VOLUME 34 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1995
Articles and Notes
Forage Feeder Box for Single Animal Cages, by M. Murchison....1
Chimpanzees in AIDS Research....4
Ivan Gorilla Moves to Atlanta, by K. Burks.... 7
News, Information, and Announcements
Primate Predation Questionnaire.... 3
Warren Kinzey.... 5
News Briefs.... 6
Gorilla Twins; Gorilla Death in Rwanda; Orangutan Heart Surgery; Tonkin Snubnosed Monkey Reserve; Sanctions on Worldwide Primates
NSF Update.... 8
Workshop Announcement: Humane Care and Use.... 9
Research Opportunity.... 9
Cynomolgus Monkeys in the Philippines
Educational Opportunities.... 10
Apprenticeship at Central Washington; Aging Research Scholarships; Field Assistants, Cayo Santiago; Degree in Animals & Public Policy
Resources Requested or Available.... 12
Primate By-products; Surplus Lab Equipment; Animal Services
Important Alert Regarding Incoming Mail.... 13
Information Requested and Available.... 14
Noldus News; Primate Vocalization Recordings; African Primate Newsletter
National Survey of Lab Animal Use.... 14
Award Nominations.... 15
ASP Conservation Committee; Rolex Awards for Enterprise
Awards Granted.... 15
SCAW Rowsell Award; Zoo Welfare Innovation; Defense of Freedom; Society for Neuroscience
Fyssen Foundation 1995-1996 Fellowships and 1995 International Prize.... 16
Travelers' Health Notes.... 17
Arenavirus Infection; Surveillance for Imported Plague; Sleeping Sickness; Dengue Fever (DF)
Grants Available.... 19
GrantsNet; AIDS, Drug Abuse, and Neurobiology; Biology of the Menopause; Communication Senses Small Grants; Conservation Biology Grants; Cytokine Effects on Hematopoiesis in AIDS; Tropical Medicine Research Centers; Maternal Antibodies, Infant Immunization
Erratum: Philippine Exports.... 20
Meeting Announcements.... 21
Medicine & Nutrition of NWPs; Molecular Anthropology Neotropical Primate Phylogeny; Animals in Science; Wellbeing in Zoos and Aquaria; Jean Piaget Society; Change in Madagascar; CALAS/ACTAL; ICLAS 95; Committing to Conservation; China Primate Conference; Working Safely with Research Animals
Address Changes.... 9
Positions Available.... 11
Staff Scientist, Puerto Rico; Director, Karisoke Research Center; Evolutionary Primatology Postdoc; Postdoc in Animal Behavior; University College London
Recent Books and Articles.... 23
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Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington
A primary aim of environmental enrichment for laboratory-housed nonhuman primates is to create a stimulating living space that promotes species-typical activities. Several studies have explored the dynamics of social housing, the introduction of play devices and perch space, and the promotion of foraging (e.g., O'Neill, 1988, Reinhardt, 1990, Bayne et al., 1992). The objective of these enrichment schemes is to increase the animals' activity while decreasing their idle time.
Approximately 85% of the nonhuman primates at the Univ. of Washington's Primate Field Station are housed in multi-animal social groups. The remainder are housed individually for medical or research reasons. A forage feeder box was designed and built to replace the existing standard feeders on single-animal cages. This report compares use of the standard and forage feeders.
Materials and Methods
Twenty young adult pig-tail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were used to test the feeders. One group consisted of 10 nulliparous females (mean age, 4.6 yrs). The other 10 were dams (mean age, 5.2 yrs) with infants (mean age, 0.32 yrs). The animals were moved into the test cage three days before testing began. The cages were Seattle-design (Suburban Surgical, Wheeling, IL) Group III (4.3 ft2 floor area) cages with standard feeder, side gates, perch, and toy. The standard feeder on these cages has a single circular opening, 5 cm in diameter (Figure 1). On the first day of testing all monkey chow (Purina) was removed from the standard feeder and cage at 0900 hr. At 1400 hr the standard feeder was filled with 40 whole monkey chow biscuits. Video recording began immediately after the feeder was filled. The video camera was placed behind and to the left of the cage, providing a view of the animal as it removed food from the feeder. The animals' actions were recorded until 1500 hr. At that time the number of biscuits in the cage was noted, and if necessary a known number was added to the feeder. On the following morning at 0700 hr the number of biscuits in the feeder and cage, and on the floor beneath the cage, was recorded. At 0900 hr all food in the cage was removed and the standard feeder was replaced with the forage feeder. The forage feeder was the same design as the standard feeder, but with four smaller circular openings, each 3 cm in diameter (Figure 1). At 1400 the forage feeder was filled with 40 whole biscuits and recording was done as above.
Figure 1 : Cage view of standard and forage feeders.
The animals' foraging time was collected from the video recordings, using an event program, EVENT-PC (J. C. Ha, Univ. of Washington). Foraging was defined as the animal actively using its hands, teeth, or feet to remove biscuits from a feeder. Foraging time was recorded from the time the animal first contacted the feeder until it removed a biscuit, or until it no longer was in contact with the feeder. An analysis of variance was used to test group means and variances for food consumption and foraging time by feeder type (SYSTAT, 1992).
Results and Discussion
The food consumption results (Table 1) show that the animals learned to remove biscuits from the forage feeder and sustained normal food consumption. There were no differences between the standard and forage feeders in number of biscuits fed and consumed. Dams with infants ate more than nulliparous females, but the infants were not observed consuming the biscuits. Differences between the feeder boxes were revealed by what the animals did with the biscuits after they removed them from the feeders. When the animals were using the standard feeder they left significantly more biscuits in the cage (F-ratio: 9.40; P > 0.01) and slightly more biscuits on the floor beneath the cage (not statistically significant). Conversely, when the animals used the forage feeder they left significantly more biscuits in the forage feeder (F-ratio: 11.41; P > 0.01) rather than in the cage or beneath the cage on the floor (Table 1).
+-------+--+--------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----------+ |Type |N |Biscuits|Biscuits*|Biscuits*|Biscuits|Biscuits|Time(sec)*| |Feeder | |Fed |Eaten |in Cage |in |on Floor|Foraging | | | | | | | Feeder | |first hour| +-------+--+--------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----------+ |Std. |20|43.5/7.5|21.9/9.8 | 6.5/8.8 | 6.1/9. |8.9/7.7 | 51.1/34.2| | | | | | | | | | |Forage |20|44.5/7.8|21.5/9.5 | 0.4/0.7 |17.2/ |5.6/6.9 |399.8/ | | | | | | | 10.9 | | 267.3 | +-------+--+--------+---------+---------+--------+--------+----------+
Table 1 : Food consumption and foraging by feeder type
(means +/- s.d.'s)
(* = difference is significant)
The amount of time the animals spent foraging revealed obvious differences between the boxes (Table 1). When the animals used the forage feeder they spent significantly more time (F-ratio: 33.49; P > 0.01) foraging for biscuits compared to the standard feeder.
This foraging process required the animals to spend more time and to use their foraging skills to retrieve their basic diet. As in previous studies (Murchison, 1994; Reinhardt, 1994), the animals consumed most of the food they took from the forage feeder, wasting few biscuits and leaving the remaining biscuits in the feeder (Table 1). The amount of time the animals spent foraging differed greatly between the feeder types. The animals spent nearly 8 times more time foraging when using the forage feeder compared to the standard feeder (Table 1).
By using a forage feeder on primate cages, caregivers can comply with regulations promoting species-typical activities (USDA, 1991) with no increase in caretaking time, and with the potential of reducing food waste. The forage feeder requires no special cleaning, but can be sanitized along with the cage.
Bayne, K. A. L., Hurst, J. K., & Dester, S. L. (1992). Evaluation of the preference to and behavioral effects of an enriched environment on male rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science, 42, 38-45.
Murchison, M. A. (1994). Primary forage feeder for singly-caged macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 33, 7-8.
O'Neill, P. (1988). Developing effective social and environment enrichment strategies for macaques in captive groups. Lab Animal, 17, 23-36.
Reinhardt, V. (1990). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch, and a piece of wood for an extended time. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 51-56.
Reinhardt, V. (1994). Caged rhesus macaques voluntarily work for ordinary food. Primates, 35, 95-98.
SYSTAT (1992). Statistics, version 5.2 ed. Evanston, IL: SYSTAT, Inc.
U.S. Dept of Agriculture (1991). Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register 56, 6495-6505.
Author's address: Primate Field Station, Regional Primate Research Center, Univ. of Washington, Medical Lake, WA 99022-0536.
The author would like to thank Dr. Darrell Williams for his steadfast support of environmental enrichment at the Primate Field Station. Through his direction and support of the enrichment program, he has inspired the staff to provide the highest quality animal care. The author gratefully acknowledges David Cutler for construction of the forage feeder and Dr. Bill Cummins and Dr. Laura Newell-Morris for their review of this manuscript. This research was supported by NIH grant RR00166.
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Chimpanzees have been found to be the only readily available nonhuman primates which are highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. On August 8-9, 1992, a group of scientists representing animal welfare and AIDS research interests met at TNO in Rijswijk, The Netherlands, to discuss issues concerning the use of chimpanzees in AIDS research, in the light of recent developments. An article, "Chimpanzees in AIDS Research: A Biomedical and Bioethical Perspective," by R. van Akker, M. Balls, J. W. Eichberg, J. Goodall, J. L. Heeney, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, A. M. Prince, and I. Spruit, was printed in the Journal of Medical Primatology (1994, 23, 49-51). This is a synopsis of that article.
Utilization: Vaccine development : Physiological safety tests can, in all except the rarest of circumstances, be conducted in other animals, including nonhuman primates. Immunogenicity determination with candidate vaccines which have been shown to be safe usually can be carried out in man. An exception would be tests on recombinant viral vectors carrying HIV genetic material, or attenuated strains of HIV, the safety of which could only be appropriately studied in the chimpanzee. For protective efficacy tests, chimpanzees offer the advantage that live virus challenges can be carried out, thus providing a preliminary estimate of efficacy by using a small number of animals, without requiring a large human vaccine trial.
When high-risk human populations suitable for vaccine trials are identified, it may be possible to simultaneously evaluate multiple vaccine candidates in such populations directly. Such tests would also provide assessment of protection against natural routes of transmission.
Passive immunization : Passive immunization studies directed toward the prevention of maternal-infant transmission or protection against accidental percutaneous exposures differ from vaccine studies, in that chimpanzees are necessary for preliminary safety evaluation. These studies will be likely to also involve monoclonal antibodies, the safety of which needs to be established. As HIV stocks titrated by subcutaneous or intradermal routes are not available, the chimpanzee model cannot be used at present to evaluate percutaneous exposure prophylaxis. Furthermore, it is not presently practical to carry out large scale studies on the prevention of maternal-infant transmission in chimpanzees, thus efficacy tests of passive immunization must be carried out mainly in man. Such studies are in progress.
Therapy : The use of chimpanzees already infected with HIV for evaluation of approaches to therapy is possible, since about 150 such animals already exist. No additional animals should be infected solely for use in such studies. Furthermore, there is no shortage of human subjects for such investigations.
Pathogenesis studies : As numerous HIV-infected chimpanzees are already available, no new infections should be initiated for this purpose.
Virus titrations : It will be important to challenge chimpanzees which have resisted challenge with the current prototype vaccine strain, HIV/Lai, with different strains prevalent in human populations. At present, this is not possible since only HIV/Lai (IIIb) has been titrated in chimpanzees. The additional titration of prototype HIV stocks is desirable and is in progress.
Alternatives to HIV-1 studies in chimpanzees : One widely used approach is the SIV-macaque model. It has recently been reported that Macaca nemestrina are susceptible to HIV-1 infection at high challenge doses. The use of monkeys may accelerate research, and may also obviate the need for the involvement of chimpanzees in certain experiments. However, the welfare and social needs of other primates must also be considered. Unnecessarily large numbers should not be used, caging of adequate size must be provided, and group housing should be used whenever possible.
Appropriate conditions for chimpanzees during and after experiments : Whenever possible, chimpanzees must be housed at least in pairs, or larger groups. The fact that HIV is rarely, if ever, transmitted between animals caged together supports the practicality of such a policy. Cages should be of a size sufficient to permit exercise and normal play behavior, and a variety of enrichment articles should be provided to avoid boredom and facilitate recreation. The housing of chimpanzees involved in AIDS research singly in isolator cages which deny social interaction and companionship, as well as social interaction with human care-givers, is both unnecessary and unethical.
Retirement : It is now generally accepted that chimpanzees must be retired at the end of their involvement in research, to live under conditions which provide for their social and psychological wellbeing, for the remainder of their 40-50 year life span. For this reason, no experiment should be carried out unless the supporting agency has guaranteed to provide the funds necessary for such retirement. Such funds must be kept in a secure annuity account. At present, approximately $30,000-$60,000 per chimpanzee are standard charges for this purpose.
The provision of more dedicated retirement facilities is a matter of great urgency. They should be as free-ranging as possible, should provide access to the outdoors, and should include a relatively large group of resocialized animals. Retirement facilities can be open to public view, as long as their design prevents any possibility of animal escape or inadvertent exposure of viewers to the risk of being bitten. Such facilities can convey an important message to the public concerning the ethical responsibility of the medical research community.
Summary : The use of chimpanzees and other primates in AIDS research, in the light of the horror of the AIDS epidemic, seems to be unarguable. However, certain studies can be better carried out in other animals or in man. Chimpanzee studies should be limited only to those for which there is no available alternative and should involve no more suffering than is caused by giving injections and collecting blood samples. No research should be carried out with chimpanzees unless financial support for life-long retirement is guaranteed.
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Georgia Institute of Technology
In the last issue of this Newsletter, Jane Dewar wrote that Ivan was preparing for his move from Tacoma, WA to Zoo Atlanta. On 11 July 1994, Ivan underwent a physical exam supervised by Dr. Janis Joslin, Senior Veterinarian for Woodland Park Zoo. The exam was attended by Ivan's veterinarian and Zoo Atlanta's veterinarian Dr. Rita McManamon, as well as a large team of medical, veterinary and dental consultants. Ivan began the Tacoma half of a six-month quarantine period that same day.
Zoo Atlanta staff members were present for the entire quarantine period. Veterinary staff, primate keeper staff, and I all took turns spending as much time with Ivan as possible in order to make his transition as smooth as we could. My job was to monitor Ivan's behavior for two months, as we all felt that quantitative behavioral assessments were needed to provide a baseline both for management purposes and just because Ivan is such an interesting animal.
Ivan adjusted to all of the new faces and the quarantine procedures marvelously. In mid-August, staff of the Point Defiance Zoo attached a transportation crate to Ivan's exhibit and he was given free access to it. One week later, we began crate training and Ivan surprised us by immediately spending much of his time inside the crate. If we weren't around to reward him for entering, he would often knock on the door to get our attention! We successfully closed Ivan inside the crate on several occasions before his move. Since he remained relatively calm each time, we felt confident that he would be comfortable during transport (as long as the goodies didn't run out!).
At noon on 11 October 1994, Ivan was locked in his crate for the last time and taken by truck to SeaTac International Airport. At 1815, he was treated to a complimentary flight aboard Emery Air Freight to Atlanta, accompanied by Drs. McManamon and Joslin, and his keeper of 10 years, Tonya Hill. He arrived in Atlanta at 0700 on 12 October. He was brought by truck to the zoo and immediately released into the quarantine suite adjacent to our gorilla holding facility. Aside from a few stiff muscles, Ivan made the trip well, and began exploring his new home.
Ivan's keepers, Tonya Hill and Joyce Barr, spent the first 10 days in Atlanta with the big guy and were pleased with his adjustment and our facility. We brought some of Ivan's toys with us (a cargo net, tire, frisbee and tennis shoe), and he was given a new Boomer Ball by our staff.
Our quarantine facility was designed to eventually allow Ivan visual and auditory access to our other gorillas through a clear, sealed Lexan plate. Although Ivan has yet to see any of our other gorillas, he does spend time watching and meeting members of our primate staff through this window, which is open for much of the day.
Ivan has remained playful (he solicits play, responds to our solicitations and plays alone), is quite vocal, eats well, and in general displays quite normal silverback gorilla behaviors. We have also continued teaching him to approach and touch a "target," and have built a pipe feeder where he can "fish" for peanut butter and yogurt. He is scheduled to move into our gorilla-holding facility in mid-January, when his socialization will begin in earnest. The plan is to follow a procedure which we used to successfully socialize Willie B., a male who had been housed solitarily for 27 years. The process is gradual and any progress is driven by the animal's behavior. All we will do is provide Ivan with the opportunity to be social; in the end it will be up to him.
Author's address: Research Dept, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave. SE, Atlanta, GA 30315.
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Robert W. Sussman and his student, Donna L. Hart, of the Primate Biology Program, Department of Anthropology, Washington University, are attempting to contact as many primatologists and predator researchers as possible with the following questionnaire which will be used to conduct a survey dealing with predation on primates. In addition, the information collected from the questionnaires will form a portion of the data used in Ms Hart's Ph.D. dissertation. "Your input will be acknowledged and results of the survey will be available in the form of a future paper. We look forward to receiving your completed questionnaire along with any information you may have about unanalyzed collections. Thank you for your contribution toward this study."
The questionnaire is designed to gather information on one species at one site; however, data collected over many years of research may be combined on a single questionnaire. If you have studied more than one primate species at one site or many primate species at many sites, please answer so that each primate species at each site is dealt with on a separate questionnaire . Please return to: Donna Hart, Dept of Anthropology, Washington Univ., Campus Box 1114, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
1. Primate species:
2. Study site:
3. Were other researchers concurrently studying the same population of primates? (Yes) (No)
Name(s) of other researcher(s):
4. Habitat description (choose one): Tropical rain forest; Monsoon forest; Tropical montane forest; Temperate rain forest; Temperate deciduous/evergreen forest; Shrubland; Savanna; Other (specify)
5. Total research time at site in months or years:
Currently ongoing? (Yes) (No)
If not currently ongoing, during which year(s) did research occur?
6. Number of observation hours: (Diurnal?) (Nocturnal?)
7. Number of animals in your study group (give average figure over research period)?
Number of animals in population containing your study group (give average figure over research period)?
8. Has there been an attempt/intent to document or estimate predation? (Yes) (No)
9. List predator species actually observed (by you or other researchers) preying upon or known to have killed individuals in your study population, (indicate most important predators). Please give specific and common names; include dogs, people, and any other "unnatural" predators:
l0. List predator species, other than those above, suspected to have killed individuals in your study population (indicate most important species):
11. List predator species that are present but appear not to be important predators. Include only species that might reasonably be expected to kill primates:
12. List predator species that elicit behavioral reactions from primates. Please match antipredator behaviors below to the predator responsible for them: Scanning; Crypsis; Mobbing; Fleeing to trees; Charge/attack; Alarm vocalization; Defensive posture; Running on ground; Other (specify)
l3. Total number of predations actually observed during your study?
l4. Total number of predations suspected to have occurred during your study?
l5. Were there unexplained night-time disappearances in study population? (Yes) (No)
If so, which age/sex classes were involved (e.g., adult male, adult female, subadult male, subadult female, infant, etc.)?
Do you suspect predation? (All) (Some) (What percentage?)
16. Based on observations throughout the study, is it possible to give an estimated predation ratr (percent of population taken by predators per year) for the primates you studied? (Yes) (No)
If yes, what is your estimate as a percent of the population?
Is there an error estimate for above (e.g., maximum and minimum)?
If possible, briefly describe how this estimated predation rate was determined:
17. Based on observations throughout the study, what is the proportion of predation deaths occurring in each age/sex class (e.g., adult male adult female, subadult male, subadult female, infant)?
(If numerical data are not available, feel free to comment where possible.)
Total number of predations on which above data are based?
18. Anecdotal observations and/or comments from indigenes regarding predation on primates:
19. How should your data be cited?
20. Are there researchers working at or near your site studying predatory species that prey on primates If so, please provide their names and mailing addresses below:
21. Name, address, and e-mail address (if any) of individual completing questionnaire:
Regarding another aspect of research on primates as prey, we are looking for unanalyzed fecal samples or nest debris from field research carried out on carnivores and raptors. If you have such samples, we would be interested in having the opportunity to visit your facility and undertake an analysis to determine the presence of primate remains in the collection.
* * *
Dr. Warren Kinzey passed away on October 1 of this year at his home in Tarrytown, NY. He will be remembered and missed by many.
He was one of the early career physical anthropologists, receiving his doctorate at UC Berkeley in 1964. Warren not only conducted pioneering research in primatology, but also inspired and guided many students and colleagues in their research. His scholarly activities included over 100 research and review articles and two books, the last completed only months before his death while he was already very ill, a tremendous accomplishment. He was one of the few primatologists who realized early the importance of correlating laboratory and museum research with data on primates in their natural habitats. His groundbreaking 1965 symposium, "Primate Locomotion," on an area of Primatology then in its fledgling stages, will be commemorated with a 30th anniversary conference on the same topic next year. His most recent work concerned the dietary adaptations of a little-known group of New World monkeys, the sakis (uakaris).
His role as a mentor is difficult to separate from that as a friend. The two strongest memories I have of him concern the time and guidance he gave his graduate students, and the way he so obviously enjoyed their company. He encouraged the creativity of his students, and had complete faith in their ability not only to succeed, but to excel. Warren Kinzey, for many of us, provided the roots of our interests and beginnings in primatology, and his branches spread far. His influence continues to be felt. Part of him exists in many of us, and will be passed on to future generations of primatologists, our students... Warren's students, really.
The Warren Kinzey Fund has been set up to support field work by graduate students. Contributions may be sent to the Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, CUNY Graduate Center, 33 West 42 Street, New York, NY 10036. Please make checks payable to CUNY Graduate School/Warren G. Kinzey Fund. -- Suzanne E. Walker, California State University, Sacramento
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Twin male lowland gorillas were born at the Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Park on 8 August. The parents are 35-year-old Tiny Tim, on breeding loan from Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, and 22-year-old Pattycake of the Bronx Zoo. This is the sixth known captive birth of western lowland gorilla twins. Tim's SSP-recommended move to New York was the subject of controversy and a court dispute in 1991 when animal rights activists attempted to stop Tim's transfer to New York. Tim has sired four offspring at the Bronx Zoo to date. The first, a male, Okpara, was born to Pattycake on 11 July 1993; and the second, a female not yet named, was born to Tunko on 11 July 1994. -- From the October issue of Communique, a magazine of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, quoted on primate-talk by Sue Woods
Gorilla Death in Rwanda
H. Dieter Steklis, of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, reported on primate-talk that the terrible war in Rwanda, which has taken so many human lives, has claimed its first lowland gorilla. "About three weeks ago, one of our Karisoke workers sent me a fax stating that he had heard two gorillas had gotten killed either by a landmine or shooting. Many phone calls to Rwanda revealed on December 10 that a lone silverback had stepped on a landmine near Lake Ngezi (the north side of Visoke). This is all I've been able to learn about this incident, but I hope to learn more when I go out to Rwanda this January." This incident indicates that portions of the Park have been mined again since April, making it unsafe for both gorillas and people.
Orangutan Heart Surgery
Details of the repair of an atrial septal defect were reported in the August 28 San Diego Union-Tribune . The open heart procedure utilized a pericardial patch to close an 18 mm septal defect in Karen, a two-year-old orangutan at the San Diego Zoo. A surgical team headed by Dr. Stuart Jamieson, of the University of California, San Diego Medical Center, performed the surgery at the zoo's Jennings Center for Zoological Medicine. The surgical procedure went smoothly and the orangutan was managed post-operatively by zoo veterinary staff and UCSD medical personnel. UCSD and the SDZ have a long history of collaborative clinical, training and research activities.
The Union-Tribune article is subtitled "Science Returns Favor to the Animal Kingdom," and notes, "The benefits of modern technology played out in full circle for Karen. Surgeons noted that the procedure they used on her was perfected on monkeys before it was even attempted on humans." The San Diego Zoo is planning a program of allowing some of their education animals to meet with UCSD patients as a further development of the relationship between the institutions.-- Posted on primate-talk by Phil Robinson
Tonkin Snubnosed Monkey Reserve
The Tonkin snubnose monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus), which occurs only in Vietnam, is one of the world's most threatened primate species. It is estimated that the total population may number fewer than 200 animals. Most occur in the Na Hang district of Tuyen Quang province. During March/April 1994 a team of scientists visited Na Hang to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a protected area in the extreme south-east corner of Na Hang district and to identify problems of reserve development. Principal threats to the biological resources of this reserve include hunting and vegetation clearance for agriculture. An effort has been made by the Provincial authorities to introduce a voluntary ban on the killing of snubnose monkeys for food but this has not been effective. Any effective conservation management must aim to reduce the human pressures on the reserve through programs designed to assist in improving living standards and income generation opportunities for local communities. This is widely recognized by those involved in the development of Vietnam's protected area system but for a variety of reasons (mostly financial and demographic) it has thus far proved almost impossible to translate this concept into results. -- Reported by Vern Weitzel
Sanctions Imposed on Worldwide Primates
The 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals this summer ordered unspecified sanctions imposed on Worldwide Primates, Inc. for filing a groundless suit against one of its most vocal critics, Dr. Shirley McGreal of the International Primate Protection League (IPPL). Matthew Block, the president of Worldwide, was convicted in connection with an orangutan smuggling scheme that was uncovered by the IPPL.
* * *
Ronald J. Barfield and Alan C. Kamil are working together as Acting Program Directors for Animal Behavior, on a part-time basis. Fred Stollnitz is spending his sabbatical as Senior Visiting Research Scientist at the National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution.
NSF has many programs of interest to primatologists. A partial list follows, with program officers' names, e-mail addresses, and phone numbers (Area Code 703). The general NSF "Grant Proposal Guide" (NSF 94-2) should be followed for all programs. Some programs have additional guidelines, available from NSF or your research office: publication numbers are listed below.
The following programs have June 15 and Dec. 15 target dates for regular research proposals, and Feb. 1, 1995, and Oct. 13, 1995, deadlines for dissertation research proposals (NSF 94-146): * Animal Behavior (Ronald Barfield, email@example.com, 306-1419). * Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology (David Vleck, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1421). * Ecology (Scott Collins, email@example.com, 306-1479). * Population Biology (Mark Courtney, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1481). * Systematic Biology (Annalisa Berta, email@example.com, 306-1481).
The Physical Anthropology Program has July 1 and Dec. 1 target dates for regular research proposals (NSF 94-64); dissertation research proposals (NSF 92-114) may be submitted at any time (Jonathan Friedlaender, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1758).
The following programs have July 15 and Jan. 15 target dates, and usually do not consider dissertation research proposals: * Behavioral Neuroscience (Chris Comer, email@example.com, 306-1416). * Developmental Neuroscience (Lawrence Stanford, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1423). * Neuroendocrinology (James Koenig, email@example.com, 306-1416). * Sensory Systems (Christopher Platt, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1424).
The Animal Developmental Mechanisms Program has June 1 and Dec. 1 target dates, and usually does not consider dissertation research proposals (Karen Bennett, email@example.com, 306-1417).
The Integrative Animal Biology Program has June 15 and Dec. 15 target dates, and usually does not consider dissertation research proposals (Elvira Doman, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1421).
All NSF programs consider proposals for Research in Undergraduate Institutions (NSF 94-79), including faculty research projects, research instrumentation grants (reviewed on the same schedule as research proposals in the disciplinary programs of NSF), and Research Opportunity Awards for faculty members (no deadline or target date).
Numerous other special competitions cut across the disciplinary programs listed above. Some of these are: * Faculty Early Career Development (NSF 94-101) combines research and educational activities in a single proposal, to be reviewed on the same schedule as research proposals in the disciplinary programs of NSF. * International Opportunities for Scientists and Engineers (NSF 93-51). * Presidential Faculty Fellows (NSF 93-114); Nov. 30 deadline (Sonia Ortega, email@example.com, 306-1697). * Postdoctoral Research Fellowships in Biosciences Related to the Environment (NSF 94-114) includes work in animal behavior by scientists of any discipline. First Friday in Nov. deadline (Carter Kimsey, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1469). * Research Planning Grants and Career Advancement Awards for Women Scientists and Engineers (NSF 93-130), Dec. 15 deadline (for Integrative Biology and Neuroscience, Kathie Olsen, email@example.com, 306-1420; for Environmental Biology, B. Jane Harrington, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1481; for Physical Anthropology, Jonathan Friedlaender, email@example.com, 306-1758). * Minority Postdoctoral Research Fellowships (NSF 94-133); Jan. 6, 1995, deadline (first Friday in Dec. thereafter) (Carter Kimsey, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1469). * Research Experiences for Undergraduates (NSF 93-112), including Sites (Sept. 15 deadline; Gerald Selzer, email@example.com, 306-1469) and Supplements (Feb. 1 deadline; disciplinary program officers). * Basic Research in Conservation and Restoration Biology (NSF 94-89); Sep. 29 deadline (Scott Collins, firstname.lastname@example.org, 306-1479). * Visiting Professorships for Women (NSF 93-88); Oct. 15 deadline (Margarete Klein, email@example.com, 306-1697).
You can get information fast through NSF's electronic dissemination system, the Science and Technology Information System, described in NSF 94-4, "STIS flyer." The flyer is reproduced in many NSF publications; for an electronic copy, send an e-mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org. Electronic versions of NSF publications may be obtained by sending a message in the form of "get nsf942" to email@example.com. Research offices at most institutions have copies of NSF publications. The NSF mailing address is 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230.
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James A. Goodrich, 1678 Village Pl., Winston-Salem, NC 27127-5818.
Shawn M. Lehman, #310, 1444 West 71st Ave, Vancouver, BC V6P 3B7, Canada.
Carole C. Noon, 6 Paxford Lane, Lake Worth, FL 33462-7127. Office for Protection from Research Risks, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd,__MSC 7507, Rockville, MD 20892-7507.
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The National Institutes of Health, Office for Protection from Research Risks is continuing to sponsor workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The workshops are open to institutional administrators, members of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators and other institutional staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs. Ample opportunities will be provided to exchange ideas and interests through question and answer sessions and informal discussions.
A workshop titled Animal Care and Research: Challenges and Changes for the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee will be held March 12-14, 1995 at the San Diego Princess Hotel, co-sponsored by the Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine. The Workshop will focus on revisions to the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook; assessment and reduction of pain and distress in animal research; occupational health risks and biohazards; and a host of other regulatory and administrative issues that are central to the successful operation of laboratory animal care and research programs. For registration, contact Ms. Danielle Demko, Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research, 132 Boylston St, Boston, MA 02116 [617-423-4112; FAX: 617-423-1185].
Immediately preceding this workshop, Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) will sponsor its annual animal issues meeting on Sunday, March 12, at the same hotel.
For further information concerning this workshop and future NIH/OPRR Animal Welfare Education Workshops, contact Mrs. Roberta Sonneborn, OPRR, NIH, Bldg 31, Rm 5B63, Bethesda, MD 20892-2180 [301-496-7163; FAX: 301-402-2803].
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Amo Farm, located on the island of Panay in the Philippines, is a licensed breeder of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The facility welcomes scientists and organizations which would like to conduct primate studies and breeding programs, at cost. For complete information, contact Jan Vacek, Amo Farm, 1801-35 Fountainhead, North York, Ontario, Canada M3J 2V7.
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Apprenticeship at Central Washington
The Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute at Central Washington University is offering a 10-week Summer Apprenticeship June 19 through August 25, 1995. The focus of the apprenticeship will be Project Washoe, which began in 1966. It presently involves the study of a group of five chimpanzees who have acquired the signs of American Sign Language. The apprentices will have the opportunity to take part in and be trained in all the major aspects of an active chimpanzee behavioral research institute, including: * Training and participation in the care and enrichment of captive chimpanzees. * Training and participation in observational research studies. Apprentices wishing to participate in the sign language studies and in sign language interactions with the chimpanzees must have completed at least one course in American Sign Language. Others can do observational research that does not include interacting with the chimpanzees.
Tuition for the 10 week program is $1000, not including housing. University housing is available. The deadline for submitting applications is May 15, 1995. For more information, contact CHCI, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573 Attn: Summer Apprenticeship Program [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Scholarships: Research on Aging
The American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR) and the Glenn Foundation offer up to 15 scholarships in 1995 for PhD and medical students to undertake a 3-month research project on any subject related to the basic sciences and aging. Examples of promising areas of research include * optimal nutrition * longevity determinant genes * vascular changes with aging/interventions. The research project must be conducted under the supervision of a faculty mentor, and may be carried out in any not-for-profit setting. Each scholarship carries an award of $5500, of which $4000 will go to the student for personal expenses and $1500 will go to the mentor to cover the cost of secretarial support and supervision. For more information and application forms, contact AFAR, 1414 Sixth Ave, New York, NY 10019 [212-752-2327; FAX: 212-832-2298]. The deadline for receipt of applications and all supporting materials is February 24, 1995.
Field Assistants, Cayo Santiago
Field assistants are needed to collect behavioral data and to conduct playback trials on free-ranging rhesus macaques in Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, January to August 1995. Field experience is preferred but not required. Serious, dedicated students who are willing to work long hours under difficult conditions are welcome. The "pay" will be extensive training in observational and experimental data collection techniques, and some access to the data collected for use in your own independent projects. No funding will be provided. Send cover letter, resume, and two letters of recommendation to Katherine Hardy, P.O. Box 440, Punta Santiago, PR 00741. Please include mailing address, phone number, and e-mail address if you have one. Applications will be considered on a rolling basis.
Degree in Animals & Public Policy
The Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy plans to offer a one-year Masters (MS), starting in the fall of 1995 if sufficient qualified persons apply. Applicants must either have a graduate degree already or a bachelor's degree and "equivalent life experience". The course of study will consist of three required courses (Society and Animals, Quantitative Methods, Qualitative Methods, a thesis, and four tutorial courses chosen from a variety of options. There will probably be four possible "tracks:" on issues, shelter/companion animals, animal-assisted therapy, and wildlife. At the end of the course of study, graduates should have a broad base of knowledge of animals and society and animal protection issues, an ability to assess both the quantitative and qualitative methodological rigor of reports and projects, and an ability to design, carry out and write up a research project. In addition, graduates should gain an appreciation of the role facts and values play in the debate over animals in society and how one might address relevant facts and values in a public policy context.
For more information, contact Joan Weer, 200 Westboro Rd, N. Grafton, MA 01536 [508-839-7991], or Andrew N. Rowan [e-mail: email@example.com
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Staff Scientist, Puerto Rico
The Caribbean Primate Research Center (CPRC) is recruiting an additional Ph.D. for a Staff Scientist position starting on 1 July 1995, pending approval of funding. Applicants should have field research experience on the behavior and ecology of free-ranging monkeys. The successful candidate will be expected to develop an independent research program, assist the Scientist-in-Charge at the rhesus monkey colony on Cayo Santiago, and develop a field study site for the free-ranging patas monkeys of the Sierra Bermejas in Puerto Rico. Active involvement with other scientific and professional staff in development and implementation of an introductory primatology course, a CPRC-sponsored field school, and a graduate program in primatology at the University of Puerto Rico wil also be expected. Knowledge of Spanish is helpful but not a requirement. It is anticipated that the salary will be at the level of Instructor (approximately $31,000/year plus fringe benefits).
Please send a letter of interest with curriculum vitae and the names of three references to: Dr. Matt J. Kessler, Director, Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00952-1053. The University of Puerto Rico is an equal-opportunity employer.
Director, Karisoke Research Center
The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund is seeking a new Director for the Karisoke Research Center, Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, Africa. The Fund continues the study and conservation of mountain gorillas and their habitat started by the late Dr. Dian Fossey in 1967. The Director will coordinate all conservation and research activities based at the center and supervises a Rwandan staff of 31 employees. A Ph.D. and fluent French are required; Swahili would be helpful.
Our contract will be for one year, renewable for a second year. For further information, contact Dr. H. Dieter Steklis, Executive Director, The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, Dept. of Anthropology, Rutgers University, P.O. Box 270, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0270. [908-932-7602; FAX: 908-932-1564; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org].
Evolutionary Primatology Postdoc
The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) seeks a resident postdoctoral candidate to complement the research of and work with one or more members of its staff for one year beginning summer, 1995. This position offered under the auspices of the New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP), a graduate training program in all aspects of the behavioral and evolutionary biology of primates, and is funded by an NSF Research Training Grant. The NYCEP faculty includes 25 researchers drawn from the AMNH, City University of New York, Columbia University, New York University, and the Wildlife Conservation Society. NYCEP faculty at the AMNH (Eric Delson, Rob DeSalle, Ross MacPhee, Michael Novacek, Ian Tattersall, John Van Couvering and Ward Wheeler) undertake research in primate (including human) paleontology and systematics, biochronology, comparative and functional morphology, and molecular systematics and evolution. NSF limits eligibility to US citizens, nationals, and permanent residents; minority candidates are especially encouraged to apply. For more information and application forms, contact Dr. E. Delson, Dept of Vertebrate Paleontology, AMNH, New York, NY 10024. All contact with him or other faculty should be by mail. Postmark applications by January 15, 1995. AMNH & NYCEP are Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employers.
Postdoc in Animal Behavior
The Zoological Society of San Diego announces the J. Dallas Clark Postdoctorate in Animal Behavior, to investigate effects of captive living on mating behavior and reproduction in solitary mammals. The position will involve archival analyses and observational studies under semifree-ranging conditions. Candidates must be willing to spend up to 6 months in a third world country. This is a two-year position, with third-year renewal optional. The starting date is no later than March 15, 1995. The stipend will be $25,000 for 12 months. Interested applicants should send a C.V., a statement regarding current and future research interests, and names of three references by January 25, 1995 to Postdoctoral Search Committee, Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112. Equal Opportunity Employer.
University College London
Applications are invited by the Department of Anthropology, University College London for a newly established Chair of Biological Anthropology, tenable from 1 September 1995. The successful candidate will be an established scholar with a proven research record in the general areas of evolutionary biology and/or evolutionary ecology with a focus on primates and/or humans. Specific research interests should complement existing strengths in the Department, which include human evolution, human ecology and resource use, demography and nutrition. The new Chair holder will be expected to provide leadership in the continued development of innovative teaching and research in Biological Anthropology at UCL and also to assume an active leadership role in the UCL-based interdepartmental Centre for Ecology and Evolution.
For more information, contact Dr. L. C. Aiello, Dept of Anthropology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK [+44 71 380-7037; FAX: +44 71380-7728; e-mail: L.Aiello@ucl.ac.uk]. Applications, including a full CV (ten copies for UK candidates, one copy for overseas candidates) and details of three referees (including at least one from overseas) should be addressed to the Provost, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. The closing date for receipt of applications is Tuesday 31 January 1995. Salary is negotiable within the professorial range. Working Towards Equal Opportunity.
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Dr. Mike Collins at the University of Wisconsin is trying to isolate mycobacteria from fecal samples of primates with and without diarrhea. He welcomes submission of fecal samples and will attempt isolation of mycobacteria at no charge. Of greatest interest are samples from primates with chronic diarrhea and/or chronic colitis, and samples from their cagemates.
If you are willing to participate, please submit at least 3 gm of fresh feces (about 1 tablespoon). Transport it to the laboratory ASAP on ice or cold packs. Please provide the animal identification name or number and species for each sample. Results will be sent by mail, but please be patient. The mycobacteria he is trying to isolate are very slow-growing, so no results will be available for at least 8 weeks after receipt of the samples.
Send samples to Dr. Mike Collins, Univ. of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI 53706-1102. For further information write, or contact Dr. Collins at 608-262-8457 (office), 608-263-6920 (lab), 608-262-8457 (FAX), or email@example.com (e-mail). -- From primate-talk.
Surplus Lab Equipment
Tufts Veterinary School students have established and supported labs at primate sanctuaries in Africa. Very few resources are available in these countries and donations of equipment can make a huge difference in the quality of life for both animals and people.
We are currently seeking surplus laboratory equipment to establish new labs at other sanctuaries and to supplement the existing labs. The following is a list of needed equipment but we could use just about any type of laboratory equipment you can think of: microscopes (electric lighting and mirror) computers (IBM or Macs) and printers; centrifuges (table top); refrigerators (small); scales (electric and balance); glassware; restraint equipment.
The Tufts Vet School is a non-profit organization and has tax exempt status. We will pay all shipping costs. If you have any surplus equipment, please contact Ellen Messner, International Dept, Tufts Veterinary School, 200 Westboro Rd, North Grafton, MA 01536 [508-839-5395, ext. 4767; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Osage Research provides quarantine services and breeds primates for research, exhibition or zoological purposes. Specific pathogen-free primates available. Transportation services in a temperature-controlled trailer are available. Contact Lisa Leonarduzzi or Tim Lischwe, M.D., Osage Research, 54 Hospital Dr., Osage Beach, MO 65065 [314-348-8002; FAX: 314-348-1622].
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On June 22 and 23, 1993, two scientists were seriously injured by mail bombs, the first at the University of California at San Francisco and the second at Yale. On December 10, 1994, a similar bomb killed an advertising executive in New Jersey. Federal officials believe the most recent bomb was sent by the same person who has mounted a string of similar attacks since 1978, striking academics, computer professionals, and airlines personnel, for the most part. It is still not known who the bomber is or why the bombs were sent to those people.
We enclosed a letter in the July, 1993, issue of the LPN, (32 ), since Brown and many other universities had sent warnings to faculty and staff, urging them to exercise special caution in handling incoming mail -- especially padded manila envelopes; packages that appear to contain plastic boxes, copper tubing or batteries; or other parcels that bear unfamiliar (or no) return addresses.
Routine precautions suggested are * Be wary of any unexpected mail large enough to contain a box of matches. * Don't touch or move objects if you don't know what they are. * Don't move a package away from people -- move people away from the package. * Don't place a suspicious package near vital equipment. * Don't investigate too closely. * Don't cover or insulate the item. * Notify the local police and ask their advice. * Don't worry about appearing silly!
A warning from the U.S. Postal Inspection Service was printed on the back of the letter, and is reproduced here.
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Noldus Information Technology is publishing a free newsletter to "share information about Noldus products and their applications in a nontechnical format." Products include software and instrumentation for recording and analyzing human and animal behavior, and an interactive video training course for students in psychology or biology. To subscribe, write to Wineke Schoo, Editor, Noldus Information Technology bv, Costerweg 5, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, Netherlands [e-mail: email@example.com].
Primate Vocalization Recordings
The Wisconsin RPRC Library is seeking to augment their collection of recorded primate vocalizations. Items in this important collection may be borrowed for a nominal service fee, which is waived for one year for contributors. For details on what material is needed, having copies made, etc., contact Ray Hamel, Primate Center Library, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; fax: 608-263-4031; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
African Primate Newsletter
A yet-unnamed newsletter for the African sub-group of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group will be published and distributed by Zoo Atlanta, Kenya, in collaboration with Conservation International, the National Museums of Kenya, and the Kenya Inst. of Primate Research. It will be edited by Tom Butynski (Zoo Atlanta, P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya), and will be distributed free of charge to all interested persons. Like Neotropical Primates, Asian Primates, and Lemur News, it will provide research findings, field survey results, job announcements, etc., and will depend on its readership for much of the contents.
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In January 1995, the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will begin conducting the "National Survey of Laboratory Animal Use, Facilities and Resources" at all institutions receiving Public Health Service funding. This is the first nationwide survey on laboratory animals in 15 years. The survey will be released to the institutional official of record for OPRR assurances. In order to maintain the security of the responses, the survey will be confidential. Data requested includes information on the type of organization, the species and numbers of animals used in the program, the facilities, and personnel supporting the laboratories, and the costs of animal care. A copy of the final report will be forwarded to each institution. The survey is being performed by Advanced Resource Technologies, Inc.
During the survey response period, the staff of Advanced Resource Technologies, Inc. will maintain a toll-free number to assist respondents with any questions about the survey. The number is 1-800-NIH-2494.
Aggregate data reported from the survey will be used to characterize the need for laboratory animals in the research community, the current utilization of animals, and the impact of regulatory compliance. This information will be of great importance to the NIH in determining animal resource needs as they affect biomedical research, as well as the future funding of laboratory animal programs, facilities construction, and renovation projects. Your institution is strongly urged to participate in the survey process, since the value of aggregate information rests on a significant response from the PHS awardee institutions.
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ASP Conservation Committee
The Conservation Committee of the American Society of Primatologists is seeking nominations for ASP Conservation Awards and Grants. An award nomination is basically a letter of recommendation.
Subscription Award : provides the American Journal of Primatology to worthy individuals in source countries who otherwise would have little access to the scientific literature on nonhuman primates. Preference is given to individuals who will make the AJP available in a central place for colleagues to use. A nominating letter should describe the nominee, his or her primate-related activities, and why the subscription is needed.
Conservation Award ($500): provides recognition and financial support for students and young investigators (not more than five years since terminal degree) from source countries. Nominators should provide the name, title, and full mailing address of the nominee, and a statement about the nominee's qualifications for the award and contribution to primate conservation.
Senior Biology and Conservation Award ($500 Honorarium): recognizes an individual without an advanced degree who has made a substantial contribution to conservation or related aspects of primatology a long period (five years or more). Nominees may be animal caretakers, research technicians, administrators, etc. Nominations should include a letter of support detailing the nominee's qualifications and contributions to primate biology and conservation.
Conservation Small Grant ($500): for conservation research or education, or other projects. Primatologists working in source countries are urged to apply or to help someone from a source country to do so. Grant proposals must be typed in English, should not exceed 2000 words, and should include a brief budget page. Recipients must agree that a brief progress report will be made, in a form suitable for publication in the ASP Bulletin, within 12 months of the award.
Arrangements are often made to have awards presented at public ceremonies by senior officials or U.S. Ambassadors. For an account of one such presentation, see the January, 1994 issue of this Newsletter (33, 22). The deadline for submission of nominations and grant proposals is May 20, 1995. They should be sent to Ramon J. Rhine, Psychology Dept, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521.
Rolex Awards for Enterprise
The Rolex Awards for Enterprise are given in the following categories: Applied Sciences and Invention; Exploration and Discovery; and The Environment. The winning projects will be judged on the basis of feasibility, exceptional enterprise, and personal commitment. The five applicants whose work is judged the most outstanding by the Selection Committee will receive $50,000 as 1996 Laureates. Ten Associate Laureates will receive $10,000 each.
For an application form, with a set of rules and conditions, contact The Secretariat, The Rolex Awards for Enterprise, P.O. Box 1311, 1211 Geneva 26, Switzerland. Completed applications must reach the Secretariat by March 31, 1995.
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SCAW Rowsell Award
The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) presented the second Harry C. Rowsell Award to Franklin M. Loew, Dean of the Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine. Dr Loew has been particularly involved in contentious issues such as the use of animals in research, the changing moral status of animals, and what he calls the "urban prism" through which most North Americans and Europeans now view domestic animals and wildlife.
The award is given in honor of Dr Rowsell, who is known for his committment in fostering the dual goals of good science and the humane treatment of animals.
Zoo Welfare Innovation
The Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), a scientific and educational charity in the United Kingdom, presented this year's UFAW Zoo Animal Welfare Innovation Award to Drusillas Zoo Park for their use of bungee cords in their primate enclosure. This Innovation Award is given by UFAW for a simple, inexpensive idea for a piece of equipment which improves the welfare of the animals, and which can be easily copied in zoos elsewhere.
The cord has been used as an alternative to normal rope to suspend feeding containers, making meal times more of a challenge, and to suspend branches so as to produce natural movement. Bungee cord has also been used indoors in a criss-cross pattern, where it provides a balancing challenge. The award was presented to Mr. Michael Ann, Zoo Director, on August 19, 1994. -- From the SCAW Newsletter, 1994, 16[3 ].
Defense of Freedom Award
Jan Moor-Jankowski, Director of the NYU Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates, and Editor of The Journal of Medical Primatology, has received the Libel Defense Resource Center's "William J. Brennan, Jr. Defense of Freedom Award" for his "willingness to take a stand on an important speech and ultimately libel-related issue," and his "willingness to stand firm when others might well have retreated." The award is named for Justice Brennan, "a Justice most identified for his commitment to every individual's First Amendment rights." The Libel Defense Resource Center is an organization of U.S. media and freedom of speech lawyers. The award acknowledges Moor-Jankowski's seven-year legal battle and final victory in a libel suit (see this Newsletter, 1989, 28, 17, and 1991, 30, 22 for some details about this case).
Society for Neuroscience
Dr. Frederick A. King, who retired in September as Director of the Yerkes RPRC of Emory University, after 16 years in that position, has received the "Presidential Award," from the Society of Neuroscience at its annual meeting in Miami, FL, November 11. The award recognized Dr. King for "his dedicated service to the neuroscience community." Dr. King now serves as Director Emeritus of the Yerkes Center, Yerkes Research Professor of Neurobiology and Vision, Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Emory's School of Medicine, and Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Emory.
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The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." The Fyssen Foundation awards grants of up to 120,000 French francs per year for the training and support of young researchers working on topics compatible with the goals of the Foundation, which wishes to support, particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes, their embryonic and post-natal development, and their elementary mechanisms. Anthropology-Ethnology: a) Cognitive aspects of the representations of natural and cultural environments; analysis of their construction principles and transfer mechanisms. b) Analysis of forms of social organization and their technological systems. Human Paleontology : Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.
Fellowships will be given to French scientists to work abroad and to foreign scientists to work in French laboratories.
Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is February 28, 1995.
An International Prize of 200,000 ff is awarded annually to a scientist who has conducted distinguished research in the areas supported by the Foundation. It was awarded to Professors A. Leroi-Gourhan (1980), W. H. Thorpe (1981), V. B. Mountcastle (1982), H. C. Conklin (1983), R. W. Brown (1984), P. Buser (1985), D. Pilbeam (1986), D. Premack (1987), J. C. Gardin (1988), P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1989), J. Goody (1990), G. A. Miller (1991), P. Rakic (1992), and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1993). The discipline considered for the 1995 prize is Ethology of Social Behavior. Nominations should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation at the above address before September 1, 1995.
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On August 19, 1994, a virologist presented to the Tropical Medicine Clinic at Yale-New Haven Hospital with a 4-day history of fever, malaise, backache, stiff neck, and myalgias that he attributed to a recurrence of a Plasmodium vivax infection. A history of a possible laboratory exposure to Sabia virus was obtained, and the man was hospitalized for prompt treatment with intravenous ribavirin, an antiviral drug that is effective against other arenavirus infections such as Lassa fever.
On admission, the patient had a temperature of 103 F (39.4 C). Within 24 hours of hospitalization, his total WBC and platelet count had declined to a low of 1400 cells/cubic millimeter and 92,000 cells/ cubic millimeter, respectively. His alanine aminotransferase peaked at 128 U/L (upper limit normal: 35 U/L) on the 9th day of hospitalization. No hemorrhagic manifestations of the infection were observed during hospitalization. A diagnosis of Sabia infection was confirmed on acute serum by amplification of a portion of the viral genome by polymerase chain reaction and by isolation of the virus from blood. The patient recovered and was discharged on August 26.
On August 8, the virologist was apparently exposed to an aerosol of Sabia virus when a centrifuge bottle developed a crack, and tissue culture supernatant containing the virus leaked into the high-speed centrifuge. At the time of the incident, the virologist was working alone in the biosafety level-3 laboratory (negative pressure with HEPA-filtered exhaust system). He cleaned the spilled material from the centrifuge while wearing a gown, surgical mask, and gloves.
Persons who came in contact with the patient or with his biological specimens in the hospital laboratories since onset of his illness were notified and enrolled in a surveillance program. None of these persons have had exposure to the patient that would suggest a high risk for secondary infection. As of August 31, none of the persons under surveillance had reported a febrile illness.
Sabia virus was isolated by scientists in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1990 and characterized by scientists in Belem, Brazil, and at the Yale Arbovirus Research Unit (T. L. M. Coimbra, et al., 1994, Lancet, 343, 391-392). Only two cases of Sabia virus infection (both in Brazil) have been reported. One was a naturally acquired infection in an agricultural engineer who was probably infected by exposure to an infected rodent (the natural reservoir of other known arenaviruses). The engineer died approximately 2 weeks after becoming ill. The second case was in a laboratory technician who was working with the virus. He had a severe illness characterized by 15 days of fever, chills, malaise, headache, generalized myalgia, sore throat, conjunctivitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain, bleeding gums, and leukopenia. He recovered after hospitalization and treatment with intravenous fluids.
Little is known about the modes of transmission of the Sabia virus. Based on the pathogenesis of other arenaviruses, the Sabia virus is not believed to be infectious until the patient exhibits symptoms. Other arenaviruses can be transmitted by needle-stick but do not readily spread from person to person. Persons in casual contact with persons with arenavirus infection are not at risk for disease and do not require medical follow-up. -- From a report in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1994, 43, 635-636 .
Surveillance for Imported Plague
Recent reports of bubonic and pneumonic plague outbreaks in India prompted the New York City and State Departments of Health, in conjunction with CDC, to develop an emergency response plan to detect and manage suspected cases imported by international air travel. The staffs of international air carriers were instructed to notify U.S. quarantine officials before landing of passengers or crew with illness suggestive of plague. All passengers arriving on direct flights from India were provided a plague alert notice that described the symptoms of plague and urged them to seek medical attention if they developed a febrile illness within 7 days of disembarkation.
Between September 27 and October 27, when the plague alert was terminated, 11 persons with suspected plague had been reported. All reported having recently been in India; none were confirmed as having plague. One suspected case was recognized by an airline crew member during flight; two by customs officials in the airport; one by airline officials at check-in for a connecting flight at a different airport. The rest were reported by hospital emergency departments. Ten of the patients had clinical presentations that were not consistent with pneumonic plague. One patient, who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and coma, required serologic and microbiologic testing to rule out plague. The final diagnoses were viral syndrome (four patients), malaria (three), concurrent malaria and dengue fever (one), typhoid (one), liver disease (one), and no illness (one).
The evaluation of suspected plague cases in New York revealed limitations in recognizing cases of disease only at the point of disembarkation. The importance of obtaining a travel history when evaluating persons presenting with fever was underscored by the detection of cases of dengue, malaria, and typhoid. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1994, 43, 805-807 . Editors' Note: The Weekly Epidemiological Record of 7 October (no. 40) reported a suspected bubonic plague outbreak in Mozambique. To date, however no cases have been confirmed by laboratory examination .
The World Health Organization reports an alarming increase in sleeping sickness in sub-Sarahan Africa, where at least 250,000 men, women, and children are now carriers of the parasite, while more people become infected every day. The ravages caused by sleeping sickness have been observed by mobile health teams in several parts of Zaire, and especially in the Bandundu area, where the prevalence of this fatal disease is as high as 70% in certain villages. -- WHO Press Release, WHO/73, 7 October 1994 .
Dengue Fever (DF)
Dengue virus infection is increasing throughout the Caribbean. The occurrence of DF among troops deployed to Haiti highlights the increasing impact of this disease in the Americas, the need for an effective vaccine, and the need for increased efforts to control Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue virus. As of November 10, preliminary laboratory tests of 48 febrile military personnel in Haiti showed antiflavivirus IgM in 11 and dengue virus in three others. Health-care providers should consider both DF and malaria in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses in any person who has recently been in any tropical countries in the Americas. Illness is characterized by abrupt onset of fever, chills, headache, eye pain, and lower back pain. Common associated symptoms include myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, malaise, and a blanching erythematous rash. Most dengue virus infections are self-limited and can be treated with bed rest, acetaminophen, and oral fluids, but a small proportion of patients may develop dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), characterized by fever, thrombocytopenia, and abnormal capillary permeability; mild or severe hemorrhage can occur. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1994, 43, 845-848 .
* * *
The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is piloting an on-line grant information service to serve the general public, grantee organizations, and government grant-making agencies. This new service, GrantsNet, is a free public-access computer network for finding and exchanging information about HHS and other Federal grant programs. Anyone having a personal computer with internet capability will be able to access GrantsNet. GrantsNet has two components: (1) an on-line informational reference service using gopher server technology; and (2) an interactive mailing list service which groups subscribers with common interests into computer-managed mailing lists for dialogue and sharing information on the given subject.
GrantsNet will provide a medium for the sharing of ideas, successes, news, lessons learned, and an archival reference library of grant-related legislation, regulations, and policies. It will also provide a yellow-page style directory of granting offices, grants management staff, and grant program personnel. Fiscal year 1995 will serve as the pilot-testing period for populating the gopher information service with grant resource data pertinent to HHS and further developing the interactive mailing list service.
To be placed on the mailing list for receiving news and updates on GrantsNet, send your name, organization, mailing address, internet address, and telephone number to Suzanne M. Neill, email@example.com, or Charles Bish, firstname.lastname@example.org.
AIDS, Drug Abuse, and Neurobiology
Neuroscientists, endocrinologists, immunologists, chemists, molecular biologists and others are collectively invited by the National Institute on Drug Abuse to submit research and conference grant applications (singly or jointly) to bring about an understanding of how drug abuse affects HIV-related disease states. For information, contact Charles W. Sharp, Ph.D., Division of Basic Research, NIDA, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 10A-31, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-1887; e-mail: email@example.com. gov].
Biology of the Menopause
The National Institute on Aging (NIA), in collaboration with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is interested in receiving applications to support research to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the menopausal process. This program announcement addresses age- and menopause-related changes in the pituitary-ovarian axis that result in the dramatic hormonal changes experienced across the menopausal transition. These changes lead to the menopause-related increase in health problems associated with the cardiovascular, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. The primary focus of this program announcement is on understanding the biology of the processes involved in the change in ovarian function across the menopausal transition, using appropriate animal models, human cells or tissue specimens. To increase the number of individuals trained to conduct high quality molecular and cellular research in the combined aging- and reproductive biology-related research areas, the individual postdoctoral fellowship mechanism is included as eligible for support in this program announcement.
For information, contact Frank Bellino, Ph.D., Biology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6402; FAX: 301-402-0010; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Communication Senses Small Grants
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Small Grant Program provides support for pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant or First Independent Research Support and Transition Award. The research must be focused on areas within the mission of the NIDCD, that is, hearing, balance/vestibular, smell, taste, voice, speech, or language. For information, contact Dr. Judith Cooper, Div. of Communication Sciences and Disorders, NIDCD, Executive Plaza S., Rm 400-C, 6120 Executive Blvd MSC 7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [301-496-5061; FAX: 301-402-6251].
Conservation Biology Grants
The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund, established by the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the world's threatened wildlife, each year awards grants of up to $1000 to individuals or institutions working in conservation biology. Projects and programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain ecosytems receive the highest funding priority. Field studies, environmental education programs, development of techniques that can be used in a natural environment and captive propagation programs that stress an integrative and/or multi-disciplinary approach to conservation are also appropriate. Proposals for single species preservation, initial surveys, or seed money for technique development are not appropriate. All proposals must be submitted by May 1, 1995. For detailed information, contact: Dr. Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo, Elmwood Ave, Providence, RI 02905 [401-785-3510; FAX: 401-941-3988; e-mail: email@example.com].
Cytokine Effects on Hematopoiesis in AIDS
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) will fund studies of animal models of AIDS to increase our understanding of clinical consequences and/or efficacy of hematopoietic factors used in HIV-1 infected persons. Applications are encouraged which propose studies designed to better assess the use of hematopoietic factors in HIV-1 infected individuals. Research approaches could include studies to develop new animal models of human AIDS to better assess cytokine use in HIV-1 infected persons.
Applications must be received by January 24, 1995. For further information, contact Helena O. Mishoe, Ph.D., Div. of Blood Diseases and Resources, NHLBI, Federal Bldg, Rm 5A12, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5911; FAX: 301-496-9940; e-mail: helena firstname.lastname@example.org].
Tropical Medicine Research Centers
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases invites applications for multiproject center grants from institutions in geographic areas where tropical infectious diseases are endemic. The TMRC program makes awards directly to the foreign institutions. TMRCs provide research facilities for the study of parasitic and other infectious diseases that disproportionately affect populations living in less developed countries in tropical and subtropical regions. For information, contact Dr. Michael Gottlieb, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 3A12, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-7115; FAX: 301-402-0804; e-mail: email@example.com].
Maternal Antibodies, Infant Immunization
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites applications for basic studies on maternal immunization that will lead to passive, protective immunization of infants against infectious pathogens. The applications should present plans for altering the structure of antibody molecules, either by methods of protein chemistry or manipulation of antibody-encoding genes, that will (a) improve the efficiency with which antibody molecules are transported into the fetus via the placenta and/or into the newborn via breast milk; (b) prolong the metabolic half-lives of antibodies, both in mother and infant; and/or (c) improve the efficacy of antibodies to protect the infant from pathogenic microorganisms. Applications that deal with antibodies against known, critical antigens (those likely to elicit protective antibodies) of infant pathogens, or propose to identify such antigens, are of particular interest. For information, contact Joseph F. Albright, Ph.D., Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 4A25, 6003 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-1886; FAX: 301-402-2571; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
* * *
We are informed by a reader that the News Brief "Philippine Export Ban" [Vol. 33, no. 4, p. 13], was not accurate, and that the Philippine government is committed to long-term support of cynomolgus monkey breeding programs, although the export of wild-caught primates is indeed banned.
* * *
Medicine & Nutrition of NWPs
The third annual New World Primate Taxon Advisory Group Symposium will be held Sunday, March 12, 1995, in Louisville, KY in conjunction with the Midwestern Regional meeting of the Association of Zoos and Aquaria. The theme of the conference will be the medicine and nutrition of New World primates during different phases of the life cycle (pregnancy, lactation, neonatal, and geriatric). Speakers will discuss the basic physiologic changes as well as management of medical and nutritional diseases that may occur during each phase. For further information, contact Dr. Peregrine Wolff, Minnesota Zoological Garden, 13000 Zoo Blvd, Apple Valley, MN 66124 [612-431-9361; FAX: 612-431-9367].
A conference titled "Molecular Anthropology: Toward a New Evolutionary Paradigm" will be held March 13-14, 1995 at Wayne State Unversity, Detroit, MI. The focus will be on advances in the study of molecular evolution that relate to human species. There will be a session on: DNA Evidence on the Evolutionary History of Primates and other Mammals. For more information, contact: Dr. Morris Goodman [313-557-1138], Dr. Gabriel Lasker [313-577-1061], or Dr. Mark Weiss [313-577-2935; FAX: 313-577-3125; e-mail: email@example.com].
Neotropical Primate Phylogeny
A symposium on Neotropical Primate Phylogeny will be held 28 March to 1 April, 1995, in conjunction with the American Association of Physical Anthropology in Oakland, CA. The focus will be on New World primate relationships and evolutionary history. For more information, contact Jeff Meldrum, Depts of Biological Sciences and Anthropology, Campus Box 8007, Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID 93209-8007 [208-236-4379; fax: 208-236-4570; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Animals in Science
Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, is hosting a conference on "Animals in Science -- Perspectives on their Use, Care and Welfare," April 19-21, 1995. On Saturday (22nd) there will be an "Open Half Day" (9 am to 1 pm) with short presentations on a range of topics of interest to high school teachers, students, and interested members of the public, with demonstrations and talks on why and how animals are used, adjuncts, alternatives, and computer programs. For a brochure and more information, contact Noel E. Johnston, Executive Officer -- Animal Ethics, Research Ethics Unit, Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia [+61 3 905 3037; FAX: +61 3 905 3866; e-mail: noel.johnston@adm. monash.edu.au]
Well-being in Zoos and Aquaria
The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare will present an international conference May 8-9, 1995, in New Orleans, on "The Well-being of Animal Research Models in Zoos and Aquaria." The American Veterinary Medical Association will co-sponsor the conference. General sessions will include: How are research concerns different in zoos and aquaria? Ethical dilemmas for conservation research; Trends in environmental enrichment; The role of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at zoos and aquaria. For more information, contact SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770 [301-345-3500; FAX: 301-345-3503].
Jean Piaget Society
The Jean Piaget Society will hold their 25th Symposium June 1-3, 1995 at the Marriott Hotel, Berkeley, CA. The theme will be "Piaget, Evolution and Development," and the focus will be on comparative cross-species perspectives on child development. Several prominent primatologists will be featured. For information, contact Henry Markovits, Departement de psychologie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succ. "A", Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada [e-mail: email@example.com].
Change in Madagascar
The Field Museum will convene a three-day scientific meeting entitled "Natural and Human-Induced Change in Madagascar" on June 2-4, 1995 in Chicago. The inter-disciplinary program will be a complement to the symposium "Biogeography of Madagascar" to be held by the Societe de Biogeographie in Paris in September 1995. The Chicago meeting will consist of presentations to the general public, invited technical presentations, scientific workshops, and contributed poster presentations organized around geological, anthropological, biological, and resource management/conservation themes. Invited speakers will include leading French, Malagasy and American researchers. For more information, contact B. D. Patterson, Center for Evolutionary & Environmental Biology, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605-2496 [312-922-9410 ext 468] or S. M. Goodman, B.P. 738, WWF Aires Protegees, Antananarivo (101), Madagascar [FAX 261-2-348-88].
The 34th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science / L'association canadienne pour la technologie des animaux de laboratoire (CALAS/ACTAL) will be held from 12-14 June, 1995, in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The program includes workshops and scientific sessions in laboratory animal science. Deadline for submission of abstracts is 31 January, 1995. For more information contact Dr. Don McKay, CALAS/ACTAL National Office, Biosciences Animal Service, CW401 Biological Sciences Bldg, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 [403-492-5193; fax: 403-492-7257; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
ICLAS (International Council for Laboratory Animal Science), FinLAS (Finnish Laboratory Animal Scientists) and Scand-LAS (Scandinavian Federation for Laboratory Animal Science) are organizing a conference on Frontiers in Laboratory Animal Science, July 2-7, 1995 in Helsinki, Finland. The official language is English. For more information, contact Tarja Kohila, Helsinki Univ., Laboratory Animal Centre, P.O. Box 17 (Arkadiankatu 7), FIN-00014 Helsinki University [+358 0 1917281, +358 400 501104; fax: +358 0 1917284; e-mail: email@example.com].
Committing to Conservation
The Columbus Zoo is hosting a conference titled "Zoos: Committing to Conservation," on July 13-16, 1995. The objectives are to * motivate and assist zoos not yet involved in in-situ conservation; * use existing projects as examples of how a commitment to conservation is in the best interest of all zoological institutions; * increase networking among zoos, small NGOs, large conservation organizations, academicians, and field researchers. Registration, including social events and some meals, will cost $115 until June 1, $140 thereafter. To register or submit abstracts, or for more information, contact The Columbus Zoo/CC, P.O. Box 1407, Powell, OH 43065-1407 [614-645-3400; FAX: 614-645-3465].
China Primate Conference
The second China Primate Conference will be held 7-11 August, 1995 in Nanning, Guangxi, China, sponsored by the Committee of the Theriological Society, Bejing. The meeting will provide an opportunity for scientists to exchange research information, discuss management strategy and foster international cooperation. Languages: Chinese and English. Abstract deadline: February 1995. Contact: Mr. Quan Guoqiang, Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, 19 Zhong Guan Cun Rd, Haidian, Bejing, 100080 China [01-256-2712 Fax: 00861-256-5689].
Working Safely with Research Animals
The Fourth National Symposium on Biosafety, "Working Safely with Research Animals" will be held January 28-31, 1996, in Atlanta, GA. The Symposium is sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NIH's Office for Protection from Research Risks, the American Biological Safety Assoc., and Emory Univ. School of Medicine and Yerkes Primate Center, in association with Morehouse School of Medicine Microbiology Dept, Merck & Co., USDA Agricultural Research Service, and AAALAC. There will be sessions on "Biohazard Control in Animal Research," "Chemical and Physical Hazards in Animal Research," "Rudiments of Biosafety practice in Animal Care," and "Effective Management in Animal Research." On January 27-28 there will be pre- symposium workshops: "Animal Care Technicians' Training Program," "Animal Biosafety Levels 1-4: An Overview," and "SOP Writing Workshop." To receive future mailings, send your name and mailing address to CDC, Office of Health and Safety, Atlanta, GA 30333 [FAX: 404-639-2294].
* * *
(Addresses are those of first authors)
* Discovery of the Fourth Dimension: Mental Time Travel & Human
Evolution . T. Suddendorf. Master's thesis, University of Waikato, New
Zealand. Auckland: T. Suddendorf, 1994. 125 + vii pp.
. . The author attempts to define differences between humans and other animals, concluding that "humans are the only species that can change and destroy the Earth and the only species that can experience the moral responsibility to do something about it."
* Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Vol. 1: Selection and Handling of Animals in Biomedical Research. Vol. II: Animal Models . P. Svendsen & J. Hau (Eds.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994. [Price: Vol. 1 $95 USA, $114 other countries; Vol. 2 $75 USA, $90 other countries]
* Monkeys of the Mesquite: The Social Life of the South Texas Snow Monkey . M. S. McDonald Pavelka. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publ. Co., 1993. [Price: $12.95 soft cover]
* Neurodegenerative Diseases: Potential Primate Models of Alzheimer's-Type Dementias: A Selective Bibliography, 1985-September 1994. M. McLean. Seattle: PIC, 1994, 12 pp. (114 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-007. Order from PIC, RPRC, Univ. of Washington, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195]
* Metazoan Endoparasites in Nonhuman Primates: A Selective Bibliography, 1987-September 1994 . M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 24 pp. (298 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price: $10. Stock #94-009. Ordering information same as above]
* Audiophysiology of Nonhuman Primates: A Selective Bibliography, 1952-November 1994 . M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 11 pp. (148 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-010. Ordering information same as above]
* Biogenic Amines in Nonhuman Primates: A Selective Bibliography, 1984-November 1994 . M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 11 pp. (144 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-011. Ordering information same as above]
* Primate Models of Psychopathology: A Selective Bibliography,
1987-November 1994 . M. McLean. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994,
9 pp. (111 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock
#94-012. Ordering information same as above]
. . This is essentially an update of the previous Topical Bibliography #87-013, Depression in Nonhuman Primates, 1965-87, with additional material on schizophrenia and phobic behaviors.
* Language in Apes? Concepts, Communications, Controversies: A Selective Bibliography, 1940-November 1994. A. Longley. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 26 pp. (402 citations, primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-013. Ordering information same as above]
* Annual Resource Guide 1994 . Special edition of Continuing
Listings . September, 1994. [PSIC, PIC, RPRC, Univ. of Washington, SJ-50,
Seattle, WA 98195]
. . Listings of suppliers (of animals, equipment, etc.), facilities, information sources, and services.
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
* IPPL News, 1994, 21. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1994, 2. [Conservation International, Ave. Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
* SCAW Newsletter, 1994, 16. [Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770]
* Traffic USA, 1994, 13. [Traffic USA, 1250 Twenty-Fourth St NW, Washington, DC 20037]
* Symposium Proceedings: Animal Care and Use Committees and Alternatives . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1994. [Price: $5, from Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Office for Research Subjects, Baltimore, MD 21205]
* Research Animal Anesthesia, Analgesia and Surgery . A. C. Smith &
M. M. Swindle (Eds.). Greenbelt, MD: SCAW, 1994. 170 pp.
. . Proceedings of a conference sponsored by SCAW, May 12-13, 1994, in Atlanta, GA. Partial contents: Regulatory requirements: anesthesia, analgesia, and surgery, by T. D. Mandrell. Guidelines for animal surgery in research and training: The process and the product...and the politics, by M. J. Brown. Surgical training and personnel qualifications, by M. B. Dennis. Laparoscopic surgery courses, by L. J. Freeman. History, donor considerations and ethics of xenotransplantation and xenoperfusion, by E. D. Prentice, I. J. Fox, R. S. Dixon, D. L. Antonson, & T. A. Lawson. Pain and distress in research animals, by G. F. Gebhart. Physiologic effects of anesthetics and analgesics, by J. E. Heavner. Intraoperative monitoring and equipment, by R. F. Hoyt. Planning and support for experimental cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation studies, by R. E. Fish, M. C. Hogan, J. A. Wright, & J. T. Walls. Cardiopulmonary complications and emergencies in surgery, by J. R. Swearengen. Post surgical care, by A. C. Smith & M. M. Swindle.
* Prescription for Extinction: Endangered Species and Patented Oriental Medicines in Trade . Washington, DC: Traffic USA, 1994. 300 pp. [Price: $30 plus $2, from WWF Publications, P.O. Box 4866, Hampton Post Office, Baltimore, MD 21211]
* Primate Library Report: Audio-visual Acquisitions, 1994, No. 16. [Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299].
* Primate Report, No. 39, April 1994. [Price: $12]
. . The annual Scientific Report for 1993 of the German Primate Center (DPZ) includes: Specificity of helper T-cells induced by vaccination of rhesus macaques with inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the envelope gene of SIV, by U. Dittmer, W. Luke, C. Stahl-Hennig, H. Petry, C. Coulibaly, B. Makoschey, G. Voss, W. Bodemer, & G. Hunsmann; Activity of strap muscles during monkey call production, by U. Jurgens & A. Kirzinger; and The "quality" of captive primate populations, by W. Kaumanns.
Special Journal Issues
*Abstracts of Scientific Sessions--12th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS, October 12-15, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23.
*Special topic overview. Laboratory Animal Science, 1994,
. . Contents: Genetic heterogeneity in five captive specific pathogen-free groups of rhesus macaques, by D. G. Smith. Maintenance of genetic variability in a specific pathogen-free breeding colony, by J. J. Ely, G. S. Manis, M. E. Keeling, & W. H. Stone. Establishing specific retrovirus-free breeding colonies of macaques: An approach to primary screening and surveillance, by N. W. Lerche, J. L. Yee, & M. B. Jennings. B virus-specific pathogen-free (SPF) breeding colonies of macaques: Issues, surveillance, and results in 1992, by J. A. Ward & J. K. Hilliard. Behavioral management of specific pathogen-free rhesus macaques: Group formation, reproduction, and parental competence, by S. J. Schapiro, D. E. Lee-Parritz, L. L. Taylor, L. Watson, M. A. Bloomsmith, & A. Petto.
*Sexual transmission of simian T-lymphotropic virus type I: A model of human
T-lymphotropic virus type I infection. Lazo, A., Bailer, R. T., Lairmore, M.
D., Yee, J. A. L., Andrews, J., Stevens, V. C. & Blakeslee, J. R. (Ohio
State Univ., Dept of Vet. Anatomy & Cellular Biology, 1900 Coffey Rd,
Columbus, OH 43210). Leukemia, 1994, 8[Suppl. 1], S222-S226.
. . Although sexual contact is important in the transmission of STLV-I, it may not be an efficient mode of viral infection. The data also suggest that female-to-male transmission of STLV-I occurs, as recently reported for human T-lymphotropic virus type-I. The difficulty of clearly quantifying the risks of sexual transmission in humans makes the primate animal model a valuable alternative to study the human infection.
*Combination protocols of cytokine therapy with interleukin-3 and
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in a primate model of
radiation-induced marrow aplasia. Farese, A. M., Williams, D. E., Seiler,
F. R., & MacVittie, T. J. (EXH, Armed Forces Radiobiology Res. Inst., 8901
Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603). Blood, 1993, 82,
. . Following radiation-induced marrow aplasia, coadministration of interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reduced the average 16-day period of neutropenia and antibiotic support in control animals to 6 days, while the average 10-day period of severe thrombocytopenia was reduced to 3 days. Sequential administration of IL-3 followed by GM-CSF had no greater effect on neutrophil production than GM-CSF alone and was less effective than IL-3 alone in reducing thrombocytopenia. Neutrophil function was enhanced in all cytokine-treated animals.
*Gene transfer into nonhuman primate CD34+CD11b- bone marrow progenitor cells
capable of repopulating lymphoid and myeloid lineages. van Beusechem, V. W.,
Bart-Baumeister, J. A. K., Bakx, T. A., Kaptein, L. C. M., Levinsky, R. J.,
& Valerio, D. (IntroGene, B. V., P.O. Box 3271, 2280 GG Rijswijk,
Netherlands). Human Gene Therapy, 1994, 5, 295-305.
. . In vitro transduction of CD34+CD11b- cells led to long-term re- population of the hematopoietic system with transduced cells of lymphoid and myeloid lineages expressing the human adenosine deaminase gene. One rhesus monkey was infused with CD34+CD11b- bone marrow cells and a large quantity of virus-producing cells. Few provirus-carrying cells could temporarily be detected in the animal, showing that in vivo gene transfer into a regenerating hemopoietic system can occur, albeit at very low efficiency.
*Relationship of skeletal muscle glucose 6-phosphate to glucose disposal rate
and glycogen synthase activity in insulin-resistant and
non-insulin-dependent diabetic rhesus monkeys. Ortmeyer, H. K., Bodkin, N.
L., & Hansen, B. C. (Obesity & Diabetes Research Ctr, Univ. of
Maryland, 10 S. Pine St, Rm 6-00, Baltimore, MD 21201).
Diabetologia, 1994, 37, 127-133.
. . Under euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic conditions, a defect distal to glucose 6-phosphate is a major contributor to reduced whole-body insulin-mediated glucose disposal rates and to reduced insulin action on glycogen synthase in insulin-resistant and diabetic monkeys.
*Endometriosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) following chronic
exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Rier, S. E., Martin, D. C.,
Bowman, R. E., Dmowski, W. P., & Becker, J. L. (Dept of Med.
Microbiology & Immunology, Univ. of S. Florida College of Med., Tampa, FL
33612). Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 1993, 21,
. . Animals in a study of the long-term reproductive effects of exposure to dioxin were examined, along with autopsy records of those that had died. Forty-three percent of animals exposed to 5 ppt dioxin from 1977 to 1982, and 71% of those exposed to 25 ppt dioxin had moderate to severe endometriosis, in contrast to 33% in a control group and 30% overall prevalence in a large colony.
*Kinetic expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and relationship to
leukocyte recruitment in two cutaneous models of inflammation. Silber, A.,
Newman, W., Reimann, K. A., Hendricks, E., Walsh, D., & Ringler, D. J. (D.
J. R., Harvard Med. School, One Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772-9102).
Laboratory Investigation, 1994, 70, 163-175.
. . Acute cutaneous endotoxin injury and cutaneous delabed-type hypersensitivity reactions were induced by intradermal administration of lipopolysaccharide or mammalian tuberculin, respectively. Results show that cutaneous inflammatory infiltrates of varying cellular compositions are associated temporally and spatially with unique patterns of endothelial adhesion molecule expression.
*6-Hydroxydopamine lesions of the prefrontal cortex in monkeys enhance
performance on an analog of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test: Possible
interactions with subcortical dopamine. Roberts, A. C., De Salvia, M. A.,
Wilkinson, L. S., Collins, P., Muir, J. L., Everitt, B. J., & Robbins,
T. W. (Dept of Experimental Psychology, Univ. of Cambridge, Downing St,
Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK). Journal of Neuroscience, 1994, 14,
. . 6-OHDA lesions of the prefrontal cortex produced profound catecholamine depletion in medial, dorsolateral, and orbital regions and led to improved acquisition of a visual compound discrimination requiring an attentional set shift from one dimension to another, e.g., from shapes to lines.
*The dopaminergic innervation of monkey entorhinal cortex. Akil, M. &
Lewis, D. A. (Dept of Psychiatry, Univ. of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara St,
BST-W1654, Pittsburgh, PA 15213). Cerebral Cortex, 1993, 3,
. . Dopaminergic (DA) innervation of monkey entorhinal cortex (ERC) is regionally heterogeneous, with the greatest density of DA axons present in the rostral and medial portions of ERC. This is interesting in view of reports indicating that alterations of ERC cytoarchitecture in postmortem brain specimens from schizophrenic patients may be most prominent in the rostral postions of ERC.
*Behavioral manifestations of an experimental model for peripheral
neuropathy produced by spinal nerve ligation in the primate. Carlton, S. M.,
Lekan, H. A., Kim, S. H., & Chung, J. M. (200 University Blvd, Marine
Biomed. Inst., Galveston, TX 77555-0843). Pain, 1994, 56,
. . Tight ligation of the L7 spinal nerve in macaques results in a neuropathic condition with the expression of heat hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and cold allodynia. Differences between subjects model the variability in the human population of neuropathic patients.
*Experimentally induced septic arthritis in chimpanzees infected with
Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Ureaplasma
urealyticum . Barile, M. F., Kapatais-Zoumbos, K., Snoy, P., Grabowski, M.
W., Sneller, M., Miller, L., & Chandler, D. K. F. (9716 Kensington Pkwy,
Kensington, MD 20895). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1994,
. . Inflammation was induced in chimpanzees inoculated with isolates of M. hominis and U. urealyticum recovered from exudates from patients with septic arthritis. The factors among the arthrogenic isolates that caused the induction of inflammation were not defined.
*Functional improvement precedes structural regression of atherosclerosis.
Benzuly, K. H., Padgett, R. C., Kaul, S., Piegors, D. J., Armstrong, M. L.,
& Heistad, D. D. (D. D. H., Dept of Internal Med., Univ. of Iowa
College of Med., Iowa City, IA 52242-1081). Circulation, 1994,
. . Cynomolgus monkeys were fed an atherogenic diet for 2 years, followed by a normal diet. Abnormal vasoconstrictor responses to serotonin usually return to or toward normal within a few months during regression of atherosclerosis. Functional improvement occurs in conjunction with early resorption of lipid from the arterial wall and occurs before detectable changes in mass of the atherosclerotic lesion.
*Effects of dietary fat saturation on plasma lipoprotein(a) and hepatic
apolipoprotein(a) mRNA concentrations in cynomolgus monkeys. Brousseau, M.
E., Ordovas, J. M., Nocolosi, R. J., & Schaefer, E. J. (E. J. S., Lipid
Metabolism Lab., USDA Human Nutrition Research Ctr on Aging, Tufts Univ.,
Boston, MA 02111). Atherosclerosis, 1994, 106, 109-118.
. . This study shows that the substitution of dietary saturated fatty acid with either mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly reduces plasma Lp(a), confirming the utility of the cynomolgus macaque as a model for the investigation of the effects of diet on Lp(a) metabolism.
*Identification of a novel simian parvovirus in cynomolgus monkeys with
severe anemia: A paradigm of human B19 parvovirus infection. O'Sullivan,
M. G., Anderson, D. C., Fikes, J. D., Bain, F. T., Carlson, C. S., Green, S.
W., Young, N. S., & Brown, K. E. (Dept of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School
of Med., Wake Forest Univ., Med. Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040).
Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1994, 93, 1571-1576.
. . Remarkable similarities between a simian parvovirus and B19 parvovirus, including 65% homology at the DNA level, suggest that experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys may serve as a useful animal model of human B19 infection.
*Prolonged survival of pig cardiac xenografts in unmodified newborn baboons.
Kaplon, R. J., Platt, J. L., Xu, H., Kwiatkowski, P. A., Edwards, N. M.,
& Michler, R. E. (R. E. M., Director, Cardiac Transplant Serv., 177 Ft
Washington Ave, Rm 7-435, NY, NY 10032). Transplantation
Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1072.
. . Neonatal baboons, like neonatal humans, express barely detectable levels of IgM anti-pig natural antibody. Whereas heterotopic cardiac xenografts between pigs and mature baboons hyperacutely reject minutes to hours after reperfusion, in neonatal baboons hyperacute rejection is not observed and pig xenografts enjoy prolonged survival.
*Transplantation tolerance. Sachs, D. H. (Transplantation Biology Research
Ctr, Mass. General Hospital, Boston, MA 02129). Annals of Thoracic
Surgery, 1993, 56, 1221-1227.
. . Mixed chimerism provides a potential approach to achieving long-term tolerance to allogeneic organ transplants. The procedure permits allogeneic engraftment without loss of immunocompetence, and thereby achieves long-term transplantation tolerance without the need for additional immunosuppressive therapy.
*Cardiac allotransplantation across the ABO-blood group barrier by the
neutralization of preformed antibodies: The baboon as a model for the human.
Ye, Y., Niekrasz, M., Kehoe, M., Rolf, L. L., Jr, Martin, M., Baker, J.,
Kosanke, S., Romano, E., Zuhdi, N., & Cooper, D. K. C. (D. K. C. C.,
Oklahoma Transplantation Inst., Baptist Med. Ctr, 3300 N.W. Expressway,
Oklahoma City, OK 73112). Laboratory Animal Science, 1994,
. . A combination of long-term pharmacologic immunosuppression with trisaccharide infusion (for periods of 8 to 19 days) extended survival of ABO-incompatible cardiac allografts to as much as 52 days, compared to a mean of 19 min with no treatment. It is hypothesized that if the structure of the carbohydrate target to human anti-pig antibodies could be identified, then a similar form of therapy might be successful in allowing patients to receive pig organs.
*Growth potential of the transplanted lung in the infant primate. Thomas,
D. D., Standaert, T. A., Anton, W. R., Jones, D. R., Godwin, J. D., Raghu,
G., Hodson, W. A., & Allen, M. D. (M. D. A., Div. of Cardiothoracic
Surgery, SA-25, Univ. of Washington, 1959 Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195).
Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 1993, 56, 1274-1278.
. . To study the effects of transplantation and denervation on primate lung growth without rejection or immunosuppression, 8-week-old baboons underwent left lung autotransplantation or sham operations. The auto-transplanted lungs grew normally.
*Variation in healing throughout the depth of long-term, unsutured, corneal
wounds in human autopsy specimens and monkeys. Melles, G. R. J., Binder, P.
S., & Anderson, J. A. (Dept of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Nijmegen, Philips
van Leydenlaan 15, P.B. 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands). Archives
of Ophthalmology, 1994, 112, 100-109.
. . There are regional differences in healing over the depth of long-term unsutured corneal wounds. Different healing qualities in the anterior, middle, and posterior stroma may affect healing and associated refractive outcome, as in keratotomy.
*Review of serologic testing for hepatitis C virus infection and risk of
posttransfusion hepatitis C. Alter, M. J. (CDC Hepatitis Branch (G37), 1600
Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333). Archives of Pathology and Laboratory
Medicine, 1994, 118, 342-345.
. . Virtually all persons with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) seem to become chronically infected. The extraordinarily high rate of persistent infection observed in humans and the lack of protection against rechallenge with homologous HCV strains demonstrated in experimental studies in chimpanzees suggest that HCV fails to induce an effective neutralizing antibody response.
*Infectivity titration of a prototype strain of hepatitis E virus in
cynomolgus monkeys. Tsarev, S. A., Tsareva, T. S., Emerson, S. U.,
Yarbough, P. O., Legters, L. J., Moskal, T., & Purcell, R. H.
(LID/NIAID/NIH, Bldg 7, Rm 200, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892).
Journal of Medical Virology, 1994, 43, 135-142.
. . Biochemical evidence of hepatitis was most prominent in animals that were inoculated with higher concentrations of virus and the incubation period to seroconversion was prolonged in animals that received lower doses.
*Pathology and localization of simian immunodeficiency virus in the
reproductive tract of chronically infected male rhesus macaques. Miller, C.
J., Vogel, P., Alexander, N. J., Dandekar, S., Hendrickx, A. G., & Marx,
P. A. (California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616).
Laboratory Investigation, 1994, 70, 255-262.
. . The reproductive tracts of 13 chronically SIV-infected adult male rhesus macaques were examined. SIV-infected cells were found at all levels of the tract and were commonly associated with inflammatory lesions. Reproductive tract pathology is similar to that of AIDS patients.
*Neuropathology and pathogenesis of SIV infection of the central nervous
system. Sharer, L. R. (Dept. of Lab. Med. & Pathology, New Jersey Med.
School, Newark, NJ 07103). In R. W. Price & S. W. Perry (Eds.), HIV,
AIDS and the Brain (pp. 133-145).
. . A review of the pathology and pathogenesis of SIV meningoencephalitis.
*Early stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes:
Evidence for high viral load and successive populations of target cells.
Chakrabarti, L., Isola, P., Cumont, M.-C., Claessens-Maire, M.-A., Hurtrel,
M., Montagnier, L., & Hurtrel, B. (Unite d'Oncologie Virale, Inst
Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris 15, France). American Journal
of Pathology, 1994, 144, 1226-1237.
. . Lymph nodes from 14 macaques sacrificed soon after experimental inoculation with SIV presented a remarkably high viral load 1 week after inoculation. Two weeks after inoculation, follicular dendritic cells were the major target of the virus, persisting at high levels for 2 months before subsiding.
*Cryptosporidiosis of liver and pancreas in rhesus monkeys with experimental
SIV infection. Kaup, F.-J., Kuhn, E.-M., Makoschey, B., & Hunsmann, G.
(Exper. Pathology, German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, D-3400
Gottingen, Germany). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23,
. . Five of 11 experimentally infected animals had severe alterations of the hepatobiliary tree, three of which were associated with the presence of numerous Cryptosporidium spp. The rate of Cryptosporidium infection, together with hepatic and pancreatic involvement, supports the hypothesis that systemic cryptosporidiosis is the result of a loss of protective mucosal immunity.
*Early helper T-cell dysfunction in simian immunodeficiency virus but not in
human immunodeficiency virus type-2-infected macaques. Dittmer, U., Luke,
W., Stahl-Hennig, C., Coulibaly, C., Petry, H., Bodemer, W., Hunsmann,
G., & Voss, G. (address same as above). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1994, 23, 298-303.
. . Both naive and vaccinated macaques acquired a virus-specific proliferative helper T-cell reactivity in response to infection with the nonpathogenic HIV-2. In contrast, macaques infected with the pathogenic SIVmac did not develop a helper T-cell response. Furthermore, a vaccine-induced preexisting T-cell reactivity was abrogated after SIV-mac infection in vaccine failures.
*Pathogenic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses. Hirsch, V. M. &
Johnson, P. R. (Immunodeficiency Viruses Sect., LID, NIAID, NIH, 12441
Parklawn Dr., Rockville, MD 20852). Virus Research, 1994,
. . A discussion of the phylogeny of various SIV strains and their pathogenicity in nonhuman primates in the context of an animal model for human AIDS.
*Intrathecal synthesis of IgG in simian immunodeficiency virus
(SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Smith, M. O.,
Sutjipto, S., & Lackner, A. A. (Dept of Clinical Sciences, College of Vet.
Med. & Biomed. Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523).
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1994, 10, 81-89.
. . SIV-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid may have a modulating effect on the development of SIV-associated neurological disease.
*Extensive envelope heterogeneity of simian immunodeficiency virus in tissues
from infected macaques. Campbell, B. J. & Hirsch, V. M. (V. M. H.,
LID/NIAID/NIH, Twinbrook II, 12441 Parklawn Dr., Rockville, MD 20852).
Journal of Virology, 1994, 68, 3129-3137.
. . Tissues of SIV-infected macaques harbor virus variants that are genetically and potentially biologically distinct from those observed in the peripheral blood. In addition, the brain of SIV-infected animals contain discrete viral sequences. These variants may serve as a continual reservoir of virus, to increase the viral burden of the host, while remaining relatively undetected by the humoral immune response.
* In vitro susceptibility of Macaca nemestrina to human
herpesvirus 6: A potential animal model of coinfection with primate
immunodeficiency viruses. Lusso, P., Secchiero, P., & Crowley, R. W.
(Lab. of Tumor Cell Biology, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). AIDS Research
and Human Retroviruses, 1994, 10, 181-187.
. . Macaca nemestrina may represent an optimal animal model system to investigate the in vivo interactions between HHV-6 and the primate immunodeficiency viruses.
*Histochemical and immunohistochemical similarities between hepatic tumors
in two chimpanzees and man. Tabor, E., Hsia, C. C., & Muchmore, E. (NCI,
NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994,
. . A well-differentiated trabecular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a well-differentiated tumor resembling HCC from each of two chimpanzees were found to have histochemical and immunohistochemical staining characteristics similar to those in human HCCs. Hepatic tumors are rare in chimpanzees, but their similarities to human HCC provides a useful research model.
*A review of studies of the activation of the blood coagulation mechanism in
chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). ten Cate, H., Schenk, B. E., Biemond, B.
J., Levi, M., van der Poll, T., Buller, H. R., & ten Cate, J. W. (Center
for Hemostasis, Thrombosis, Atherosclerosis & Inflammation Research,
F4-219, Acad. Med. Ctr, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands).
Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23, 280-284.
. . Data indicate that the chimpanzee is a suitable primate for studying hemostatic reaction processes in vivo. This model is very relevant for analyzing potential therapeutic interventions as to their mechanism of action. However, the dosages and substances have to be carefully selected in order not to cause any permanent harm. This model is not suitable for toxicity studies, which should be restricted to lower animals.
*Evolution of the sociosexual pattern of the stumptail macaque (Macaca
arctoides . Brereton, A. R. (913 Carrigan Ave, Modesto, CA 95350).
Folia Primatologia, 1993, 61, 43-46.
. . A four-step hypothesis for the evolutionary development of the unique sociosexual pattern of stumptail macaques.
*Effect of a preferred companion in modulating stress in adult female rhesus
monkeys. Gust, D. A., Gordon, T. P., Brodie, A. R., & McClure, H. M.
(Yerkes Primate Center Field Stn, 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, GA 30243).
Physiology & Behavior, 1994, 55, 681-684.
. . Adult female rhesus monkeys exhibited a profound stress response when removed from their social group to a novel environment; recovery time of T cell subsets was significantly enhanced by the presence of a preferred companion.
*Social rearing effects on HPA axis activity over early development and in
response to stress in rhesus monkeys. Clarke, A. S. (Harlow Primate Lab.,
Univ. of Wisconsin, 22 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53711).
Developmental Psychobiology, 1993, 26, 433-446.
. . HPA axis activity was assessed via measurement of ACTH and cortisol values over the first 6 months of life and in response to two stressful housing transitions in 48 infant rhesus monkeys that were either mother- or peer-reared. Peer-reared monkeys showed lower levels of ACTH over the first 6 months of life than mother-reared, but the groups did not differ in basal cortisol values. Mother-reared animals showed a greater ACTH response to caging changes.
*Long-term effects of prenatal stress on HPA axis activity in juvenile rhesus
monkeys. Clarke, A. S., Wittwer, D. J., Abbott, D. H., & Schneider,
M. L. (Address same as above). Developmental Psychobiology, 1994,
. . Offspring of mothers who had been stressed during pregnancy showed greater ACTH and cortisol levels than control offspring in unstressed situations, and greater ACTH in stressed situations, with the disparity between groups greatest in the most stressful condition.
*Do chimpanzees cooperate in a learning task? Chalmeau, R. (Centre de
Recherche Biol. du Comportement, UPS, 118, Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse
cedex, France). Primates, 1994, 35, 385-392.
. . A machine was constructed which required two chimpanzees to pull handles simultaneously to make a fruit fall into the cage. The dominant male and an infant in a group of 6 captive chimps produced most of the operant responses, and the male got nearly all the fruits. Social influences appear to limit the possibility of cooperation between individuals because a certain level of interindividual tolerance is required.
*The social grooming of captive female rhesus monkeys: Effects of the births
of their infants. Martel, F. L., Nevison, C. M., Rayment, F. D. G., &
Simpson, M. J. A. (Univ. of Cambridge, Sub-Dept of Animal Behaviour, High St,
Madingley, Cambridge CB3 8AA, U.K.). International Journal of
Primatology, 1994, 15, 555-572.
. . Analysis of observations of 13 female rhesus monkeys, before and for 12 weeks after the births of their infants. "The birth of an infant must affect maternal grooming through the physiological changes in her and through its effect on her relationships with her social companions." Some factors are highlighted that must be controlled or allowed for if there is to be more focused testing of particular views on the causation of grooming after the birth of an infant.
*Pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea, modify vocal structure in
response to changed social environment. Elowson, A. M. & Snowdon, C. T.
(Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706). Animal
Behaviour, 1994, 47, 1267-1277.
. . Monkeys in four age categories (infant, juvenile, subadult, and adult) from two separate groups were studied for 9 weeks in their original groups, for the first 4 weeks after being placed in the same colony room (but in separate cages), and 6-10 weeks after contact. Analysis of changes in calls suggest greater vocal plasticity across age ranges than has been hitherto described for a nonhuman primate, and suggest the importance of social factors in vocal architecture.
*A perspective on behavioral studies in aged monkeys. Zola-Morgan, S. (Dept of
Psychiatry, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093). Neurobiology of Aging,
1993, 14, 647-648.
. . A fundamental understanding of the neurobiological foundations of aging may lead to better diagnosis and treatment and prevention of the cognitive decline that is associated with aging in humans.
*Behavioral changes in aged rhesus monkeys. Bachevalier, J. (Univ. of Texas
Med. School, Houston, TX 77225). Neurobiology of Aging, 1993,
. . Studies indicate that behavioral decline with age occurs in a variety of abilities, although performance on some tasks remains intact even in the oldest animals. Findings suggest that the losses observed are in the particular ability being measured and are not simply the reflection of an amotivational state or of a total deterioration of behavior. Some cerebral systems are compromised by aging earlier than others, and different animals have different patterns of cerebral involvement.
*Spatial selection in captive adult female chimpanzees. Bettinger, T., Wallis,
J., & Carter, T. (Tulsa Zool. Park, 5701 E. 36th St No., Tulsa, OK
74115). Zoo Biology, 1994, 13, 167-176.
. . Pairwise comparisons of four adult females at the Tulsa Zoo showed that they used their island habitat differently from one another with the exception of one pair. That pair separated their use temporally, reducing the amount of time spent in close proximity to one another.
*The concept and definition of dominance in animal behaviour. Drews, C.
(Abt. Wickler, Max-Planck-Inst. fur Verhaltensphys., 82319 Seewiesen,
Germany). Behaviour, 1993, 125, 283-313.
. . Thirteen definitions of dominance are reviewed, and their usefulness assessed with respect to their descriptive value. The discussion includes reference to the heritability of dominance, application of dominance to groups rather than individuals, and the role of individual recognition and memory during agonistic encounters.
*Psychological warfare and the management of relationships between male
baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Drews, C. (Address same as above).
Doctoral Dissertation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1993.
. . Free-ranging baboons were observed in Tanzania for a total of 1413 hours over 16 months. It is suggested that the main function of relationship management in males is to reduce the risk of combat, with possibly fatal results, in subsequent encounters.
*Effects of enrichment on veterinary treatment of laboratory rhesus macaques
(Macaca mulatta). Schapiro, S. J. & Bushong, D. (Univ. of Texas M.
D. Anderson Cancer Ctr, Science Park, Bastrop, TX 78602). Animal
Welfare, 1994, 3, 25-36.
. . Comparison of the health records of 98 rhesus monkeys, half living in enriched environments, suggest that inanimate enrichment neither diminishes nor improves the health of young macaques, but that enriched monkeys may require longer periods of therapy than do controls. Pair-housed subjects required less treatment and therapy than single-caged or group-housed animals.
*Promoting increased foraging behavior in caged stump-tailed macaques.
Reinhardt, V. (4605 Crescent Rd, Madison, WI 53711). Folia
Primatologica, 1993, 61, 47-51.
. . Moving food boxes away from the access holes so that the animals had to work to get biscuits through the cage mesh resulted in a 69-fold increase in average time the animals engaged in food-retrieving activities, with no decline in animals' weight or health.
*Social enrichment for previously single-caged stumptail macaques.
Reinhardt, V. (Address same as above). Animal Technology, 1994,
. . Isosexual pairs were placed in double cages with a grated partition for 3 days, allowing a noncontact establishment of rank relationships before the partition was removed. Six-months later, the pairs spent on average 22% of 1-hour observation sessions in affiliative interactions.
*Enrichment in a hostile environment. J. Lindsey (923 Laurel St, Junction City,
OR 97448). In Touch, 1994, 1, 1-4.
. . Workers at the Jane Goodall Institute Halfway House in Burundi provide low-cost environmental enrichment daily, using only donated and recycled materials.
*Computer-task testing of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the
social milieu. Washburn, D. A., Harper, S., & Rumbaugh, D. M. (Dept of
Psychology, Georgia State Univ., University Plaza, Atlanta, GA
30303-3083). Primates, 1994, 35, 343-351.
. . Computer task activity was offered to pair-housed animals that had previously been tested only in their single-animal home cages. No differences were observed in productivity or performance levels as a function of housing, even when the animals were required to "self-identify" prior to performing each trial. The data indicate that cognitive challenge and control are as preferred by the animals as social opportunities.
*Adverse early experiences affect noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning in
adult primates. Rosenblum, L. A., Coplan, J. D., Friedman, S., Bassoff, T.,
Gorman, J. M., & Andrews, M. W. (Univ. Hospital of Brooklyn, Rm 373, 445
Leroy Rd, Brooklyn, NY 11203). Biological Psychiatry, 1994,
. . The predictability of foraging requirements for mother bonnet macaques was manipulated during an early period in their infants' lives. Long-term effects of this early experience on subsequent pharmacological responsivity suggest that both neuronal systems may be permanently altered by early experiential factors.
*Influence of regional crossbreeding between rhesus macaques on the rate of
weight gain of their offspring. Smith, D. G. (California RPRC, Univ. of
California, Davis, CA 95616). Zoo Biology, 1994, 13,
. . Both male and female Chinese/Indian rhesus hybrids exhibited statistically significantly higher rates of weight gain than their nonhybrid peers before, but not after, age 4. No evidence could be found that either hybrid status or rate of weight gain increases fitness, at least under captive conditions.
*Gamma-aminobutyric acid is an inhibitory neurotransmitter restricting the
release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone before the onset of puberty.
Mitsushima, D., Hei, D. L., & Terasawa, E. (E. T., Wisconsin RPRC, 1223
Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715). Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, USA, 1994, 91, 395-399.
. . The hypothesis that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in the tonic inhibition of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release before the onset of puberty in female rhesus monkeys was tested. Low levels of LHRH release in the prepubertal period appear to be due to the dominant inhibitory mechanism of GABA, mediated by the GABAA receptor, and that removal of this inhibition may trigger an increase in LHRH release and the onset of puberty.
*Juvenile and adolescent chimpanzee behavioral development in complex groups.
Bloomsmith, M. A., Pazol, K. A., & Alford, P. L. (Univ. of Texas M. D.
Anderson Cancer Ctr, Science Park, Dept. of Vet. Sciences, Bastrop, TX 73602).
Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 1994, 39, 73-87.
. . Documentation of the behavior over 5 years of 21 juvenile and adolescent chimpanzees living in complex breeding groups until sexual maturity. The behavioral similarity of the subjects to their wild counterparts may reflect the adequacy of mixed age-sex class groups to promote species-typical behavior in young captive chimpanzees.
*Hydranencephaly in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Binhazim, A. A.
& Buchl, S. J. (Address same as above). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1994, 23, 313-314.
. . Spontaneously occurring hydranencephaly was diagnosed at necropsy and confirmed histologically in two stillborn fetuses that were delivered from young female rhesus macaques.
*Serologic evidence of infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus,
the agent of callitrichid hepatitis, in primates in zoos, primate research
centers, and a natural reserve. Scanga, C. A., Holmes, K. V., & Montali,
R. J. (Dept of Pathology, Nat. Zool. Park, Washington, DC 20008).
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1993, 24, 469-474.
. . Data from immunoassay of callitrichids and other nonhuman primates in 31 zoos and animal parks, 6 primate research centers, and a wild golden lion tamarin reserve in Brazil indicate that Callitrichidae are highly susceptible to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, often resulting in fatal hepatitis. The common practice of feeding neonatal mice to nonhuman primates should be discontinued, and wild mice should be eradicated from cages housing callitrichids becuase of the risk that the mice may have inapparent LCMV infections.
*Malaria in macaques. Fooden, J. (Div. of Mammals, Field Museum of Nat.
History, Roosevelt Rd at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605).
International Journal of Primatology, 1994, 15, 573-596.
. . A review of the geographical factors, hosts, and vectors affecting the seven species of malaria which naturally infect eight species of macaques, and of experimental infections.
*Spontaneous colitis cystica profunda in captive tamarins. Gozalo, A. S.,
Dagle, G. E., Montoya, E. J., & Weller, R. E. (Proyecto Peruano de
Primatologia-IVITA, Apartado 621, Iquitos, Peru). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1994, 23, 309-312.
. . Of the 232 tamarins that died at the Iquitos Center over four years, 23 were diagnosed as having chronic colitis. Microscopic diagnosis showed colitis cystica profunda in six more animals.
*A further case of squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity of a squirrel
monkey. Morris, T. H. (SmithKline Beecham, Third Ave, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW,
U.K.). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23, 317-318.
. . Eight reported cases suggest that squamous cell carcinoma ought to be strongly considered in diagnosing any rapidly enlarging mass in the oral cavity of a squirrel monkey, particularly when it is possible to rule out dental conditions.
*Isolation and characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type II from
New World monkeys. Chen, Y.-M. A., Jang, Y.-J, Kanki, P. J., Yu, Q.-C., Wang,
J.-J., Montali, R. J., Samuel, K. P., & Papas, T. S. (Inst. of Biomed.
Sciences, Acad. Sinica, Nan-Kang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, ROC). Journal of
Virology, 1994, 68, 1149-1157.
. . A new virus, STLV-II, has been identified in spider monkeys. By Southern blot hybridization, STLV-II and HTLV-II have a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology but different restriction enzyme patterns. HTLV-like, type C retrovirus particles are seen outside the cell membranes of STLV-II-infected cells in electron micrographs.
*Asymptomatic polyarteritis in a cynomolgus monkey. Albassam, M. A., Lillie,
L. E., & Smith, G. S. (Parke-Davis Res. Inst., 2270 Speakman Dr.,
Mississauga, Ontario L5K 1B4, Canada). Laboratory Animal Science,
1993, 43, 628-629.
. . The first report of spontaneous polyarteritis in the cynomolgus monkey. The pathogenesis is unknown.
*Sexual transmission of SIVagm in wild grivet monkeys. Phillips-Conroy,
J. E., Jolly, C. J., Petros, B., Allan, J. S., & Desrosiers, R. C.
(Dept of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Washington Univ. School of Med., St.
Louis, MO 63110). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23,
. . In a wild population of Ethiopian grivet monkeys, seropositivity paralleled patterns of sexual activity, being nearly universal in females of reproductive age, and absent in all males except those that were fully adult. One female seroconverted between two capture seasons at an age consistent with first breeding.
*Science and the successful female: Why there are so many women primatologists.
Fedigan, L. (Dept of Anthropology, 13-15 HM Tory Bldg, Univ. of Alberta,
Edmonton, P.A. T6G 2H4, Canada). American Anthropologist, 1994,
*Help from philosophy: Responding to the animal rights challenge. Parker,
J. (Oregon RPRC, Beaverton, OR 97006). FASEB Journal, 1994, 8,
. . A discussion of Peter Carruthers' critique of the major philosophers of the animal rights movement.
*Genetic epidemiology of colon cancer in the cotton-top tamarin
(Saguinus oedipus). Cheverud, J. M., Tardif, S., Henke, M. A., &
Clapp, N. K. (Dept of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Washington Univ. School of
Med., St. Louis, MO 63110). Human Biology, 1993, 65,
. . Analysis of colony records of 226 animals from 26 known genealogies give a heritability estimate of 17% for the liability to contract colon cancer. This estimate is not significantly different from zero, indicating no evidence for heritable variation in cancer experience in this population.
Instruments & Techniques
*Effects of sex, age, puncture site, and blood contamination on the clinical
chemistry of cerebrospinal fluid in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).
Smith, M. O. & Lackner, A. A. (Dept of Clinical Sciences, College of Vet.
Med. & Biomed. Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523).
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1993, 54, 1845-1850.
. . Animal age and sex had no significant effects on CSF composition, but serum IgG concentration increased with age. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, and IgG were greater, and concentrations of glucose and potassium were lower in CSF obtained from the lumbar rather than the cisternal site.
*Technologic advances in the imaging of ovarian morphology and their roles in
ascertaining follicular growth and development in the rhesus monkey. Hutz, R.
J. (Dept of Bio. Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin, Lapham Hall, Rm 314, 3209 N.
Maryland Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413). International Journal of
Primatology, 1994, 15, 629-637.
. . Noninvasive ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and receptor imaging have replaced invasive laparotomy and laparoscopy in investigating nonhuman primate ovaries. As computed axial tomography, positron-emission tomography, and electron spin resonance become less expensive, they will be used, to good effect, with greater frequency.
*Cellular and soluble CD4 measurements in cynomolgus monkeys. Evans, G. O.
& Fagg, R. (Drug Safety Evaluation, Wellcome Res. Labs, Beckenham, Kent
BR3 3BS, UK). Experimental Animals, 1994, 43, 499-502.
. . Anti-human CD4 monoclonal antibodies have been successfully used to label T-lymphocytes in cynomolgus monkeys by two different methods. A magnetizable bead separation was used prior to immunogold labelling of lymphocytes in one of the methods; an assay for soluble CD4 was applied to the animals' sera in the other.
*Changes in bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae during a six-month
interval in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Hiyaoka,
A., Yoshida, T., Cho, F., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Corp. for Production &
Research of Lab. Primates, 1 Hachimandai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan).
Experimental Animals, 1994, 43, 573-576. (Japanese,
with English summary and tables) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA,
DPX-gamma, Lunar, USA) seems to be useful for investigating the kinetics of
bone mineral content in aged animals during a relatively short period.
*Primate antibodies to components of the human immune system.
Logdberg, Kaplan, E., Drelich, M., Harfeldt, E., Gunn, H., Ehrlich, P.,
Dottavio, D., Lake, P., & Ostberg, L. (Bldg 404, Rm 466, Sandoz Res.
Inst., 59 Route 10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1994, 23, 285-297.
. . The feasibility of raising nonhuman primate antibodies against selected components of the human immune system was tested. Significant immunizations, yielding functionally relevant antibodies, were readily achieved in rhesus monkeys but may be less frequent in chimpanzees. Results suggest a general strategy for production of therapeutically useful MAB.
*Field application of Telazolé (tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam
hydrochloride) to immobilize wild red howler monkeys (Alouatta
seniculus) in Venezuela. Agoramoorthy, G. & Rudran, R. (Sun
Yat-sen Univ., P.O. Box 59-157, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan). Journal of
Wildlife Diseases, 1994, 30, 417-420.
. . Fifty monkeys were immobilized with a single Telazolé (TEL) injection each, using a Pneu-dart rifle and 1 cc syringe darts over 16 months. Recovery times ranged from 39 to 308 min. There were no apparent side effects to the fetuses of two pregnant females. One animal died in falling from a tree.
*Magnetic resonance imaging of neuronal grafts in the primate. Simmons, N.
E., Helm, G. A., Cail, W. S., Bennett, J. P., & Jane, J. A. (Dept of
Neurological Surgery, Univ. of Virginia Health Sci. Ctr, Charlottesville,
VA 22908). Experimental Neurology, 1994, 125, 52-57.
. . MRI scans were used to accurately locate and stereotactically lesion the anterior putamen of an adult rhesus monkey, mimicking the anatomical and biochemical changes in Huntington's disease. Follow-up scans confirmed correct placement of the lesion and enabled precise stereotactical implantation of primate fetal neuronal tissue in it.
*Rapid measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in the baboon using
15O-labelled water and dynamic positron emission tomography. Pinard, E.,
Mazoyer, B., Verrey, B., Pappata, S., & Crouzel, C. (B. M., Service
Hospitalier F. Joliot [CEA], 91406 Orsay, France). Medical &
Biological Engineering & Computing, 1993, 31, 495-502.
. . Regional cerebral flow measurements performed in hypercapnic conditions gave results similar to published data in other animal species. Results obtained with three estimation techniques were closely correlated.
*Laminar analysis of the number of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and
microglia in the visual cortex (area 17) of 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys
fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine
supplementation from birth. Palackal, T., Neuringer, M., & Sturman, J.
(J. S., Dept of Developmental Biochemistry, NY State Inst. for Basic Research
in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Rd, Staten Island, NY 10314).
Developmental Neuroscience, 1993, 15, 54-67.
. . There was no difference in any measure of neurons between the taurine-fed and the taurine-free groups, but there were several differences in the measures of glial cells. Monkeys fed the taurine-free formula for 6 months, then the taurine-supplemented formula for 6 months, had a number of differences from both other groups in measures of both neurons and glial cells.
*Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in weanling rhesus
macaques. Bicknese, E. J., George, J. W., Hird, D. W., Paul-Murphy, J.,
Anderson, J. A., & Roberts, J. R. (Vet. Services, San Diego Zoo, San
Diego, CA 92112). Laboratory Animal Science, 1993, 43,
. . In this study of 143 animals, those raised partially or entirely in the nursery (and given iron-enriched formula) experienced less iron deficiency than dam-reared animals. Offspring of multiparous dams were apparently at increased risk to have iron deficiency at weaning than those of primiparous dams.
*Home cage behavior of rhesus monkeys with long-term deficiency of omega-3
fatty acids. Reisbick, S., Neuringer, M., Hasnain, R., & Connor, W. E.
(Sect. of Clinical Nutrition-L465, Oregon Health Sci. Univ., 3181 S.W. Sam
Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97201). Physiology & Behavior, 1994,
. . Rhesus monkeys deficient in omega-3 fatty acids initiated more bouts of stereotyped behavior in their home cages than monkeys fed a matched control diet abundant in such acids. The stereotyped behaviors were those typical of rhesus monkeys raised as partial social isolates or those whose surroundings have been disrupted.
*Social status and coronary artery atherosclerosis in female monkeys. Shively,
C. A. & Clarkson, T. B. (Dept of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School of
Med., Wake Forest Univ., Med. Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040).
Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, 1994, 14, 721-726.
. . Adult female cynomolgus monkeys were fed an atherogenic diet and housed in small social groups. Social status was altered in half the animals by combining dominant animals, and subordinate animals in new groups. All animals that changed social positions had worsened coronary artery atherosclerosis whether they became dominant or subordinate, and this effect was independent of ovarian function. Manipulation of social status may have deleteriously altered a complex interaction between individuals and their psychosocial environment.
*Dietary polyunsaturated fat decreases coronary artery atherosclerosis in a
pediatric-aged population of African green monkeys. Wolfe, M. S., Sawyer,
J. K., Morgan, T. M., Bullock, B. C., & Rudel, L. L. (L. L. R., Address
same as above). Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, 1994, 14,
. . Animals fed atherogenic diets, with and without n-6 polyunsaturated fat enrichment, were sacrificed at 16, 32, or 60 months of age. At 60 months, males had significantly more coronary artery atherosclerosis than females, and animals fed the polyunsaturated fats had significantly less than those not so fed.
*Remodeling of coronary arteries in human and nonhuman primates.
Clarkson, T. B., Prichard, R. W., Morgan, T. M., Petrick, G. S., &
Klein, K. P. (Address same as above). Journal of the American Medical
Association, 1994, 271, 289-294.
. . The similarity of remodeling (compensatory enlargement) in human and nonhuman primates suggests that the process has general biologic significance. Lack of remodeling may be a major determinant of whether a person with coronary artery atherosclerosis develops its complications.
*The age of biosenescence and the incidence of cerebral beta-amyloidosis
in aged captive rhesus monkeys. Uno, H. & Walker, L. C. (Wisconsin RPRC,
1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299). Annals of the New York Academy
of Sciences, 1993, 695, 232-235.
. . A 12-year longitudinal study reveals the age of biosenescence in captive rhesus monkeys begins around 25 years, and the maximum longevity is 36 years. In 186 autopsies of monkeys aged 20 to 36 years, cerebral beta-amyloidosis associated with plaque formation and cerebral angiopathy was observed in 51 brains. As in aged human brains, the incidence of age-dependent cerebral beta-amyloidosis showed great individual variation.
*Insulin levels, physical activity, and urinary catecholamine excretion of
obese and nonobese rhesus monkeys. Wolden-Hanson, T., Davis, G. A., Baum, S.
T., & Kemnitz, J. W. (Address same as above). Obesity Research,
1993, 1, 5-17.
. . Food intake did not differ between groups of obese and nonobese animals, but physical activity was much lower in the obese group, insulin levels were elevated, and catecholamine excretion was great.
*Dietary restriction increases insulin sensitivity and lowers blood glucose
in rhesus monkeys. Kemnitz, J. W., Roecker, E. B., Weindruch, R., Elson, D.
F., Baum, S. T., & Bergman, R. N. (Address same as above).
American Journal of Physiology, 1994, 266 (Endocrinological
Metabolism, 29), E540-E547.
. . Animals fed a control diet had higher basal glucose, basal insulin, and insulin responses to glucose and tolbutamide and lower insulin sensitivity than those fed a restricted (70% baseline) diet. Animals in both groups continue to be in generally good health.
*Age-related changes in monkey and rodent neurochemistry. Wenk, G. L. (Div. of
Neural Systems, Memory & Aging, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724).
Neurobiology of Aging, 1993, 14, 689-690.
. . Aged rats and aged monkeys show similar changes, particularly for the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems. The changes are fairly restrictive; they may underlie some of the behavioral changes, or they may be a consequence of some of the pathologic changes such as cell loss or plaques.
*Immunologic markers in a longitudinal study of aging in pigtailed macaques
(Macaca nemestrina). Bowden, D. M., Short, R., Williams, D. D., &
Clark, E. A. (RPRC, I-421 Health Sci. Bldg, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington,
Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences,
1994, 49, B93-B103.
. . A cross-sectional study of 60 pigtailed macaques ranging from 2 to 32 years of age evaluated blood lymphocyte subsets, serum immunoglobulins, response of lymphocytes to mitogens, and natural killer cell activity as potential biomarkers for primate aging. Results support the utility of memory and naive subsets of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and serum IgA.
*Normative hematologic and serum biochemical values for adult and infant
rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a controlled laboratory
environment. Fernie, S., Wrenshall, E., Malcolm, S., Bryce, F., &
Arnold, D. L. (D. L. A., Health & Welfare Canada, Banting Res. Center, 2nd
Floor East, Tunney's Pasture, Ontario, K1A 0L2, Canada). Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1994, 42, 53-72.
. . Results of analyses of blood from 15 adult female monkeys over 3 years, adult males over 6 years, and 9 infants from 12 weeks through 2 years of age. Some monitored parameters were found to be affected by the type of equipment used and by the use of ketamine HCl.
*Adolescent exaggeration in female catarrhine primates. Anderson, C. M. &
Bielert, C. F. (Dept of Anthropology, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY 13820).
Primates, 1994, 35, 283-300.
. . Adolescent females of 11 primate species display exaggerated versions of the cues to sexual cycle state or fertility which are displayed by adult females. These cases are described and a variety of hypotheses is presented and evaluated to account for the exaggeration.
*The anomalous female genital swelling of the monogamous gibbon. Nadler,
R. D., Dahl, J. F., & Collins, D. C. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ.,
Atlanta, GA 30322). In C. S. Bambra (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second
International NCRR Conference on 'Advances in Reproductive Research in Man
and Animals ' (pp. 63-68). Nairobi: Inst. of Primate Research & Natl
Museums of Kenya, 1994.
. . Data clearly refute the hypothesis that concealed ovulation is a defining characteristic of monogamous female primates and suggest that other factors in addition to intermale competition exert selection pressure on the evolution of female perineal tissues that enhance the female's attractiveness to males.
*Behavioural and genital sequelae of a combined oral contraceptive in
chimpanzees. Nadler, R. D., Dahl, J. F., Collins, D. C., & Gould, K. G.
(Address same as above). In C. S. Bambra (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second
International NCRR Conference on 'Advances in Reproductive Research in Man
and Animals (pp. 69-76)'. Nairobi: Inst. of Primate Research & Natl
Museums of Kenya, 1994.
. . Test data suggest that although oral contraceptives had a generally adverse effect on female genital tissues and copulation, it was the social and sexual relationship of the pair which ultimately determined the behavioral response to the contraceptives.
*Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue-induced manipulation of testicular
function in the monkey. Weinbauer, G. F. & Nieschlag, E. (Inst. of
Reproductive Med., Steinfurter Strasse 107, D-48149 Munster, Germany).
Human Reproduction, 1993, 8[Suppl. 2], 45-50.
. . The properties of a novel group of compounds, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists, are used to study the regulation of testicular function, providing the basis for new developments in male contraception.
*Circadian rhythms during pregnancy. Seron-Ferre, M., Ducsay, C. A., &
Valenzuela, G. J. (Unidad de Reproduccion y Desarrollo, Fac. de Cs. Biol. P.
Univ. Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile). Endocrine
Reviews, 1993, 14, 594-609.
. . A review of the ontogeny of circadian rhythms in the fetus, their relationship to maternal rhythms, and their potential roles in perinatal physiology, the initiation of labor, and adaptation to extrauterine life.
*Cycle fecundity in baboons of proven fertility with minimal endometriosis.
D'Hooghe, T. M., Bambra, C. S., & Koninckx, P. R. (Fearing Research
Lab., Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Med. School, 250 Longwood Ave,
Rm 204, Boston, MA 02115). Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation,
1994, 37, 63-65.
. . No obvious difference was found between wild baboons, of proven fertility, with endometriosis (n = 7) and with normal pelvis (n = 6) in either pregnancy rate or cycle fecundity.
*Postpartum anovulation in non-nursing monkeys: Hypothalamic-
pituitary-ovarian refractoriness is not induced by the milieu of early
pregnancy. Gordon, K. & Williams, R. F. (R. F. W., Jones Inst. for
Reproductive Med., Dept of Obstetrics & Gynocology, Eastern Virginia Med.
School, 601 Colley Ave, Norfolk, VA 23507). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1994, 23, 8-15.
. . Pregnancies of rhesus monkeys were terminated on either day 35 of gestation or near term at 162 days. Non-nursing mothers with gestations interrupted near term resumed ovulation at a mean of 56 +/- 12 days postpartum, in contrast to the 17 +/- 2 days required for females having had abortions at day 35. These results demonstrate that the early pregnancy milieu is not determinant of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian refractoriness observed in non-nursing mothers delivering at term.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover drawing of black spider monkey
(Ateles paniscus) by Jaime Aviles.
Copyright @1995 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.