informal nature of the inquiry. In addition, given the structural problems with a number of questions -- most notably the contamination of the open-ended questions by a few very specific suggestions -- we really must regard these 105 responses as a pretest or general indication of interest in and ideas about ethical issues in primatology.

However, these results are useful primarily because they lead us to areas of inquiry that can be addressed fruitfully in the future with a well-designed survey instrument or interviews of professional primatologists. The analyses make it clear that, despite technical problems with some of the questions, respondents with very different views on the nature of nonhuman animals and their relationships with humans differ only slightly in their assessment of duties incumbent on humans toward nonhuman primates and the most important ethical issues facing the discipline today. This is especially evident in question 15 about the rights due to nonhuman primates which was free from "contamination" from examples listed within the question.

The responses that we received convinced us that there is a strong contingent of primatologists who are concerned about ethical issues and committed to grappling with them. Although, as a whole, this group is shy about using the term "rights" to describe the duties that researchers in all settings have to nonhuman primates, there is strong agreement among the respondents on the duties that we, as researchers, have to them.

Based on these responses, we believe that it is worthwhile to develop this interest in ethical issues as a focus for professional development and education within the context of our professional societies, such as the American Society of Primatologists, by developing scholarly collaborations among ourselves and with other professionals in fields (e.g., philosophy, history, social sciences) that also confront these issues in the context of scholarship and professional action. We are left with an impression that primatologists are concerned with issues of ethics in their profession and that it is fruitful to pursue these issues in the context of our professional lives (see Petto and Russell, 1993) and with our colleagues in other disciplines to encourage "a philosophical examination of the significance of theories and factual discoveries from the life sciences for the development of ideas about the moral standing of animals" (Rodd, 1990).

References

ADP (1989). ADAPS: A Data Analysis Programming System. Chicopeee, MA: Adaptive Data Systems.

Cohen J. (1977). Statistical Power Analysis for the Social Sciences, Rev. Ed. NY: Academic Press.

Daniel W. W. (1978). Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences. NY: Wiley.

Leahy, M. P. T. (1991). Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective. New York: Routledge.

Midgley, M. (1989). Are you an animal? In G. Langley (Ed.), Animal Experimentation: The Consensus Changes (pp. 1-18). London: MacMillan.

Petto, A. J. (1994). Ethics in primatology research. Evolutionary Anthropology, 2[4], 119-120.

Petto, A. J. & Russell, K. D. (1993). Ethics in primatology. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 32[2], 4-6.

Rodd, R. (1990) Biology, Animals, and Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Williams, S. L. & Petto, A. J. (1994). Survey for the development of primatology ethics principles. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 33[1], i-ii.

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Author's address: Center for Biology Education, 660 WARF, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705.

The author gratefully acknowledges the help and support of Judith Schrier, Shelly Williams, Karla Russell, Diane McIntyre and all the LPN readers and their colleagues who took part in the survey. This work was supported in part by a grant from the Edna H. Tompkins Trust, NIH (NCRR) grant #00168 to NERPRC, the University of Wisconsin, and a grant from Judith Schrier in memory of Allan Schrier and their parents, Jean Schrier and Ruth and Bernard Sanow. This is publication #94-002 from the Center for Biology Education.

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A Case of Adoption by an Adult Male Rhesus Macaque

Christine Schwind, Linda L. Taylor, and Shawn M. Lehman

University of Georgia, University of Miami, and Washington University

Introduction

Several macaque species have been reported to exhibit adult male-infant social interactions (Taub & Redican, 1984). Male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are normally indifferent to infants (Thierry & Anderson, 1986). However, when adult males and immature rhesus macaques do interact, both may improve their chances of success in reproductive, dominance, or agonistic interactions, as well as gaining greater access to food resources (Deag & Crook, 1971; Hill, 1986). Most interactions between adult male rhesus and infants reported to date are anecdotal or based on very few data (e.g. Redican & Mitchell, 1973; Berman, 1983; Vessey & Meikle, 1984). In this paper, we report on the results of a two month systematic study of the interactions between an adult male rhesus macaque and an orphaned female infant. An adult male (SM) appeared to "adopt" a weanling female (KD) within a day after KD's mother died. SM appeared to direct certain behaviors preferentially towards her: ventral carrying, agonistic intervention, and grooming. KD followed SM around their enclosure and initiated interactions with him, while avoiding interactions with other adult males. Therefore, we hypothesized that some manner of adoptive relationship was developing between them.

Methods

Charles River Labs, Inc. maintains a large commercial breeding colony of rhesus macaques on two islands, Raccoon Key and Key Lois, in the Florida Keys (Lehman et al., 1994). We focused on monkeys maintained on Key Lois, a sand and mangrove key located approximately 5 km east of Summerland Key at 24deg 36' 5" N and 81deg 28' 2" W. Key Lois is home to both free-ranging and caged groups.

The subjects of this study were housed in a large field cage (FC1) located on the north end of Key Lois (see Lehman and Lessnau [1992] for a complete description of the field cages). The enclosure was constructed of 5 cm x 5 cm chain link fence fabric sunk into concrete footers and measured 36.9 m x 24.6 m x 3.4 m high.

FC1 housed 63 monkeys during the study period (see demographic data in Table 1). All animals were identified by chest tattoos. The monkeys were fed once daily with commercial monkey chow distributed at several feeders in the enclosure; fruit and treats were fed opportunistically. Water was available ad libitum from several automatic watering spigots.

+--------------------+-------------+--------+
| Age/sex Class      | Age (years) | Number |
|                    |             |        |
|   Infant           |      <1     |   16   |
|   Yearling         |     1-2     |   11   |
|   Juvenile Male    |     2-5     |    1   |
|   Juvenile Female  |     2-3     |    2   |
|   Adult Male       |    6-13     |    2   |
|   Adult Female     |    4-13     |   15   |
|   Aged Male        |     14+     |    4   |
|   Aged Female      |     14+     |   12   |
|                    |             |        |
|   Total            |             |   63   |
+--------------------+-------------+--------+
Table 1: Age and sex categories of animals in study cage

Data were collected between June 10 and August 15, 1991. A total of one hundred hours of instantaneous scan sampling data on SM and KD as focal animals were collected. The sampling procedure involved noting the behavior of each focal animal at one-minute intervals during 30-minute sessions, and recording who initiated or received the action(s) of the behavior(s). Data were also gathered on the context in which the behavior(s) occurred (see Figure 1). Data were gathered across all daylight hours during the study period.

Behavior was recorded using a numerical molecular ethogram of rhesus behavior (as in Lehman & Lessnau, 1992). Molecular data were grouped into molar behavioral classes for analysis (Table 2). Social grooming is separate because of its importance in rhesus macaque groups. Because there was no comparable affiliative or agonistic behavior, we were concerned that if social grooming were grouped in affiliative contact the results would be skewed. We defined an adoptive relationship as consistent alloparental care of the orphan KD by SM.

+----------------+---------------------------------+
| Molar Category | Molecular Behaviors             |
+ ---------------+---------------------------------+
| Affiliative    | "Muzzling," huddling, touching, |
| contact        | embracing                       |
|                |                                 |
| Affiliative    | Social approaching, presenting, |
| noncontact     | enlisting, aiding, proximity,   |
|                | attempting  to  touch  between  |
|                | animals                         |
|                |                                 |
| Social         | Present to groom, allogroom,    |
| grooming       | autogroom                       |
|                |                                 |
| Agonistic      | Hard bite, hit/slap, soft bite, |
| contact        | neck bite                       |
|                |                                 |
| Agonistic      | Stare, avoid, charge, displace, |
| noncontact     | scream, grimace                 |
+ ---------------+---------------------------------+
Table 2: Description of behavioral categories

Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics to compensate for problems of different sample size. Interactions for the focal animals were tested for significance using Mann-Whitney U tests (U). Variation in the distribution of molar behaviors was tested for significance using the Kruskal-Wallis test (H). The alpha level was set at p < .05 for all tests.

Results

The frequency of KD's and SM's behaviors, as expressed in five molar classes, is shown in Table 3. A total of 1364 scan samples of interactions were analyzed. These show that KD and SM did not interact equally with all cage-mates (U = 120356, z = 14.5, p = 0.0001). Most (42.2%) of KD's interactions were with SM, whereas she interacted with the other adult males very infrequently. SM interacted with KD more than other cage mates (50% vs 24.5%). Other animals in the enclosure interacted more frequently with the adult male than the orphan.

+------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|            |              Frequency of Molar Behavior                |
+            +-----------+-----------+------+---------+----------+-----+
|Direction   |Affiliative|Affiliative|Social|Agonistic|Agonistic |     |
|of Behavior |  Contact  |Noncontact |Groom | Contact |Noncontact|Total|
+------------+-----------+-----------+------+---------+----------+-----+
|KD to SM    |    10     |   187     |  9   |    0    |    2     | 208 |
|SM to KD    |   137     |   285     | 14   |    0    |    0     | 436 |
|KD to others|     5     |   208     | 21   |    0    |    4     | 238 |
|SM to others|     0     |    61     |108   |    1    |   44     | 214 |
|Others to KD|     9     |     0     | 37   |    0    |    0     |  46 |
|Others to SM|     0     |     0     |222   |    0    |    0     | 222 |
|Total       |   161     |   741     |411   |    1    |   50     |1364 |
+------------+-----------+-----------+------+---------+----------+-----+
 
Table 3: Direction and frequency of focal animals' molar behaviors

The direction of KD's interactions is illustrated in Table 3. These were not equally distributed (H = 79.9, d.f. = 10, p = 0.001). Most behaviors initiated by KD towards SM were affiliative noncontact (89.9%). Affiliative contact behaviors comprised the bulk of behaviors (84%) directed by KD to others in the enclosure. Most behavior directed by others to KD was social grooming. Animals other than SM did not direct any affiliative contact or affiliative noncontact behaviors to KD other than social grooming. No others in the enclosure directed affiliative contact behaviors to SM.

The distribution of molar behaviors analyzed for SM was not equal (H = 38.6, d.f. = 12, p = 0.0001). All affiliative contact behavior exhibited by SM was directed to KD (Table 3). SM directed 38.4% of his affiliative noncontact behaviors to KD in contrast to only 8.2% of all scores involving all other animals. SM initiated social grooming and affiliative noncontact behaviors toward other cage mates with decreasing frequency (50.4% and 28.5%, respectively). Social grooming accounted for all behaviors directed towards SM by others.

+--------------------------------------------------------+
| 100                                                    |
| .                           A:  Human Disturbance      |
| .                           B:  Other Animals Fighting |
| 65    A                     C:  Weather Disturbances   |
| .     .                     D:  Stress                 |
| .     .                     E:  Unknown                |
| 15    A               E                                |
|       A               E                                |
|       A   B           E                                |
| 5     A   B   C       E                                |
|       A   B   C   D   E                                |
| 0 _______________________                              |
|                                                        |
|  Figure 1:  Factors association with SM carrying KD  |
+--------------------------------------------------------+

Most affiliative contact directed by SM to KD was carrying (88.3%). KD was carried ventrally, facing outward and lying limp. Figure 1 shows the context of this behavior. Human disturbances were most often associated with carrying when, e.g., technicians were working in the field cages. Intergroup agonistic interactions and tropical weather disturbances were also associated with SM carrying KD.

Discussion

It has been suggested that adoptive males may use infants to enhance their reproductive, dominance, or agonistic behaviors and also that proximity to immature animals is correlated with male dominance rank (Deag & Crook, 1971; Hill, 1986). We did not observe SM using KD in any such interactions, although KD may have gained protection and aid from SM during intragroup agonistic encounters. SM was the highest ranking male in FC1. Hill (1986) found that social relationships between adult male and immature rhesus macaques were most persistent among top-ranking males. Similar behavioral patterns were observed by Capitanio and Taub (1992) in their study of care of a twin infant by an adult male rhesus macaque. The adult male, who was the second ranked male in the study group, was observed carrying, grooming, and protecting the infant over a three-day period. In this study, high male rank was also correlated with frequency of interaction with the orphan.

The behaviors observed between SM and KD may have been affected by the time of year during which we conducted the study. Our observations were made during the birth season (Lehman et al., 1994). Hill (1986) found that adult male rhesus tended to associate most frequently with immature animals during the birth season. During the mating season adult males spend more time associating with adult females and are less likely to associate with immature animals.

We found that many of SM's social behaviors were interactions with KD. He groomed no other infant. His agonistic interactions were directed exclusively to others in the enclosure, although affiliative contact was exclusively with KD (Table 3). This pattern observed between SM and KD suggests that a special relationship existed between them. SM appears to have used KD to buffer external stress. SM always initiated carrying bouts, and there was some external stimulant immediately prior to or during most of these (Figure 1). Capitanio and Taub (1992) reported that affiliative contact between an adult male and infant rhesus macaque was equally directed. The adult male retrieved the infant and carried it ventrally when humans approached. Our findings are very similar. KD may have received protection from the male as well as improved access to food. Both adult male rhesus evidently chose to initiate the kind of relationship that we observed, and it is apparent that there were benefits to both animals arising from the relationship.

References

Berman, C. M. (1983). Effects of being orphaned: A detailed case study of an infant rhesus. In R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach (pp. 79-81). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc.

Capitanio, J. P. & Taub, D. M. (1992). High-level care of a twin infant by a male rhesus macaque. Folia Primatologica, 58, 103-106.

Deag, J. M. & Crook, J. H. (1971). Social behavior and "agonistic buffering" in the wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvana L.). Folia Primatologica, 15, 183-200.

Hill, D. A. (1986). Social relationships between adult male and immature rhesus macaques. Primates, 27, 425-440.

Lehman, S. M. & Lessnau, R. G. (1992) Pickle barrels as enrichment objects for rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal Science, 42, 392-297.

Lehman, S. M., Taylor, L. L. & Easley, S. P. (1994). Climate and reproductive seasonality in two free- ranging island populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). International Journal of Primatology, 15, 115-128.

Redican, W. & Mitchell, G. (1973). A longitudinal study of paternal behavior in adult male rhesus monkeys. I. Observations on the first dyad. Developmental Psychology, 8, 135-136.

Taub, D. M. & Redican, W. (1984). A review: Adult male-infant interactions in Old World monkeys and apes. In D. M. Taub (Ed.), Primate Paternalism (pp. 386-389). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Thierry, B. & Anderson, J. (1986). Adoption in anthropoid primates. International Journal of Primatology, 7, 191-216.

Vessey, S. H. & Meikle, D. B. (1984). Free-living rhesus monkeys: Adult male interactions with infants and juveniles. In D. M. Taub (Ed.), Primate Paternalism (pp. 113-126). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Second author's address: Dept of Anthropology, P.O. Box 248106, Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-2005.

We would like to thank Dr. Paul Schilling and Bob Lessnau of Charles River Laboratories, as well as Dr. S. B. R. Taylor of the H. W. N. This project was supported in part by a Washington University Fellowship and the Boise Fund (S. M. L.) as well as a General Research Support Award (L. L. T.).

* * *

Workshop Announcement: Animal Use Workshops

The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks announces two more workshops in its continuing series on implementing the PHS Policy on humane care and use of laboratory animals. The Portland, OR Department of Veterans Affairs will sponsor a workshop in Portland on the topic "Sharing Animal Welfare Responsibilities Between Affiliated Institutions" August 4-5, 1994. The workshop will explore the relationships among academe, government, and industry as they pertain to the care and use of laboratory animals and animal research facilities and programs. For information, contact Ms. Margaret Doherty, Vet. Affairs Med. Center, P.O. Box 1034, Portland, OR 92707-1034 [503-220-8262, Ext. 7610; FAX: 503-273-5351].

Louisiana State University Medical Center and Xavier University of Louisiana will sponsor a workshop on "Use of Animals in Research and Alternatives" September 29-30, 1994, in New Orleans. For information, contact Ms. Lois Herbez, Administrative Secretary, Louisiana State University Medical Center, 1542 Tulane Ave, New Orleans, LA 70112 [504-568-4198; FAX: 504-568-4843].

For information on the entire series, contact Roberta Sonneborn, Exec. Asst for Education, Div. Animal Welfare, OPRR, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg 31/5B62, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-7163; FAX: 301-402-2803].

* * *

             Last week,   an ape escaped  from a  local zoo.
          After hours of frantic searching,  he was found in
          the library,  reading  the Bible,  with a  copy of
          Charles Darwin's  "The Origin  of Species"  on the
          table near  him.  When a  policeman asked  the ape
          what he was doing,  he  responded,  "I'm trying to
          decide  once and  for  all if  I  am my  brother's
          keeper or my keeper's brother." -- Spurious news 
          report from Nancy Stollnitz Hoetker
 

* * *

Editor's Note: LPN Grant Renewed

We are pleased to announce that funding for the Laboratory Primate Newsletter has been renewed by the NIH National Center for Research Resources for five more years.

* * *

News Briefs

Rabies in the United States

Although the incidence of rabies is low among domestic animals in the United States, a recent increase in the occurrence of wildlife rabies has increased the risk for infection of humans, and of nonhuman primates kept in outdoor corrals and cages. From 1991 to 1992, the number of reported cases of rabies in raccoons increased 40%, from 3079 to 4311. Of the 8644 animals reported rabid during 1992, a total of 3759 (43%) were raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern states (WV, VA, MD, PA, DE, NJ, NY, CT, NC, MA, NH, RI, and the District of Columbia). Information about rabies is available from state and local health departments and from CDC's Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Div. of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, NCID [404-639-1075]. -- From a report in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1994, 43, 269-273.

Preventing HIV Transmission in Pregnancy

Preliminary results of a clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) to pre- vent HIV transmission from mothers to their infants indicate ZDV is effective. The National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Nat. Inst. of Child Helath and Human Development announced in February that ZDV therapy was associated with a 67.5% reduction in the risk for HIV transmission. The estimated rates of transmission were 25.5% among 184 children in the group receiving a placebo regimen compared with 8.3% among the 180 children in the group receiving ZDV. -- From a report in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1994, 43, 285-287.

New Director at Oregon RPRC

Dr. Susan Smith will take over as Director of ORPRC on July 1, 1994. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Georgia Physiology Department, after which she did post-doctoral work at Emory University before teaching at the University of Massachusetts and New York University Medical School. Most recently she is Professor of Physiology at the University of Pittsburgh. She is currently the President of the Endocrine Society (1994-95) as well as serving on numerous NIH study sections and several positions within the American Physiological Society.-- Chris Skaugset, Library Asst., ORPRC

Richey Decision Overturned

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit reversed Judge Charles R. Richey's decision that said the USDA must cover rats, mice, and birds under its Animal Welfare Act regulations. The appeals court said that all plaintiffs (the Animal Legal Defense Fund, the Humane Society of the U.S., and two individuals) lacked both constitutional standing to sue and a statutory right to judicial review under the Administrative Procedure Act. This decision may or may not be a precedent in the upcoming appeal by the National Association for Biomedical Research and the Dept of Justice of Judge Richey's other decision, which invalidated animal welfare regulations for dogs and nonhuman primates.

Changes at TNO

TNO, the Netherlands organization for applied scientific research, is forming a new institute, TNO Prevention and Health. The new institute is evolving out of the Netherlands Inst. of Preventive Health Care, the former Inst. of Aging and Vascular Diseases, and part of the Medical Biological Lab. Research programs on immunological and infectious diseases and vascular and connective tissues will be included in this institute.

Animal Rights Groups Seek Representation

The Animal Legal Defense Fund, the Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights and Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals filed suit in Washington, DC, District Court May 6, asking that a committee revising regulations for use of laboratory animals be required to include animal protectionists as members.

Named as defendants are the Department of Health and Human Services, HHS Secretary Donna Shalala; Public Health Service director Philip Lee; and Harold Varmus, director of the NIH. The suit alleges the NIH has asked a committee of the National Academy of Sciences to draw up recommendations for revising a federal guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. The guide is used by all federally supported scientists who use animals in research.

Federal law, the suit says, requires that committees drawing up such regulations be balanced "in terms of the points of view represented." The suit claims that the committee revising the animal-use guide is made up of people who use animals in research and lacks any experts "who are concerned primarily with animal welfare science, or who will represent interests and concerns of animals apart from their use in experimentation."

Each of the three animal rights groups has asked for access to documents used by the committee and transcripts of the committee meetings and to be allowed to attend the meetings. The requests have all been denied, the suit says. The suit asks that the federal agencies be required to comply with the law regarding membership of the committee and that the agencies pay costs of the lawsuit.

A spokesperson for the HHS said the agency would have no comment on the suit. -- Posted on the compmed electronic mailing list.

Spanish Primatology Association

Spanish primatologists are pleased to announce the creation of a new primate society, the "Asociacion Primatologica Espanola" (APE). Although it is a national society, it welcomes members of any nationality who want to join efforts with Spanish primatologists to achieve the goals stated in its bylaws. APE is affiliated with the European Federation for Primatology; many of its members are also members of the IPS. APE issues a Newsletter which members receive regularly. They are looking forward to establishing links with other national primate societies in order to work together towards the achievement of their goals: research, education, and conservation on all matters concerning primates. The officers of APE are: President, Dr. Fernando Colmenares; Vice-President, Dr. Joachim Vea; Secretary, Dr. Fernando Pelaez; Treasurer, Dr. Carlos Gil-Burman; Vocals for Research, Dr. Maribel Baldellou, Dr. Juan Carlos Gomez; Vocals for Education, Adolfo Aguirre, Mateo Escobar; Vocals for Conservation and Well-being of Primates, Carmen Mate and Francisco Gomez. -- From a note) by Dr. Colme- nares in primate-talk.

Hanoi Joins CITES

Vietnam has taken a decisive move to protect its varied fauna and flora by joining the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The convention covered Viet- nam as of April 20. Vietnam's forestry ministry has reinforced a ban on trading in the country's threatened wildlife, reminding local authorities to clamp down on hunters. "Now that Vietnam is formally to become a CITES member on April 20, we have to abide by its regula- tions... We plan to apply some stronger measures (to protect wildlife) in the period to come," one official said. He declined to give more details. The official said the forestry ministry had recently required local authorities to ban production and sale of wildlife meats and products such as skins, stuffed animals and ivory. The official said that despite a government ban last year on killing and dealing in rare wild animals, illegal trade in wildlife remained wide- spread. Experts say a range of wild animals is threatened. Traders have long plundered the jungles for animals to sell as pets, for food or as ingredients in traditional medicines. Trade has boomed since the border with China was opened in 1989. Animal numbers were also depleted during virtually constant warfare in Vietnam from the late 1930s to the mid-1970s.-- From Reuter News Service

* * *

Meeting Announcements

AALAS Annual Meeting

The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science annual meeting will be held 16-20 October, 1994, in Pittsburg, PA. Contact: AALAS Headquarters, 70 Timber Creek Dr., Cordova, TN 38018 [901-754-8620; FAX: 901-753-0046]. The Association of Primate Veterinarians will hold a symposium in conjunction with this meeting on the topic, "Biocontainment and Research in Nonhuman Primates." Issues include research with recombinant viruses, gene therapy, vectors, means of providing biocontainment, and occupational safety.

European Marmoset Research Group

The first General Assembly of the European Marmoset Research Group will be held in November, 1994, in Paris. Focus: Fundamental and applied aspects of marmoset science. Topics: Housing and husbandry; Nutrition and health; Social and reproductive biology; Learning and the central nervous system; and Physiology. Contact: Christopher Pryce, Anthropologisches Inst, Univ. Zurich-Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

1994 ChimpanZoo Conference

The 1994 ChimpanZoo Conference will be held September 17-21, 1994. Sponsored by the Jane Goodall Institute and ChimpanZoo, the meeting will be held at West Palm Beach, FL. Contact Virginia Landau, 29 Abbotts East, Rm 233, Drexel Univ., 32nd and Chestnut Sts., Philadephia, PA 19104 [215-895-1645; Fax: 215-895-2877; e-mail: x93dxk25@dunxl.ocs.drexel.edu].

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities

Pathology of Lab Animals Course

The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and the American Registry of Pathology are co-sponsoring a continuing education course entitled, "Pathology of Laboratory Animals," August 8 to 12, 1994 at the Uni- formed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD. This course provides a comprehensive overview of the gross and histopathological manifestations of disease in laboratory species, including nonhuman primates. Selected topics in clinical and ultrastructural pathology are also included. An emphasis is placed on recognition and interpretation of spontaneous lesions.

For application forms and programs, contact AFIP, Washington, DC 20306-6000 [301-427-5231; FAX: 301-427-5001]. Tuition fee is $325. Registration fee for active duty military, Dept of Defense civilians, full-time permanent Dept of Veterans Affairs employees (not residents or fellows), and commissioned officers of the PHS with authorized approval is only $125.

Medicine for the Third World Traveler

The School of the Environment at Duke University will give a 4-day workshop, October 27-30, 1994, on "Medicine for the Third World Traveler". The course will teach basic medical principles and skills to nonmedical participants in research and exploration in Third World countries. The course will be open to individuals whose research or studies might necessitate travel to remote or primitive environs. Background course work in the basic biological sciences will be required of all participants.

The course will include * Health Risks for Third World Travelers (diseases found in food and water; prevention; review of parasitology; water purification techniques; hepatitis; tuberculosis; human immunodeficiency virus; sexually transmitted diseases; traveler's diarrhea), * Vector Borne and Parasitic Diseases, Prevention (varied environments of disease-producing vectors; fever in travelers; rabies; environmental exposure hazards: ultraviolet light, hyperthermia, and high alti- tude; high-altitude pharmacology), * Management of Trauma and Skin Disorders (skin infections, infestations, and contact dermatitis; soft tissue trauma; wound management and repair with hands-on cadaver experience; dental urgencies; fractures and dislocations; demonstration of reduction and splinting techniques), * Resources and Preparation for Travel (when to use a travel clinic; vaccine-preventable diseases; worldwide medical assistance and medical evaluation; travel resources; development of survival and first aid kits; demonstration of commercially available products).

Tuition is $550 and covers instructional materials, refreshments and luncheon focus sessions. To register, or for more information, contact Julie Gay, Intensive Course Coordinator, School of the Environment, Duke University, P.O. Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708-0328 [919-613-8080; FAX: 919-684-8741; e-mail: JulieG@env.duke.edu].

* * *

          Lab animals cost a fortune these days.
            Computers are cheap in comparison,
              though somewhat less powerful.
 
* * *

Information Requested and Available

Physiological References

Boguslaw Pawlowski, an assistant in the Dept. of Anthropology at the University of Wroclaw, studies mechanisms of human evolution. He needs some physiological data on apes in order to compare them with man and to support his ideas on evolution of sexual behavior in Hominidae. "Because I live in a rather poor country my access to adequate literature is very limited. I would be very obliged for any help." He asks if anyone can provide references to the following information: * changes in the level of aldosteron depending on the posture in the chimpanzee (or any other ape); * distribution and amount of brown and white fat (depending on age) and skinfold measurements in chimps and/or other apes; * levels of hormones and experiments with hormones such as estrogens, androgens, and oxytocin on apes; * changes of Na/K ratio (or only K level) during estrus period with sexual swelling in female chimps; * do chimps, like humans, produce vitamin C in breast milk? Please respond to: Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Wroclaw, ul. Kuznicza 35, 50-138 Wroclaw, Poland [FAX: 0048-71-222817; e-mail: bogus@plwruw11].

Food and Sex

Brent White is interested in any anecdotal or scientific informa- tion on the response of non-human primates to human sex/gender. He has often heard keepers comment that captive primates respond differently to male and female caretakers and wonders if there are any hard data to support such claims.

He also notes that there are several accounts of woolly monkeys alternating between flesh and fiber when eating a bird or some other meaty prey. After catching a bird, these animals will often take a bite of flesh and then bite off a piece of bark, wood, rope, or grass. The alternation continues as the prey is consumed. Has this phenomenon been observed in other primates in captivity or the wild? Any information would be helpful.

Please respond to Brent White, Psychobiology Program, Centre College, 600 W. Walnut St., Danville, KY 40422 [606-238-5329; FAX: 606-236-7925; e-mail: bcwhite@olin.centre.edu].

Nocturnal Mammals

Simon Bearder and Paul Honess, of Oxford Brookes University, are seeking * Tape recordings * Hair samples from living animals or carcasses * Descriptions of sightings, habitats, locations, etc. of nocturnal mammals. Their long-term research focuses on sampling the extent of speciation in nocturnal mammals, especially bushbabies (galagos) which are found over most of Africa south of the Sahara. They hope that travellers who may have the opportunity to increase their collections will write to them and get instructions, specimen tapes, and background information on their research. They will refund any expenses for tapes and postage, and acknowledge assistance in papers and reports. "Please bear us in mind should an opportunity present itself." Contact Simon K. Bearder, Principal Lecturer in Physical Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 OBP, England.

Free Access to NLM AIDS Databases

The National Library of Medicine, a part of the NIH, has eliminated all online charges for searching three AIDS-related databases and an online directory of sources of information. Recent increases in NLM's AIDS funding enables the Library to offer this service. Any organization or individual may request a code that will allow free access to these databases. Information about the databases and a software package to simplify searching them, along with a form to request a code, is available by calling the MEDLARS Service Desk at 1-800-638-8480. Organizations or individuals who already have a code to search these databases on NLM's computer will no longer be billed for access.

AIDSLINE is an online computer file with more than 90,000 references to AIDS-related scientific literature -- journal articles, books, audiovisuals, and conference abstracts. AIDSTRIALS contains current information about more than 500 clinical trials of drugs and vaccines that have been and are being tested by NIH and by private organizations. AIDSDRUGS contains detailed information about the 150 agents being tested in the clinical trials. DIRLINE (DIrectory of Information Resources Online) is an online listing of 15,000 organizations and information services that provide information to the public about HIV/AIDS and other health-related topics. -- From a posting to compmed.

Aging in Rhesus and Squirrel Monkeys

Mark Lane writes: "We are conducting a longitudinal study of the biology of aging in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Our primary interest in is characterizing 'biomarkers' of aging and their response to caloric modification. It occurs to us that very little definitive information is available concerning the maximum life span of these two species. We would appreciate responses to the following question: What is the age of the oldest monkey (rhesus and/or squirrel) in your colony? Please include only animals with known dates of birth. I would also welcome references to and comments about studies of aging in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Thank you in advance for your responses." Mark A. Lane, Ph.D., National Institute on Aging, NIH Animal Center, PO Box 56, Poolesville, MD 20837 [301-496-9416; FAX: 301-480-0644; e-mail: pdrsboss%vax.dnet@dxi.nih.gov].

Orangutan Field Projects

The orangutan SSP management group is seeking to compile a complete and current list of all ongoing orangutan field conservation projects. Any information you may have on any such projects will be appreciated. Send information to Lori Perkins, Orangutan SSP Coordinator, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave SE, Atlanta, GA 30315-1440 [404-624-5682; fax: 404-624-5684; e-mail: zooatl@psy.gatech.edu].

* * *

Resources Available: Caribbean Primate Research Center

The Caribbean Primate Research Center (CPRC) operates three research facilities for behavioral, biomedical, and anthropological studies and dissertation research.

Cayo Santiago: an island colony of approximately 1000 provisioned, free-ranging rhesus macaques ideal for both short- and long-term observational research. An annual capture also facilitates noninvasive biomedical investigations and surveys on a limited basis. Computerized demographic data are available on over 12 macaque generations. These include individual identifications, matriline, group affiliation, reproductive history, and birth and death dates.

Sabana Seca: a field station housing approximately 900 macaques, many derived from Cayo Santiago, in outdoor corrals, pens, and individual cages, primarily for biomedical studies, breeding, and behavioral research, which require frequent handling of animals.

CPRC Skeletal Collection: a curated collection of over 2500 complete or nearly-complete skeletons of six species of nonhuman primates, mostly rhesus macaques and patas monkeys. The collection is ideal for studies of spontaneous and acquired joint and bone diseases, physical anthropology, growth and development, and bone remodeling. Available supporting data include basic demographic information, medical records and thoracic radiographs, a selection of cephalometric radiographs, and reproductive histories. Research projects are generally limited to nondestructive studies, but limited destructive sampling is permissible given sufficient justification.

Investigators and students wishing to use the CPRC's unique research resources should send a letter of intent and/or contact staff members to discuss proposed studies. All requests and protocols are circulated among CPRC staff, and occasionally external referees, for review and approval. Criteria include scientific merit, feasibility, and potential overlap with ongoing or pending studies. All proposals should be submitted at least 60 days prior to anticipated submission to a funding agency or project commencement, whichever is sooner. All proposals involving live animals must also be approved independently by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Medical Sciences Campus. IACUC study forms are available from the CPRC.

For an information packet, please contact Dr. Matt J. Kessler, Director, Caribbean Primate Research Center, Univ. of Puerto Rico, Med. Sciences Campus, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00952-1053 [FAX: 809-795-6700].

* * *

Travellers' Health Notes: Herb Remedy for Drug-Resistant Malaria?

The World Health Organization (WHO) announced on April 15 that a study on the treatment of multidrug-resistant malaria in Thailand has shown that the drug being tested was so effective it reduced the death rate three-fold when compared with quinine. At the same time a related drug has helped Viet Nam reduce malaria mortality by a factor of five since 1991.

The two-year trial, covering 97 patients with severe and compli- cated multi-drug-resistant malaria on the border of Thailand and Cambodia, was conducted by Dr Juntra Karbwang of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, Bangkok, at the Chantaburi Provincial Hospital in Eastern Thailand. The trial was supported by the Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases of the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and WHO. Results indicated that intramuscular injections of "artemether" - a derivative of extracts of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. - had saved the lives of 87% (41 of 47) of patients with severe malaria, compared with intravenous quinine, the standard therapy for severe cases, which saved only 64% (32 of 50).

Quinine is still useful where there is no resistance to it, but a gradual progression of resistance to the drug has been recognized in South East Asia since 1985. Dr Karbwang's study confirms an earlier report of improved survival using artemisinin products in severe malaria patients in South East Asia, by Professor Tin Shwe of Myanmar.

Artemisinin, the raw material for the production of the more soluble and active derivatives, was identified as a potent antimalarial and analysed in China in 1972, during an extensive survey of traditional Chinese medicines. Called "qinghaosu" in Chinese, it was first recorded in an apothecary's list dated 168 BC, titled "Prescriptions for 52 kinds of disease".

The artemisinin series of drugs clears malaria parasitemia faster than any other compounds, including quinine, but the drugs suffer from one drawback: unless treatment is maintained for seven days, well after fever has declined and the patient feels better, parasitemia can return again. Retreatment with the same drugs one or more times then generally eliminates the disease, so - thus far at least - recrudescence is not evidence of resistance to the drugs. But it complicates case management, and may eventually lead to the development of true drug resistance.

In order to protect the whole artemisinin drug group from resistance, WHO guidelines currently recommend that the use of artemisinin and its derivatives should be restricted to areas where there is multi-drug resistant malaria, and that if possible artemisinin and its derivatives be combined with other drugs - preferably mefloquine, or other drugs such as tetracycline or doxycycline - to reduce recrudescence. Research currently underway will test whether the drugs have practical, operational, and economic advantages in severe malaria in Africa.

The great need now is thus to ensure that the artemisinin series of drugs is used in such a way as to prevent the development of drug-resistance in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which causes most deaths from the disease.

In South-East Asia, particularly in Thailand, P. falciparum has already developed a degree of resistance, from mild to complete, to all available drugs - except the artemisinin series. But resistance has been known to develop there within five years of a drug's widespread introduction. Such a fate for artemisinin or its derivatives would be catastrophic for malaria control worldwide.

WHO estimates that there are some 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria per year, 90% of them in Africa, and 1.5-3.0 million deaths, at least one million of them African children under five years of age. About 10% of the estimated clinical cases are from outside Africa. In terms of reported incidence, India counts for 38% of cases, and Brazil accounts for 11% (mainly from Amazonia). Some 70% of cases outside Africa come from just seven countries: in decreasing order of incidence these are: India, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Viet Nam, and Cambodia.

* * *

Grants Available

Alternatives to Animals

The International Foundation for Ethical Research (IFER) is seeking proposals for the 1995 grant period. The Foundation's interests and priorities are valid alternatives to the use of live animals in research, testing, and teaching. These alternatives must take into account the traditional three R's of refinement, reduction, and replacement, plus a fourth R, Responsibility.

Areas of interest include: tissue, organ, and cell cultures, bac- terial cultures, GC/Mass spectrophotometry, radioimmunoassay, mathematical and computer models, quantum pharmacology, mechanical models, and clinical and epidemiological surveys. For information, contact IFER, 53 W. Jackson Blvd, Suite 1552, Chicago, IL 60604 [312-427-6025]. The deadline for submission of preproposals is August 1, 1994.

Low Cholesterol States

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging are seeking applications for basic and applied research, drawing from the disciplines of biochemistry, physiology, pathology, genetics, nutrition, clinical medical sciences, and behavioral sciences, that will improve the understanding of low cholesterol states in health and sickness.

The Institutes seek to elicit a diverse group of applications to explore the biology and pathophysiology of low cholesterol conditions. A consortium arrangement may be necessary to support interinstitutional research collaboration. Well-designed studies proposing hypothesis-testing research in humans and animals are preferred. Potential areas for investigation could include, but are not limited to, the following: * Studies of hypobetalipoproteinemic kindreds and individuals, including genetic, metabolic, clinical and psychosocial studies. * Studies of other low cholesterol states, including low cholesterol associated with various co-morbid conditions, and the mechanisms whereby they arise. * Studies yielding reliable estimates of the frequency of hypocholesterolemia due to various causes.

For further information, contact Dr. Abby G. Ershow, Div. of Heart & Vascular Diseases, NHLBI, Federal Bldg, Rm 401, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1681; FAX: 301-496-9882] or Dr. Pamela E. Starke-Reed, Office of Nutrition, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-6402; FAX: 301-402-0010].

Service Awards for Postdoc Fellows

Since 1974, all NIH funding Institutes and Centers have awarded NRSA individual postdoctoral fellowships (F32s) to qualified appli- cants to support full-time research training related to the missions of its constituent Institutes. Awards provide a stipend plus a small allowance to defray some training expenses. The initial 12 months of NRSA postdoctoral support carries a service payback requirement, which can be fulfilled by continued training under the award or by engaging in other health-related research training, health-related research, or health-related teaching.

Before submitting a fellowship application, the applicant must arrange for appointment to an appropriate institution and acceptance by a sponsor who will supervise the training and research experience. Individuals may receive up to three years of aggregate NRSA support at the postdoctoral level, including any combination of support from institutional training grants and individual fellowship awards. The proposed training must encompass biomedical or behavioral research and offer an opportunity for individuals to broaden their scientific background or to extend their potential for research in health-related areas. For those who have attained a health professional degree, the proposed training may be a part of a research degree program.

Application kits and the brochure Helpful Hints on Preparing a Fellowship Application to the National Institutes of Health are available from the Grants Information Office, Div. of Research Grants, NIH, Westwood Bldg, Rm 449, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-594-7248]. Appli- cation receipt dates are August 5, December 5, and April 5.

NIH provides other postdoctoral opportunities for training and career development for individuals interested in biomedical and behav- ioral careers. For a complete description of programs that provide scientific training support at levels from high school to the senior investigator level, and for training at research institutions, col- leges, and universities around the United States, in other countries, and at the NIH facilities, please refer to the booklet, Research Training and Career Development Programs Supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 92-2273), which is avail- able from the same office.

Mechanisms of AIDS Pathogenesis

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites applications for research project grants focusing on a hypothesis for AIDS-related pathogenesis. Grant applications responsive to this Request for Applications (RFA) should provide innovative, focused approaches to test a hypothesis of HIV pathogenesis in nonhuman primate models, HIV or SIV sexual/mucosal transmission, or host factors that modulate HIV or SIV infection or disease. The NIAID anticipates that investigators will propose studies testing hypotheses using state-of-the-art methods on specimens from human and/or animal models. Although the research necessary to test a proposed pathogenesis hypothesis may be possible within a single laboratory, the NIAID anticipates that highly competitive applications may require separate components at the same or different institutions specializing in different scientific disciplines.

Descriptive, non-hypothesis-driven, research is not within the scope of this RFA. Drug and vaccine trials in animal models, and clinical trials and recruitment or retention of cohorts will not be supported under this RFA.

Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by September 16, 1994, a letter of intent. Application receipt date is November 16, 1994.

For information and copies of the RFA, contact Dr. Gregory Milman, Div. of AIDS, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 2B35, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-[8378; FAX: 301-480-5703; e-mail: maps@exec.niaid.pc.niaid.nih.gov].

Gorilla Conservation Grants

The Columbus Zoo announces the formation of a conservation fund, using funds raised from the first Gorilla Workshop, to support in-situ conservation and research projects dealing with gorillas, especially the Lowland subspecies. The fund will allocate $1300/year for five years, beginning in 1995. A special emphasis will be placed on supporting keeper-initiated projects, especially cooperative efforts between keepers and field researchers. The following criteria will be used to evaluate proposals: * How does the project directly benefit gorillas in the wild? * How does the project directly benefit indigenous people surrounding the study site? * How does the project emphasize the role of zoos as supporters of in-situ conservation.

A follow-up report will be required within six months of completion of the project, as well as a summation to be published in the Gorilla Gazette. 1995 proposals are due August 15, 1994, and should be sent to the Columbus Zoo Ape House Staff, Attn: Beth Armstrong, Box 400, 9990 Riverside Dr., Powell, OH 43065-0400.

* * *

      Most conservationists would
      Advise leaving trees where they stood,
          But the wealthier nations
          Have no such inclinations;
      They can't see the trees for the wood!
                            W. Robin Kingston
 

* * *

Address Changes

Preston A. Marx, Ph.D., AIDS Animal Models Lab., Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, NYU Med. Center - LEMSIP, Tuxedo, NY 10987-9801.

Scott E. Perkins, V.M.D., 37 Vassar St 45-145, Cambridge, MA 02139.

Rosalind M. Rolland, 10301 Grosvenor Pl., Apt 1702, Rockville, MD 20852.

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), Golden Triangle Bldg One, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)

Books

* Primate Laterality: Current Behavioral Evidence of Primate Asymmetries. J. P. Ward & W. D. Hopkins (Eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993. 356 + xii pp. [Price: $49, paper]
. . . Contents: Handedness in apes and monkeys: Some views from the past, by L. J. Harris. Patterns of lateralized behavior in prosimians, by J. P. Ward, G. W. Milliken, & D. K. Stafford. An exploration of manual preference and performance in crabeating macaques, by D. M. Fragaszy & L. E. Adams-Curtis. Manual preference in varieties of reaching in squirrel monkeys, by J. E. King & V. I. Landau. Cerebral asymmetry, interhemispheric interaction and handedness: Second thoughts about comparative laterality research with nonhuman primates, about a theory and some preliminary results, by B. Preilowski. Manual preference in prosimians, monkeys and apes, by R. A. W. Lehman. Lateralized hand use in the precultural behavior of the Koshima monkeys (Macaca fuscata), by K. Watanabe & M. Kawai. Manual specialization in gorillas and baboons, by J. Vauclair & J. Fagot. Behavioral lateralization in language-trained chimpanzees, by R. D. Morris, W. D. Hopkins, L. B. Gilmore, & D. A. Washburn. Ontogeny of object manipulation and manual lateralization in the Guinea baboon: Preliminary observations, by J. Fagot. The ontogeny of lateralized behavior in nonhuman primates with special reference to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes,), by W. D. Hopkins & K. A. Bard. Patterns of handedness: Comparative study of nursery school children and captive gorillas, by D. D. Shafer. Hand preference for visually-guided reaching in human infants and adults, by L. J. Harris & D. F. Carlson. Rotational behavior in children and adults, by S. D. Glick. Implications of primate functional asymmetries for the evolution of cerebral hemispheric specialization, by P. F. MacNeilage.

* The Natural History of the Primates,. J. R. Napier & P. H. Napier. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994. 200 pp. [Price: $19.95, paper]
. . . This paper edition of the 1985 volume includes chapters on primate origins, structure, function, and social behavior, and human evolution, as well as thoroughly illustrated profiles of the 57 living nonhuman primate genera.

* Nonhuman Primates I,. * Nonhuman Primates II . T. C. Jones, U. Mohr, & R. D. Hunt (Eds.). ( Monographs on Pathology of Laboratory Animals Sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute,.) New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993. 221 + xiii pp. and 248 + xvi pp. [Price: $240 each; $450 for both volumes as a set]
. . . Contents of Volume I: INFECTIONS INVOLVING IMMUNODEFICIENCY. Immunodeficiency: An overview, by K. A. Reimann & N. L. Letvin. Simian immunodeficiency virus infections, by N. W. King, Jr. Type D retrovirus infection, macaques, by L. J. Lowenstine. Cytomegalovirus infection in nonhuman primates, by G. B. Baskin. Simian virus 40 infection, by N. W. King, Jr. Malignant lymphoma of unknown cause, by R. D. Hunt. Fibromatosis in macaques infected with type D retroviruses, by C.-C. Tsai. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, infection, by N. W. King, Jr. Toxoplasmosis, by D. C. Anderson & H. M. McClure. Noma, Macaca mulatta, by A. A. Lackner, G. C. Armitage, & M. Schiodt. INFECTIONS BY HERPESVIRUSES. Herpesviruses of primates: An introduction, by R. D. Hunt. Herpesvirus B infection, by R. D. Hunt & B. J. Blake. Herpesvirus simplex, infection, by R. D. Hunt. Herpesvirus saimiri, and Herpesvirus ateles, infection, by R. D. Hunt & B. J. Blake. Simian varicella, by E. D. Roberts. Herpesvirus platyrrhinae, infection, by R. D. Hunt & B. J. Blake. OTHER VIRAL DISEASES. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection, nonhuman primates, by G. B. Baskin. Measles virus infection, nonhuman primates, by L. J. Lowenstine. Simian hemorrhagic fever, by P. M. Zack. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS. Chromobacteriosis, nonhuman primates, by H. M. McClure, S. A. Klumpp, & D. C. Anderson. Listeriosis, by D. C. Anderson & H. M. McClure. Tuberculosis, by N. W. King, Jr. Paratuberculosis, nonhuman primates, by D. C. Anderson & H. M. McClure. EFFECTS OF TOXINS. Epidermal and gastric mucosal metaplasias caused by polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p,-dioxins and dibenzofurans, rhesus monkeys, by W. P. McNulty. Lead poi- soning in nonhuman primates, by B. C. Zook. CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS. Congenital malformations in nonhuman primates, by A. G. Hendrickx & P. E. Binkerd. Craniofacial defects induced in rhesus monkeys by prenatal exposure to triamcinolone acetonide, by A. G. Hendrickx & P. E. Binkerd. Congenital anomalies, tamarins, by L. V. Chalifoux. OTHER PATHOLOGIC ENTITIES. Generalized amyloidosis, nonhuman primates, by J. L. Blanchard. Fatal fasting syndrome of obese macaques, by J. M. Gliatto & R. T. Bronson. Vitamin C deficiency, Old and New World monkeys, by E. D. Roberts. Filiarsis, New World primates, by L. V. Chalifoux.
Contents of Volume II: INTEGUMENT. Papillomavirus infections, by J. P. Sundberg & M. E. Reichmann. Leprosy, by G. B. Baskin. Dermatophilosis, skin, by S. A. Klumpp & H. M. McClure. Histoplasma capsulatum, var. duboisii, infection, baboon, by G. Migaki, G. B. Hubbard, & T. M. Butler. Cutaneous acariasis, by G. B. Baskin. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative, Macaca mulatta, by M. Schiodt, G. C. Armitage, & A. A. Lackner. Gingeval fibromatosis, Macaca mulatta, by M. Schiodt, G. C. Armitage, & A. A. Lochner. Gastroenteritis due to paramyxovirus, by R. D. Hunt & B. J. Blake. Trichomonas gastritis, by J. L. Blanchard. Cryptosporidiosis, intestines, pancreatic duct, bile duct, gall bladder, Macaca mulatta, by A. A. Lackner & D. W. Wilson. Shigellosis, by R. G. Russell & L. J. DeTolla. Carcinomas, gastrointestinal tract, by S. A. Klumpp & H. M. McClure. Callitrichid hepatitis, by R. J. Montali. Cholesterol gallstones, owl monkeys, by L. V. Chalifoux & M. R. Anver. Prosthenorchiasis, by N. W. King, Jr. Pterygodermatites nycticebi, tamarins, by R. J. Montali. Campylobacter jejuni, colitis, by R. G. Russell. Acute and chronic colitis, cotton-top tamarins, by L. V. Chalifoux, N. W. King, Jr, & L. D. Johnson. Chronic colitis, juvenile Macaca mulatta, by R. R. Adler, P. F. Moore, D. L. Schmucker, & L. J. Lowenstine. Adenocarcinoma, colon, cotton-top tamarin, by L. V. Chalifoux, N. W. King, Jr., & L. D. Johnson. Focal ulcerative ileocolitis, cotton-top tamarin, by S. S. Snook. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Nocardiosis, lung, by S. A. Klumpp & H. M. McClure. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Atherosclerosis, arteries, by S. A. Klumpp, H. M. McClure, & T. B. Clarkson. Aortic dissection, by T. E. Bunton. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Infantile cortical hyperostosis, rhesus monkey, by S. S. Snook. Chondrosarcoma, squirrel monkey, by L. V. Chalifoux. Congenital retrosternal diaphragmatic defects, golden lion tamarins, by R. J. Montali. Type II collagen arthropathy, by E. D. Roberts. Pyrophosphate arthropathy, Macaca mulatta, by E. D. Roberts. URINARY SYSTEM. Glomerulonephritis, owl monkeys, by R. D. Hunt & B. J. Blake. Renal ectopia, squirrel monkey and owl monkey, by L. V. Chalifoux. GENITAL SYSTEM. Ovarian teratoma, Macaca mulatta, by L. V. Chalifoux. Granulosa cell tumor, ovary, stump-tail macaque and granulosa-theca cell tumor, ovary, squirrel monkey, by L. V. Chalifoux. Endometrial adenocarcinoma, squirrel monkey, by L. V. Chalifoux. Arrested spermatogenesis: Aotus trivirgatus, Saimiri sciureus, and Macaca mulatta, by R. D. Hunt, B. J. Blake, & L. V. Chalifoux. NERVOUS SYSTEM. Pneumococcal meningitis, by S. A. Klumpp & H. M. McClure. Age-related lesions, nervous system, by L. C. Cork & L. C. Walker. Spontaneous pallidonigral spheroids and iron pigment accumulation, macaques, by J. M. Gliatto & R. T. Bronson. Cerebral venous thrombosis, Macaca mulatta, by L. C. Cork & R. J. Adams. Encephalitozoon cuniculi, infection, squirrel monkey, by G. B. Baskin. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. The insular amyloidotic lesion and its relationship to diabetes mellitus, Macaca nigra, by C. F. Howard, Jr. Adenoma, pars intermedia, pituitary, Macaca mulatta, by L. V. Chalifoux. HEMOPOIETIC SYSTEM. Blood groups of apes and monkeys, by W. W. Socha. Erythroblastosis fetalis, by W. W. Socha. Eosinophilic myelocytoma, owl monkey, by L. V. Chalifoux. Hematogenous hexamitiasis, Macaca mulatta, by N. W. King, Jr. Vitamin E-responsive hemolytic anemia and necrotizing myopathy, owl monkey, by N. W. King, Jr. Focal epithelial hyperplasia, chimpanzees, by D. C. Anderson & H. M. McClure. Nochtiasis, by N. W. King, Jr.

* Development of Exploratory Behaviour and Range of Action in Infant Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Effects of Range of Action of the Mother,. J. D. Vochteloo. Doctoral dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1994. 144 pp. (Dutch summary)
. . . An inquiry into the factors responsible for the differences in fear of novel objects between surrogate-reared and mother-reared monkeys.

* Facial Growth in the Rhesus Monkey,. E. D. Schneiderman. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1992. xiii + 217 pp. [Price: $39.50]

* Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates,. D. L. Gebo (Ed.). DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 1994. 291 pp. [Price: $50.00 cloth, $35.00 paper, plus $3.50]

Audiovisual Material

* Noah's Arkive,. International Veterinary Pathology Slide Bank. Laser Videodisc, 6th Edition. [Price: $400, payable to International Veterinary Pathology Slide Bank. Order from W. Crowell, Dept of Vet. Pathology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602]
. . Includes a catalog, computer diskette for search program, and interactive teaching program samples.

Bibliographies

* Primate References for Young Readers, 1994,. 1 p. 22 entries.
. . * Primate References for Students, 1994,. 1 p. 36 entries.
. . * General Interest Primate Reading List, 1994,. 2 pp. 85 entries.
. . * Reference List for Practitioners, 1994. , 2 p. 34 entries. C. A. Johnson-Delaney (Compiler). [Send self-addressed, stamped (52 cents) large envelope to P.I.C., Reading Lists, SJ-50, Washington RPRC, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195]
. . Suggested reading for elementary school children, junior high and high school students, adults, and veterinarians who occasionally see nonhuman primate patients.

* Mycobacterium in Nonhuman Primates, a Selective Bibliography , 1940-1994,. M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 56 pp. (601 citations, primate & subject indexes, & a list of books and monographs) [Price: $10.00. Stock #94-002. Order from PIC, RPRC, Univ. of Washington, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195]

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

* aaalac Communique, Winter, 1994. Summer, 1994. [American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]

* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, , 1994, 5,[1]. [NAL, AWIC, Rm 205, Beltsville, MD 20705]

* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group,. December 1993/March 1994, 3,[3,4]. [A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
. . Includes articles on primate conservation in Indonesia, China, Vietnam, Burma, and India.

* ILAR News, , 1993, 35,[3-4]. [ILAR, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418] This issue focuses on issues for IACUCs.

* The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, 1994, 11,[2]. [615 N. Wolfe St., Rm 1604, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179]
. . Special World Congress issue.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, , 1994, 2,[1]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . Includes index for volume 1.

* The Newsletter,. 1994, 5,[4]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]

* Our Animal WARDS, Spring, 1994. [WARDS, 1660 L St, NW, Suite 612, Washington, DC 20036-5603]

* Science and Animal Care, 1994, 5,[1]. [WARDS, address above]
. . Contains "Animal boredom: Consequences for housing and feeding con- ditions," by F. Wemelsfelder.

* SCAW Newsletter, , 1994, 16,[1]. [Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 4805 St. Elmo Ave, Bethesda, MD 20814]
. . Includes the articles "Ethical scores for animal experiments," by D. G. Porter; "Everything you wanted to know about the NIH Guide," by R. P. Maickel, A. L. Fitzgerald, & M. A. Suckow; and "Environmental enrichment from a management perspective," by R. S. Madziak.

New Journals

* OWM TAG Newsletter, 1994, 1,[1]. H. Fitch-Snyder, Ed. [Zoo. Soc. of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551]
. . First issue of a Newsletter of the Old World Monkey Taxon Advisory Group, which replaces the African and Asian Monkey Interest Groups.

Proceedings

* Proceedings: Columbus Zoo Gorilla Workshop, June 22-25, 1990,. [Price: $15, from Columbus Zoo/Ape House Staff, Attn: Beth Armstrong, Box 400, 9990 Riverside Dr., Powell, OH 43065-0400]
. . Papers, abstracts, and the texts of posters.

Animal Models

*Paternal and maternal genetic and environmental contributions to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta,). Higley, J. D., Thompson, W. W., Champoux, M., Goldman, D., Hasert, M. F., Kraemer, G. W., Scanlan, J. M., Suomi, S. J., & Linnoila, M. (NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Bldg 112, Poolesville, MD 20837). Archives of General Psychiatry, 1993, 50, 615-623.
. . Abnormalities in monoamine systems have been postulated to underlie specific mental disorders or certain symptoms of the disorders. Seventy infants were reared with their mothers, or foster mothers, or peers. Fifty-five were sired by just 10 males, enabling controlling for paternal genetic influence. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed significant paternal heritable effects on 5-HIAA and HVA in sons and daughters, and borderline significant effect for MHPG in sons only. There was a maternal genetic contribution without a maternal environmental contribution to 5-HIAA concentration, and both a maternal genetic and environmental contribution to MHPG. Results suggest that activities of the monoamine neurotransmitter systems are highly heritable in nonhuman primates and that genetically mediated behavioral traits may in part be based on genetic effects on the activity of the monoamine neurotransmitter systems. CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations may be appropriate phenotypic markers to select pedigrees for molecular genetic studies and for imaging of receptors, uptake sites, and enzymes in the brain.

*Opioid dependency and T-helper cell functions in rhesus monkey. Chuang, L. F., Killam, K. F. Jr., & Chuang, R. Y. (R. Y. C., Dept of Med. Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Med., UCD, Davis, CA 95616). In Vivo, 1993, 7, 159-166.
. . Administration of morphine sulfate may activate the quiescent lymphocyte for proliferation, induce a transient increase in the T cell proliferative response to mitogens, and cause an enhanced interleukin-2 release from the mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. However, longitudinal studies of the animals dependent upon morphine or L-alpha-acetylmethadol revealed an overall immunosuppression of T-helper functions.

*Nitric oxide inhibits preterm labor in the rhesus monkey. Jennings, R. W., MacGillivray, T. E., & Harrison, M. R. (M. R. H., Dept of Surgery & Pediatrics, Fetal Treatment Ctr, UCSF, 513 Parnassus Ave, Rm 1601-HSW, San Francisco, CA 94143-0570). Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 1993, 2, 170-175.
. . In chronically catheterized rhesus monkeys, NO administered as S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicil-lamine ablated the uterine electromyographic and mechanical contraction components of established preterm labor. NO may be important in maintaining uterine quiescence during pregnancy, and exogenous NO may be useful in controlling preterm labor.

*Fetal dopamine cell survival after transplantation is dramatically improved at a critical donor gestational age in nonhuman primates. Sladek, J. R. Jr., Elsworth, J. D., Roth, R. H., Evans, L. E., Collier, T. J., Cooper, S. J., Taylor, J. R., & Redmond, D. E. Jr. (Dept of Neuroscience, Chicago Med. School, North Chicago, IL 60064). Experimental Neurology, 1993, 122, 16-27.
. . Brain grafts from African green monkey fetuses at both 44 and 49 days' gestation showed well-developed dopamine neurons after 3.5 months, but only the 44-day grafts were large and well-differentiated, with thousands of dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that optimal cell survival in primates is dependent on the degree of postgerminal development of the dopamine neuron.

*Potential role of neutrophil anti-adhesion therapy in myocardial stunning, myocardial infarction, and organ dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. Verrier, E. D. & Shen, I. (Univ. of Washington, Div. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, SA25, Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Cardiac Surgery, 1993, 8,[Suppl], 309-312.
. . Rhesus monkeys were subjected to deep hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by 24 hrs of fluid resuscitation. Animals receiving monoclonal IgG antibody 60.3 showed less weight gain, less infused resuscitative fluid, and higher terminal hematocrit and PaO than controls. Antineutrophil therapy may prevent multiorgan system failure in certain high risk patients.

*Central obesity in rhesus monkeys: Association with hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia? Bodkin, N. L., Hannah, J. S., Ortmeyer, H. K., & Hansen, B. C. (Dept of Physiology, Obesity & Diabetes Res. Ctr, 10 S. Pine St, Rm 6-00, Baltimore, MD 21201-1192). International Journal of Obesity, 1993, 17, 53-61.
. . Abdominal circumference (AC) was the best predictor of body fat. There were strong linear relationships between AC and plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, and peripheral insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate, but not to plasma glucose, lipoprotein fractions, or free fatty acids. Obese, insulin-resistant monkeys had significantly higher plasma insulin levels, lower glucose tolerance, and significantly higher plasma triglyceride levels. The spontaneously obese rhesus monkey appears to be an excellent model of central obesity.

*A primate model of Ureaplasma urealyticum, infection in the premature infant with hyaline membrane disease. Walsh, W. F., Butler, J., Coalson, J., Hensley, D., Cassell, G. H., & deLemos, R. A. (Div. of Neonatology, Dept of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Univ. School of Med., Nashville, TN 37232-2370). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1993, 17, (Suppl. 1), S158-S162.
. . Based on comparison of 3 140-day-gestation baboons colonized with U. urealyticum, via endotracheal tube with 4 similar control animals, U. urealyticum, is capable of causing a pathologically recognizable pulmonary lesion in premature primates with hyaline membrane disease.

*Experimentally induced Mycoplasma pneumoniae, pneumonia in chimpanzees. Barile, M. F., Grabowski, M. W., Kapatais-Zoumbos, K., Brown, B., Hu, P.-C., & Chandler, D. K. F. (Lab. of Mycoplasma, Ctr for Biologics Evaluation & Research, FDA, Bethesda, MD 20892). Microbial Pathogenesis, 1993, 15, 243-253.
. . Colonies of M. pneumoniae, were found in oropharyngeal, tracheal, and lung tissues of chimpanzees which had been inoculated with the mycoplasma. Significant increases in sIgA and IgG immunoglobulin antibody levels were detected in lung lavage fluids. They also had positive X-rays, cold agglutinins, and showed overt signs of disease, including cough, low-grade fever, rhinitis, and diarrhea. All of these aspects are similar to naturally occurring primary atypical pneumonia in humans.

*Immunoblot analyses of chimpanzee sera after infection and after immunization and challenge with Mycoplasma pneumoniae,. Franzoso, G., Hu, P.-C., Meloni, G. A., & Barile, M. F. (M. F. B., address same as above). Infection and Immunity, 1994, 62, 1008-1014.
. . Three chimpanzees immunized with a formalin-inactivated OSU-1A vaccine and 3 chimpanzees immunized with an experimental acellular vaccine showed minimal signs of disease on challenge. After challenge, the serum immunoblot responses of these immunized animals were similar to those of 6 previously infected chimpanzees (see previous article). After challenge, the previously infected animals showed the most intense serum immunoblot responses and were most protected against colonization and disease.

*Programmed cell death in AIDS-related HIV and SIV infections. Gougeon, M.-L., Garcia, S., Heeney, J., Tschopp, R., Lecoeur, H., Guetard, D., Rame, V., Dauguet, C., & Montagnier, L. (Unite d'Oncologie Virale, Dept SIDA et Retrovirus, Inst Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1993, 9, 553-563.
. . Peripheral blood lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals are primed for a suicide process known as programmed cell death (PCD). A correlation between PCD and AIDS pathogenesis was suggested by the comparison of lymphocytes from lentivirus-infected primates susceptible (SIV-infected macaques) and resistant (HIV- infected chimpanzees) to AIDS. Results suggest that, during HIV or SIV infection, PCD may contribute in vivo to the deletion of reactive T cells after antigenic stimulation.

*The impact of HIV-1 infection on phenotypic and functional parameters of cellular immunity in chimpanzees. Ferrari, G., Ottinger, J., Place, C., Nigida, S. M. Jr., Arthur, L. O., & Weinhold, K. J. (K. J. W., P.O. Box 2926, Dept of Surgery, Duke Univ. Med. Ctr, Durham, NC 27710). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1993, 9, 647-656.
. . Eight HIV-1-infected chimpanzees received HTLV-IIIB. The animals did not present significant alterations in the percentage of CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocyte subsets. The expression of markers for activation on circulating lymphocytes, usually higher in HIV-infected patients, was not altered in infected animals. Only one animal developed a detectable, specific non-MHC-restricted anti- HIV-1 reactivity. In chimpanzees, HIV-1 infection evidently does not elicit the same strong cellular reactivity as that detected in infected humans. The absence of chronic cellular activation, despite continued viral replication, may highlight a key determinant in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis that is absent in infected chimpanzees.

Behavior

*Adult male replacement and social change in two troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus,) at Jodhpur, India. Agoramoorthy, G. (169 Guang-Yuh North St, Yang-Mei Town, Taur-Yuan Town, Taiwan 32606, R. O. China). International Journal of Primatology, 1994, 15, 225-238.
. . This report includes the fatal attack on a 14-month old infant by an adult female of a neighboring troop during a time of social change and disorganization.

*Social dominance and priority of access to drinking in Lemur macaco,. Fornasieri, I., Caubere, M., & Roeder, J. J. (J. J. R., Centre de Primatologie, Fort Foch, 67207 Niederhausbergen, France). Aggressive Behavior, 1993, 19, 455-464.
. . Agonistic dominance was assessed over a one-year period by computing a dominance index for each individual in baseline conditions and in a competitive drinking situation, where success was measured as the amount of time in possession of a bottle of fruit juice. Adult females were agonistically dominant over all other individuals, but were freuently challenged by juveniles of both sexes for access to the bottle. In males, there was a significant negative correlation between age and both dominance indexes and drinking success.

*Behavioral and adrenocortical responses of rhesus macaque mothers to infant separation in an unfamiliar environment. Champoux, M. & Soumi, S. J. (NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). Primates, 1994, 35, 191- 202.
. . Behavioral and cortisol measures indicate that infant separation combined with removal to a novel environment can be a potent stressor for rhesus macaque mothers.

*Immature and adult langur monkey (Presbytis entellus,) males: Infant-initiated adoption in a colony group. Dolhinow, P. & Taff, M. A. (Dept. of Anthropology, UCB, Berkeley, CA 94720). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 919-926.
. . During his mother's 2-week absence, an 8-month-old male actively sought and received care from 2 adults, including an adult male. Their interactions are compared with those of 14 other male adult-infant dyads in the colony records.

*A reanalysis of patas monkeys' "grimace and gecker" display and a discussion of their lack of formal dominance. Loy, J., Argo, B., Nestell, G.-L., Vallett, S., & Wanamaker, G. (Dept of Sociology & Anthropology, URI, Kingston, RI 02881). International Journal of Primatology, 1993, 14, 879-893.
. . The "grimace and gecker" display of patas monkeys is not, in fact, a submission/appeasement signal. The authors compare patas behavior with that of species with "formal dominance" and conclude that a lack of such dominance is likely to be correlated with reduced social cohesion.

*Conflict resolution in sooty mangabeys. Gust, D. A. & Gordon, T. P. (Yerkes RPRC Field Stn, 2409 Taylor Ln., Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Animal Behaviour, 1993, 46, 685-694).
. . Aggression and its sequelae were studied in a captive group of Cerocebus torquatus atys, over a year, for a total of 307 agonistic episodes. Sooty mangabeys do not exhibit damaging aggression under stable social conditions. Aid to the victim is infrequent, and nonaggressive interactions between opponents occur following the majority of agonistic episodes without regard to kinship.

*The absence of a matrilineally based dominance system in sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus torquatus atys,. Gust, D. A. & Gordon, T. P. (Address same as above). Animal Behaviour, 1994, 47, 589-594.
. . Sex, age, and maternal rank significantly predicted an individual's rank with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.73 in this study. No relationship existed between dominance rank of adult females and age or weight; no relationship was found between the rank of adult females and that of their younger adult sisters.

*Infant abuse associated with psychosocial stress in a group-living pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina,) mother. Maestripieri, D. (Address same as above). American Journal of Primatology, 1994, 32, 41-49.
. . Report on an otherwise "good" mother who repeatedly abused her infant immediately after it had been kidnapped for long periods and then returned by the alpha-female in the group.

Care

*Challenging conventional wisdom for housing monkeys. Crockett, C. M. & Bowden, D. M. (Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Lab Animal, February, 1994, 29-33.
. . Research indicates that spending millions of dollars to enlarge substandard cages, often by an inch or two, is misguided. "Those dollars would be better spent implementing environmental enhancement plans shown to benefit nonhuman primates, such as installing perches, identifying compatible partners (at least for females), and training personnel and monkeys to minimize stressful situations. Evaluation must continue and, as new information emerges, we must be prepared to revise the conventional wisdom, recognize the implications for husbandry and research, revise our procedures, and train a new generation to put these new findings into practice."

*Sex differences in compatibility of pair-housed adult longtailed macaques. Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Bowden, D. M., & Sackett, G. P. (Address same as above). American Journal of Primatology, 1994, 32, 73-94.
. . The psychological well-being of virtually all females seemed to be improved during physical contact paired-housing conditions; they spent more than 1/3 of the day engaged in social grooming. Paired adult males had much lower interaction rates than adult females. Only 8 of 15 male pairs were still together after 2 weeks, and only 5 showed a degree of compatibility resembling that of females. At least 20% of the males could not be pair-housed with other males. More research is necessary to determine whether adult males have a lower need for social contact than females, or whether their needs are better met by other types of social contact. A noncontact preference testing procedure was no more predictive of pair success than random assignment.

*Environmental enrichment for large scale marmoset units. Heath, M. & Libretto, S. E. (Glaxo Group Research Ltd, Ware, Herts., SG12 0DP, UK). Animal Technology, 1993, 44, 163-173.
. . Reactions of marmosets to various environmental innovations are described, and shown to vary with social structure and experience. Cage furniture is not the only effective enrichment; capable staff, social grouping, variable feeding regimes, presentation of food, cage cleaning, and animal handling are also important. Animal technicians, having the closest contact with the marmosets, are the best people to both implement and evaluate environmental change.

Conservation

*The urgency of finding new directions for primate conservation in western Amazonia. Bodmer, R. E., Puertas, P. E., & Fang, T. G. (Latin American Studies, 319 Grinter Hall, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-5531). Neotropical Primates, 1993, 1,[3], 1-3.
. . Primate populations are declining worldwide due to habitat destruction and overhunting. In the Peruvian Amazon, primate captures for biomedical research account for between 0.4 and 2.0% of primate harvest, while local hunters take the rest. The authors estimate between 40 and 200 thousand primates are harvested annually over 203,260 km.

*Effect of new founders on retention of gene diversity in captive populations: A formalization of the nucleus population concept. Willis, K. & Wiese, R. J. (AAZPA Executive Office, 7970-D Old Georgetown Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814). Zoo Biology, 1993, 12, 535-548.
. . Mathematical models developed to assess the effectiveness of the nucleus population concept, envisioned by the IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group to make captive space available for endangered taxa, show that this approach would require an importation rate 10-20 times greater than claimed. Decisions have to be made on which of the many endangered taxa will be maintained and for what purposes, if captive breeding is to be an effective component of species conservation.

Development

*Age-related changes in bone mineral density, mean width and area of the lumbar vertebrae in male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops,). Hiyaoka, A., Yoshida, T., Cho, F., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Corp. Production & Research Lab. Primates, NIH, 1 Hachimandai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1994, 43 , 235-241. (Japanese, with English summary and table)
. . Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to scan lumbar vertebrae L3-L5, using a pediatric analysis program for analysis of spinal bone mass, mean width and area of bone. Values increased with aging from 6 months to 5 years, stayed at a plateau for about 5 years, and then decreased.

*The incidence of senile plaques and multiple infarction in aged macaque brain. Uno, H. (Wisconsin RPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715). Neurobiology of Aging, 1993, 14, 673-674.
. . Analysis of the brains of 51 monkeys that died naturally after the age of 25, including 24 after more than 30 years. Between 25-30 years, about 50% have senile plaques; after 31 years, the incidence is 71%.

Disease *Systemic lupus erythematosus in a rhesus macaque. Anderson, S. T. & Klein, E. C. (Div. of Rheumatology, Dept of Med., UCSF, 400 Parnassus, Rm A540, San Francisco, CA 94143-0326). Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1993, 36, 1739-1742.
. . Description of the clinical course and histopathologic findings in a rhesus which developed a systemic inflammatory disorder resembling systemic lupus erythematosus, not previously described in nonhuman primates. Manifestations included antinuclear antibody, hemolytic anemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and arthritis.

*Enchondroma in a rhesus monkey. Silverman, J., Weisbrode, S. E., Myer, C. W., Biller, D. S., Kerpsack, S. J. (Research Animal Fac., Hahnemann Univ., Broad & Vine, Philadelphia, PA 19102). JAVMA, 1994, 204, 786-788.
. . Enchondromas, which develop in the medullary aspect of the diaphysis of long bones, are benign neoplasms that have elements of mature hyaline cartilage. They do not necessarily induce lameness. Radiographic appearance is compatible with benign cartilaginous bony tumors.

*A structurally flexible and antigenically variable N-terminal domain of the hepatitis C virus E2/NS1 protein: Implication for an escape from antibody. Taniguchi, S., Okamoto, H., Sakamoto, M., Kojima, M., Tsuda, F., Tanaka, T., Munekata, E., Muchmore, E. E., Peterson, D. A., & Mishiro, S. (S. M., Inst. of Immunology, Koraku 1-1-10, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112, Japan). Virology, 1993, 195, 297-301.
. . Analyzing two cases of hepatitis C in chimpanzees and one in humans for the antigenicity of peptides showed a successive appearance of virus mutants with antigenically distinct amino acid sequence within the domain; and the amino acid replacement was associated with an alteration of predicted local secondary structure of the epitope region. The hypervariable domain of the hepatitis C virus envelope appeared to be structurally flexible and antigenically variable, providing the virus a way to escape from host immunity.

*Frequencies of oral pathologies in a sample of 767 non-human primates. Crovella, S. & Ardito, G. (Dept of Animal Biology, Univ. of Turin, Italy). Primates, 1994, 35, 225-230.
. . Caries and osteolytic phenomena were more frequent in captive animals because of their "anthropic" diet, while frequency of dental fractures was higher in wild primates because of their higher environmental stress. The most frequent pathologies observed were tartar, parodontopathies, and condylar wear.

Genetics and Taxonomy

*Craniometrical variations among eastern Brazilian marmosets and their systematic relationships. Natori, M. (Dept of Anatomy, Nihon Univ. School of Dentistry, 2-870-1, Sakae-cho, Matsudo, Chiba 271, Japan). Primates, 1994, 35, 167-176.
. . Craniometrical measurements support the hypothesis that the members of the Callithrix jacchus group (C. jacchus, C. penicillata, C. kuhli, C. geoffroyi, C. flaviceps, and C. aurita,) are distinct species, rather than subspecies, as proposed by Hershkovitz.

*Phylogenetic relationships among the Galaginae as indicated by erythrocytic allozymes. Masters, J. C., Rayner, R. J., Ludewick, H., Zimmermann, E., Molez-Verriere, N., Vincent, F., & Nash, L. T. (Dept of Anthropology, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364). Primates, 1994, 35, 177-190.
. . Based on erythrocytic allozymes as phylogenetic markers, the greater galagos and , G. alleni, form a clade, since they share character states for 8 of the 10 systems examined. The two lesser galago species could not be distinguished using these enzymes. The data show strong concordance with results obtained using highly repeated DNA sequences, which indicate that the galagos form a close-knit genetic group, while the Malagasy lemurids show considerably more intertaxic variation.

*Oligonucleotide fingerprinting of free-ranging and captive rhesus macaques from Cayo Santiago: Paternity assignment and comparison of heterozygosity. Nurnberg, P., Berard, J. D., Bercovitch, F., Epplen, J. T., Schmidtke, J., & Krawczak, M. (Inst Med. Genetik, Med. Fak. (Charite) Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany). In S. D. J. Pena, R. Chakraborty, J. T. Epplen, & A. J. Jeffreys (Eds.), DNA Fingerprinting: State of the Science, (pp. 445-451). Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 1993.
. . Multilocus DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes was applied to determine paternity in one birth cohort (15 infants) of a social group. Data revealed marked discrepancies between actual paternity and paternity as inferred from the observation of copulation behavior. Thus, a dominant social rank does not appear to be strongly associated with reproductive success, while alternative reproductive strategies were found to yield comparable net benefits in reproduc- tion.

Instruments & Techniques

*Chronic fetal vascular access. Hedrick, M. H., Jennings, R. W., MacGillivray, T. E., Rice, H. E., Flake, A. W., Adzick, N. S., & Harrison, M. R. (Fetal Treatment Ctr, Dept of Surgery, Rm 1601-HSW, Box 0570, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94143). The Lancet, 1993, 342, 1086-1087.
. . Fetal blood sampling, continuous measurement of blood pressure, and drug infusion are made feasible through long-term access to the fetal circulation by extra-amniotic catheterization of chorionic vessels, using laparoscopic surgery.

*Improved specificity of testing methods for filovirus antibodies. Elliott, L. H., Bauer, S. P., Perez-Oronoz, G., & Lloyd, E. S. (Div. of Viral & Rickettsial Diseases, NCID, CDC, PHS, U.S. Dept of Health & Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333). Journal of Virological Methods, 1993, 43, 85-100.
. . An epizootic among monkeys imported into the U.S. created an immediate need for detection of antibodies to filoviruses. The experiments described here resulted in improved methods for such detection. Despite its limitations, the IFA assay remains the method of choice for filovirus-antibody screening. Attempts are being made to develop other methods, but because filoviruses have no hemagglutinin and neutralizing antibodies have not been detected in convalescent-phase sera, the IFA assay is the most sensitive and specific method available.

Nutrition

*Nutritional constraints on mountain baboons (Papio ursinus,): Implications for baboon socioecology. Byrne, R. W., Whiten, A., Henzi, S. P., & McCulloch, F. M. (Univ. of St. Andrews, Dept of Psychology, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, Scotland). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1993, 33, 233- 246.
. . Populations of baboons at geographic and climatic extremes show a tendency to one-male organization, whereas most baboons live in multi-male social groups. The diets of two groups of mountain baboons living at different altitudes of a continuous grassland habitat were studied. Baboons gained the same yield per unit time spent foraging in both groups. The authors conclude that socioecological parameters are effectively optimized for feeding. Differences in social structure are considered to be a secondary consequence of optimal foraging, mediated through altitudinal variation in either population density or day range limits.

*Feeding competition among female olive baboons, Papio anubis,. Barton, R. A. & Whiten, A. (Address same as above). Animal Behaviour, 1993, 46, 777-789.
. . In a group of free-ranging olive baboons, the mean daily food intake of the 3 highest-ranking females was 30% greater than that of the 3 lowest-ranking females, providing an explanation for relationships between female rank and fertility found in a number of other studies. Intensity of feeding competition increased during the dry season, a period of low food availability.

*Sociospatial mechanisms of feeding competition in female olive baboons, Papio anubis. Barton, R. A. (Address same as above). Ani- mal Behaviour, 1993, 46, 791-802.
. . Similar behavioral processes were found to underlie rank-related differences in food intake in one group foraging for natural foods and another being provisioned. Both active supplanting and individuals' spatial positions within the group mediate rank-related differences in food intake.

*A feeding experiment on laboratory-bred male cynomolgus monkeys I. Morphometrical study. Shimizu, T., Narita, H., Ohkubo, F., Yoshida, T., Cho, F., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Corp. Production & Research Lab. Primates, NIH, 1 Hachimandai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Experimental Animals , 1994, 43 , 173-180. (Japanese, with English summary, graphs, and table)
. . The minimum requirement of diets is judged to be 30g/day before two years of age, and 50g/day thereafter, based on restricted feeding tests. The suppressive effects of restricted feeding were most significant on the growth of the limbs and, secondarily, the trunk.

*Breast feeding and formula feeding affect differently plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in infant baboons. Lewis, D. S., McMahan, C. A., & Mott, G. E. (Dept of Food Sci. & Human Nutrition, 107 MacKay Hall, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011). Biology of the Neonate , 1993, 63, 327-335.
. . Infant baboons fed formula with either high or low polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio maintained higher plasma T and fT levels compared with breast-fed infants in the late preweaning period. T levels were not influenced by infant diet. The differences in thyroid hormones between breast- and formula-fed infants cannot be attributed to the saturated and polyunsaturated fat differences between breast milk and commercial formula.

Reproduction

*Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone on luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and cortisol secretion in intact male rhesus macaques. Norman, R. L. (Cell Bio. & Anatomy, Texas Tech Univ. Health Sci. Cen- ter, 3601 4th St, Lubbock, TX 79430). Biology of Reproduction , 1993, 49 , 148-153.
. . While stress exerts either a direct or an indirect inhibition of testicular testosterone secretion, the data presented here indicate that this effect may be mediated by CRH.

*Restraint inhibits luteinizing hormone secretion in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in rhesus macaques. Norman, R. L., McGlone, J., & Smith, C. J. (Address same as above). Biology of Reproduction , 1994, 50 , 16-26.
. . Data indicate that restraint is a potent activator of the pituitary-adrenal axis and that, at least in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, restraint inhibits pituitary LH release. This inhibition of gonadotropin release may involve endogenous opiate suppression of GnRH release, since Nx reversed the effect of restraint.

*Sexual behavior of chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes ): Male versus female regulation. Nadler, R. D., Dahl, J. F., Collins, D. C., & Gould, K. G. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of Com- parative Psychology , 1994, 108 , 58-67.
. . The frequency of copulation in tests in which the partners were freely accessible to each other was related to the male's dominance over the female; copulation was less frequent and was related to social compatibility in tests in which the female controlled access. Copulation was related to female hormonal state in both types of tests. Results demonstrate the importance of focusing on female sexual behavior before copulation, rather than copulation per se, in research on sexual arousability of female primates.

*Copulatory behavior in a free-ranging population of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides ) in Mexico. Brereton, A. R. (913 Carrigan Ave, Modesto, CA 95350). Primates , 1994, 35 , 113-122. Evidence, from observations of 54 animals between December and May, for seasonal clumping of matings, with the peak in February. Matings are more common in the afternoon. Findings on mounting, dominance, and affiliation vary only minimally from those of captive studies.

*Daytime variations of serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone in captive thick-tailed bush babies (Galago garnetti ). Ojoo, R. O., Otianga-Owiti, G. E., Oduor-Okelo, D., & Wango, E. O. (Dept of Vet. Anatomy, Univ. of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya). Primates , 1994, 35 , 211- 217.
. . There were significantly higher mean serum testosterone levels in 8 male G. garnetti in morning compared to evening hours, over an 8-week period. There was no significant variation in mean serum luteinizing hormone, and no significant correlation between the two measures.

*Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous ape. Palombit, R. A. (Dept of Biology, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081). Animal Behaviour , 1994, 47 , 721-723.
. . Five episodes of extra-pair copulations were observed involving a pair-bonded adult female Hylobates syndactylus, during a 2.5-year study of wild gibbons.

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In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. In most cases, abstracts are those of the authors.

* * *

Cover drawing of black and white colobus monkey
(Colobus guereza kikuyensis) by Penny Lapham.

Copyright @1994 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.