VOLUME 33 NUMBER 4 OCTOBER 1994
Articles and Notes
The Behavioral Profile and Environmental Enrichment of a Squirrel Monkey Colony, by S. Boinski, C. Noon, S. Stans, R. Samudio, P. Sammarco & A. Hayes...... 1
Paternity Resolution Using Simple Protein Polymorphisms in Chimpanzees, by S. Williams-Blangero, A. Perelygin, K. Brasky, & P. Samollow...... 5
Assessing Group Housing for an Aged Female Rhesus Macaque, by J. Fligiel & V. Reinhardt...... 10
News, Information, and Announcements
Primate Training and Enrichment Workshop Report, by E. Messner...... 7
Grants Available...... 8
Basic Biology of Aging; Neuroendocrinology of Aging; Malnutrition in Older Persons; Neurobiology of Ethanol-Related Behaviors; Periodontal Complications of Diabetes; Institutional Animal Resources; Trigeminal Chemosensory System
The Importance of Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, A Statement from the Public Health Service...... 12
News Briefs...... 13
Update on Ivan Gorilla; Philippine Export Ban; New Director at Yerkes RPRC; More Golden Lion Tamarins Discovered
Educational Opportunity...... 14
Applied Animal Behavior and Welfare
Monkey Business Available...... 14
Meeting Announcements...... 15
Current Issues and New Frontiers; AIDS and Cancer Vaccines; HIV Pathogenesis; ASP 1995; 1995 ABS Meeting; Prosimian Conference and Workshop; 1996 Joint IPS/ASP Meeting
Information Requested and Available...... 15
Pet Monkey Information; International Directory of Primatology
W. Robin Kingston...... 17
Editor's Note: Change in Billing Procedure...... 18
All-Male Social Group Formation; Spanish Primatology Association
Contents of Volumes 31-33...... i
Positions Available...... 16
Research Specialist, Anthropology; Animal Behavior and Biology; Comparative Pathologist; Postdoc for Age/Diet Project; Assistant Professor, Yale
Address Changes...... 18
Recent Books and Articles...... 19
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Sue Boinski, Carole Noon, Susan Stans, Rafael Samudio, Pat Sammarco and Alycin Hayes
University of Florida
A major factor hindering the definition of simple, effective guidelines for optimizing primate well-being is the fact that the environmental needs of primates differ across species: husbandry techniques that promote the well-being of one species will not necessarily transfer to another species (NIH, 1991). The most powerful perspective from which to devise environmental enrichment devices for a specific primate taxon in captivity, and subsequently to evaluate their implementation, is a detailed knowledge of that species' natural history (Fragaszy & Adams-Curtis, 1991; Redshaw & Mallinson, 1991).
Quite recently, several long-term field studies have documented the typical behavior and daily activities of wild squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) populations (e.g., Janson & Boinski, 1992). In this report we present a preliminary comparison of the behavioral profiles of wild squirrel monkeys and those in a typical, well-maintained research colony. We also document the effects of a variety of simple enrichment techniques which were selected to exploit the specialized foraging behavior of squirrel monkeys. We particularly sought to identify enrichment techniques that would be effective, yet easy and inexpensive to employ.
Our findings indicated an unexpectedly high level of atypical behavior in a husbandry regime typical for squirrel monkeys used in research. The enrichment techniques we examined ameliorated, but did not eradicate, undesirable behavior.
Study animals. The subjects were 16 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), one female and the remainder male (no significant sex difference was identified in the data). Judging from the pelage, they appeared to be hybrids from several subspecies (Costello et al., 1993). All the subjects had been intermittently used in the same general research protocol (testing reinforcement schedules) for varying periods (1 to > 5 years). The animal husbandry protocols and caging employed in this colony were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at the University of Florida, and the colony has been regularly inspected and approved by the USDA.
The monkeys were housed in two cage racks (each with eight single-animal cages in two stacked rows of four) facing each other across a space approximately 3 m wide in a windowless animal room (approximately 4 x 4 x 3 m). Cages were 17.5 x 24 x 26.5" and equipped with a perch and water bottle, with a litter pan beneath containing wood shavings that the subjects could reach. The sides of a cage adjacent to another cage were solid sheet metal, and the remaining walls of a cage were thick wire mesh. Thus a monkey had constant visual contact with the eight monkeys in the opposite rack, but no regular visual contact with monkeys occupying the same rack. The light-dark schedule in the room was 12:12. Each subject was fitted with a collar that attached to the outside of its cage via a one m long thin metal chain.
The monkeys were provided with monkey chow daily and constant access to water. Fruit was given several times a week. On an irregular basis the monkeys had one or two small plastic toys (mirrors and chains) suspended in their cage and were given "treats" such as meal worms and sweet breakfast cereal.
Data collection. All behavioral observations took place from 1400-1700 hr on weekday afternoons from 14 September to 13 November 1992. The first two weeks of observation were used to establish mutual reliability among the five observers. The control (baseline) behavior of the 16 squirrel monkeys was determined in the next two weeks. During this baseline period all enrichment devices and protocols were excluded from the cages. In each of the subsequent weeks of observation a single enrichment device was introduced into each cage. In the final week of the study, the subjects were split into two groups, each of which received a different device (PVC or jug).
Focal interval sampling (Fragaszy et al., 1992) was employed. This interval sampling technique gives reliable estimates of the relative allocation of time to different behavior categories, but not the duration of each behavioral bout.
For each observation session, an observer's initial focal subject was randomly selected. That subject was observed for a five-minute observation trial with scan samples at 30-second intervals. The observer employed a check sheet for each trial and marked the behavior categories observed at the beginning of each of the 10 intervals. Subsequent focal subjects were selected in a predetermined sequence dependent on the initial focal subject, until all had been observed. Two such series of all subjects usually were completed in each observation session. For each subject for each condition there was a minimum of four and a maximum of eight observation trials. Data were deleted for some individuals for some conditions because of an unforeseen mishap.
The behavior catalog (see Table 1) was designed to obtain detailed information on passive vs active behavior states, especially those activities that might demand mental alertness or challenging physical coordination, or possibly indicate abnormal or stereotypic behavior patterns. Several categories also addressed the distribution of the squirrel monkeys' use of the cage volume. These categories were not mutually exclusive. For example, a subject could simultaneously use the perch and ingest food, or vertically cling to the front of the cage and manipulate its leash while scratching. Total inactive includes Huddle, Vertical cling , and Stationary rest , while Total manipulate includes manipulation of enrichment devices, leash, and genitals. Idiosyncratic behavior includes behavior such as head rolling, face rubbing, shivering, and scratching, that are potentially abnormal if exhibited at high frequencies, while Stereotypic behavior refers to abnormal, repetitive motor patterns, such as pacing, swaying, or running in horizontal or vertical loops.
Enrichment Devices. The enrichment devices used were selected because they are inexpensive and simple to prepare, clean, maintain, and replace. They also had to be small and lightweight, and not require complex manipulations or the application of great force to function. Five environmental enrichment techniques were evaluated: crumbs, ball, tiny bottle, PVC tube , and jug .
Crumbs represented an enhancement of a common foraging situation in the cages; a monkey searching through the cage litter for pieces of food that fall through the mesh bottom of the cage. One cup of finely crushed monkey chow was scattered in each subject's litter immediately prior to the start of behavioral observations. A single bouncy, durable plastic ball about 1" in diameter was placed in each cage for the entire week in the second experimental condition. The balls were identical in shape and material, differing only in color. Tiny bottle was an empty plastic vitamin bottle (about 1.5" x 3"). PVC tube was a hollow plastic tube about 5" x 1" with screw-on end caps. About 10 small holes about .25" in diameter had been drilled in the walls of each tube. The tube was filled with litter mixed with approximately 2 oz. of peanuts and raisins. Jug was an empty two-liter plastic beverage container containing one cup of a litter-nut-dried fruit mixture. The tiny bottle, PVC tube, and jug were each placed inside each subject's cage prior to the initiation of observation each day and removed at the end of that day's observation session. When a device containing food and litter was being evaluated (jug and PVC tube), observations continued even after a subject's device had been emptied.
Data Analysis. The objective of the statistical analyses was to determine if the mean percent of time each behavior was exhibited significantly differed between each experimental condition and the control condition. Multiple trials were pooled for each subject within each condition. In other words, the mean percent of samples that each behavior category was observed for each subject within each experimental condition was determined. Two-tailed paired t-tests were used to evaluate significant differences between the control and experimental conditions.
It should be noted that the multiplicity of paired t-tests (5 experimental conditions x 17 behavior categories = 85 tests) inflated the possibility of significant results. At a significance level of P < 0.05 at least 5%, or about 4 paired t-tests, would be expected to achieve a significant level due to random variation.
Tables 1a and b show the mean percent (and standard deviation) of samples allocated to each of the 17 behavior categories during the control and five experimental conditions. The categories are arranged in sequence according to time spent in the baseline (control) condition. Comparisons in which the mean percent of a behavior in the experimental condition significantly differed from the control condition are indicated by asterisks (* P > 0.05; ** P > 0.01; *** P > 0.001).
+----------------------+------------+------------+------------+ |Behavior |Control |Crumbs |Ball | |Category |(n=16) |(n=16) |(n=11) | +----------------------+------------+------------+------------+ |Total Inactive |80.2 (17) |72 (30) |87 (17) | |Sit on Perch |87.4 (20) |75 (25) |66 (30) | |Stationary/rest |45.3 (32) |47.9 (33) |59.7(34) | |Huddle |30.1 (20) |21 (18) * |23 (27) | |Ingest food |14 (8) |15.8 (4) |1.8 (3.9)** | |Total movement |12.5 (16) |15.1(10) |5.1 (16) | |Scan out of cage |11.4 (10.3) |9.1 (12.5) |14.6(8.4) | |Total idiosyncratic |8.2 (7) |10.8 (7.8)* |5.2(6.3)* | |Front of cage |7.2 (5) |8 (14) |7 (10) | |Total stereotypic |6.1 (9) |4.3 (7.3) |5.1(9.2) | |Mouth body parts |4.3 (1.2) |6.9 (1.6) |1.1 (2.2) | |Scratch |5.6 (5.3) |8.3 (6.9) |3.1(4.7) | |Vertical cling |5 (10) |4 (8) |4 (6) | |Total manipulate |3.7 (4) |2.8 (4.1) |12 (14) | |Manipulate leash |2.5 (3.3) |2.5 (4) |2.1 (4.1) | |Manipulate genitals |0.5 (1.0) |0 (0) |2.7 (9) | |Manipulate EE device |0 (0) |(0) |7 (8) * | +----------------------+------------+------------+------------+
Table 1a : Mean (SD) percent of samples in each behavior category for control, crumbs, and ball conditions.
+----------------------+-------------+------------+------------+ |Behavior |Tiny | | | |Category |Bottle |PVC Tube |Jug | | |(n=12) |(n=7) |(n=8) | +----------------------+-------------+------------+------------+ |Total Inactive |75 (35) |77 (33) |76 (31) | |Sit on Perch |80 (18) |74 (26) |60 (30)* | |Stationary/rest |62.3 (34)* |52 (48) |55 (36) | |Huddle |9 (8)** |21 (33) |17.8 (21) | |Ingest food |3.2 (5.8)*** |9.3 (10.2) |3.6 (7.5)* | |Total movement |2.9 (5)* |17.4 (16) |4.9 (18) | |Scan out of cage |11 (8.9) |4.3 (11) |8 (8) | |Total idiosyncratic |6.2 (5.7) * |1.4(3.5) * |1.6(2.9) | |Front of cage |6 (7) |5 (13) |3 (4) | |Total stereotypic |5.7 (11.2) |1.4 (5) |3(6.4) | |Mouth body parts |0.8 (1.9) |0 (0) |1.2 (3.5) | |Scratch |3 (3.4) |2 (2.9) |1.3 (2.2) | |Vertical cling |4 (6) |5(13) |2 (4) | |Total manipulate |10.3 (11)** |26.4 (18) * |35.8 (33) * | |Manipulate leash |4.6 (4.6) |4.2 (10.2) |15.7 (21.7) | |Manipulate genitals |0 (0) |0.7 (1.8) |0 (0) | |Manipulate EE device |6.7(10) * |21.4 (20) * |21 (32) | +----------------------+-------------+------------+------------+
Table 1b : Mean (SD) percent of samples in each behavior category for tiny bottle, PVC tube, and jug conditions.
Standard deviations from the group means for the control and experimental conditions were large, often exceeding the mean value. Only seven subjects ever engaged in genital manipulation, and eight subjects accounted for all instances of mouthing of body parts. Three of the 16 animals never handled any of the environmental enrichment devices placed in their cages.
Comparison with wild squirrel monkeys (c.f. Boinski, 1988). Wild squirrel monkeys are insectivorous and frugivorous. Typically, they spend 45-65% of their time travelling and searching for insects, 11% feeding, and 6-10% of their time resting. During daily activities in the wild a squirrel monkey manually and visually investigates potential foraging sites, makes foraging decisions, monitors the activity of other troop members, and searches for potential predators at a near-frenetic pace. Squirrel monkeys do not rely on strength or complex manipulative skills when foraging.
The most obvious difference between wild squirrel monkeys and those in the colony was that the former exhibited little behavior that could be considered stereotypic (e.g. pacing) or idiosyncratic (e.g. head rolling, mouthing body parts, or manipulating genitals). Juvenile and young adult male squirrel monkeys in Costa Rica did manipulate and mouth their own genitals during the brief breeding season, but at a very low incidence, less than 0.10% of time samples.
Wild squirrel monkeys engaged in locomotion in more than 25% of samples and manually searched for food on and within foliage during another 25% of samples, making 50% spent on activities comparable to "total movement," which engaged the captive study subjects for 12.5% of samples. Total manipulation among wild squirrel monkeys, as reflected by manual foraging, was seven times more common than in the captive subjects. Scanning out of cage, although relatively common in captivity at 11.4% of samples, was half as frequent as visual searching for food and anti-predator vigilance combined in the wild (24%). Huddling occurred in only a mean of 5% of behavior samples in the wild, but was six times more frequent in the study subjects. Only in regard to total inactive behavior was the difference between the two groups relatively small. Wild squirrel monkeys exhibited a lying, sitting standing, huddling, or otherwise stationary posture during 70% of samples compared to the captive subjects' 80%.
Evaluation of enrichment. The pattern of group responses varied across the five experimental conditions, but were generally beneficial (see Table 1). Total manipulation increased 20% (mostly due to a 21.4% increase in manipulation of the enrichment device) and idiosyncratic behavior was reduced 6.8% on average when a PVC tube was in a cage. Jug increased total manipulation a dramatic 32.1%, and reduced the use of the perch by 20.0% and ingest food 10.4%. Ball also had desirable effects; total idiosyncratic behavior (-3.0%) and ingesting food (-11.2%) decreased and total manipulation (8.2%) and manipulation of the enrichment device (7.0%) increased.
More moderate or mixed effects were documented during the other conditions. Tiny bottle significantly increased total manipulation (6.6%) and manipulation of the enrichment device (6.7%), and reduced total idiosyncratic behavior (-2.0%) and ingesting food (-11.8%). In addition, huddling decreased by a large amount (-20.9%), but this positive response was counterbalanced by several undesirable behavioral shifts: stationary/resting increased 17.3% and total movement decreased (-9.6%). Although huddling decreased (-9.1%) during crumbs , total idiosyncratic behavior increased (2.6%).
A tentative conclusion is that placing in the cage just about any device (within reason) that is sufficiently small or lightweight to be manipulated safely by a squirrel monkey would contribute to environmental enrichment. However, two of the most successful items, PVC tube and jug , were the two that dispensed food. Every device that was placed in the cages, except jug , also decreased idiosyncratic or stereotypic behaviors. Only crumbs , probably the easiest and cheapest technique examined, increased an undesirable (idiosyncratic) behavior. But even crumbs had a beneficial effect, reducing huddling.
Recommendations for colony management. Our results certainly argue for the presence and regular use of enrichment devices, especially those that dispense food, in the cages of singly-housed squirrel monkeys. Given the wide range of devices that proved at least moderately successful, we infer that there is much flexibility as to what devices can be employed. The major constraint would be that any potential enrichment device be of sufficiently small weight and size that it could be handled by a squirrel monkey. Devices designed to be gnawed or manipulated in a complex or strength-requiring manner would probably not be of direct benefit, except perhaps for the variety and novelty they could contribute to the cage environment. A preferred food might be more effective than, and just as easy to use as, chow crumbs, and should be tested as forage.
We did not test for any interaction effects from using multiple techniques or devices simultaneously. However, we suspect that this would be a profitable tactic to explore. This study also did not directly address the effect of a variety of enrichment devices being sequentially placed in the cages as has been shown effective with other primates (Anderson & Chamove, 1984); Poole, 1991). Yet because the duration of each experimental condition was relatively short (one week), our positive results may, in part, be ascribed to either a lack of sufficient time to become habituated to the devices, or the frequent rate at which the devices changed.
Anderson, J. R. & Chamove, A. S. (1984). Allowing captive primates to forage. In Standards in Laboratory Animal Management (pp. 253-256). Hertfordshire: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Boinski, S. (1988). Sex differences in the foraging behavior of squirrel monkeys in a seasonal environment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 23 , 117-186.
Costello, R. K., Dickinson, C., Rosenberger, A. L., Boinski, S., & Szalay, F. S. (1993). Squirrel monkey (genus Saimiri) taxonomy: A multidisciplinary study of the biology of species. In B. Kimbel & L. Martin (Eds.), Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution (pp. 177-237). New York: Plenum Press.
Fragaszy, D. M. (1985). Cognition in squirrel monkeys: A contemporary perspective. In L. A. Rosenblum & C. L. Coe (Eds.), Handbook of Squirrel Monkey Research (pp. 99-126). New York: Plenum Press.
Janson, C. H. & Boinski, S. (1992). Morphological and behavioral adaptations for foraging in generalist primates: The case of the cebines. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 88 , 483-498.
National Institutes of Health (1991). Nonhuman Primate Management Plan . Bethesda: Office of Animal Care and Use.
Poole, T. B. (1991). Criteria for the provision of captive environments. In H. O. Box (Ed.), Primate Responses to Environmental Change (pp. 357-373). London: Chapman & Hill.
Redshaw, M. E. & Mallinson, J. J. C. (1991). Stimulation of natural patterns of behaviour: Studies of golden lion tamarins and gorillas. In H. O. Box (Ed.), Primate Responses to Environmental Change (pp. 217-238). London: Chapman & Hill.
First author's address: Dept. of Anthropology, 1350 Turlington, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
We thank Drs. Kathryn Bayne, Jerry Davis, Melinda Novak, and Farol Tomson and anonymous reviewers for their comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. The patience and assistance of Ms. Chris Wilcox was most appreciated.
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Paternity Resolution Using Simple
Protein Polymorphisms in Chimpanzees
Sarah Williams-Blangero, Andrey Perelygin, Kathleen Brasky, and Paul Samollow
Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research
Genetic management is an important component of the overall management of chimpanzee colonies. The basis for all genetic management decisions is the pedigree structure of a colony which defines genealogical relationships between all animals that have ever resided in the colony. The maintenance of basic record information on all colony animals as outlined by Dyke (1993) allows rapid construction of colony pedigrees using specialized software [e.g., PEDSYS (Dyke, 1989)]. Genetic management decisions may be focused on conservation concerns with maintaining the long-term viability of a colony (conservation-oriented genetic management) or on research concerns with maximizing the value of the colony for given research programs (research-oriented genetic management). A fully defined pedigree structure allows colony managers to avoid inbreeding, maintain genetic variability, select experimental samples of unrelated individuals, and initiate genetic analyses of experimentally relevant quantitative trait data, thereby optimizing opportunities for both conservation-oriented and research-oriented genetic management (Williams-Blangero, 1993).
A pedigree is constructed from information on maternity and paternity for each animal in a colony. Founders derived from outside sources will have unknown parentage, but maternity and paternity for animals born in the colony can be defined. In chimpanzee colonies, maternity is generally known unambiguously. The need for extensive genetic testing to resolve paternity in these colonies depends upon the breeding scheme used. When multiple adult males are housed with female breeders, then routine paternity testing may be an important component of colony management since pedigrees cannot be well defined in the absence of this information (Ely & Ferrell, 1990).
Many institutions that maintain chimpanzees rely on a single-male multi-female breeding group arrangement. In these situations, parentage testing is not a frequent requirement since maternity is known and there is only one potential sire. Occasional errors in paternity assignment will occur due to transfers of males between cages with fertile females, between-cage mating, and record-keeping errors, suggesting that pedigree verification may be useful (VandeBerg, 1992). However, such cases will generally be rare; genetic management practices should not be focused solely on routine parentage testing for all infants and their parents.
Implementation of a research-oriented genetic management program (Williams-Blangero, 1993) results in a wide range of available information with which to evaluate genetic variability in a colony. At the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research we have developed a panel of 18 polymorphic gene loci that will ultimately be used for research on the genetic determinants of normal physiological variation and for research-oriented genetic management of the chimpanzee colony. The availability of a common set of markers for all colony animals will allow routine pedigree verification, and permit resolution of paternity cases as they arise. This paper presents analyses of two paternity cases that arose in the SFBR chimpanzee breeding colony during 1994.
Materials and Methods
Two questionable paternity cases, each involving two potential sires, were identified by colony management staff and referred for genetic testing. One of the potential sires was common to both cases. For each case, blood samples were obtained from the offspring, the dam, and the two possible sires. Genotypes at 9 loci currently being assessed across the colony were determined using standard electrophoretic techniques (as shown in Table 1) for each of the seven animals sampled. The loci considered were third component of complement (C3), ceruloplasmin (Cp), glucose-phosphate isomerase (Gpi), peptidase A (PepA), peptidase D (PepD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydgrogenase (Pgd), phosphoglucomutase 1 (Pgm1), the X-linked locus thyroxinebinding globulin (Tbg), and transferrin (Tf).
+----------------------------------------------------+ | Number of Alleles Sample | |Locus Observed in Colony Gel Medium Type | +----------------------------------------------------+ | C3 3 Acrylamide Serum | | Cp 2 Acrylamide Serum | | Gpi 2 Starch Erythrocyte | | PepA 2 Starch Erythrocyte | | PepD 2 Starch Erythrocyte | | Pgd 2 Starch Erythrocyte | | Pgm1 2 Starch Erythrocyte | | Tbg 2 Acrylamide* Serum | | Tf 5 Acrylamide Serum | +----------------------------------------------------+* Isoelectric focusing
Table 1 : Gel medium and sample type for electrophoretic analyses
The 9 loci typed showed variability in both families assessed for parentage determination, although only third component of complement (C3) and transferrin (Tf) exhibited more than 2 alleles within the colony (Table 1). Of these 9 loci, 4 were informative for assigning paternity among the animals considered. Table 2 presents the typing results for the informative loci in each of the families.
+---------------------------------------------------+ | GENOTYPES | |Family Position ID Cp C3 Tbg* Tf | +---------------------------------------------------+ | 1 Male offspring Chimp1 AB BB C AE | | 1 Dam Chimp2 BB AB CC DE | | 1 First sire Chimp3 AB BB S AD | | 1 Second sire Chimp4 BB BB C DE | +---------------------------------------------------+ | 2 Female offspring Chimp5 BB BC CC DD | | 2 Dam Chimp6 BB BB CC DD | | 2 First sire Chimp3 AB BB S AD | | 2 Second sire Chimp7 BB BC C DD | +---------------------------------------------------+
* Tbg is X linked; males are hemizygous
Table 2 : Genotypes at loci informative for parentage determination
These markers enabled resolution of paternity in both cases. In Family 1 the information available for the dam and the offspring indicated that the true sire had to carry an A allele at the Cp locus, a B allele at C3 , and an A allele at Tf since these alleles were present in the offspring but not in the dam. Both potential sires carried a B allele at C3 , but only the first sire (chimp3) carried the A allele at Cp and the A allele at Tf . Therefore, on the basis of two loci, Cp and Tf , we are able to assign paternity of chimp1 to chimp3 in Family 1.
The genetic data also allowed resolution of paternity in Family 2. Data available for the female offspring and the dam indicated that the true sire must carry a B allele at Cp , a C allele at C3 , a C allele at Tbg , and a D allele at Tf . The second sire (chimp7) carried all the required alleles, while the first sire could be excluded on the basis of C3 and Tbg . From these results we concluded that chimp7 was the sire of chimp5.
The results of these parentage analyses indicated that simple biochemical markers can suffice to resolve paternity issues in many cases. Although only two to five alleles per marker were found across the colony, the variability was still adequate to discriminate between the two potential sires in each case.
The value of standard genetic markers with clear biological interpretations, as opposed to more complex genotypes such as those generated by multilocus probes, should not be underestimated (VandeBerg, 1992). In addition to resolving parentage issues, standard genetic markers can be used in population structure assessments of the genetic variability present in a colony, in marker-marker linkage analyses, and in quantitative trait linkage analyses. The marker information generated in the genetic management program can thus enhance research opportunities by providing a rich resource to be utilized in combination with phenotypes assessed through research programs, and marker information generated by genetic studies of colony animals can be used by colony managers in genetic management programs. The availability of a common panel of markers, built up from various research and management activities for all animals in a breeding colony, allows routine monitoring and verification of the pedigree using software which checks for the presence of discrepant alleles in families [e.g., PEDSYS (Dyke, 1989)]. Such multipurpose utilization of genetic information generated by researchers and colony managers can greatly enhance the value of the colony for both breeding and research.
Dyke, B. (1989). PEDSYS, a pedigree data management system user's manual. Population Genetics Laboratory Technical Report No. 3. San Antonio: Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research.
Dyke, B. (1993). Basic data standards for primate colonies. American Journal of Primatology, 29 , 125-143.
Ely, J. & Ferrell, R. E. (1990). DNA "fingerprints" and paternity ascertainment in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology, 9 , 91-98.
VandeBerg, J. L. (1992). Biochemical markers and restriction fragment length polymorphisms in baboons: Their power for paternity exclusion. In R. D. Martin, A. F. Dixson, & E. J. Wickings (Eds.), Paternity in Primates: Genetic Tests and Theories (pp. 96-112). Basel: Karger.
Williams-Blangero, S. (1993). Research-oriented genetic management. Laboratory Animal Science, 43 , 535-540.
First author's address: Dept of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147.
This research was supported by RR08122.
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Assessing Group Housing for an Aged Female Rhesus Macaque
Jennifer Fligiel and Viktor Reinhardt
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center
In trying to maintain social housing for social animals in a laboratory or zoo, caregivers must continually monitor individuals' compatibility and suitability for group housing. Aging, because of its concomitant health problems, might change an individual's suitability for group living: some animals must be removed from the group permanently or just for treatment, while others might be more appropriately treated within the group. The present case study examines the impact of permanent group housing on the well-being of an aged female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). The subject had a history of weight loss associated with diarrhea. This study attempted to determine if the weight loss was due to social stress.
The subject of this study was Ann, a 30-year-old rhesus macaque. She was the alpha female of a healthy breeding troop of 18 macaques housed at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC). Besides Ann, the troop contained three adults (>12 years), including the alpha male; 7 young adults (6-12 years); three subadults (2-5 years); and four infants (<2 years). They lived as a breeding troop in an indoor pen 5.68 m deep, 2.48 m wide and 2.06 m high as described by Reinhardt (1992a). The group had visual contact with another troop housed under identical conditions in the same room. The animals were fed commercial monkey biscuits at 7:30, bread at 11:10, and fruit at 15:10. The biscuits were placed on the ceiling of the pen in such a way that the animals had to manipulate the biscuits through the wire mesh to obtain them (Reinhardt, 1992b). Enough were given so that they were available throughout the day. Water was available ad libitum.
This study addressed the following questions: Is Ann abused? Does she have access to food? What is her physical condition? The observational portion was subdivided into three parts.
1. Preliminary Study : J. F. became acquainted with the eighteen animals in the troop by observing them for 3 hours at a distance of 1 m from the wire mesh walls. The dominance order recorded by J. F. confirmed the order reported in a recently published paper (Reinhardt, 1992b).
2. Behavioral Observation: The troop was observed daily for 30-minute sessions equally distributed between 9:00 and 17:00 for 12 days. J. F. took written notes 1 m from the wire mesh walls. Interactions were recorded for analysis at a later time. Record sheets were divided into five-minute intervals and allowed simultaneous recording of Ann's location and behavior. Interpretation of behavior was based on the CCAC definitions of specific morphological postures, behaviors, and characteristics of non-human primates (CCAC, 1991).
3. Food Competition: J. F. placed bananas, raisins, or Gummy Bears on a 1 m-square area on the floor of the cage, a different treat every day, for three days, and recorded Ann's interactions with the other animals.
Ann's weight and medical history were obtained from the colony management computer at the WRPRC.
Analysis of agonistic interactions during the preliminary study clearly confirmed that Ann was the highest ranking female member of the troop. While she was subordinate to Niko (the alpha male), she remained dominant over all others, including her 14-year-old daughter Olga. Ann consistently yielded to Niko, who was never aggressive toward her.
Ann spent more time interacting with others (44 observations) than she did in self-oriented activities (4 observations). One of Ann's predominant behaviors was grooming. Subordinates were frequently observed grooming Ann, while she mainly groomed Niko and her daughter. In fact, Ann's primary association with Niko was grooming. Ann's most frequent interaction with subordinates was threatening them (17 observations); but she herself was threatened by a subordinate only once.
Photo of Ann
During all three food competition tests, Ann was one of the two dominant macaques. Only Niko obtained more food, and without any aggression toward Ann. Even before J. F. could place the food within the enclosure, Ann was sitting in front of all the others, and she remained between them and J. F. When subordinate members approached, Ann responded consistently with a threat. Any subordinate troop member who managed to obtain a piece of food left with it promptly. All of Ann's responses to subordinates were aggressive (e.g., slapping, lunging, biting, or staring). Subordinates' responses were consitently submissive (yielding, fear-grimacing, crouching).
Ann's medical history shows episodes of weight loss and diarrhea starting in January, 1991. On 12-14-90 her weight was stable at about 12 kg, and there had been no record of diarrhea. On 1-14-91 it was reported that she had watery diarrhea and anorexia. On that same day she received a dose of metronidazole. A second dose was administered the next day, when her weight was recorded as 8 kg. Ann had lost 1/3 of her body weight within a month. With daily supplemental feedings (Ensure @) over a 2-month period, her weight increased to 10.4 kg. One year later, Ann suffered several relapses of diarrhea and by 1-29-93 her weight had gone down to 6.9 kg. Metronidazole was again prescribed and administered daily until 2-3-93 when Ann's stool consistency was healthy. She reached 7.8 kg on 4-7-93, where she has stabilized. Ann presently receives supplemental feedings five times a week, which she readily accepts, and continues to receive Metronidazole as needed for non-specific diarrhea.
The aged female, Ann, maintained very high dominance rank, which guaranteed that she very rarely was a target of aggression. Her relationship with the alpha male showed no agonistic signs of tension. The behavior exhibited in the food competition clearly showed that she had the ability to obtain enough food. Other troop members respected Ann's status-related privileges, even in this highly competitive situation. Ann was also observed to have enough space to retire from the troop when she wanted to.
Weight loss such as Ann's has been observed in other aged macaques (Vertein & Reinhardt, 1993). Such weight loss can be critical if it progresses too quickly and goes unchecked. In the above-mentioned study supplemental feeding was shown to stop weight loss in all of the aged subjects (30 years and older).
Ann's role as an alpha animal, although potentially stressful, affords her the full benefits of being dominant, e.g., in food competition, where she can acquire enough to sustain herself. Because only one threat was observed toward Ann during this study, it appears that the potential of threatening behavior as a stressor in Ann's life in the troop is minimal. This was one of our main concerns regarding Ann's retention as a troop member. However, as a result of this study, we feel that Ann should be left with this highly cohesive group.
Canadian Council on Animal Care. (1991). Social and Behavioural Requirements of Experimental Animals.
Reinhardt, V. (1992a). Space utilization by captive rhesus macaques. Animal Technology, 43 , 11-17.
Reinhardt, V. (1992b). Voluntary progression order in captive rhesus macaques. Zoo Biology, 11 , 61-66.
Vertein, R. & Reinhardt, V. (1993). Empirical use of liquid supplemental nutrition for aged macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter , 32 , 3.
First author's address: 418 South Mills St, Madison, WI 53715-1616.
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Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.
The fourth Primate Training and Enrichment Workshop was held in May 1994 by the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Science Park and Active Environments at the Science Park in Bastrop, TX. The enrichment part of the program was run by Mollie Bloomsmith and Steven Schapiro, while Gail Laule and Tim Desmond presented the training aspects.
More than half of the 31 participants work with captive primates in labs, as primary investigators, technologists, and caretakers. Zoo people and conservationists were also present, including a person who works at a chimpanzee sanctuary in Africa. The instructors did a nice job of identifying common needs among the diverse group, pointing out that the benefits of the program could be applied to the various levels of interaction and uses of primates represented.
We started with an overview of the definitions of training and enrichment, as well as the benefits and means of achieving them. In the afternoon we were shown the enrichment and training programs of the Science Park facilities, which include training chimpanzees to present body parts for inspection and to accept a number of veterinary procedures (e.g., thermometer use, blood draws, and urinating on cue for collection).
As an exercise we were presented with four situations, representing different aspects of primate management, including getting the animals to shift between cages and dealing with stereotypical behavior. We broke into groups, each working toward a solution for one of the prob- lems, to be presented on the last day.
We also worked in groups of four designing and building enrichment devices for chimpanzees or monkeys, which were tested by the primates of the Science Park. Results were presented to the entire group at the end of the workshop, along with the price of the materials. Some very creative low-cost projects resulted.
We also had a session called "The Training Game" in which we took turns training each other using only a clicking sound as a reward. Surprisingly, we learned as much being trained as training. Animal demonstrations and before-and-after videos showed how much can be accomplished with this tool. For future workshops, I suggest additional sessions of this training game, hands-on training of live animals, and an advanced course for those who had grasped the basics and were ready to learn the finer points.
The course cost $225 including most meals and transportation to and from the airport. One of the many pleasant things about this workshop was the friendliness and helpfulness of the people involved, from the primate caretakers to the facility administrators to the instructors.
Anyone involved in primate care and use would learn something in this workshop. Even people not involved in the daily hands-on aspects of primate care would profit from a better understanding of why enrichment and training are so important and how they can actually be a benefit to a primate facility, not just a requirement.
Author's address: Tufts Univ. School of Veterinary Medicine, 200
Westboro Rd, No. Grafton, MA 01536.
Ms. Messner is a third year veterinary student.
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Basic Biology of Aging
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) invites applications for support of centers of excellence in research on basic biological mechanisms of aging, to be known as Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in Basic Biology of Aging. These Centers will provide support for a research development core; a core to support resources such as animal resources, biometric services, molecular/cell biology services, and shared equipment; and a program enrichment core in support of basic biological research on aging. The purpose of this core center grant is to provide funding for core facilities and associated staff that serve the various ongoing research-on-aging projects on a shared basis so as to enhance the quality of research in the basic biology of aging, facilitate the planning and coordination of research on aging activities, and provide a suitable environment for fellows and junior faculty to acquire research skills and experience at institutions that have demonstrated commitment to, and expertise in, research on basic biology of aging.
Potential applicants are encouraged to submit, by October 15, 1994, a letter of intent. Applications must be received by November 29, 1994. Direct inquiries and address the letter of intent to: Richard L. Sprott, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Rm 2C231, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-4996; FAX: 301-402-0010].
Neuroendocrinology of Aging
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) announce an ongoing interest in supporting basic and clinical research addressing aging of neuroendocrine systems and their sequelae. Mechanistic approaches at either the organismic, cellular, or molecular levels are encouraged. Direct inquiries to Andrew A. Monjan, Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 3C307, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-9350; FAX: 301-496-1494] or Phillip Smith, Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Program Branch, NIDDKD, Westwood Bldg, Rm 621, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-594-7531; FAX: 301-594-9011].
Malnutrition in Older Persons
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) encourages research on issues related to the causes, prevention, and treatment as well as the sociobehavioral and economic aspects related to malnutrition in older persons. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, studies on: * Age-associated alterations in absorption and metabolism of essential nutrients, dietary factors, and metabolic processes. * The effects of age on neurons of the satiety centers that influence and regulate appetite and thirst, as well as the effect of changes in sensitivity and acuity, or receptor thresholds for sensory stimulation. * Mechanism for predisposition to dehydration in older persons. * Effects of malnutrition on specific central nervous system cell types. * Gender differences in the metabolism of macro- and micro-nutrients during the late stages of development and in aging in both the so-called healthy aging or mal- nourished individual. * Effects of under- or over-consumption of calories or specific nutrients on risk of acute or chronic diseases in older persons. * Influence of medications commonly prescribed for the elderly on aspects of nutrition.
Direct inquiries to Pamela Starke-Reed, Biology of Aging Program, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, NIA, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-6402].
Neurobiology of Ethanol-Related Behaviors
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is seeking research grant applications using state-of-the-art neuroscience and behavioral techniques to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the acute and chronic actions of ethanol on the brain that mediate ethanol-induced behaviors. Animal and human studies are needed in which ethanol-induced behaviors, including ethanol-seeking behavior, motor incoordination, cognitive deficits, and aggression are coupled with changes in neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the brain. Especially encouraged are applications that directly address specific mechanisms underlying medical and behavioral problems associated with excessive alcohol use, with a goal of developing prototypic therapeutic approaches.
Direct inquiries to Walter A. Hunt, Div. of Basic Research, NIAAA, Willco Bldg, Suite 402, 6000 Executive Blvd, Rockville, MD 20892-7003 [301-443-4225; FAX: 301-594-0673; e-mail: WHunt@willco.niaaa.nih.gov].
Periodontal Complications of Diabetes
The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) invite investigator-initiated grant applications to conduct multidisciplinary basic and clinical research on the periodontal complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Investigators who are well-trained in the modern techniques of cellular and molecular biology are encouraged to focus their expertise and work closely with oral clinicians on issues directly related to the diagnosis, etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of periodontal diseases associated with DM. The molecular and cellular basis for the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases in uncontrolled DM patients remains to be investigated.
Applications may address any objective that would advance the diagnosis, etiology, pathogenesis or treatment of periodontal complications of diabetes. Appropriate research topics may include development of well-characterized diabetic animal systems and ex vivo and in vitro tissue models to study periodontal complications.
Prospective applicants are encouraged to submit a letter of intent by October 21, 1994; applications must be received by November 22, 1994. Direct inquiries and address the letter of intent to: Dennis F. Mangan, NIDR, Westwood Bldg, Rm 509, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-594-7641; FAX: 301-594-9720; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Institutional Animal Resources
The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) encourages the submission of individual animal resource improvement grant applications from biomedical research institutions. The major objectives of this program are to upgrade animal facilities, develop administratively centralized programs of animal care, and enable institutions to comply with the USDA Animal Welfare Act and DHHS policies related to the care and use of laboratory animals. Support is limited to alterations and renovations to improve laboratory animal facilities, and the purchase of major equipment items for animal resources, diagnostic laboratories, transgenic animal resources, or similar associated activities. Any domestic public or private institution, organization, or association is eligible to apply for this grant if the institution has one or more research projects supported by the Public Health Service (PHS) that involve the use of laboratory animals. This program will not support requests for equipment used for teaching purposes and for housing non-research animals.
Inquiries about the program may be directed to: Director, Lab. Animal Sciences Program, Comparative Medicine Program, NCRR, Westwood Bldg, Rm 857, Bethesda, MD 20892-4500 [301-594-7933; FAX: 301-594-9149]. Application receipt dates are October 1, February 1, and June 1 each year.
Trigeminal Chemosensory System
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) invites applications for the support of basic studies on the nasal and oral trigeminal chemosensory system and its interactions with the olfactory and gustatory systems.
Direct inquiries to: Rochelle Small, Division of Communication Sciences and Disorders, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Executive Plaza South, Rm 400-C, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rockville, MD 20892 [301-402-3464; FAX: 301-402-6251].
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The Importance of Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research
A Statement from the Public Health Service
Virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals. The knowledge gained from animal research has extended human life and made it healthier through many significant achievements, as illustrated by the following examples: vaccines to prevent poliomyelitis and other communicable diseases; surgical procedures to replace diseased heart valves; corneal transplants to restore normal vision; new medicines to control high blood pressure and reduce death from stroke; antipsychotic drugs to treat mental disorders; broad spectrum antibiotics to treat infections; and chemical agents to cure or slow childhood can- cers. Of course, there are many other diseases and disorders, such as AIDS, many forms of cancer, the common cold, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, hepatitis, arthritis, cystic fibrosis, and brain and spinal cord injuries--just to name a few--for which no effective prevention, treatment, or cure now exists.
The use of living animals remains an important way to solve some medical problems. Researchers continually seek other models to understand the human organism, study disease processes, and test new therapies. In seeking more rapid and less expensive ways to obtain basic biological information that can be applied to human disease, scientists often study simpler organisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, roundworms, fruit flies, squids, and fishes. Researchers have spent decades learning how to sustain cells, tissues, and organs, from both animals and humans, outside the body to understand biological processes and develop new medical treatments. Mathematical, computer, and physical models complement animal experimentation as well. Although computers alone cannot produce new biological information, they enable scientists to analyze vast amounts of data and test ideas. In the end, the validity of the results obtained from these model systems must be verified in appropriate animal systems and, possibly as the final step, in clinical trials using human volunteers.
Like most people, scientists are concerned about animal well-being. Elaborate safeguards in the form of Federal laws have been implemented to ensure that institutions comply with the regulations and policies affecting the care and use of animals in research. Before beginning a project, all research proposals involving animals must be carefully reviewed and approved at each research facility by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee comprised of scientists, veterinarians, and private citizens. Veterinarians trained in laboratory animal medi- cine are responsible for observing and caring for animals, providing guidance to researchers, and overseeing institutional animal care pro- grams. In addition, institutions conducting animal research are routinely inspected by the U.S. Dept of Agriculture and monitored by the U.S. Public Health Service. Many institutions are further accredited by an independent evaluating body, the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care.
For more than a century, there have been organized groups and indi- viduals who have objected to using animals in biomedical research. This opposition has increased markedly in the last two decades. Animal activist organizations spurred by a philosophy that there is no moral justification for the use of animals in research--even to save human lives--have attempted to slow or halt the work of scientists, conduct mass demonstrations, or even commit acts of vandalism or terrorism. The few health professionals who support the activist movement stand apart from the vast majority of the nation's physicians, and most Americans readily accept the fact that animal research is necessary to achieve medical progress.
Institutions receiving support from the Public Health Service are obliged to adhere to the highest possible standards for the humane care and responsible use of laboratory animals. And scientists themselves have adopted the principle: "Good Animal Care and Good Science Go Hand in Hand." -- March 1994, by the Coordinating Committee on Animal Research
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Update on Ivan Gorilla
Ivan is one of the gorillas who was featured in the 1990 National Geographic program, Urban Gorilla. Jane Dewar is an independent scholar who has visited many zoos in the U.S. and Europe. Keepers have permitted her to go "behind the scenes" and hand feed nearly 100 of the 375 gorillas she has "met." Her travels and meetings with gorillas and their keepers may give her a unique perspective and insight. She reports here on a visit this July, just before Ivan went into quaran- tine in preparation for his move to Zoo Atlanta this fall .
I had seen reports and articles about Ivan, the lonely gorilla housed at a huge flea market-type mall in Tacoma, WA. Photographs and stories led me to dread my visit to meet Ivan, with whom I had the honor of spending more than 2 days. I expected to see a decrepit, neurotic, and pitiful gorilla, but was elated to discover this was not at all the case.
I was surprised by how large (40' x 40') Ivan's main enclosure was, with running water, some ropes and a tire for climbing, and a heated floor (the latter may affect Ivan's ability to reproduce). Ivan also has a small outdoor enclosure (seen in the film "Urban Gorilla") and access to a converted truck trailer. Hay and burlap bedding was available in the outdoor and behind-the-scenes holding areas; Ivan made a nest to rest in while I was visiting him in the trailer.
Ivan is about 30 years old, captured as a baby in Africa. For most of his life he has lived apart from his species, so I was surprised to see how many typical zoo gorilla behaviors he displayed when we met. When I first saw Ivan, he was resting in his main exhibit, ignoring other store visitors who were trying to attract his attention. As Ivan looked up at me, I practiced my best gorilla manners, nodding my head while diverting my gaze. Ivan instantly stood up, came over for a closer look, and then began strutting around with stiff legs, tilted head, and short side glances as he alternated between tight lipped and open mouth staring, apparently trying to figure me out!
Later, as I met him behind-the-scenes, Ivan gently accepted fresh fruit and other treats I had brought, purring contentedly as he ate, despite apparently being in pain from several abcessed teeth (which were pulled later that week). Among the many zoo gorillas I have met, Ivan has one of the sweetest personalities. He seems very well-adjusted, enjoying the company of humans while maintaining his silverback dignity, despite his years of isolation from his own species. Nature won't give Ivan too much longer, but I have good feelings about his move to Zoo Atlanta, where perhaps, like Willie B. before him, Ivan will show the world how resilient, tolerant and special gorillas can be. -- Jane Dewar, 11622 West 87th Street, Burr Ridge, IL 60521
Philippine Export Ban
According to a story in Animal People , a Philippine official confirmed that the country will ban the export of both wild-caught and captive-bred nonhuman primates later this year. The promise to stop the export of wild-caught animals was made in 1986 and the phase-out began in 1989. The inclusion of captive-bred animals under the ban was linked to easing the burden of enforcement because officials would not have to determine where each animal was born. -- From the June 9, 1994 NABR Update.
New Director at Yerkes RPRC
Thomas R. Insel, M.D., most recently head of the NIMH Unit of Developmental Biopsychology, NIH, has been named seventh director of the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory University. He follows Frederick A. King, Ph.D., who retired after heading Yerkes since 1978. Insel, who describes himself as a "psychiatrist turned neuroscientist," will have a joint appointment in Emory's Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science.
Although much of his earlier work involved both human and nonhuman primates, including rhesus and squirrel monkeys, in the past five years Insel has worked mostly with rodents to study the cellular and molecular basis of social behaviors. These studies have demonstrated an important role for the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin in the formation of social bonds. Now he hopes to investigate these same mechanisms in the primate brain.
More Golden Lion Tamarins Discovered
An estimated 290 golden lion tamarins live in Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, the only federal reserve set aside by the Brazilian government to protect the species. An additional 550 are found in research institutions and zoos. Cooperating zoos have released 120 captive-born tamarins onto private farms near the Poço das Antas reserve, which is too small to shelter the extra animals.
Using satellite imagery, World Wildlife Fund-supported researcher Cecilia Kierulff recently located 266 golden lion tamarins in remote areas of Brazil's Atlantic Forest. In 1992 Kilrulff began using Landsat TM5 remote sensing images to identify patches of forest outside the reserve that correspond to the tamarins' habitat. Next, she interviewed local inhabitants to discover which areas actually were inhabited by the animals. Finally, she played recordings of "group meeting" calls to attract the tamarins at likely locations. -- From Focus, 1994 , 16[ 3 ].
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The University of Edinburgh's Department of Agriculture offers courses designed for a Diploma or MSc in applied animal behavior and animal welfare (protection). The courses are sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities, The St Andrew Animal Fund, The Scottish SPCA and The Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. They are designed for graduate agriculturalists (agronomists), animal scientists, veterinarians and biologists who wish to apply the principles of ethology and animal welfare to (e.g.) animal well-being, animal research, animal management, welfare inspection and assessment, and the preparation of welfare legislation. They are of international relevance. Contributions to the course are made by the University Depts of Agriculture, Zoology, Forestry & Natural Resources, and Veterinary Sciences; The East of Scotland College of Agriculture Animal Sciences Div.; The Inst. of Animal Physiology & Genetics Research; and many others. The course in the past has been under the direction of the late Professor David G. M. Wood-Gush. Application forms and further particulars can be obtained from Professor Colin T. Whittemore (Head, Dept of Agriculture), Univ. of Edinburgh, Dept of Agriculture, Kings Bldgs, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, Scotland.
The study is 9 months (from October to June) for a Diploma and 12 months (October-September) for a MSc. The Master's degree requires a three months research project. The following courses are included: Introduction to animal behavior, The neural basis of behavior, Motivation, Behavioral problems and their treatment in companion animals, Statistics, Computing, Pain and analgesia in animals, Introduction to animal welfare, Advanced course on the development of behavior and learning in animals, The application of animal behavior, Environmental health and welfare, Advanced course in social behavior and behavioral genetics, Advanced course on animal welfare, and Legislation and animal welfare. -- Posted by E. Rivas on the mailing list rat-talk.
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Monkey Business Available
The Conservation Committee of the American Society of Primatologists has published an 88-page book titled Primate Humor, Volume 1 , featuring songs, photographs (including the infamous nude centerfold), jokes, favorite real-life answers to college exam questions, cartoons by our own JESS and others, and much, much more. Edited by Janette Wallis, the book is well worth the $10 price ($11 including postage and handling), and will make a great birthday or Christmas present for someone you love. Send a check, made out to the ASP Conservation Fund, to Janette Wallis, Univ. of Oklahoma, Obstetrics & Gynecology, PO Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190 [405-271-4229; FAX: 405-271-8547; e-mail: email@example.com]. While you're writing the check, you might add something as a free-will donation.
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Current Issues and New Frontiers
On December 8-9, 1994 the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) and The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio will sponsor a conference on current issues and new frontiers in animal research. The two-day conference will be held at the Holiday Inn, Riverwalk in San Antonio, Texas. The chairs of the conference are Kathryn A. L. Bayne (AAALAC), Molly Greene (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio) and Ernest D. Prentice (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center).
Researchers, regulatory personnel, members of Animal Care and Use Committees, administrators, veterinarians, and others interested in these issues are encouraged to attend. For information and registration materials, contact SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770 [301-345-3500; FAX: 301-345-3503].
AIDS and Cancer Vaccines
The Second International Conference on Engineered Vaccines for Cancer & AIDS will be held March 3-5, 1995 in San Francisco, CA, sponsored by the Melanoma Research Inst. of St. Francis Memorial Hospital. The abstract deadline is November 15, 1994. For information contact Professional Conference Management, Inc., 7916 Convoy Ct, San Diego, CA 92111-1212 [619-565-9921; FAX: 619-565-9954].
A Keystone Symposium on Molecular and Cellular Biology, on the subject of HIV Pathogenesis, will be held April 17-23, 1995, in Keystone, CO. One day of the symposium will be devoted to Models of HIV Pathogenesis, with presentations by P. Luciw, R. Ruprecht, and M. Marthas on primate models. For information, contact Keystone Symposia, Drawer 1630, Silverthorne, CO 80498 [303-262-1230; FAX: 303-262-1525].
The 1995 meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be held June 21 to 24 at the Safari Inn in Scottsdale, AZ. For more information, contact Jo Fritz, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027. The organizers, Jo, Leanne Nash, Sue Howell, and Carly Burr, promise that there will be no humidity, except in the "two sparkling swimming pools."
1995 ABS Meeting
The 1995 Animal Behavior Society meeting will be held at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln on July 8-13, 1995. For information, contact Dr. Daniel Leger, Dept of Psychology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0308 [402-472-3154; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Prosimian Conference and Workshop
An international conference and workshop on the biology and conservation of prosimians will be held September 14-16, 1995, at the North of England Zoological Society, U.K., cosponsored by the Univ. of Liverpool, the European Federation for Primatology, the Primate Society of G.B., and the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. The conference aims to promote in situ and ex situ conservation of prosimians through exchange of relevant research information on their general biology, ecology, behavior, geographical distribution, and conservation status in the wild. Workshops will concentrate on applying this information to the development of practical action plans, management projects, skills and strategies, including programs for breeding and reintroduction with attention to prerelease behavioral enrichment and genetic assessment.
Papers and presentations are still being sought. For information, write to Biology and Conservation of Prosimians, Chester Zoo, Caughall Rd, Upton by Chester, Cheshire CH2 1LH, UK [+44 244 380280; FAX: +44 244 381352; e-mail: email@example.com].
1996 Joint IPS/ASP Meeting
A joint meeting of the International Primatological Society and the American Society of Primatologists will be held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, August 11-16, 1996. For information, contact Edith Chan, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715 [608-263-3500; FAX: 608-263-4031].
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Information Requested and Available
Pet Monkey Information
Cathy A. Johnson-Delaney, of the Primate Information Center at the University of Wisconsin, published a comprehensive paper in Exotic Pet Medicine II (1994, 24 , 121-156) covering information and advice for the small animal practitioner who occasionally sees a non-human primate pet. This paper would be a good reference for primatologists to pass on to such veterinarians who consult them.
International Directory of Primatology
The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin--Madison, has just published the second edition of their International Directory of Primatology, to enhance communications among the many organizations and individuals involved in primate research, conservation and education. It can be used by primatologists as a desktop working tool or by librarians and other professionals who need to answer questions or direct students to primate programs or other information resources.
The directory is divided into four sections and five indexes. The sections cover (1) geographically arranged entries for major primate centers, laboratories, educational programs, foundations, conservation agencies and sanctuaries, (2) groups involved with nonhuman primate population management, (3) professional primate societies, including the membership roster of the International Primatological Society, and (4) major information resources in the field. Access to this information is supported by organizational, field site, species, subject and name indexes.
Copies of the International Directory of Primatology--354 pp., spiral bound--are available in the USA for $15 (includes surface postage and handling). To offset mailing costs, the price to other countries is $23, payable in US dollars. Orders to: Larry Jacobsen, IDP Coordinator, WRPRC Library, 1220 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; FAX: 608-263-4031; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. Make checks payable to: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
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Research Specialist, Anthropology
The Department of Anthropology at Arizona State University is seeking a Research Specialist. The general duties of this position include the design, management, and maintenance of computer data files for research support. The person filling this position will also be required to produce and examine radiographs using a variety of x-ray equipment. Photographic, curatorial, technical, administrative, and a variety of miscellaneous skills are highly desirable to support research in osteology, paleopathology, forensic anthropology, primate behavior, primate anatomy, dental anthropology, and immunogenetics.
Minimum qualifications are a Master's degree in physical anthropology, biology, or a related field and/or equivalent work experience. Additional desirable qualifications include computer experience, especially a knowledge of computer databases (FoxPro, etc.), and previous work experience in any of the following: x-ray technology, photography and photographic developing techniques, forensic sciences, primatology, dental anthropology, and museum curation. The salary range is $21,526 to $28,144 and the deadline for applications, October 31, 1994.
Submit resume, including references, and cover letter specifying job title and JO#7006407 to: Human Resources - Employment Section, Job Number 7006407, Box 871403, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1403. For further information, contact Leanne T. Nash, Dept of Anthropology, ASU, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 [602-965-4812 or 956-6213; e-mail: atltn@asuacad or email@example.com]. ASU is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer.
Animal Behavior and Biology
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, is seeking an assistant professor, entry-level preferred. The tenure-track position begins fall, 1995. Salary will be competitive and commensurate with qualifications, which include a strong interdisciplinary interest and training in biology. This person will be required to take responsibility for long-standing, group-housed primate colonies at Bucknell and to involve undergraduate students in noninvasive research with primates. A strong commitment to excellence in teaching and to using research as a teaching tool is demanded. The successful candidate will teach part of the core coursework in biology, contribute to the General Education Program, and offer courses and labs in the Program in Animal Behavior.
Send a letter describing your qualifications, names and addresses of references, and reprints to Douglas Candland, Chair, Program in Animal Behavior, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837. Applications review begins December 15. Women and members of minority groups are encouraged to apply.
The Registry of Comparative Pathology seeks a Chief Pathologist (DVM or MD board certified) with broad interests and competence in comparative pathology. The Registry, located at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington D.C. (funded by the National Center for Research Resources of the NIH), is a national resource center for education and research involving spontaneous and experimentally induced disease. Applicants should have strong interests and competence in methods of information transfer, diagnostic and experimental pathology, and the pathology of transgenically derived animals. Skills in organizing collaborative projects, writing, and fund raising are desirable. Salary and starting date are negotiable. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, with names of three individuals to provide letters of reference by November 1, 1994 to Dr. Linda K. Johnson, Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C. 20306-0001.
Postdoc for Age/Diet Project
A postdoctoral position is available for an applicant with demonstrated exerience in nonhuman primate behavioral analysis. Studies will be conducted to assess sensory, motor, and cognitive performance. A large sample of rhesus and squirrel monkeys is available for longitudinal studies of the effects of caloric modification on the aging process. Applicant must have less than 5 years of postdoctoral experience.
Please send a cover letter, curriculum vitae, bibliography and statement of research interests to: Donald K. Ingram, Ph.D., Molecular Physiology and Genetics Section, Gerontology Research Center, NIA, NIH, Hopkins Bayview Research Campus, 4940 Eastern Ave, Baltimore, MD 21224. Also arrange to have letters of recommendation sent by 3 scientists who can provide an evaluation of your qualifications. Informal responses or questions concerning the project can be directed to Mark A. Lane, Ph.D., NIH Animal Center [301-496-9416; FAX: 301-480-0644; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Assistant Professor, Yale
Yale University, Department of Anthropology, is seeking to fill a junior position in biological anthropology at the level of Asst Professor beginning July 1, 1995. Candidates should complement the existing research interests of the faculty. Research specialization in the ecology and behavior of nonhuman primates is preferred. Send curriculum vitae, references, a statement of research and teaching interest, and writing samples, by October 31, 1994, to Andrew Hill, Chair, Biological Anthropology Search Committee, Dept of Anthropology, Box 208277, Yale Station, New Haven CT 06520-8277.
* * *
W. Robin Kingston
As we were going to press, we were saddened to receive word that Robin Kingston died September 9. For an appreciation of Robin, see the article by Hillary O. Box in the January, 1994 (Volume 33 , no. 1) issue of this Newsletter .
* * *
Dr. G. Agoramoorthy, Dept of Biology, Natl Sun Yat-sen Univ., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, Republic of China
Harold R. Bauer, 8932 Townline Rd, Williamsville, NY 14221-2155.
Jane E. Beirise, 980 N. Lakeside Dr., Vernon Hills, IL 60061-2671.
Summer Gabaldon, 5008 Cordoniz NW, Albuquerque, NM 87120.
Dianne Garnes, RR2, Box 727, Campbell Hall, NY 10916.
Kim Phillips, Dept of Biology & Psychology, Hiram College, Hiram, OH 44234.
D. Eugene Redmond, Jr., 100 Deepwood Dr., Hamden, CT 06517.
SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770.
Joellen Shaw, Berg Inst., NYU Med. Center, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016.
Robert A. Whitney, 314 2nd St, Steilacoom, WA 98388.
* * *
Editor's Note: Change in Billing Procedure
Starting with this issue, we are enclosing invoices for foreign mailing charges with the October issue (rather than the January issue, as previously). If you are paying thrrough a subscription agency please send the invoice along to the agency, and tell them they must include a copy with the payment, to ensure that the payment is credited to the right subscriber. Paying for future years in advance will guarantee 1995 postage rates (U.S.$6 surface mail; U.S.$12 airmail) in the face of any increases.
We would also like to encourage U.S. and commercial subscribers to consider sponsoring overseas subscribers, especially those who have difficulty sending U.S. currency.
* * *
All-Male Social Group Formation
In the article "All-Male Social Group Formation: Does Cutting Canine Teeth Promote Social Integration?" by M. R. Clarke & J. L. Blanchard (1994, 33 , 5-8), the third paragraph in the "Methods" section should read as follows:
Procedure: Subjects were paired by age, weight, and number of removals from all-male or mixed social groups. One male from each pair was assigned to the experimental group (canines to be cut), and the other male from the pair was assigned to the control group (canines intact). The 13 males in the experimental group were treated with procaine penicillin G for five days, starting one day prior to the procedure. The monkeys were anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (10mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg). The mouth was washed thoroughly with Nolvasan, and a diamond burr was used to cut all 4 canine teeth at the level of adjacent teeth. The pulp cavity was opened to a depth of 2-3 mm, packed with calcium hydroxide, and filled with amalgam. Animals were then allowed 5 days to recover from the procedure.
Spanish Primatology Association
The names of some of the officers of the Spanish Primatology Association were misspelled in the last issue. They should be Joachim Veá, Vice-President; Fernando Pelaez, Secretary; Maribel Baldellou and Juan Carlos Gómez, Officers for Research; Carmen Maté and Francisco Gómez, Officers for Conservation and Well-being.
* * *
Recent Books and Articles
(Addresses are those of first authors)
* Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology . A. B. Rylands (Ed.). New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993. 396 pp. [Price: $75]
* Lemur Social Systems and their Ecological Basis . P. M. Kappeler & J. U. Ganzhorn (Eds.). New York: Plenum, 1993. 282 pp. [Price: $79.50]
* Among the Orangutans: The Birute Galdikas Story . E. Gallardo. Los
Angeles: Orangutan Foundation International, 1994. [Price: $7.50,
paperback; $15, hard cover, plus $3 shipping. Order from OFI, 822 S.
Wellesley Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90049]
. . This book is intended for children ages 8-12.
* Lipid Metabolism and Experimental Diets, a Selective Bibliography , 1984-1994 . M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 28 pp. (286 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-003. Order from PIC, RPRC, Univ. of Washington, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195]
* Alcohol and Drugs of Addiction: Studies in Nonhuman Primates, A Selective Bibliography, 1989-1994 . M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Info. Center, 1994, 24 pp. (257 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-004. Ordering same as above]
* Food Chemistry, Food Toxicants, Medicinal Plant Use, Geophagy, and Drinking Behavior of Feral & Free-ranging Primates. A Selective Bibliography, 1985-1994 . J. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Info. Center, 1994, 24 pp. (269 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-005. Ordering same as above]
* Electronic Animal Model Series . Registry of Comparative Pathology
(A.I.F.I.P., Washington, DC 20306-6000).
. . Twenty animal model descriptions, including leprosy in the sooty mangabey and folate deficiency megaloblastic anemia in the cebus monkey, with integrated images, text, and references. Complimentary copies of the CD-ROM are being distributed to medical institutions and libraries.
* Directory of Animal Rights/Welfare Organizations . Washington, DC Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1994. 115 pp. [Price: $25 (NABR members); $50 (others), from F.B.R., 818 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]
* Resources for Biomedical Research Technology . Bethesda, MD: NIH, 1993. (95 pp., geographic and name indexes) NIH Publ. No. 94-1430.
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group . June, 1994, 4. [A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
* Community Conservation Consultants , Spring, Summer, 1994. [Howlers Forever, Inc., RD1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]
* Gorilla Conservation News , August 1994, 8 (K. J. Stewart, Dept. of
Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
. . Newsletter of the Gorilla Advisory Committee for the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group.
* Gorilla Gazette , 1994, 8 (Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Dr.,
400, Powell, OH 43065-0400).
. . Includes "Reduction of environmentally caused injury and mortalities to infant gorillas," by R. Sutherland.
* IPPL News , 1994, 21  (International Primate Protection League, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484).
* Inside Yerkes , Fall 1994. [Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322]
* Japan Primate Newsletter , July, 1993. [J. Yamagiwa, Secretary, c/o
Kyoto Univ. Primate Research Inst., Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan]
. . A condensed and revised English version of the Japanese language newsletter of the Conservation Committee of the Primate Society of Japan.
* Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing , 1994,
. [111 Market Pl., Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709]
. . This issue focuses on information and funding resources.
* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group , 1994, 2. [Conservation International, Ave. Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
* The Newsletter , 1994, 6 . [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O.
Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . Includes "Social grooming and hand preference in infant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)," by J. Jerman & S. M. Howell.
* Science and Animal Care , 1994, 5 . [WARDS, 1660 L St, NW, Suite 612, Washington, DC 20036-5603]
* Sulawesi Primate Newsletter , 1994, II  (N. Bynum, Ed., 1126 John Jones Rd., Bahama, NC 27503). [Price: $5/year]
* SCAW Newsletter , Summer, 1994, 16  (SCAW, 7833 Walker
Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770).
. . Includes an article on post-surgical care by A. C. Smith.
Special Journal Issues
*Program and Abstracts of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, July 27-31, 1994, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. American Journal of Primatology , 1994, 33 .
*Morphology of the Japanese Macaque. Anthropological Science , 1994,
. . This issue was edited by M. Iwamoto, just before he retired from the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University. Contents: Numeri- cal variation of vertebrae in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata , by M. Aimi. Allometry of the long bones of closely related macaques, by K. Shinoda. Age changes of postcranial skeletons in adult Japanese macaques, by T. Kimura. Postnatal growth and sexual dimorphism in the skull of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), by T. Mouri. Standard growth patterns and variations in growth patterns of the Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) based on an analysis by the spline function method, by Y. Hamada. Palmar dermatoglyphics of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata , in the Kyushu and Tohoku district, Japan, by M. Iwamoto & B. Suryobroto. Intrinsic hand muscles of the Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata , by T. Homma & T. Sakai. Fibre architecture of the deltoid muscles in Japanese macaque, with special reference to the relationship with that of the pectoral muscles, by K. Fujino. The digitigrade hand and terrestrial adaptation in Japanese macaques, by S. Hayama, K. Chatani, & M. Nakatsukasa. Individual variation in myofiber type composition in the triceps surae and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles of Japanese macaques, by A. Suzuki & S. Hayama. Microvascular architecture of the retina in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata), by S. Okada & Y. Ohta. Patterns of arterial supply of the liver in Japanese and rhesus macaques, by T. Miyaki & H. Ito. The lymphatics of Japanese macaque, by T. Hayakawa. Spatial organization of the collagen and elastin fibers of the lung in the Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata , by O. Ohtani & T. Nakatani. Cluster formation of basal-granulated cells in the intestinal villi of the fetal Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata), by K. Shimizu & M. Nozaki. Preliminary report on histological characteristics of male reproductive organs in senile Japanese macaques, by K. Matsubayashi, T. Enomoto, & M. Nakano.
*Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS VI. Journal of Medical Primatology,
1994, 23 [2/3].
. . Selected papers from the meetings held 19-22 September, 1993 in Madison, WI, guest edited by J. W. Eichberg. Contents: Primary cultures of rhesus placental syncytiotrophoblasts are permissive for SIV infection, by T. G. Golos, L. A. Krugner-Higby, C. S. Williams, J. M. Fisher, K. J. Johnson, M. Durning, & K. T. Schultz. Immunization with whole inactivated vaccine protects from infection by SIV grown in human but not macaque cells, by S. Goldstein, W. R. Elkins, W. T. London, A. Hahn, R. Goeken, J. E. Martin, & V. M. Hirsch. Infectivity of titered doses of simian immunodeficiency virus clone E11S inoculated intravenously into rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), by R. E. Benveniste, S. T. Roodman, R. W. Hill, W. B. Knott, J. L. Ribas, M. G. Lewis, & G. A. Eddy. Efficacy of inactivated whole HIV-2 vaccines with various adjuvants in cynomolgus monkeys, by P. Putkonen, C. Nilsson, L. Walther, L. Ghavamzadeh, K. Hild, K. Broliden, G. Biberfeld, & R. Thorstensson. Mucosal immunization with a live, virulence-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine elicits antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes and antibodies in rhesus macaques, by B. L. Lohman, M. B. McChesney, C. J. Miller, M. Otsyula, C. J. Berardi, & M. L. Marthas. TH1/TH2 subset analysis. I. Establishment of criteria for subset identification in PBMC samples from nonhuman primates, by A. A. Ansari, A. Mayne, D. Hunt, J. B. Sundstrom, & F. Villinger. Early activation of PBMC and appearance of antiviral CD8+ cells influence the prognosis of SIV-induced disease in rhesus macaques, by S. V. Joag, R. J. Adams, L. Foresman, D. Galbreath, M. C. Zink, D. M. Pinson, H. McClure, & O. Narayan. Kinetics of primary SIV infection in lymph nodes, by L. Chakrabarti, M.-C. Cumont, L. Montagnier, & B. Hurtrel. Cellular immune responses in rhesus macaques infected rectally with low dose simian immunodeficiency virus, by M. S. Salvato, P. Emau, M. Malkovsky, K. T. Schultz, E. Johnson, & C. D. Pauza. Antiviral activity of primate gamma-delta T lymphocytes isolated by magnetic cell sorting, by M. Wallace, Y.-H. Gan, C. D. Pauza, & M. Malkovsky. Viral genetic determinants in SIVsmmPBj pathogenesis, by F. J. Novembre, M. M. Saucier, V. M. Hirsch, P. R. Johnson, & H. M. McClure. Cell type-dependence for Vpu function, by R. J. Geraghty, K. J. Talbot, M. Callahan, W. Harper, & A. T. Panganiban. An Hsp60 related protein is associated with purified HIV and SIV, by S. R. Bartz, C. D. Pauza, J. Ivanyi, S. Jindal, W. J. Welch, & M. Malkovsky. Adaptation of HIV-1 to pigtailed macaques, by S. Gartner, Y. Liu, V. Polonis, M. G. Lewis, W. R. Elkins, E. A. Hunter, J. Miao, K. J. Corts, & G. A. Eddy. Passive immunization of macaques against SIV infection, by M. B. Gardner, A. Rosenthal, M. Jennings, J. Yee, L. Antipa, & M. MacKenzie. Comparison of the efficacy of AZT and PMEA treatment against acute SIVmne infection in macaques, by C.-C. Tsai, K. E. Follis, R. Grant, A. Sabo, R. Nolte, C. Bartz, N. Bischofberger, & R. Benveniste. Annual updated survey of worldwide HIV, SIV, and SHIV challenge studies in vaccinated nonhuman primates, by J. T. Warren & M. Dolatshahi.
*Early colonic damage and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in
experimentally challenged infant Macaca mulatta. Russell, R. G., O'Donnoghue,
M., Blake, D. C., Jr., Zulty, J., & DeTolla, L. J. (Prog. of
Comp. Med., Rm G-100, Med. School Teaching Fac. Bldg, 10 S. Pine St,
Baltimore, MD 21201). Journal of Infectious Diseases , 1993,
. . Two 3.5-month-old rhesus, kept in one cage, developed diarrhea 32 hours after one was challenged with C. jejuni orally. Both infants were culture-negative on day 17. Electron microscopic observations indicated that cell invasion was the primary mechanism of colon damage and diarrheal disease. C. jejuni invade cells in the superficial layers of the colonic epithelium and initiate degenerative changes resulting in mucosal damage, with loss of cells from the luminal surface and erosion with diarrhea.
*Neonatal disease induced by SIV infection of the rhesus monkey
(Macaca mulatta). Bohm, R. P., Jr., Martin, L. N., Davison-Fairburn,
B., Baskin, G. B., & Murphey-Corb, M. (Dept of Vet. Sciences, Tulane
RPRC, Covington, LA 70433). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses ,
1993, 9 , 1131-1137.
. . Mean survival time after inoculation in 3-day-old infants is considerably shorter than in animals inoculated as juveniles, and a greater percentage of infected animals demonstrated persistent antigenemia and progressive disease. A decline in the CD4+CD29+ lymphocyte subset may be a more reliable early indicator of progressive disease and early death than declining CD4+ percentages in the SIV-infected neonate.
*Profound systemic hypothermia protects the spinal cord in a primate
model of spinal cord ischemia. Rokkas, C. K., Sundaresan, S., Shuman,
T. A., Palazzo, R. S., Nitta, T., Despotis, G. J., Burns, T. C.,
Wareing, T. H., & Kouchoukos, N. T. (N. T. K., Dept of Surgery, Jewish
Hospital, Washington Univ. Med. Center, 216 S. Kings- highway Blvd,
St. Louis, MO 63110). Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery,
1993, 106 , 1024-1035.
. . Six survivors of hypothermic aortal clamping were neurologically intact, while all eight survivors of a normothermic equivalent procedure were paraplegic or paraparetic. Profound hypo- thermia produced by hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass may be an effective method of protection of the spinal cord in patients undergoing repair of aneurysms of the thoracoabdominal aorta and may reduce the prevalence of ischemic injury to the spinal cord.
*HDL as a protective factor against coronary artery atherosclerosis
evidence from pathology in experimental animals. Rudel, L. L. (Dept.
of Biochem. & Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., Medical Center
Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157-1040). Cardiovascular Risk Factors ,
1993, 3 , 262-269.
. . A review of data from correlative studies relating HDL cholesterol concentration in blood plasma to coronary artery atherosclerosis. The data in nonhuman primates strongly support the hypothesis that HDL protect against development of coronary artery atherosclerosis, although the data indicate that HDL assume a more important role when LDL have become atherogenic.
*Prenatal stress exposure alters postnatal behavioral expression under
conditions of novelty challenge in rhesus monkey infants. Schneider,
M. L. (Dept of Therapeutic Science, 2175 Med. Science Center, 1300
University Ave, Madison, WI 53706-1532). Developmental Psychobiology,
1992, 25 , 529-540.
. . Infants of mothers mildly stressed during pregnancy demonstrated more disturbance behavior, and lower levels of gross motor/exploratory behavior, than infants of unstressed mothers. Moreover, half of the prenatally stressed infants showed an abnormal response, falling asleep, while none of the control infants displayed this behavior.
*Food search demand effort effects on behavior and cortisol in adult
female squirrel monkeys. Champoux, M., Zanker, D., & Levine, S. (NIH
Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). Physiology &
Behavior , 1993, 54 , 1091-1097.
. . Animals were exposed to feeding conditions in which the availability and accessibility of food were altered. A high-demand condition offered 120% of normal daily intake buried in wood chips; variable-demand alternated this condition with a low-demand, in which 600% of normal daily intake was offered in the same way. In the variable- demand condition, plasma cortisol was elevated above baseline during the periods of high effort, while the other group's plasma cortisol was elevated throughout the experiment. Contact with other animals, as well as a species-specific inactive posture, decreased as a result of exposure to high demand. The imposition of increased food-seeking efforts provides an ecologically relevant and noninvasive method of producing chronic stress in the squirrel monkey.
*Immature siblings and mother-infant relationships among free-ranging
rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. Berman, C. M. (Dept of Anthropology,
SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14261). Animal Behaviour , 1992, 44 ,
. . Data for 124 mother-infant pairs suggest that mothers with one or more immature daughters in addition to their infants are in contact with their infants less than those with no immature daughters. High-ranking mothers with older immature daughters also reject their infants significantly more than those without older daughters, and tend to begin mating earlier in the mating season. The presence of sons has relatively little impact on mother-infant interaction, or on the timing of the mother's resumption of mating.
*Foraging behavior of a tamarin group (Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli)
and interactions with marmosets (Callithrix emiliae). Lopes, M. A.
Ferrari, S. F. (Dept. Zoologia, Museu Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399,
66.040-970 Belem-PA, Brazil). International Journal of Primatology ,
1994, 15 , 373-387.
. . Association between the two species appeared to be less systematic overall than those observed between S. fuscicollis and congeners at other sites. Whether and to what extent C. emiliae benefits from the presence of S. f. weddelli are questions that require additional study.
*Introduction and integration of strangers into captive groups of
tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Fragaszy, D., Baer, J., &
Adams-Curtis, L. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA
30602-3013). International Journal of Primatology , 1994, 15 ,
. . Results indicate that, in this species: 1) introductions of adult females can be carried out with acceptable risk to the newcomers provided that careful monitoring occurs; 2) juveniles can be introduced with minimal risk; 3) adult males can be introduced into groups lacking resident adult males with minimal risk. Capuchins differ in important ways from Old World monkeys in their response to introductions of strangers.
*The effects of food treat provisioning and human interaction on the
behavioral well-being of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Bayne, K. A.
L., Dexter, S. L., & Strange, G. M. (Behavior & Nutrition Unit,
Vet. Resources Program, NCRR, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Contemporary
Topics , 1993, 32 , 6-9.
. . Investing extra time (2 minutes per subject, 3 times a week) with rhesus monkeys, using their signals for communication, and providing supplementary food can result in a significant reduction of certain undesirable behaviors. The effects of this program appear to continue for at least a 10-week post-experimental period.
*Caged rhesus macaques voluntarily work for ordinary food. Reinhardt,
V. (4605 Crescent Rd, Madison, WI 53711). Primates , 1994, 35 ,
. . Animals given a choice of freely collecting their standard food ration from an ordinary food box or working for its retrieval from a custom-made food puzzle spent on average a total of 32 sec retrieving 29 biscuits from the box, and 673 sec getting 11.3 biscuits from the puzzle.
*Differential growth among components of the palate in rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta). King, A. H. & Schneiderman, E. D. (E. D. S.,
Baylor College of Dentistry, Dept of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 3302
Gaston Ave, Dallas, TX 75246). Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal ,
1993, 30 , 302-308.
. . Measurement of 108 male and 107 female skulls, ranging in age from 1 to 7 years, suggest that sutures of the midface, in particular the transverse palatine suture, may be important in the bony development of the palate during growth. These sutures may contribute to the overall modulation of palatal development. The greater midfacial prognathism seen in adult rhesus males than in females may be associated with increased relative growth of the palatine segment during puberty.
*Nonhuman primate tularemia (Francisella tularensis) epizootic in a
zoological park. Calle, P. P., Bowerman, D. L., & Pape, W. J. (Animal
Health Ctr, NYZS, 185th St & Southern Blvd, Bronx, NY 10460).
of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine , 1993, 24 , 459-468.
. . Twelve nonhuman primates of 4 species (Varecia v. variegata, Lemur catta, Hylobates-lar, and Cercopithecus n. nictitans) developed typhoidal tularemia during a 6-week epizootic. An additional 13 asymptomatic primates housed with or adjacent to symptomatic animals were prophylactically treated and did not develop illness. Seventy-three primates in the facility were not treated and did not develop tularezootic, many house mice had been found dead in the building in which the primates were housed. The likely infection route was through the ingestion of food that had been contaminated by mouse feces, urine, or saliva after it was distributed to the enclosures. The epizootic was controlled by antibiotic treatment of ill and potentially exposed primates, management and husbandry alterations designed to decrease rodent access to primate diets, and elimination of rodent vectors.
*Vaccination of chimpanzees against infection by the hepatitis C
virus. Choo, Q.-L., Kuo, G., Ralston, R., Weiner, A., Chien, D., Van
Nest, G., Han, J., Berger, K., Thudium, K., Kuo, C., Kansopon, J.,
McFarland, J., Tabrizi, A., Ching, K., Moss, B., Cummins, L. B.,
Houghton, M., & Muchmore, E. (M. H., Chiron Corp., 4560 Horton St,
Emeryville, CA 94608). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,
U.S.A. , 1994, 91 , 1294-1298.
. . Seven chimpanzees were immunized with both putative envelope glycoproteins [E1 (gp33) and E2 (gp72)] that were copurified from HeLa cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expression vector. A strong humoral immune response was obtained in all vaccinees. The five highest responders showed complete protection against an I.V. challenge with homologous hepatitis C virus 1. The remaining two vaccinees became infected, but both infection and disease may have been ameliorated in comparison with four similarily challenged control animals, all of which developed acute hepatitis and chronic infections.
*Variation in course of hepatitis E in experimentally infected cynomolgus
monkeys. Tsarev, S. A., Emerson, S. U., Tsareva, T. S., Yarbough, P. O.,
Lewis, M., Govindarajan, S., Reyes, G. R., Shapiro, M.,
& Purcell, R. H. (LID/NIAID/NIH, Bldg 7, Rm 200, 9000 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, MD 20892). Journal of Infectious Diseases , 1993,
. . Five monkeys developed hepatitis after inoculation with a prototype strain of hepatitis E virus. For 4 monkeys, increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was first observed on days 21-26, viremia occurred before and during enzyme elevation, and the animals seroconverted coincidentally with the end of viremia or shortly thereafter. The fifth animal had a more severe hepatitis, with peak ALT values more than twice the peak levels of the others. This animal developed biphasic hepatitis with peaks of ALT activity on days 26 and 54; viremia and seroconversion were correlated only with the second peak of enzyme elevation and liver histopathology only with the first peak. Viral shedding in this fifth animal lasted twice as long as in the others.
*The incidence of senile plaques and multiple infarction in aged
macaque brain. Uno, H. (Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI
53715). Neurobiology of Aging , 1993, 14 , 673-674.
. . Examination of 51 brains from rhesus monkeys 25 to 36 years old showed the incidence of senile plaque in 20-30-year-old animals is between 40-66%; in monkeys older than 31 years, the incidence increases to 71%. The most common areas for plaques are in the basal prefrontal region and the amygdala. Multiple infarction in the aging monkey appears to be rare.
*Maintenance of genetic variability in a specific pathogen-free breeding
colony. Ely, J. J., Manis, G. S., Keeling, M. E., & Stone, W. H.
(Dept of Biology, Trinity Univ., 715 Stadium Dr., San Antonio, TX
78212). Laboratory Animal Science , 1994, 44 , 211-216.
. . Comparison of 18 genetic loci in a SPF colony and the non-SPF population from which it was derived showed no change in the average gene diversity between the populations. However, gene diversity at blood group Q locus increased significantly in the SPF population, while blood group M locus showed an insignificant trend toward decreased gene diversity.
Instruments & Techniques
*Xenotransplant-associated zoonoses: Strategies for prevention.
Michaels, M. G. & Simmons, R. L. (Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh,
Infectious Diseases, 3705 Fifth Ave at De Soto St, Pittsburgh, PA
15213). Transplantation , 1994, 57 , 1-7.
. . An overview of specific infectious organisms found in baboons and swine, the animals most often viewed as xenotransplant donors, and potential preventive strategies.
*Repair of temporomandibular joint disc perforation using a synovial
membrane flap in Macaca fascicularis monkeys: Light and electron
microscopy studies. Sharawy, M. M., Helmy, E. S., Bays, R. A., &
Larke, V. B. (Dept of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Med. College
of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912). Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial
Surgery , 1994, 52 , 259-270.
. . Surgical repair of experimentally perforated discs reversed degenerative alterations, which persisted in matched unrepaired discs.
*Maternal dietary zinc influences DNA strand break and
8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in infant rhesus monkey liver.
Olin, K. L., Shigenaga, M. K., Ames, B. N., Golub, M. S., Gershwin, M
E., Hendrickx, A. G., & Keen, C. L. (C. L. K., Dept of Nutrition,
Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Proceedings of the Society for
Experimental Biology and Medicine , 1993, 203 ,
. . Infants born to monkeys fed low zinc diets are characterized by evidence of DNA damage shortly after birth; this damage may be due to an increased rate of oxidative damage and/or a reduction in the rate of DNA repair.
*Dose-dependent suppression of aqueous humor formation by timolol in
the cynomolgus monkey. Robinson, J. C. & Kaufman, P. L. (P. L. K.,
Dept of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Clinical Sci. Center, 600
Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792). Journal of Glaucoma , 1993,
. . Timolol doses as small as 2.5 microg can suppress aqueous formation by a statistically significant 20%. In the monkey, as in the human, timolol is a far more potent suppressor of aqueous formation than is generally realized, and standard clinical doses may in fact be overdoses in both species.
*Suppression of luteinizing hormone secretion during short-term fasting in
male rhesus monkeys: The role of metabolic versus stress signals.
Schreihofer, D. A., Parfitt, D. B., & Cameron, J. L. (J. L. C.,
Dept of Psychiatry, School of Med., Univ. of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara
St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213). Endocrinology , 1993, 132 ,
. . Results support the hypothesis that the signal(s) which suppresses normal LH secretion after brief periods of fasting is related to the metabolic status of the body during the transition from a fed to a fasted state, rather than a function of the psychological state imposed by withholding food.
*Hypoglycemia-induced inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion in
the rhesus monkey is not mediated by endogenous opioid peptides.
Heisler, L. E., Pallotta, C. M., Reid, R. L., & Van Vugt, D. A. (D. A.
V. V., Dept of Ob-Gyn, Etherington Hall, Queen's Univ., Kingston, P.O.
Canada K7L 3N6). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism ,
1993, 76 , 1280-1285.
. . Infusion of naloxone did not reverse the effects of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on LH concentrations. Hypoglycemia inhibited LH levels only during a period of restraint, suggesting either an additive or synergistic effect of the two stresses on LH secretion.
*Role of postural status in the nocturnal hemodynamic patterns of nonhuman
primates. Engel, B. T., Talan, M. I., & Chew, P. H. (Lab. of
Behavioral Sciences, NIA, Gerontology Research Ctr, 4940 Eastern Ave,
Baltimore, MD 21224). Journal of Applied Physiology , 1993, 74, 1684-1688.
. . A consistent hemodynamic pattern characterized by an overnight fall in cardiac output and central venous pressure and a rise in total peripheral resistance that maintained blood pressure homeostasis was found in tethered monkeys as well as in chaired ones. Because the pattern occurred under both conditions, it is likely that it is a stable biologic effect, which is probably related to an overnight loss in fluid volume that is not replaced in animals that sleep throughout the night.
Climate and reproductive seasonality in two free-ranging island populations of
rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Lehman, S. M., Taylor,
L. L., & Easley, S. P. (L. L. T., Dept of Anthropology, P.O. Box
248106, Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124). International Journal of
Primatology , 1994, 15 , 115-128.
. . Examination of 3 years of records from two populations living on Florida keys does not substantiate the hypothesis that the onset of rainfall, within the temporal period set by photoperiod, regulates seasonal reproduction in rhesus macaques. Reproductive seasonality in the study populations may be influenced by a variety of factors.
*Multiple breeding females in free-ranging groups of Callithrix jac-
chus . Digby, L. J. & Ferrari, S. F. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ.
California, Davis, CA 95616). International Journal of Primatology ,
1994, 15 , 389-397.
. . Evidence was found of simultaneous presence of two reproductively active females in each of three monitored groups. At least one conception and birth was recorded for two females in each group, but other adult females did not breed. Comparisons with data from other sites indicate that the presence of a second breeding female in a group may be related to high population density, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
*Suppressed copulatory behavior and ovarian function in lactating Japanese
monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) during the mating season.
Mitsunaga, F., Nozaki, M., & Shimizu, K. (Primate Research Inst.,
Kyoto Univ., Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan). Primates , 1994,
35 , 79-88.
. . The low sexual activity of lactating female Japanese macaques is clearly correlated with low levels of plasma estradiol due to suppressed ovarian function.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest.
* * *
Contents of Volumes 31-33 (1992-1994)
Conservation and Supply Volume Number Page
Update: Nonhuman Primate Importation......31 1 1
Modified Importation and Quarantine Requirements......31 1 2
Isla Tigre: An Island for Tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi), by D. R. Rasmussen......31 1 16
Breeding Nonhuman Primates in Their Indigenous Countries: A Low-cost Alternative for Maintaining Animal Resources, by A. Gozalo......31 4 13
A Primate Gene Bank, by W. R. Kingston......31 4 15
What Really Happened in Rio? by A. Jolly......32 2 10
Time to Ban Imports? A European Perspective, by W. R. Kingston......32 3 9
Time to Ban Imports? A Response, by J. Baulu......32 4 26
Kingston Replies......32 4 27
Primate Breeding Centers in Vietnam, by V. Weitzel & Vu Ngoc Thanh......33 1 9
Pig-tailed Macaques and AIDS Research......33 1 10
Time to Ban Imports? Another Response, by K. Hobbs......33 1 11
Time to Ban Imports? Yet Another Response, by J. R. Held......33 2 13
Karisoke and the Mountain Gorilla Amidst Turmoil in Rwanda, by H. D. Steklis......33 3 2
Disease, Medicine, and Surgery Volume Number Page
Fatal Herpesvirus simiae Case......31 1 3
Behavioral Observations in the Detection of Diabetes Mellitus, by S. Levanduski, K. Bayne, & S. Dexter......31 1 14
Travellers' Health Notes: Cholera Update......31 2 4
Seed Ingestion and Gastrointestinal Health in Tamarins? by E. W. Heymann......31 3 15
Non-specific Tuberculin Test Reactions in New World Monkeys, by A. Gozalo, E. Montoya, J. Southers, & L. Revolledo......31 4 8
Nonspecific Diarrhea in the Alpha-Male of a Breeding Troop: A Case Report, by V. Reinhardt......32 1 4
Comments on Baytril@ Antimicrobial Therapy and Considerations for Intramuscular Antibiotic Therapy on Captive Primates, by A. S. Line......32 2 3
Travellers' Health Notes: Cholera Update, Hepatitis E Warning......32 2 36
Travellers' Health Notes: Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine; Malaria in Kampala, Uganda, 1992; Travelers' Health Hotline; Travel Medicine News; Myiasis Warning......32 3 13
Tuberculosis in Imported Nonhuman Primates -- United States, June 1990-May 1993......32 4 11
Interim Guidelines for Tuberculin Skin Testing of Nonhuman Primates During Quarantine......32 4 13
Travellers' Health Notes: Malaria Reminder; Cholera in Africa; Schistosomiasis in Malawi, 1992......32 4 15
Travelers' Health Notes: Malaria Info Phone Number; Dengue Fever......33 2 22
Travelers' Health Notes: Herb Remedy for Drug-Resistant Malaria......33 3 16
Facilities, Care, and Animal Welfare Volume Number Page
Comments Invited for ILAR Report on Psychological Well-being......31 1 6
Three Inexpensive Environmental Enrichment Options for Group-housed Macaca mulatta , by J. Beirise & V. Reinhardt......31 1 7
Task-Oriented Feeding Device for Singly Caged Primates, by M. A. Murchison......31 1 9
Peanut Puzzle Solvers Quickly Demonstrate Aptitude, by S. Heath, M. Shimoji, J. Tumanguil, & C. Crockett......31 1 12
Nonhuman Primate Socialization and Environmental Enrichment Using a Transfer Tunnel, by K. J. Field, J. Denny, & G. Kubicz......31 2 5
Environmental Enrichment Branches that do not Clog Drains, by V. Reinhardt......31 2 8
Foraging for Commercial Chow, by V. Reinhardt......31 2 10
Alternative Forage Types for Captive Chimpanzees, by L. Grief, J. Fritz, & S. Maki......31 2 11
Environmental Enrichment Education and Training Resource......31 2 13
Difficulty in Training Juvenile Rhesus Macaques to Actively Cooperate during Venipuncture in the Homecage, by V. Reinhardt......31 3 1
Effect of an Enrichment Device on Stereotypic and Self-Aggressive Behaviors in Singly-Caged Macaques: A Pilot Study, by L. M. Watson......31 3 8
Avoiding Aggression During and After Pair Formation of Adult Rhesus Macaques, by V. Reinhardt......31 3 10
The Use of Animals as Regulated by the Animal Welfare Act, by C. H. Lingeman......31 3 21
Letter to the Editor: J. T. Bielitzki......31 3 36
Task-directed and Recreational Underwater Swimming in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by J. R. Anderson, P. Peignot, & C. Adelbrecht......31 4 1
Evaluation of the Use of Novel Objects by Adult Male Macaca mulatta , Singly Housed in Horsfal Isolators, by S. E. Perkins, D. E. Burnett, T. R. Rice, E. C. Staley, & B. G. Weick......31 4 5
Two Squirrel Monkey Toys, by B. W. Adams, E. R. Adair, M. C. Olsen, & M. S. Fritz......31 4 11
Introduction of Two Infant Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) in a Captive Group: Analysis of Their Behavior, by M. C. Riviello......31 4 17
Empirical Use of Liquid Supplemental Nutrition for Aged Macaques, by R. Vertein & V. Reinhardt......32 1 3
A New Response to an Ethical Issue, by K. E. Chambers......32 1 6
Potential Animal Hazard with Ring Toys, by M. A. Murchison......32 1 7
The Disappearing Ice Cube, by J. Fritz & S. Howell......32 1 8
Guest Editorial: Primate Well-Being is Not Promoted by Suit, by C. Crockett......32 2 1
Ethics in Primatology, by A. J. Petto & K. D. Russell......32 2 4
Toys as Environmental Enrichment for Captive Juvenile Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), by N. Shefferly, J. Fritz, & S. Howell......32 2 7
Enrichment for Primates in a Toxicology Facility, by J. McNulty......32 2 16
Baboon Vocalizations as Measures of Psychological Wellbeing, by D. K. Crowell Comuzzie......32 3 5
Evaluation of an Inexpensive Custom-Made Food Puzzle Used as Primary Feeder for Pair-Housed Rhesus Macaques, by V. Reinhardt......32 3 7
Foraging Enrichment for Caged Macaques: A Review, by V. Reinhardt......32 4 1
Responses of Singly-Housed White-Crowned Mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) to Different Enrichment Devices, by K. Phillippi-Falkenstein......32 4 5
Initial Response to Introduction of a PVC Perch by Singly-Caged Macaca fascicularis , by M. Shimoji, C. L. Bowers, & C. M. Crockett......32 4 8
Continuous Pair-Housing of Caged Macaca mulatta : Risk Evaluation, by V. Reinhardt......33 1 1
Introducing Unfamiliar Chimpanzees to a Group or Partner, by J. Fritz......33 1 5
Primary Forage Feeder for Singly-Caged Macaques, by M. A. Murchison......33 1 7
Time Investment for Continuous Implementation of an Effective Environmental Enhancement Plan, by V. Reinhardt......33 1 13
All-Male Social Group Formation: Does Cutting Canine Teeth Promote Social Integration? by M. R. Clarke & J. L. Blanchard......33 2 5
Results of Providing Swings to Individually Housed Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by S. Dexter & K. Bayne......33 2 9
Captive Galago and Bushbaby Diet, by J. Ward......33 2 12
Environmental Enhancement for Research Macaques: A Survey of Institutional Compliance, by V. Reinhardt......33 3 1
The Behavioral Profile and Environmental Enrichment of a Squirrel Monkey Colony, by S. Boinski, C. Noon, S. Stans, R. Samudio, P. Sammarco & A. Hayes......33 4 1
Assessing Group Housing for an Aged Female Rhesus Macaque, by J. Fligiel & V. Reinhardt......33 4 10
Grants, Fellowships, Traineeships, Etc. Volume Number Page
Educational Opportunities: Comparative Pathology Course; Space Sciences Training; Smithsonian Fellowships, Minority Internships......31 1 22
Grants Available: Conservation Biology Grants; NSF Young Investigator Awards; NATO Collaborative Research Grants; AAZK Grants Available; NSF Research Equipment Grant Program; Leakey Foundation Grants......31 1 23
Fyssen Foundation 1992 International Prize......31 2 7
Grants Available: NRC Associateship Programs; AmFAR Grants Available; Bio. Research Support Program; Restitution of Neurological Motor Control......31 2 15
Research and Education Opportunities: Wildlife Preservation Trust; ASP Summer Internship List; Fogarty/Japan Postdoctoral Program; Summer Pathology Program; Volunteer for Field Study; School for Field Studies......31 2 19
Grants Available: Comparative Medicine Research, Ecology Research Funds......31 3 6
Research and Education Opportunities: Scientific Cooperation with Japan, Primatology on Grenada......31 3 22
Educational Opportunities: ACLAM Autotutorial Programs......31 4 10
Grants Available: Small Grants for Exploratory Research; Lab Animal Small Research Grants; IPPL Hurricane Relief......31 4 18
Grants Available: Small Grants for Exploratory Research, Biomedical Research Facilities, National Geographic Society, American Diabetes Association Awards, NAS East-West Exchanges Program......32 1 12
Fyssen Foundation 1993-1994 Fellowships and 1993 International Prize......32 1 16
Research and Education Opportunities: Opportunity in Venezuela, Ecology Summer Programs......32 1 17
Research and Education Opportunities: Wildlife Preservation Trust, Earthwatch......32 2 16
Grants Available: Research Fellowships in India, Research Grants Program, Alzheimer's Research Grants and Awards, Research Associateships, Postdoctoral Residential Fellowships, Fulbright Scholar Awards, Small Facility Improvement, Small Research Grants Discontinued, Brain and Behavior......32 2 21
Grants Available: NATO Collaborative Research Grants; Young Investigator Awards; Multidisciplinary Research; AmFAR Grants Available......32 3 10
Educational Opportunity: Postdoc in Lab Animal Medicine......32 3 16
Grants Available: Human Frontier Science Program; Dissertation Research Funds; Helicobacter pylori Pathogenesis; Hastings Center; Zoo Research Grants; American Cancer Society......32 4 25
Grants Available: Fyssen Foundation 1993-1994 Fellowships; Conservation Biology Awards; AIDS Research; Conservation Grants......33 1 15
Research and Educational Opportunities: Field Assistant, Grenada; Field Assistants, Puerto Rico; Ethical Issues of Animal Experimentation; Zoo Science Fellowships......33 1 18
Grants Available: Fulbright Scholar Awards; Postdoctoral and Associateship Programs; Neurologic Integrity in Fetus and Neonate; Academic Research Enhancement Award; Whitehall Foundation Grants; Oral Wound Healing, Tissue Regeneration......33 2 20
Grants Available: Low Cholesterol States; Service Awards for Postdoc Fellows; Mechanisms of AIDS Pathogenesis; Gorilla Conservation Grants......33 3 17
Research and Educational Opportunities: Pathology of Lab Animals Course; Medicine for the Third World Traveler......33 3 13
Grants Available: Basic Biology of Aging; Neuroendocrinology of Aging; Malnutrition in Older Persons; Neurobiology of Ethanol-Related Behaviors; Periodontal Complications of Diabetes; Institutional Animal Resources; Trigeminal Chemosensory System......33 4 8
Information and Information Services Volume Number Page
Information Requested and Available: Regional Primate Center History; Request for Ethograms; Homosexual Behavior; Anesthesia and the CNS; Vocalization Survey; Cytokine Detection......31 1 17
Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1992)......31 1 25
Editors' Notes: Correction; Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques......31 2 4
Information Requested and Available: International Directory: Progress Report; Potto Studbook; Self-injurious Behavior in Callitrichids; Primate Surgical Anatomy; AAALAC Animal Well-Being Poster; A.P.A. E-mail List......31 2 16
Directory of Graduate Programs: Addendum......31 2 18
The PRIMATES Database: 45,000 Citations at Your Fingertips......31 3 23
Information Requested and Available: Orangutan Newsletter, Registry of Comparative Pathology, Vocalization Recordings, Unusual Gorilla Behavior, New Quarterly Journal, Educational Resource Directory, Genetic Typing, Forum on International Cooperation......31 3 24
Editors' Notes: Captive Care Notes; Multimedia Project; Dialogue......31 4 16
Information Requested and Available: International Directory of Primatology; New World Monkey Usage; Baboon Reintroduction; Animal Management Videos; Tropical Biodiversity......31 4 20
Information Requested and Available: Infant Primate Technician's Manual, Chimp Blood Samples, Rehabilitating Chimpanzees, Advice on Transmitters, Eclampsia and Pre-Eclampsia in Primates......32 1 5
Diana Monkey Questionnaire, by M. Stevenson......32 1 9
Editors' Notes: Price Change on Back Issues, Gifts Acknowledged, Mailing List Update......32 1 16
Information Requested and Available: Animal Research "Summaries", Great Ape Introductions......32 2 6
Information Requested and Available: IATA Live Animals Regulations; Animal Protection Organizations; Educational Slide Sets; Comparative Medicine Bulletin Board; Veterinary Pathology Computer Link; GPO Electronic Access; Gorilla Ethograms......32 3 11
Editors' Notes: Generous Donation; Back Issues......32 3 12
Planned 1994 Revision of Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research......32 4 4
Information Requested and Available: Import Permits; Nonhuman Primate Audiovisual Resources; Yerkes in Florida; Pathology Slide Set......32 4 31
Information Requested and Available: Primate Foresight; Barbary Macaques? Primate Info Net......33 1 16
Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1994)......33 1 23
Correction to the Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1994)......33 2 14
Information Requested and Available: Manuscripts Wanted; STLV and Chimpanzee Collecting Practices; New Genetic Database......33 2 17
Editors' Notes: Thanks to Our Proofreaders; George Ettlinger; James Bowen......33 2 24
Editors' Note: LPN Grant Renewed......33 3 7
Information Requested and Available: Physiological References; Food and Sex; Nocturnal Mammals; Free Access to NLM AIDS Databases; Aging in Rhesus and Squirrel Monkeys; Orangutan Field Projects......33 3 14
Information Requested and Available: Pet Monkey Information; International Directory of Primatology......33 4 16
Monkey Business Available......33 4 14
Editors' Note: Change in Billing Procedure......33 4 18
Lectures, Seminars, Symposia, Workshops Volume Number Page
Conference on Ethics and Primatology......32 1 15
Report on Working Conference on Ethics in Primatology......32 4 17
Research and Educational Opportunities: Pathology of Lab Animals Course; Earthwatch; Volunteers, Venezuela and California......33 2 8
Workshop Announcements: Training and Enrichment Workshop; Continuing Education and Training; Animal Welfare Training; Animal Welfare Information Requirements......33 2 19
Workshop Announcement: Animal Use Workshops......33 3 7
Primate Training and Enrichment Workshop Report, by E. Messner......33 4 7
Educational Opportunity: Applied Animal Behavior and Welfare......33 4 14
Miscellaneous Volume Number Page
Letter from a Friend......32 1 11
Garner's Contributions on African Apes Reassessed, by H. S. R. Glaser......32 1 13
Letter from Russia -- Boris Lapin......32 4 i
Bibliography on Ethics of Animal Research, by M. Boccia......33 1 14
Robin Kingston, by H. O. Box......33 1 22
Survey for the Development of Primatology Ethics Principles......33 1 i
Award Nominations: ASP Conservation Committee; HSUS Russell and Burch Award; SCAW Rowsell Award......33 2 16
Responses to Survey on Ethical Principles in Primatology, by A. J. Petto......33 3 3
The Importance of Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: (A Statement from the Public Health Service)......33 4 12
W. Robin Kingston......33 4 17
News Briefs and News Volume Number Page
News Briefs: AAALAC Council on Accreditation; Glosser to U.C. Davis; New Journal; PETA & Washingtonian Settle Suit; Professor Wins Damage Suit; Malaria Prophylaxis News......31 1 21
News Briefs: South African Research Group Disbands; ABS Recruiting; Oops, Wrong Primates......31 2 15
Maryeva Terry, 1924 - 1992, by J. B. Williams......31 3 7
News Briefs: Schrier Commemorative Library at G.S.U.; Kyoto Research Institute Anniversary; CITES News; AIDS Model Announced......31 3 14
Benjamin D. Blood, 1914 - 1992......31 4 4
Facilities Protection Law......31 4 14
News Briefs: Researchers Contract SIV; "Future of NSF" Commissioners Named......31 4 21
Hurricane Andrew News......31 4 28
Hurricane Damage......32 1 10
News Briefs: Microchip Marking; Aye-Aye Born at Duke University......32 1 11
News Briefs: Gorilla Births at Calgary; Update on Karisoke Research Center; New SCAW Board Members; House Science Committee Reorganization; New NIH Directors......32 2 17
News Briefs: USDA Appeal Still Uncertain; Solly Zuckerman, 1905-1993; Karisoke Update; Block, of Worldwide Primates, Sentenced; New AAALAC Council Members......32 3 15
News Briefs: Squirrel Monkey Twins Reported; Digit Fund Changes its Name; Malaria-AIDS Link? VandeBerg to Lead ILAR; New SCAW Board Members; Birute Galdikas Honored; Tonkin Snub-nosed Langurs......32 4 29
News Briefs: ILAR to Revise Care and Use Guide; Varmus Confirmed as NIH Director; NIH Program to be Accredited; Justice Appeals ALDF vs USDA......33 1 19
News Briefs: Comments on Guide Revisions; SIV Isolated in Lab Worker; Indonesia Bans Wild-caught Primate Exports......33 2 15
News Briefs: Rabies in the United States; Preventing HIV Transmission in Pregnancy; New Director at Oregon RPRC; Richey Decision Overturned; Changes at TNO; Animal Rights Groups Seek Representation; Spanish Primatology Association; Hanoi Joins CITES......33 3 11
News Briefs: Update on Ivan Gorilla; Philippine Export Ban; New Director at Yerkes RPRC; More Golden Lion
Tamarins Discovered......33 4 13
Organizations and Meetings Volume Number Page
Meeting Announcements: NIH Workshops on Humane Care and Use; Asia-Pacific Symposium; PsyETA Workshop......31 1 13
Meeting Announcements: NABR Fall Conference; SCAW Conference; Symposium on Models for AIDS; NY Regional Group Meetings......31 2 18
Meeting Announcements: NIH Workshop on Humane Care and Use; NABR Education Conference; Alternatives and Animal Use; PSGB Scientific Meetings......31 3 16
Meeting Announcements: 1993 ASP Meeting in Massachusetts; NIH Workshop on Humane Care and Use; Lion-tailed Macaques; IPS 1994 Congress; Orang-utan Conservation Workshop; "The Aging Monkey"; Conference on Nocturnal Prosimians......31 4 19
European Marmoset Research Group: Letter......32 1 13
Meeting Announcements: 1993 ASP Meeting in MA; Cebidae Symposium; Seminars in Primatology; Humane Care & Use Workshops; SCAW Symposium at AAAS; Lentiviral Infections; Conference on Environmental Enrichment......32 1 14
Meeting Announcements: Information Requirements Workshop; Ethical Issues of Animal Use; Space Station Utilization Conference; Vertebrate Morphology; Lab Animal Facility Design; Seminars in Primatology; ChimpanZoo Conference; Pithecanthropus Centennial Congress; Symposium on Models for AIDS; International Conference on Orangutans; 1994 ASP/ABS Meeting Announcement......32 2 19
Meeting Announcement: Captive Chimpanzee Workshop......32 3 14
Meeting Report: Zoo Conference on Environmental Enrichment......32 4 28
Meeting Announcements: Wisconsin RPRC Seminars; Behavioral Ecology Congress; Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Surgery; Human/Research Animal Relationship......32 4 30
Meeting Announcements: ILAR to Revise Care and Use Guide; 1994 ASP Meeting; Issues in IACUC Protocol Review; Callitrichid Symposium; Biosafety Symposium; Meeting Notes.....33 1 20
Funds for Travel to IPS Congress in Bali, Indonesia......33 1 21
Meeting Announcements: Animal Behavior Society; Behavioural Brain Research; Meeting Notes......33 2 23
Meeting Announcements: AALAS Annual Meeting; European Marmoset Research Group; 1994 ChimpanZoo Conference......33 3 12
Meeting Announcements: Current Issues and New Frontiers; AIDS and Cancer Vaccines; HIV Pathogenesis; ASP 1995; 1995 ABS Meeting; Prosimian Conference and Workshop; 1996 Joint IPS/ASP Meeting......33 4 15
Physiology and Behavior Volume Number Page
"Paternalistic" Behavior in a Langur Colony, by M. Avallone & S. Johnson......31 1 18
Infanticide in a Zoo Group of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata), by S. N. Tillekeratne & J. D. Paterson......31 1 19
Changes in Male-Female Interactions after Introduction of a New Adult Male in Vervet Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) Groups, by H. S. Morland, M. A. Suleman, & E. B. Tarara......31 2 1
Protection of a Disabled Group Member in Hamadryas Baboons, by R. C. Kyes......31 2 9
Object Rubbing in Balinese Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), by A. Fuentes......31 2 14
Natural Migration Patterns Predict Escapes from a Colony of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata), by S. M. Lehman & L. L. Taylor......31 3 3
Wind Direction is Associated with Daily Variation in Use of an Island by a Troop of Stumptail Macaques (Macaca arctoides), by D. R. Rasmussen, R. Biggs, & R. Gorena......31 3 12
Tool Use to Acquire Drinking Water by Free-Ranging Lion- Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus), by H. Fitch-Snyder & J. Carter......32 1 1
Biochemical Values During Pregnancy Period in Squirrel Monkeys......32 1 28
Research Report: Paternity Analysis Using Hair Samples......32 2 9
Prediction of Affiliation and Sexual Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys with Previous Familiarity, by D. R. Rasmussen......32 2 12
Effect of Group Size on Behavior of Group-housed Female Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), by D. T. McIntyre & A. J. Petto......32 3 1
Relative Strength of Influence of Relatedness and Familiarity on Affiliation in Captive Rhesus, by D. R. Rasmussen......32 4 21
Evidence for Suppression of Ovulation in Singly-Housed Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), by S. Tardif, K. Hyde, & L. Digby......33 2 1
A Case of Adoption by an Adult Male Rhesus Macaque, by C. Schwind, L. L. Taylor, & S. M. Lehman......33 3 8
Reproduction and Rearing Volume Number Page
Preliminary Observations on External Signs of Estrus in Moustached Tamarins, Saguinus mystax (Callitrichidae), by L. A. Sicchar & E. W. Heymann......31 1 3
Adoption of a Neonate in a Captive Group of Red-Capped Mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) and the Use of DNA Fingerprinting to Assess Maternity, by E. Watts, D. G. Smith, & E. L. Zucker......32 4 18
Paternity Resolution Using Simple Protein Polymorphisms in Chimpanzees, by S. Williams-Blangero, A. Perelygin, K. Brasky, & P. Samollow......33 4 5
Resources Requested and Available Volume Number Page
Request for Primate Material: Tissue Samples Wanted......31 4 10
Requests for Primate Material: Placental Tissue, Primate Skeletons......32 1 8
Request for Primate Material: Great Ape Appendix......32 3 16
Primate Material Requested or Available: Tissue for Odorant Binding Protein Research; Resources for Conducting Research on Aging........32 4 20
Primate Material Requested: Pathology Materials; Kidneys Needed.......33 1 22
Resources: Proyecto Peruano de Primatologia; Purpose-bred Monkeys; Time-Labeled Fetal Tissues.......33 2 18
Resources Available: Caribbean Primate Research Center......33 3 15
Address Changes......31-33 each issue
Positions Available......31-33 each issue
Recent Books and Articles......31-33 each issue
* * *
Cover drawing of black and white colobus monkey
( Colobus guereza kikuyensis ) by Penny Lapham.
Copyright @1994 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.