Cover Drawing Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Behavioral Training of Group-housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta) For Handling Purposes, by L. Knowles, M. Fourrier, & S. Eisele........ 1

News, Information, and Announcements

New B Virus Guidelines Available........ 5

Colloquium Report........ 6

ASP Task Force Investigates Private Ownership of Primates........ 7

Meeting Gorillas, by J. Dewar........ 8

Educational Opportunities......... 9

Summer Research Opportunities; Veterinary Pathology Courses; Biological Anthropology at CWRU; Ethical Issues of Animal Research

Research Opportunities........ 10

Science and Conservation in Indonesia; Panamanian Research Site Available

Grants Available........ 10

AIDS and AIDS-related Malignancies; Research on Sleep and Wakefulness; Fogarty International Collaboration Awards; H. pylori Research; Autoimmune Disease; Academic Research Enhancement Award; Chronic Graft Rejection; Hepatitis C Cooperative Research Centers

News Briefs........ 13

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Risks; Oldest Mountain Gorilla Dies; EUPREN; New CITES Member Nations; New Editor at Folia Primatologica; Animal Rights Activist Pleads Guilty

Erratum........ 14

Information Requested and Available........ 15

Captive Chimpanzee Diets; APA on World Wide Web; What Became of Allie? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science; Emerging Infectious Diseases; Administrative Actions Bulletin Board

Resources Requested or Available........ 16

Noldus Observer for the Macintosh; Primate Postcards; Enrichment Videos; Primate Products, Inc. -- East; Resource Recycling

Meeting Announcements........ 17

New York Primatology Colloquia; Conservation Biology; Brazilian Congress of Primatology; Evaluating Animal Care and Use Programs; Primate Models for AIDS; Primate Society of Great Britain; Alternatives and Animal Use

1995 ASP Meeting Information........ 18

Workshop Announcement: Welfare Information Requirements........ 18


Positions Available........ 4

Clinical Veterinarian, San Antonio; Veterinarian, Georgia State; Position in Uganda

Address Changes........ 5

Recent Books and Articles........ 19

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Behavioral Training of Group-housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta) For Handling Purposes

Lisa Knowles, Marc Fourrier, and Steve Eisele

Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center


Primates housed in captivity, especially those that are singly housed, are likely to display a more limited range of species-typical behaviors than would their feral counterparts (Fajzi et al., 1989; Lam et al., 1991; Mahoney, 1992; Pereira et at., 1989). "Maintenance of wild-caught and laboratory-born primates in small, individual cages precludes social interaction and other experiences likely to be essential to regulation of physiology and behavior in these animals" (Pereira et al., 1989, p. 40). In order to foster an environment of maximum social complexity, it is imperative that captive primates be housed in social and physical contact with conspecifics (Maclean et al., 1987). While group housing may appear to be the most beneficial for primates, it may also seem daunting for the animal care staff that is responsible for their routine health and maintenance. However, as this paper will show, with the appropriate setting and equipment, handling can be as efficient and practical for group-housed animals as it is for singly- or pair-housed animals (McCully, et al., 1992; Reinhardt, 1992). In addition, with the training technique outlined here, primates may experience less stress and greater control over their environment than would those in a smaller enclosure with fewer companions (Reinhardt, 1992). This, in turn, may lead to animals that more closely resemble feral animals and are thus better research subjects as well as objects of public interest.


In general, we hoped to demonstrate that group housing for primates is feasible and practical within a research or zoo facility. In addition, " techniques used primarily in animal 'shows' could be used in zoo exhibits [or research facilities] with existing social groups to effectively deal with husbandry, handling, and veterinary care situations; and [could] demonstrate the feasibility of training...staff with minimal animal training experience, to achieve these goals" (Desmond et al., 1988, p. 38). If a successful training program of this sort is introduced, benefits can include reduced staff time for routine care and handling (Desmond et al., 1988; McCully et al., 1992). In addition, the social complexity of the animals may be increased and stress decreased as they gain a degree of control over their environment and the handling within it.

Our specific goal was to teach the monkeys to file one at a time through a tunnel from a small enclosed area to a larger one within their home pen, on cue. The training program included the integration of unfamiliar juveniles into an existing coalition of adult females and the subsequent training of the new group. We hoped to provide maximum flexibility to the animals by allowing them to choose their own order and speed of progression. Those animals that presented challenges at any stages were targeted for special attention in training. The equipment was arranged to foster the least amount of stress for the animals (restraint device out of sight, weighing machine in the room). Adult females within the group were targeted as candidates for various research procedures such as blood drawing, urine collection, embryo flushing and collection, and in vitro fertilization -- all of which would be possible as a result of this training. Moving the animals from one section of their pen would also permit thorough cleaning of the other section. Finally, it was hoped that a relationship of trust, constancy, and communication could be fostered between the staff and the animals.

Methods and Materials

This training was carried out over a six-month period at the WRPRC with 13 group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): one elderly (>30 yr) female; 5 adult (5 - 15 yr) females; 1 female and 3 male juveniles (1 - 2 yr); and 1 female and 2 male infants (< 3 mo). This group has been together approximately two months before the tunnel training began. Their housing enclosure is an indoor room holding two chain link pens, each 5.7m deep, 2.5m wide, and 2.1m high (Reinhardt, 1992). Each pen is divided by a wire mesh wall into two sections, the larger 10.6m2, containing two metal bench perches and one rotating ferris wheel toy. The smaller section is 3.5m2, with one metal bench perch and a log swing. The two sections are connected by a door (C) and by a tunnel with 3 gates (Gate X into the the small section and Gate Y into the outer room at the center of the tunnel are sliding metal doors, while Gate Z into the large section can be closed by slipping a clear plastic square into a groove). Each section has a door (A and B) into the outer room (Figure 1).

                                  Gate Y                    Position E
  -------      ---------------------...-------------------------------
  |   Door B  /       Gate Z :___    transport  |                    |
  |          /                   \    tunnel    |                    |
  |         /                      \            |                    |
  |        /                         \          : Gate X             |
  |                                    \        |                    |
  |                                      \      |                    |
  |                                        \____|                    |
  |                                             |                    |
  |                                             |                    |
  |                                            /                     |
  |                                   Door C  /            Door A   /
  |                                          /                     /
  |                                         /                     /
  |                                             |                    |

Figure 1: Floor plan of the pen. Doors A and B lead into the outer room, which also contains a second pen (not shown). A transport cage is placed at gate Y. Gate X and the end of the tunnel are under the perches. The second person stands at position E.

Two staff members work together, using two transport cages and any necessary cleaning or health maintenance equipment. Food rewards (fruit, bread, etc.) are kept within sight of the animals, to be given to each immediately after it completes the procedure. The plastic squares that shut off Gate Z were also used as cues that the procedure was about to begin. Squares are kept near the door of the room at all times.

Two staff members enter the room together and pick up three plastic squares, signaling the beginning of training. One square is placed in the grooves at Gate Z, to prevent animals from moving through the tunnel. Both humans enter the large section of the pen by door B, each holding a plastic square. Door C is secured open with a clip. The staff members stand near door B, occasionally moving , putting a plastic square in the way to block an animal from sneaking under a perch or moving past them on the ceiling. The humans do not need to make noise or wave their arms; just their presence encourages the monkeys to go through Door C into the smaller section. Once they are all in the small section, Door C is closed and locked. Gate X is closed. Now cleaning can be done in the larger section.

Next, two transport cages and food rewards are brought into the room. The rewards are placed in sight but out of reach of the animals. One transport cage is placed facing Gate Y. One person stands by the cage to operate the tunnel doors while the second stands at position E (they should take turns doing the two different jobs). Training begins by opening the sliding door at Gate X. Once an animal enters the tunnel, Gate X is slid shut and Gate Y is opened. When the animal enters the cage, any necessary handling (weighing, TB testing, etc.) can be done. The animal is then released into the larger section through Door B.

The cage is returned to Gate Y and the next animal is let in. This is repeated until all animals have moved through the tunnel, into the cage, and on into the large section. The second staff member remains at position E to offer encouragement to those animals reluctant to perform the task, as well as to watch and offer suggestions to the first staff member, and to hand over the clean transfer cage if it becomes necessary to make a quick change. This person must also note the order in which the animals proceed, to facilitate the next training session. When all animals have gone through and been rewarded, both persons enter the large section through door B, to open Door C and to reaffiliate themselves with the animals. Gates X and Z are reopened and the cages removed from the room (Figure 1).


A successful run through the tunnel procedure, in which all animals performed the task, was accomplished within two months of one or two training sessions per week. Training continued for four more months to fully meet the objectives of working with challenging animals, adopting efficient techniques, and learning the behavior and preferences of individual animals. Handling techniques can now be successfully carried out, as can routine cleaning, within 30-45 minutes. Females in the group are viable candidates for various reproductive or research purposes, such as embryo flushing or blood drawing.


Flexibility was the key component in the training procedure. The order in which the animals performed the task varied, as did their reactions to the staff and each other and the amount of time they chose to take. In each training session the staff learned how the animals wanted to be treated and what the animals expected from them. Over the six-month period, the group dynamics changed, due to the birth of infants, removal of animals, and changes in health. As training continued, the staff got to know the animals and could treat them as individuals. One female, after the birth of her infant, would attempt to escape to avoid going through the tunnel. Eventually, the staff learned that she would go through if left to be the last. One juvenile male, old enough to enter the transport cage alone, would only do so if his mother was waiting for him within the tunnel.

Often these situations were facilited by Dense, the oldest animal in the group. She was always the first through the tunnel. Then she would wait at the other end, apparently to support and encourage the rest. The remaining animals were less likely to proceed through if she was not present.

A degree of constancy in the staff was necessary in the initial training sessions. Less familiar people or different, rougher techniques could be detrimental to the efficiency of training, as well as the well-being of the animals.

Goals for the future include introducing new animals into this group and integrating them into the system, continuing to deal with challenging situations caused by specific animals, and integrating new staff. It is also hoped that the use of this technique can be extended within the WRPRC, as well as to other facilities.


Desmond, T., Laule, G., & McNary, J. (1988). Training to enhance socialization and reproduction in drills. In The Psychological Well-being of Primates Conference (p.38). Boston: Harvard Medical School.

Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V., & Smith, M. D. (1989). A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged nonhuman primates. Lab Animal, 8[2], 23-35.

Lam, K., Rupniak, N. M. J., & Iversen, S. D. (1991). Use of a grooming and foraging substrate to reduce cage stereotypies in macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology, 20, 104-109.

McCully, C. L., Godwin, K. S., Brown, P., Mandrell, T., Bayne, K. A. L., Southers, J., & Poplack, D. G. (1992). A social housing strategy for rhesus monkeys used frequently in biomedial research. Contemporary Topics, 31 [4], 33-34.

Maclean, J. M., Phippard, A. F., Garner, M. G., Duggin, G. G., Horvath, J. S., & Hiller, D. (1987). Group housing of hamadryas baboons: A new cage design based upon field studies of social organization. Laboratory Animal Science, 37, 89-93.

Mahoney, J. C. (1992). Some thoughts on Psychological enrichment. Lab Animal, 121[3], 27-37.

Pereira, M., Macedonia, J., Haring, D., & Simons, E. (1989). Maintenance of primates in captivity for research: The need for naturalistic environments. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Well-being of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 40-60). New Jersey: Noyes Publ.

Reinhardt, V. (1992). Voluntary progression order in captive rhesus macaques. Zoo Biology, 11, 61-66.

Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A., & Houser, D. (1987). Prompted progression order in a troop of captive rhesus monkeys. Folia Primatologica 48, 121-124.


First author's address: 1615 Jefferson #1, Madison, WI 53711.

We thank Gloria Stewart Julie Vanderloop, and the WRPRC animal care staff for their help, and especially the animals in Pen 1 at the WRPRC for their constant cooperation, understanding, and forgiveness. This work is publication number 34-027 of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. The research was supported by NIH grant RR-00167.

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Positions Available

Clinical Veterinarian, San Antonio

The Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research has a vacancy for a clinical veterinarian to help care for 245 chimpanzees. 1,000 baboons, a few marmosets, tamarins, owl, rhesus, and cynomolgus monkeys, and some rodents and rabbits. This person will also support research projects and help train animal care personnel. It is an excellent "starter" position or for someone wanting primate experience. Contact Thomas M. Butler, Chairman, Dept of Lab. Animal Medicine, Sw Fnd. for Biomed. Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147 [210-674-1410 Ext 265; FAX: 210-670-3305; e-mail:] for more information.

Veterinarian, Georgia State

Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, invites applications for a University Laboratory Animal Veterinarian. Duties include: responsibility for the health of primates, rodents, and rabbits in four facilities, monitoring animal facility administration, training of faculty, staff and students, advising on compliance with federal, state, and local regulations, and participation, upon request, in the design and execution of faculty research protocols. As appropriate to his/her expertise, the veterinarian will also teach university courses and/or initiate research projects. Minimum qualifications are DVM/VMD degree from an accredited school of veterinary medicine and ACLAM board certification or a minimum of 3 years training/experience in laboratory animal medicine. Salary will be commensurate with experience. To apply, mail a letter of application, current curriculum vitae and names and addresses of three references to: Dr. Margo A. Brinton, Dept of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta, GA 30302-4010. Georgia State University, a unit of the University System of Georgia, is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.

Position in Uganda

Jane Goodall would like to find someone with chimpanzee experience, possibly some veterinary care skills, and a strong commitment to animals to work at the Uganda Wildlife Education Center (formerly the Entebbe Zoo). A recent increase in chimpanzee smuggling has led to an influx of animals to the Center; the current assistant will be working with a group of chimpanzees which are soon to be released onto an island, leaving an opening at the center. For further information, contact Dilys Vass, Jane Goodall Inst., 15 Clarendon Park, Lymington, Hants, S041 8AX, U.K.

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New B Virus Guidelines Available

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection is widespread among macaques; the virus is the biologic counterpart of herpes simplex virus in humans. B virus infection in humans is recognized as a rapidly ascending encephalomyelitis with a fatality rate of approximately 70%. The need for guidelines in prevention and treatment of human B virus infection was recognized in 1987 after a cluster of four symptomatic infections occurred among persons in Florida. CDC and the National Institutes of Health consulted primate veterinarians and herpesvirus experts to develop guidelines (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , 1987, 36, 680-682, 687-689) for preventing B virus infection in persons who work with macaques. Recommendations intended to minimize the risk for infection of laboratory workers exposed to B virus-contaminated primary rhesus monkey cell cultures were published in 1989 (Diagnosis of Microbiological Infectious Disease, 12, 333-335). Guidelines for primate handlers were expanded in 1990 in response to the recognition of filovirus infection in quarantined primates.

Human infections with B virus remain an uncommon result of macaque- related injuries, and optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are unclear. However, the increase in the use of macaques for research on simian retrovirus infection and hepatitis has expanded the number of potential incidents of human exposure. In January 1990, Emory University and CDC sponsored a B virus working group intended to formulate a rational approach to the prevention, detection, and management of human B virus infections. Written guidelines (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1990, 39, 22-24, 29-30) were developed based on information from published and unpublished cases, knowledge of the behavior of herpes simplex virus, and expert opinion.

These guidelines (Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B-virus infections in exposed persons. Holmes, G. P., Chapman, L. E., Stewart, J.A., et al. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1995, 20, 421-439) are intended to assist institutions in which macaques are handled in developing and enforcing effective standard operating procedures and quality-control interventions and to enable local physician consultants to evaluate and treat persons with potential B virus exposure. Such institutions should keep a copy of these guidelines in bite/wound kits at the work site. Institutions also should provide copies of these guidelines to injured employees referred for medical evaluation; to the emergency rooms, clinics, or offices where injured employees will seek care; and to employees to give to their personal physicians. More information on the guidelines is available from B Virus Guidelines, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Mailstop G-19, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 96-97.

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Address Changes

J. R. Blakeslee, Jr., 2356 SR 56 SW, London, OH 43140.

Division of Research Grants, NIH, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Rm 1040 - MSC 7710, Bethesda, MD 20892-7710 (effective May 8).

Bernadette Dunham, AVMA-GRD, 1101 Vermont Ave, NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20005-3521.

Arnold F. Kaufman, 2155 Mountclaire Ct, Stone Mountain, GA 30087-1335.

Neil Lipman, ARC/CCMP, Univ. of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave (MC 1030), Chicago, IL 60637.

Andre Menache, P.O. Box 265, Raanana 43100, Israel.

Linda E. Pastorello, 3209 Notre Dame Dr., Gulf Breeze, FL 32561.

Karla Russell, RR 1, Box 87, Intervale, NH 03845-9610.

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Colloquium Report

Student members of the Tufts Veterinary School Wildlife Club organized a day-long colloquium, "Primates: Medicine, Management, and Conservation," which was held January 7, 1995, at the Roger Williams Park Zoo (RWPZ) in Providence, RI. The organizers, Melinda Franceschini, Jennifer Johnson, Annelisa Kilbourn, Ellen Messner, and Chris Whittier, presented six posters, which were on display during morning coffee and lunch. There were seven speakers.

Anne Savage, Director of Research at RWPZ, is studying reproductive physiology and behavior in captive colonies of white-faced sakis and cotton-top tamarins (CTTs), and in a free-living population of CTTs in Colombia. Wild CTTs weigh 100-150 grams less than captive ones, and wild females do not ovulate immediately after parturition, as captive ones do. Savage is also studying the feeding ecology of wild CTTs in an attempt to learn whether diet has something to do with captive CTTs' propensity to get colon cancer.

Jeannette Beranger, a keeper at RWPZ, described her sojourn in Madagascar, studying and helping to care for the lemurs in Parc Tsimbazaza. She worked closely with the veterinary technician there, showing her fecal floats and fecal exam techniques, and with the keepers, prescribing diets for the lemurs. Beranger also inventoried the Parc's lemur collection on ISIS (International Species Indexing System). The Parc has an overpopulation of some species, the surplus of which cannot be reintroduced to the wild, but can be sent to zoos.

Charles Sedgwick, Director of Tuft's Wildlife Clinic, described his work with NASA's Biosatellite II project, in which monkeys were sent up in space capsules to test the physiological and psychological effects of weightlessness. One of Dr. Sedgewick's contributions to the project was the anesthesia when electrodes were inserted into the monkeys' brains. In order to be deep enough so the monkey would not feel the surgery (which took 8 hours per monkey), the anesthesia also had to be deep enough to inhibit the respiratory reflex. The surgery therefore had to include intubation and ventilation. The previous anesthesiologist had not thought this level of anesthesia, or the respiratory support, necessary. "Bring the best that you have to this table," Dr. Sedgewick told the students, "and then everyone who follows you to that table is obliged to follow your example if you have made an improvement."

Dr. Sedgewick's talk provoked many comments, representing many points of view, from the audience. These included the problem of finding one's own accomodation to the use of animals: the line one person is not willing to cross may be at a different place than where another person puts it. "Coming to one's own level of adjustment does not invalidate the other injustices that you see," someone commented. Dr. Sedgewick added, "Continue to challenge and question yourself. Some changing of one's mind is OK. It's normal to grow and change."

Richard Wrangham, of Harvard University's Department of Anthropology, spoke on his work with the chimpanzees of Uganda's Kibale Forest. He described the chimps' dawn ritual of carefully selecting and swallowing hairy leaves, and its intriguing correlations, but unproven relationship, with tapeworm infestations.

Wrangham is also studying food stress in this population. In the Kibale Forest, the chimps' preferred food, sweet fruits, are available only 4-6 months of the year. The rest of the year, the chimps hunt for figs and eat the pith of papyrus and similar pithy plants, which are always abundant. Although the Kibale chimps have a much longer period without sweet fruits than any other chimp population we know of, they have low infant mortality. In fact, compared to populations with longer fruiting seasons, e.g. Gombe, the young of Kibale are in good physical condition all year, not thin and scruffy during the nonfruiting season. In addition, the Kibale chimps have longer birth intervals (8 vs. 5 years). Wrangham wonders if diets high in cellulose and hemicellulose, as the pithy stems, might be foods for steady, slow growth, while the sugars in the sweet fruits might be foods for fast growth and reproduction. Perhaps captive chimps' diets could be adjusted in this way to promote or inhibit reproduction.

Tony Goldberg, Ph.D. candidate at Harvard University spoke on great ape genetics and conservation. Using DNA sequence data with mitochondrial genes, a tree-diagram can be constructed that reflects the evolutionary history of a species (see "Gene trees and hominoid phylogeny," by M. Ruvolo, D. Pan, S. Zehr, T. Goldberg, T. R. Disotell, & M. von Dornum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A., 1994, 91, 8900-8904). The tree diagram helps us compare genetic variability within and between species. However, the amount of genetic variability that defines a species is to some extent arbitrary. Other factors in assigning species status are biology, morphology, behavior, culture (in the case of some of the great apes), and even "gut feeling." Practically, having too many species and trying to keep them from hybridizing, would be a nightmare for zoos! Should one break up a long bonded pair to avoid hybridization? Not necessarily, Goldberg says. Genetics are easily quantifiable and easy to do, but other considerations may be just as important.

Goldberg also described the nascent science of phylogeography: correlating genetic variability with physical features of a population's environment, e.g. large rivers. Genetic data are also useful for tracking diseases, planning locations of tourist sites in reserves, pinpointing areas with poaching, reintroducing confiscated animals, and reintroducing populations to deserted, but formerly populated, areas. Finally, genetics can help us understand the changes we are causing by changing the environment.

David Lee-Parritz, Director of the New England Regional Primate Center, described the purpose and structure of the NERPC and invited the Tufts students to come and visit. The Center, on Harvard's rural Southborough Campus, has large outdoor pens for the monkeys. He described a case of zinc-responsive dermatosis observed in one of the Center's cotton-top tamarins, showing the audience the lesion and tissue slides.

Mark Lloyd, Veterinarian at RWPZ, showed slides of interesting primate cases he has observed in his practices at RWPZ and the Toledo Zoo. After the slides he gave the audience a tour of the Zoo's hospital and quarantine facilities, and showed the students X-rays from a a cheetah, a turtle, and other recent patients. -- Elva Mathiesen

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ASP Task Force Investigates Private Ownership of Primates

The American Society of Primatologists has formed a special Task Force to investigate Private Ownership of Primates (POP-TF). The group is currently on a fact-finding mission -- to gather information on various concerns regarding primate ownership. This information will be compiled and made available as a White Paper to be submitted to the ASP Executive Board in May, 1995.

Among the issues of concern are: * State regulations/ordinances * Federal regulations/history of the laws/importation information * Sanctuaries/Halfway houses * Media Issues * Veterinarian Issues * Animal Rights Groups * Zoos * Pet breeding and trafficking.

Included in the White Paper will be recommendations for future action, based on our findings. For example, we are likely to propose the development of educational materials addressing the difficulties involved in owning primates as pets. Brochures and posters can then be distributed to veterinary clinics, zoos, etc., in an effort to discourage the practice of adopting primates. In addition, we may develop a plan of action * to improve local or state authority in assuring proper health and management of privately owned primates and * to suggest ways of improving the media's perception of primates as pets.

The POP-TF is made up of about 26 volunteers from all over America. Members include individuals working in labs, the field, zoos, rehabilitation centers, etc., and represent all angles of primate study, such as veterinary medicine, behavioral observation, cognitive/memory training, etc.

If you would like more information or have information to share with us, please contact POP-TF Chair, Dr. Janette Wallis [405-271-4229], or Sally Boysen [614-457-9259].

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Meeting Gorillas

Jane Dewar

I've been privileged to visit many zoos, making friends with zoo gorillas and their keepers. I've counted almost 400 zoo gorillas I've "met," at least half of whom I know fairly well by name, sight, and personality. Although "some of my best friends are Ph.D.s," I've decided not to pursue academic research, preferring to "study" on my own. Many people have worked with the same gorillas for decades; others have studied gorilla biology, ethology, etc. I don't know of many, however, who have seen such a large variety of gorillas in zoos.

I've loved animals all my life -- gorillas became my "favorites" fairly recently. I'd watch Milwaukee's Samson for hours, awed by his tolerance and dignity, as he was teased by obnoxious visitors. Lincoln Park Zoo (LPZ)'s Debbie was one of the first gorillas to recognize and come to sit near me during my weekly visits. Today most of LPZ's more than 20 gorillas recognize me, making my visits like seeing old, dear friends. The first gorilla I met face-to-face was the signing gorilla, Koko. I signed "I love gorillas" to her and she signed back "Love gorillas you!" which I took as a sign to continue to learn about these fascinating animals.

Collecting a large library of books on gorillas and other primates rounded my education, helping me compare what I observed on my own with what others have studied professionally. Attending both Gorilla Workshops introduced me to wonderful gorilla people from around the world. But the gorillas themselves give me the encouragement and patience to stand for hours in places designed for quick viewing by the general public. I stood in a driving hail storm at Howletts for hours, watching some of John Aspinall's almost 50 gorillas running, tumbling and vocalizing in a rain dance, which I'd never heard of or seen in any other captive environment. At Asheboro, NC I saw some of the strangest (and funniest) sexual play between a silverback and an adult female, as I nearly froze in the cool morning air. At Mae Noell's Chimp Farm, while others came and left quickly, I stayed for hours, befriending silverback Otto, who generally sits in the back of his enclosure ignoring visitors. Like Ivan when he was in Tacoma, Otto seemed to recognize my non-threatening manner and came right up to the mesh to inspect me closer.

I'm always delighted when zoos allow me behind the scenes. In Europe I've entered enclosures to interact with several gorillas of both genders, from 4 months to 7 years old. I've hand-fed more than 30 silverbacks and their families, gaining wonderful insight into individual gorilla personalities from the way they dealt with me and the treats I offered. Although I've had wads of hair ripped out by grabbing juvenile gorilla hands, I've never been deliberately or maliciously hurt by any zoo gorilla. I cannot describe the thrill of placing a tiny orange-flavored Tic-Tac candy onto the lips of Djoum, one of Aspinall's magnificent silverbacks. As I felt my finger on Djoum's lower lip and his tongue came out to inspect the strange-yet-yummy offering, any concerns were immediately disspelled when I heard Djoum's purr of satisfaction.

I am encouraged by what I've seen as a trend away from the hands-off approach of zoos, which was based on the belief that limiting interactions between humans and captive apes would result in more "natural" behaviors. What's "natural" about captivity? Unlike their wild counterparts, captive gorillas must interact with humans daily. Interaction with keepers, vets, curators, directors, and behind-the-scenes visitors depends largely on the personalities involved (human and ape), physical layout, and zoo policy. I believe it is the amount and type of interaction captive gorillas have with their keepers, however, which is crucial to how they view other humans they encounter. I've observed fewer behavorial problems and idiosyncratic displays in zoos where keepers work within sound and sight of their gorillas, than in those where the gorillas must deal with the public, but are monitored by their keepers from a distance (close-circuit TV's, etc). Further studies of captive gorillas and their relationships with humans are needed.


Author's address: 11622 West 87th St, Burr Ridge, IL 60521.

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Educational Opportunities

Summer Research Opportunities

Every year, the Education Committee of ASP compiles a list of summer research opportunities for students, which is printed in the March issue of the ASP Bulletin. To receive a copy of the list, students may contact Gabriele R. Lubach, Ph.D., Chair, Education Committee of ASP, Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715 [e-mail:].

Veterinary Pathology Courses

The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and the American Registry of Pathology are cosponsoring two courses, to be held at the Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC. The first course, "Descriptive Veterinary Pathology," will be held June 6-9, 1994, and will be directed by Major Bruce H. Williams. This course is designed to teach attendees how to describe both gross and microscopic lesions in a variety of major organs. The objective is to increase the attendees' skill at describing lesions as necessary for success on the American College of Veterinary Pathologists' certifying examination. Tuition fee is $300 before 5 May 1995, and $350 after.

The second course, entitled "Pathology of Laboratory Animals," will be held August 7 to 10, 1995, and will provide a comprehensive overview of the gross, histopathological, and ultra- structural manifestations of disease in laboratory species, including nonhuman primates. An emphasis is placed on recognition and interpretation of spontaneous lesions. This course is designed for veterinarians training in, or already board certified in, the specialty areas of veterinary pathology and/or laboratory animal medicine. The directors will be Colonel R. K. Harris, Commander M. N. Cole, and Major M. J. Martinez. Course electives available to participants include AFIP veterinary study sets, and videotapes of previous POLA lectures. Tuition fee is $325.

Registration fee for either course for active duty U.S. military, DOD civilians, full-time permanent Dept. of Veterans Affairs employees (not residents or fellows), and commissioned officers of the U.S. P.H.S. with authorized approval is $125. For application forms and programs, contact AFIP/ARP, Education Div., 14th & Alaska Ave., N.W., Washington, DC, 20306-6000 [301-427-5231; FAX: 301/427-5001; e-mail:].

Biological Anthropology at CWRU

A new Ph.D. program in the Department of Anatomy at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) emphasizes teaching and research in human functional morphology within the context of modern evolutionary theory. This integrated program combines the faculty, staff, and facilities of the CWRU Departments of Anatomy, Neurology, and Orthopedics; the CWRU Dental School; and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (CMNH). Areas of study include analyses of the fossil evidence for human evolution, comparative primate anatomy, and musculoskeletal biomechanics. This program will include * a two-year series of required and elective courses * research assignment at the CMNH Laboratory of Biological Anthropology * independent research.

This program is designed for students with a BA/BS degree (preferably in biology, chemistry, physics, or anthropology) and a major interest in the biological sciences, especially human evolution. Courses begin in August. For more information, contact the Dept of Anatomy, School of Medicine, CWRU, Cleveland, OH 44106.

Ethical Issues of Animal Research

"Ethical Issues of Animal Research--A Summer Course" will be held June 24-29, 1995, at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. The course is for college faculty and others involved in training who wish to improve their skills in teaching about ethical issues surrounding the use of animals as reasearch subjects. The course directors are F. Barbara Orlans and Tom L. Beauchamp, of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown Univ. Contact: Moheba Hanif, Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown Univ., Washington, D.C. 20057 [202-687-6833 Fax: 202-687-8089; e-mail:].

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Research Opportunities

Science and Conservation in Indonesia

Three-week science and conservation expeditions will be mounted to Indonesia during April to August of 1995. Participants will assist with park management and conservation projects at Tanjung Puting National Park. The park contains a variety of endangered species, including proboscis monkeys, gibbons, orangutans, mouse deer, false gavials, Malaysian sun bears, hornbills, storm's stork, and arawana fish. The park has a variety of habitat types, including black water rivers, fresh water peat swamp, kerangas (heath) forest and lowland rainforest. Participants will act as bird or animal spotters on census/patrols with park rangers, help with ecosystem restoration (planting and monitoring tree seedlings), help monitor forest health (measure tree growth and tree mortality), maintain trails and mark park boundaries, assist with camp maintenance and cooking, and help with collection and preparation of animal food samples and herbarium samples. Activities will vary, dependent upon park needs and the weather. These activities will be directed by Dr. Carey Yeager, Director of the Rainforest Conservation Biology Group, and Pak Herry, Park Director. Participants will be housed at the Natai Lengkuas Field station on the Sekonyer Kiri river. The field site is relatively remote; there are no roads and it is approximately four hours by boat from Kumai, a port town. Participant costs are 1500 pounds sterling (approximately $2250). This fee covers airfare from Jakarta, Indonesia to the field site, accommodations, insurance, most food costs, and provides funding for the conservation and management projects. Airfare to Jakarta, Indonesia is not included in this fee. Trekforce Expeditions is a registered charity (non-profit organization) in the U.K. For further information concerning dates and activities, contact Trekforce Expeditions, 134 Buckingham Palace Rd, London SW1W 95A [44-71-824-8890; FAX: 44-71-824- 8892].

Panamanian Research Site Available

A field research camp and study site is being developed on Isla Tigre in Lake Gatun, Panama. Isla Tigre is a 33 hectare island with 30- to 40-year-old secondary forest growth. Night monkeys occur on the island naturally and Geoffroyi's tamarins are being introduced onto the island. A group of eight of the latter will be available for study in June.

The nearby Agua Clara Penninsula has howlers, capuchins and tamarins. Housing facilities and transportation via boat are available. Expenses for working on Isla Tigre are modest. Graduate and postgraduate researchers are invited to inquire for further details. Isla Tigre is also available for use during field courses. For information, contact Dennis R. Rasmussen, Florida State Univ., Panama Canal Branch, PSC #02, Box 2663, APO AA 34002 [507-85-5222; 507-85-6905; 507-85-6922; FAX: 507-27-4661; e-mail:].

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Grants Available

AIDS and AIDS-related Malignancies

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are offering grants to encourage investigators to develop useful and predictive biochemical, cellular, and in vivo models that could be used for the preclinical evaluation of new therapies against HIV disease and AIDS-related malignancies. Such models would accelerate and facilitate the discovery of successful treatments, including drugs, vaccines, gene therapy, and immune modulators. The RFA, which describes the research objectives, application procedures, r view considerations, and award criteria for this solicitation, may be obtained electronically through the NIH Grant Line (data line 301-402-2221) and the NIH GOPHER (,) and by mail and e-mail from the program contact listed below. For information, contact Dr. Nava Sarver, Division of AIDS, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 2C01, 6003 Executive Blvd MSC 7620, Bethesda MD 20892-7620 [301-496-8197; FAX: 301-402-3211; e-mail:].

Research on Sleep and Wakefulness

Various Institutes at the National Institutes of Health wish to stimulate, foster, and coordinate a wide range of basic and clinical studies on sleep and wakefulness as they relate to the missions of these Institutes. These areas include, but are not limited to: * the neuroscience and behavioral science of sleep; * the molecular and cellular mechanisms of sleep and circadian rhythms across the life span; * the development of sleep from fetal life through infancy; and * the treatment of sleep disorders. Many possible research topics may lend themselves to studies in animal models.

Direct inquiries to: Andrew A. Monjan, Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 3C307, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-9350; e-mail: monjana:nia-gw:nih]; Ellen D. Witt, Div. of Basic Research, NIAAA, Willco Bldg, Suite 402, 6000 Executive Blvd, Rockville, MD 20892 [301-443-4223; e-mail:]; Marian Willinger, Pregnancy & Perinatology Branch, NICDHD, 6100 Executive Blvd, Rm 4B03, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5575; e-mail: James P. Kiley, Div. of Lung Diseases, NHLBI, Westwood Bldg, Rm 6A15, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-594-7443; e-mail: james_kiley@nihh311.bitnet]; Richard K. Nakamura, Coordinator for Sleep Research, NIMH, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm 11-102, Rockville, MD 20857 [301- 443-1576; e-mail:]; Charlotte McCutchen, Epilepsy Branch, DCDND, NINDS, Federal Bldg, Rm 114, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1917; e-mail:]; Mary Lucas Leveck, Acute & Chronic Illnesses Branch, NINR, Bldg 45, Rm 3AN-12, Bethesda, MD 20892-6300 [301-594-5963; e-mail:].

Fogarty International Collaboration Awards

The Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award (FIRCA) is available to facilitate collaborative research between U.S. biomedical scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health and investigators in the developing world. The FIRCA will extend and enhance the research program of the U.S. scientist, while at the same time benefiting the scientific interests of the collaborating foreign scientist. Awards are made to the U.S. applicant institution to support a collaborative research project that will be carried out mainly at the foreign collaborator's research site. Eligible countries include those in the following regions: Africa, Asia (except Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the Pacific Ocean Islands (except Australia and New Zealand).

The small grants will provide up to $20,000 per year in direct costs for up to three years. Funds may be used for materials and supplies necessary to conduct the collaborative research in the foreign laboratory or site and for travel directly related to the research project. Receipt dates for completed applications are November 25, March 25, and July 25. Direct inquiries to: Dr. Mirilee Pearl, International Research and Awards Branch, Fogarty International Center, Bldg 31, Rm B2C39, 31 Center Dr. MSC 2220, Bethesda, MD 20892-2220 [301-496-1653; FAX: 301-402-0779; e-mail:].

H. pylori Research

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) invite submission of research applications for support of research on the definition of the natural history of infection, animal models, protective immune responses to infection, virulence determinants, bacterial genetics, antibiotic resistance, and possible vaccines against Helicobacter pylori. This bacterium is known to be associated with chronic gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer disease, and possibly with certain malignancies of the stomach. New applications submitted for the June 1 and October 1, 1995 and February 1, 1996 receipt dates will be eligible for funding. Competing continuation applications for already funded projects will NOT be eligible for award from NIAID under this program announcement. Direct inquiries to Dennis R. Lang, Ph.D., Div. of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 3A21, 6003 Executive Blvd MSC 7630, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-7051; FAX: 301-402-1456; e-mail:].

Autoimmune Disease

The National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) of NIH and the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International (JDFI) invite applications for program project grants to support interdisciplinary programs in autoimmune disease. Programs combining investigations of basic, molecular, immunologic, and genetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and the development of innovative therapies for human autoimmune disease may incorporate investigation into any autoimmune disease, including, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease, or any field of science with relevance to the mechanisms and treatment of autoimmunity. Programs utilizing investigators from different scientific disciplines are particularly desirable, so as to utilize expertise in several areas simultaneously.

The specific objectives of this program are to * facilitate the application of new advances in immunology and immunogenetics to the understanding and treatment of autoimmune diseases * increase the understanding of the etiology and pathogenic mechanisms involved in development and progression of autoimmune diseases * enable investigators working on various different autoimmune diseases to come together to work in a collaborative and synergistic way * promote the collaboration between investigators working in disease-specific models and investigators focusing on basic studies of self tolerance and the defects in this process in several experimental systems. Applications must be received by June 15, 1995. For more information, contact Elaine Collier, M.D., Div. of Allergy, Immunology, & Transplantation, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 4A20, 6003 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-7104; FAX: 301-402-2571; e-mail:].

Academic Research Enhancement Award

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is making a special effort to stimulate research in educational institutions that provide baccalaureate training for a significant number of the nation's research scientists, but historically have not been major recipients of NIH support. Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) funds are intended to support new research projects or expand ongoing research activities proposed by faculty members of eligible institutions in areas related to the health sciences. NIH is inviting grant applications for AREA grants to be awarded competitively in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996.

All domestic health professional schools and other academic institutions offering baccalaureate or advanced degrees in the sciences related to health are eligible, except those that have received research grants and/or cooperative agreements from the NIH totaling more than $2 million per year (direct and indirect costs) in each of four or more years during the period from FY 1988 through FY 1994. Several applications proposing different research projects may be submitted by an applicant institution. Proposed Principal Investigators must not have active research grant support at the time of award of an AREA grant; may not submit a regular NIH research grant application for essentially the same project as a pending AREA application; are expected to conduct the majority of their research at their own institutions, although limited access to special facilities or equipment at another institution is permitted; and may not be awarded more than one AREA grant at a time nor be awarded a second AREA grant to continue the research initiated under the first AREA grant. The application receipt date is June 21, 1995.

To receive the AREA Program Guidelines and/or application packages, contact Academic Research Enhancement Award, Office of Grants Information, Div. of Research Grants, NIH, Westwood Bldg, Rm 449, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-594-7248; FAX: 301-594-7045].

Chronic Graft Rejection

The Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites applications for program projects in the immunopathogenesis of chronic graft rejection to evaluate the immune response to organ allografts, to elucidate the important cellular and molecular events of both the induction and effector phases of chronic solid organ graft rejection, and to develop improved therapeutic approaches to enhance long-term graft survival. Applications should emphasize collaborative research between basic scientists and clinical investigators and the use of the most up-to-date concepts and techniques of immunology. Animal models must be applicable to the treatment and/or prevention of human chronic graft rejection and the studies proposed must be directly relevant to understanding the underlying basic mechanisms of chronic rejection.

Prospective applicants are asked to submit, by July 1, 1995, a letter of intent; applications must be received by October 17, 1995. For information, contact Stephen M. Rose, Ph.D., Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 4A14, 6003 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-5598; FAX: 301-402-2571; e-mail:].

Hepatitis C Cooperative Research Centers

The Enteric Diseases Branch of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites applications for the establishment of high-quality Hepatitis C Cooperative Research Centers (HC CRCs). The purpose is to stimulate multidisciplinary, multi-project, collaborative research on hepatitis C virus (HCV). Such clinical and basic research will further the understanding of early and mid, rather than late (liver failure or liver cancer), stages and manifestations of hepatitis C infection, disease, and recovery. The HC CRCs will build on new findings to develop vaccine and therapy strategies. They may involve collaboration among investigators at several institutions. To foster multidisciplinary research, each HC CRC should include approaches from at least four disciplines such as virology, immunology, pathogenesis, the liver (cells, tissue, and organ) and changes (biology, biochemistry, etc.) in response to infection, clinical infection and disease, model system development, and applied research. Relevant topics for research may include but are not limited to developing small animal model and in vitro systems which are relevant for HCV vaccine, antiviral, and pathogenesis research.

For information, contact Dr. Leslye Johnson, Div. of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 3A-22 MSC 7630, 6003 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-7051; e-mail:]. The application receipt date is July 18, 1995. It is highly recommended that potential applicants contact Dr. Johnson in the early stages of application preparation.

News Briefs

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Risks

CDC's National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health used data from the National Occupational Mortality Surveillance database to conduct a proportionate mortality study of persons with pulmonary TB by occupation for 1979-1990. The findings of this study are reported in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (1995, 44, 14-19). Nonfarm animal caretaking is one of the occupations found to be at high risk, along with, among others, health services and occupations involving silica exposure.

Oldest Mountain Gorilla Dies

Effie, a member of Dr. Dian Fossey's study group 5, believed to be at least 40 years old, was found dead in April of 1994. The cause of death is unknown, but is presumed to be natural, perhaps simply old age. "When Effie was first identified by Fossey in 1967, it is estimated that she was about 13 years old and had given birth to at least one infant. According to Karisoke records, Effie has had seven known offspring, all females, and another seven grandchildren, making her a very successful mother by gorilla standards." -- From the Gorilla Gazette, 1994, 8[2].


Five European institutes and primate centers have founded an association to pursue and support a European Primate Resources Network. EUPREN is directed by a Managing Board: Michael Lankeit (Chairman), German Primate Center; Dr. Ton Kos (Office), Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk Netherlands; Leah Scott, Biology Division, CBDE, Salisbury, UK; Dr. Gemma Perretta, Istituto di Medicina Sperimentale, Rome, Italy; Dr. Nicolas Herrenschmidt, Centre de Primatologie, F-Niederhausbergen, France. According to an announcement on primate-talk, EUPREN will promote the availability of primates of high quality for European research, improve the efficiency of research with primates, and develop ethical standards for the use of primates in research. All European institutes which are working on primate related research or primate breeding can participate as members of of EUPREN, * approval and acceptance of the "IPS International Guidelines for the Acquisition, Care and EUPREN. Preconditions for membership are * recognition of the Bylaws Breeding of Non-human Primates", and * the ability to offer specific primate-related services to the European science community.

New CITES Member Nations

The Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) announced that the following countries have acceded to the Convention: Eritrea (24 October, 1994), Sierra Leone (28 October, 1994), Côte d'Ivoire (21 November, 1994), Comoros (23 November, 1994), becoming respectively the 125th, 126th, 127th and 128th Parties to CITES.

New Editor at Folia Primatologica

As of the first issue of 1994, Robin Crompton (of the Department of Anatomy, University of Liverpool) is editor of Folia Primatologica. Folia has been adopted as the official journal of the new European Federation for Primatology. Robin writes: "At the same time, Folia will most certainly continue to welcome papers from outside the European Union. Our policy will be to publish papers with a broad comparative and evolutionary perspective, whether they be on palaeontology, ecology, neurology, genetics, social behaviour or any other of the specialist disciplines within primatology."

Animal Rights Activist Pleads Guilty

Animal rights activist Rodney Coronado has pleaded guilty to two felony charges, one of them for his role in arson at an animal research facility at Michigan State University (MSU) in 1992. Coronado could face up to 10 years in jail and a maximum penalty of $250,000.

Prior to his arrest last September in Arizona, Coronado was the object of a 14-month manhunt in connection with the MSU raid and other raids made by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) at fur operations and university research laboratories around the country. The ALF claimed responsibility for vandalism and fires at six sites in Michigan, Oregon, Utah and Washington between June 1991 and October 1992. At MSU, the ALF broke into two research labs and set fire to the office of Professor Richard Aulerich, destroying 32 years of research on nutrition and decline of the natural mink population. The fire melted computer disks in the adjoining office of Karen Chou, destroying 10 years of research on the use of animal sperm as a substitute for whole animals in toxicity testing.

Coronado himself says: "At a time when ecological devestation is rampant, I have not hesitated to aid in the destruction of property used to harm native wildlife, rather than serve mute witness to the loss of natural creation." He further commented that he, "...would rather face prison than speak one word against those who give their lives and freedom to protect the earth and her animal people. It is now time for others to accept responsibility to preserve and protect what is left of our wild earth. Her future lies in the hands of those willing to accept this time-honored responsibility."

Sentencing is tentatively set for June 7th in Kalamazoo, MI. The plea bargain recommends a 31- to 41-month sentence. -- From e-mail postings by the Foundation for Biomedical Research, PETA, the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, and others

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In the News Brief, "Gorilla Death in Rwanda", on page 6 of the last issue of this Newsletter, the animal referred to was a mountain gorilla.

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Information Requested and Available

Captive Chimpanzee Diets

Sue Howell is making a survey of captive chimpanzee diets, which will be printed in an upcoming issue of The Newsletter of the Primate Foundation of Arizona. To participate, send the following information to Sue Howell, Assistant Research Director, P.F.A., P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027 [FAX: 602-830-7039] by May 15. Please include a brief description of your facility, the following information, and the time of day each food is provided: 1) Foods fed daily (include all food provided as the staple diet); 2) Foods provided occasionally (include all treats, rewards, or seasonally available items); 3) Fluids (please include recipes for special drinks); 4) Dietary supplements, browse, and forage foods.

APA on World Wide Web

The American Psychological Association is now publishing science information on the World Wide Web. Although the APA home page is still under construction, the Science Directorate section is nearly complete. Science Directorate publications can now be retrieved at or at gopher:// For more information, send e-mail to or contact Science Directorate, APA, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002 [FAX: 202-336-5953].

What Became of Allie?

Shirley McGreal is looking for information about "Allie," one of the "signing" chimpanzees who were at the University of Oklahoma. When Dr. William Lemmon died, the chimps were sent elsewhere, many to LEMSIP, some to other places. She has been unable to learn if "Allie" is alive or dead, and where he is, if alive. His name may have been changed, of course. She would appreciate any information, since a home in a sanctuary has been offered, if whoever has him would like to place him. Contact her at P.O. Drawer 766, Summerville, SC 29484 [e-mail:].

Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science

A new publication, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science (JAAWS), will replace Humane Innovations and Alternatives, the publication for the past 8 years of Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. JAAWS will be published jointly with the ASPCA. To submit articles or subscribe to JAAWS, contact Dr. Ken Shapiro, PSYeta, P.O. Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297 [301- 963-4751].

Emerging Infectious Diseases

The National Center for Infectious Diseases' new journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases, is now available both electronically and in hard copy. Published quarterly, the journal is part of the implementation of CDC's emerging infections plan and provides information on emerging infections in three sections: Perspectives, a section that addresses factors underlying disease emergence; Synopses, summaries of specific diseases or syndromes and related emerging infectious disease issues; and Dispatches, brief laboratory or epidemiologic reports with an international scope.

If you have access to the Internet, you can retrieve the journal through FTP, electronic mail, or WWW. For information about receiving Emerging Infectious Diseases electronically, send an e-mail to For information about receiving and contributing to the journal, contact Editor, Mailstop C12, CDC, 1600, Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, [404-639-3967; FAX: 404-639-3039; e-mail:]. -- Posted to compmed.

Administrative Actions Bulletin Board

It is the responsibility of institutions applying for NIH research grants and contracts to ensure that any staff whom they propose as personnel for those grants and contracts are not among those sanctioned for misconduct in science. To aid these institutions, NIH has established an electronic bulletin board with information directly provided by the PHS Office of Research Integrity and the Food and Drug Administration about individuals subject to administrative sanctions. If an individual has been prohibited from applying for or receiving PHS funds, that person's name will appear on this bulletin board along with information describing the administrative sanction(s). This bulletin board also provides information on persons subject to other types of administrative actions, such as prohibition from serving on a PHS committee and ineligibility from receiving investigational products. Access can be obtained through a modem, NIHnet, or INTERNET. For complete information on accessing this system, contact Jo Ann Wingard, Div. of Research Grants, Westwood Bldg, Rm 120, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-594-7090; e-mail: cja@drgpo.drg].

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Resources Requested or Available

Noldus Observer for the Macintosh

Noldus Information Technology announces the availability of The Observer for the Macintosh, a software package for observing, coding, timing, and analyzing a series of events. Keys on the computer are defined as events, then pressed when the events are observed. The program time-stamps each entry. The definitions can be transferred to a hand-held computer for mobile data collection. A DOS version has been available, and one for Windows is scheduled to be released this summer. For information, contact G. J. J. Hikspoors, Marketing Manager, Noldus Information Technology b.v., P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, Netherlands [31-8370-97677; FAX: 31-8370-24496; e-mail:].

Primate Postcards

A set of four postcards featuring primate stamps from many countries is being sold, for DM5.00, by the Gesellshaft für Primatologie. The income from the cards will be used to support primate conservation projects. Send cash or checks in DM to Gesellschaft für Primatologie, Attn: Dr. Eckhard W. Heymann, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. The price for 25 sets is just DM100.

Enrichment Videos

The editors of The Shape of Enrichment quarterly are collecting a library of videotapes, donated by institutions and individuals interested in sharing enrichment techniques. All videos are standard size, VHS format. They are loaned for two weeks upon request. Please do not copy tapes or request more than three at a time. To donate or borrow a tape, and to get a list of available titles, contact Robert Shumaker, Primates, National Zoological Park, Connecticut Ave., Washington, DC 20008-2598. -- From The Shape of Enrichment, 1995, 4[1].

Primate Products, Inc.--East

Primate Products, Inc. (PPI) opened a quarantine facility in Miami, FL, in December, 1994. An ACLAM-Board-eligible veterinarian and AALAS- certified personnel are on the staff there. PPI is seeking voluntary review of the new facility by AAALAC. Direct inquiries to Paul Houghton [415-368-0663; FAX: 415-368-0665] or Donald A. Bradford [305-471-9557; FAX: 305-471-8983], or write to Primate Products--East, 7780 NW 53 St, Miami, FL 33166.

Resource Recycling

For new readers, and as a reminder to our regulars, we mention the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse, which provides information for the efficient sharing of laboratory primates (and related equipment) by research institutions. The goal is to reduce the number of primates needed for research, particularly imported animals. The Clearinghouse publishes New Listings twice a month and Continuing Listings every second month, listing available or wanted animals, tissues, services, or equipment.

To subscribe to these publications, or to send a request, contact Cathy A. Johnson-Delaney, DVM, PSIC Coordinator, Regional Primate Research Center, SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-5178; FAX: 206-685-0305; e-mail:]. Note that nonhuman primates imported after 1975 and their offspring may be sold, resold, or otherwise distributed only for bona fide scientific, educational, or exhibition purposes, according to strictly defined criteria [Foreign Quarantine Regulations, 42 CFR Part 71.53, implemented by the CDC]. Facility management should verify compliance with all applicable regulations (CDC, USDA, USF&W), prior to distribution of nonhuman primates.

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Meeting Announcements

New York Primatology Colloquia

A series of meetings will be held Thursday evenings at 7:45, at the City University of New York Graduate Center, 33 West 42nd St, New York, NY 10036. On April 13, Dr. Chris Ruff, of Johns Hopkins University, will speak in room 207 on "Climate, body size and body shape in human evolution." On May 11, Dr. Laurie Godfrey, of U. Mass. Amherst & SUNY Stony Brook, will speak in room 1400 on "The sloth lemurs of Madagascar: Evolution, functional morphology and development." For information, contact Professor Eric Delson, organizer of the lectures, at the Dept of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024.

Conservation Biology

The Society for Conservation Biology will meet 7-11 June, 1995 in Fort Collins, Colorado. For information, contact: Richard L. Knight, Dept of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523 [303-491-6714].

Brazilian Congress of Primatology

The VIII Brazilian Congress of Primatology will be held 23-28 July, 1995 in Natal. For information, contact: Secretaria do VIII Congresso Brazileiro de Primatologia, Campus da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Centro de Biociencias--Setor de Psicobiologia, CEP 59072-970 Natal-RN, Brazil [084-206-1147; FAX: 084-231-9587; e-mail:].

Evaluating Animal Care and Use Programs

The Medical College of Georgia and Albany State College will sponsor a program focused on processes whereby IACUCs can effectively evaluate their institutions' animal care and use programs, September 14-15, 1995 in Augusta, GA. For information and registration, contact Ms. Kathrinka Akeson, Dept of Continuing Education HM100, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 [706-721-3967; Fax: 721-4642].

Primate Models for AIDS

The 13th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS will be held November 5-8, 1995 at the Monterey Conference Center and Double Tree Hotel in Monterey, CA. The focus will be on pathogenesis, virus-host interactions, and vaccine/drug development--recent advances in AIDS research. The symposium will have five half-day scientific sessions each devoted to a different theme. Session I: Routes of transmission and epidemiology; Session II: Virus-host interactions and pathogenesis; Session III: Molecular biology; Session IV: Vaccine development; and Session V: Therapeutic Strategies. Contact Brenda Graf, Symposium Coordinator, California RPRC, Pedrick Rd and Hutchison, Davis, CA 95616-8542 [916-752-1229; FAX: 916-752- 2880; e-mail:].

Primate Society of Great Britain

The winter meeting of the Primate Society of Great Britain will be held 29 November, 1995, at the London Zoo. The focus will be on biology and conservation of New World monkeys. Contact Hilary Box, University of Reading, Dept of Psychology, Bldg 3, Early Gate, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 2AL, UK [0734 875 123; FAX: 0734 316 604].

Alternatives and Animal Use

The 2nd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences will be held October 20-24, 1996, in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the Congress is to promote exchange of information on recent developments in the field of alternatives to animal use (Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) and, in particular, to review the progress that has been made in this respect within the fields of biomedical research, testing, and education. To be included in mailings for this Congress, send your name and address to World Congress Alternatives 1996, FBU Congress Bureau, P.O. Box 80.125, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands [+; FAX: +; e-mail: l.donkers].


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been primate-talk, the computer mailing list run by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Library.

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1995 ASP Meeting Information

The Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP), hosted by the Primate Foundation of Arizona and Arizona State University will be held in Scottsdale, Arizona from Wednesday, June 21 through Saturday, June 24, 1995. All paper sessions, symposia, posters, exhibits, and business meetings will be at The Safari Resort in Scottsdale.

Hotel Accommodations: The Safari Resort has offered low room rates ($35 single/double, $45 triple/quad). Each registrant is responsible for hotel reservations individually, but those wishing to share a room should register at the same time. For arrangements, call 800-845-4356 (general information and reservations), 800-824-4356 (reservations only), or 602-945-0721 (toll-free in Phoenix area). You must mention ASP to receive the special rate; reservations must be made by May 21, 1995. There are several restaurants within walking distance and the hotel is directly opposite a very large shopping center that contains several restaurants and a food court.

Air Travel: Reduced rates have been negotiated with Carlson Travel [800-523-4933] for airfares to Phoenix International Airport and transportation to the hotel from the airport. Be sure to tell the agent you are attending the American Society of Primatologists meeting.

Other Ground Transportation: In the West, distances are great and local transportation systems are almost non-existent. The area abounds with great restaurants, super entertainment, and the fine Phoenix Zoo, but you must be able to drive there. Scottsdale is only three hours from Tucson and the famous Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Just another hour from there is Nogales, Mexico. The glorious red mesas of Sedona are 2.5 hours away and .5 hour further beyond are the pine covered mountains surrounding Flagstaff. One hour more takes you to the Grand Canyon. To see and do these things, one should plan on renting a car or forming a group to rent a car. Special rates have been negotiated with Avis Car Rental [800-331-1600]. You must use confirmation number D657036 to get the special rate.

Registration Costs: Registration costs are now $125 for regular members, $88 for student members, and $140 for non-members through May 15. After May 15, registration costs for regular and student members and non-members are $145, $108, and $160, respectively. This includes the casual western barbecue dinner (banquet) and the opening night icebreaker, which will have no host (you buy it at reduced cost) bars.

Important: It will be HOT! Everything inside is air conditioned, but you should know, for example, not to park your car in the sun and roll up all of the windows - the windshield could blow out! Casual, cool clothing, sunglasses, sandals, etc. are almost required dress.

For registration forms or more information contact Jo Fritz, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ, 85277-0027 [602-832-3780; FAX 602-830-7039; e-mail:].

* * *

Workshop Announcement: Welfare Information Requirements

The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) will hold a series of 2-day workshops, June 22-23, September 28-29, and December 7-8, 1995 at the National Agricultural Library, 10301 Baltimore Blvd, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351. Each workshop will be limited to 14 persons. The subject will be meeting the informational requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, focusing on documenting, for IACUCs, that a thorough literature search was conducted regarding alternatives. This workshop is targeted for principal investigators, members of IACUCs, information providers, administrators of animal use programs, and veterinarians. Contact AWIC at the above address or call 301-504-6212 [FAX: 301-504-7125; e-mail:].

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


*Cerebral Cortex. Volume 10. Primary Visual Cortex in Primates. A. Peters & K. S. Rockland (Eds.). New York: Plenum Press, 1994. 576 pp. [Price: $115]

*Manual of Microbiologic Monitoring of Laboratory Animals (2nd ed.). K. Waggie, N. Kagiyama, A. M. Allen, & T. Nomura (Eds.). Bethesda: NIH, 1994. 226 pp. [Price: $21, paperback, NIH Publ. No. 94-2498. Order from Superintendent of Documents, U.S.G.P.O., Washington, DC 20402]


*Pregnancy Disorders in Nonhuman Primates, A Selective Bibliography, 1984 - November 1994. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1994, 20 pp. (284 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-014. Order from PIC, RPRC, Univ. of Washington, SJ-50, Seattle, WA 98195]

*Primate Welfare, Well-being and Enrichment Studies and Legislation , A Selective Bibliography, 1993 - 1994 Update. A. Longley. Seattle: PIC, 1994, 16 pp. (232 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-015. Ordering same as above]

*Atherosclerosis in Nonhuman Primates, A Selective Bibliography ,Update 1989 - December 1994. J. L. Pritchard. Seattle: PIC, 1994. 21 pp. (257 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #94-016. Ordering same as above]

*Simian and Human Retroviruses in Nonhuman Primates, A Bibliography , 1983 - 1994 Annual Update. D. Paros. Seattle: PIC, 1995. 43 pp. (525 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $10. Stock #95-001. Ordering same as above]

*Hemodynamics of Cercopithecine Monkeys: Physiology & Pathology, A Selective Bibliography, 1986 - 1994. M. McLean. Seattle: PIC, 1995. 25 pp. (330 citations with primate & subject indexes) [Price: $6.50. Stock #95-002. Ordering same as above]


*Frequently Asked Questions About Animal Research. Foundation for Biomedical Research, 1995. [Price: 25 cents, from F.B.R., 818 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]
. . This brochure attempts to address questions often posed to individuals involved in biomedical research with animals. The answers given are intended to be basic information, and should be expanded upon with specific information as necessary.

Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports

*Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, Winter 1994/1995, 5[4]. [NAL, AWIC, Beltsville, MD 20705]
. . Includes an article, "Appointing protectionists to institutional animal care and use committees," by L. H. Levin & M. L. Stephens.

*Asian Primates, 1994, 4[2-3]. [164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
. . This newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group contains several articles on gibbons in Thailand.

*Community Conservation Consultants, Fall/Winter, 1994. [Howlers Forever, Inc., RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]

*Comparative Pathology Bulletin, 1995, 27[1]. [Registry of Comp. Pathology, AFIP, Washington, DC 20306-0001]

*Gorilla Gazette, 1994, 8[2]. [Columbus Zool. Park Assn, 9990 Riverside Dr., Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400]
. . This issue contains "The gorillas of Mbeli Northern Congo," by C. Olejniczak, and "The use of feed tubes in passive untrained hypodermic administration," by R. Sutherland. There is also the first in a series of supplemental sections on husbandry topics, for collecting into a "Gorilla Keeper Manual." Topics in this issue are gorilla/caregiver relationships and diets.

*Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 1994, 8. [Price: $20. PSYeta, Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297]
. . Articles include "Environmental enrichment in captive marmosets and tamarins," by H. Buchanan-Smith; "State of the art preserve designed for and by gorillas," by L. A. Kranz & F. Patterson; "Zoo husbandry and research: An integrated approach," by J. M. Rice; "An innovative outdoor primate housing unit," by J. L. Wagner & P. O'Neill-Wagner; "Using inexpensive feeding equipment and techniques for primate enrichment," by L. Pastorello.

*Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Winter 1995, 12[2]. [CAAT, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, 111 Market Pl., Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709]

*Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1994, 2[4]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . Includes an index for volume 2.

*OWM TAG Newsletter, 1994, 1[2]. [H. Fitch-Snyder, Zool. Soc. of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551]
. . This Newsletter for the Old World Monkey Taxon Advisory Group includes articles on lion-tailed macaques, drills, and colobus monkeys.

*Primate Conservation: The Newsletter and Journal of the IUCN/SSC

Primate Specialist Group, No. 11, December 1990. [Conservation International, 1015 18th St, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036]
. . Articles and field reports for the year 1990. Announcements are now printed in the four regional newsletters, from the Americas, Asia, Madagascar, and Africa.

*Primate Report, No. 40, July, 1994. [Price: $12. In English and Spanish]
. . An issue on the primates of Peru, by R. Aquino & F. Encarnacion. Contents: Aspects of the geography of Peru. The tropical forests and their fauna. General considerations on systematics and taxonomy of neotropical primates. Family Callitrichidae. Family Callimiconidae. Family Cebidae. Appendixes: References; List of primate species and subspecies living in Peru; Maps, figures, and plates.

*Primate Report, No. 41, January, 1995. [Price: $12]
. . Primatology in South-eastern Asia. Contents: Asian primates: Conservation priorities and legal status, by I. Malik & V. Menon. Primates in Asia: Survival in a competitive world, by C. H. Southwick & M. F. Siddiqi. Population survey of south-Asian non-human primates in and around Darjeeling, by R. P. Mukherjee, S. Chaudhuri, & A. Murmu. Southeast Asian primate trade routes, by A. A. Eudey. Natural habitat breeding of primates in Indonesia: A conservationally sound approach to a sustainable resource, by R. C. Kyes, R. P. A. Lelana, J. Pamungkas, D. Iskandriati, & D. Sajuthi. Hanuman, the Monkey God, leads conservation efforts in the Balinese monkey forest at Ubud, Indonesia, by B. P. Wheatley & D. K. Harya Putra. Lion tailed macaques - an overview, by I. Malik & R. Thandani. Experiments on monkeys - a report, by I. Malik.

*SCAW Newsletter, 1994, 16[4]. [SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770]
. . Includes an article, "The control of fertility and monitoring ovarian function in free-roaming and captive wildlife: New approaches to old problems," by J. F. Kirkpatrick, I. K. M. Liu, J. W. Turner, Jr., & B. L. Lasley.

*Science and Animal Care, Winter, 1995, 6[1]. [WARDS, 1660 L St, NW, Suite 612, Washington, DC 20036-5603]
. . Two essays on ethics in animal research, by A. Arluke and J. Mench.

*The Shape of Enrichment: A Quarterly Source of Ideas for Environmental and Behavioral Enrichment. 1995, 4[1]. [Subscription: $12/year. 1650 Minden Dr., San Diego, CA 92111-7124]
. . Articles include: What to do with a broken boomer ball, by J. Ford & P. O'Neill; Evolving a behavioral management program, by M. A. Bloomsmith; and The effect of food distribution on captive Old World primates, by H. Buchanan-Smith.


*The Anti-beach-chimp Campaign: Spain 1978/1993. S. Templer. 26 pp. 1995. [Free from IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . Story of the campaign of the author and his wife to stop the illegal import and abuse of young chimpanzees.


*Current Primatology. Selected Proceedings of the XIVth Congress of the International Primatological Society. Strasbourg: Universite Louis Pasteur, 1995. [Price: $75 for each volume; $125 for any two; $170 for all three. Order from TTA Promotion, 3 rue Colette, 67800 Bischeim, France]
. . *Volume I: Ecology and Evolution. B. Thierry, J. R. Anderson, J. J. Roeder, & N. Herrenschmidt (Eds.). 398 pp.

*Volume II: Social Development, Learning and Behaviour. J. J. Roeder, B. Thierry, J. R. Anderson, & N. Herrenschmidt (Eds.). 404 pp.

*Volume III: Behavioural Neuroscience, Physiology and Reproduction. J. R. Anderson, J. J. Roeder, B. Thierry, & N. Herrenschmidt (Eds.). 294 pp.

*Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on Leontopithecus held during the Annual Meeting of the International Committees for the Preservation and Management of the Four Lion Tamarin Species, May 1994. Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1994, 2, Supplement. [Conservation International, Ave. Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]

Special Journal Issues

*The aye-aye: Madagascar's most puzzling primate. Folia Primatologica, 1994, 62[1-3]. A. T. C. Feistner & E. J. Sterling (Eds.). [Price: $78.50]


*The bronchial tree, lobular division, and blood vessels of the lung of the Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana). Nakakuki, S. & Ehara, A. (Tokyo Noko Univ., Fuchu, Tokyo 183, Japan). Primates, 1994, 35, 505-512.
. . Description and discussion of the lungs of a single animal.

*Distribution of the pulmonary artery and vein in the lung of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Nakakuki, S. (Address same as above). Primates, 1994, 35, 513-517.
. . Description of the dominant type of distribution in seventy animals.

Animal Models

*Tumor incidence in a chemical carcinogenesis study of nonhuman primates. Thorgeirsson, U. P., Dalgard, D. W., Reeves, J., & Adamson, R. H. (Div. of Cancer Etiology, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1994, 19, 130-151.
. . This chemical carcinogenesis study in nonhuman primates, which has been in existence since 1961, has generated a wealth of data on a variety of potential human carcinogens. Of particular interest to human risk assessment are recent data on the carcinogenic effects of the heterocyclic aromatic amine IQ, which is formed during cooking of meat. The lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity of cyclamate and saccharin following ingestion of high doses for 22 years may also be of major significance.

*Intrarectal inoculation of macaques by the simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmne E11S: CD4+ depletion and AIDS. Kuller, L., Benveniste, R. E., Tsai, C.-C., Clark, E. A., Polacino, P., Watanabe, R., Overbaugh, J., Katze, M. G., & Morton, W. R. (RPRC SJ-50, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23, 397-409.
. . Macaca nemestrina and M. fascicularis were inoculated with various doses of a single-cell clone of SIVmne-infected HuT 78 cells (E11S) by both the intravenous and intrarectal routes. Animals inoculated intravenously at each dose seroconverted and virus was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but only the high-dose intrarectally exposed macaques became viremic and seroconverted. Some seronegative, virus isolation negative macaques showed evidence of infection and disease.

*Intracerebral infusion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 failed to activate latent SIV infection in the brains of macaques inoculated with macrophagetropic neuroadapted SIVmac. Joag, S. V., Adams, R. J., Pinson, D. M., Adany, I., & Narayan, O. (Dept of Microbiology, Kansas Univ. Med. Ctr, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160-7424). Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 1994, 56, 353-357.
. . Although different degrees of immunosuppression and AIDS could be induced predictably with L-tropic virus, induction of neurological disease was not predictable even when animals were inoculated with neuroadapted M-tropic virus and inflammatory cytokines were infiltrated into the brains of these animals.

*Anti-cellular antibodies in sera from vaccinated macaques can induce complement-mediated virolysis of human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus. Spear, G. T., Takefman, D. M., Sullivan, B. L., Landay, A. L., Jennings, M. B., & Carlson, J. R. (Dept Immunology/Microbiology, Rush Med. School, 1653 W. Congress Pkwy, Chicago, IL 60612). Virology, 1993, 195, 475-480.
. . Complement activation can be initiated by anti-human cell antibodies, and this activation can result in the destruction of either HIV or SIV. This unusual antiviral mechanism may account for some portion of the resistance of human cell-immunized macaques to human cell-produced SIV that has been recently reported.

*Early events in tissues during infection with pathogenic (SIVmac239) and nonpathogenic (SIVmac1A11) molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus. Lackner, A. A., Vogel, P., Ramos, R. A., Kluge, J. D., & Marthas, M. (New England RPRC, One Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772). American Journal of Pathology, 1994, 145, 428-239.
. . Animals infected with SIVmac1A11 had fewer SIV-positive cells by in situ hybridization and after 13 weeks postinoculation, virus was undetectable in any tissue. Nearly half of the animals inoculated with either SIVmac or SIVmac239 developed isgnificant pathological lesions. Results indicate marked differences in tissue distribution between pathogenic and nonpathogenic molecular clones of SIV during the acute phase of infection. The most striking differences were the absence of SIVmac1A11 from the central nervous system and thymic medulla.

*Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees after antibody-mediated in vitro neutralization. Farci, P., Alter, H. J., Wong, D. C., Miller, R. H., Govindarajan, S., Engle, R., Shapiro, M., & Purcell, R. H. (Hepatitis Viruses Sect., Lab. of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U. S. A., 1994, 91, 7792-7796.
. . The high degree of genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in vivo, as manifested both by the generation of a viral quasispecies and by the continuous emergence of neutralization escape mutants, may represent an obstacle to the development of a broadly reactive vaccine for the control of HCV infection.

*Biodegradable polymers for controlled delivery of chemotherapy with and without radiation therapy in the monkey brain. Brem, H., Tamargo, R. J., Olivi, A., Pinn, M., Weingart, J. D., Wharam, M., & Epstein, J. I. (Dept of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Med., Baltimore, MD 21205). Journal of Neurosurgery, 1994, 80, 283-290.
. . Biodegradable polymers are shown to be safe for controlled delivery of nitrosourea carmustine, the first-line chemotherapeutic agent used against malignant gliomas. By allowing sustained high local tissue concentrations, drug delivery by this method has many potential clinical applications.

*Behavioural effects of cholinergic grafts. Ridley, R. M. & Baker, H. F. (Div. of Psychiatry, MRC Clinical Research Centre, Watford Rd, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ England). Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 1993, 695, 274-277.
. . Marmosets with transection of the fornix are specifically impaired on learning tasks which require remembering a rule of responding. Transplantation of cholinergic-rich fetal septal tissue into the hippocampus of such animals completely restores their ability to learn this type of task, whereas transplantation of cholinergic-poor hippocampal tissue into the same area produces no such improvement.

*Tunica vaginalis sperm reservoir in a monkey model of vas deferens obstruction. Monga, M., Wang, R., Roberts, J. A., & Hellstrom, W. J. G. (W. J. G. H., Dept of Urology, SL42, Tulane Univ. School of Med., 1430 Tulane Ave, New Orleans, LA 70112-2699). Journal of Andrology, 1994, 51, 309-310.
. . Autoplastic tunica vaginalis reservoirs have been used in 4 patients to treat congenital absence of the vas deferens. When tested in 8 monkeys, adhesion and scar formation obliterated potential reservoir space.

*Development of a model of retrograde menstruation in baboons (Papio anubis). D'Hooghe, T. M., Dunselman, G. A., Bambra, C. S., Evers, H. L., Suleman, M. A., & Koninckx, P. R. (Fearing Research Lab., Harvard Med. School, 250 Longwood Ave 204, Boston, MA 02115). Fertility and Sterility, 1994, 62, 635-638.
. . Cervical occlusion was attempted in 5 female baboons to develop a primate model for the study of retrograde menstruation and endometriosis. Supracervical ligation (n = 2) resulted in impeded uterine outflow as shown by a decreased duration of antegrade menstruation and increased retrograde menstruation. Endometriosis was observed as early as 3 months after ligation.

*The effects of hormonal replacement therapy on insulin sensitivity in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Cefalu, W. T., Wagner, J. D., Bell-Farrow, A. D., Wang, Z. Q., Adams, M. R., Toffolo, G., & Cobelli, C. (Dept of Internal Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1047). American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1994, 171, 440-445.
. . Results suggest that progestins alone or in combination with estrogens can induce insulin resistance in postmenopausal monkeys while having no effect on plasma lipid concentrations or glucose effectiveness.

*Retrospective description and experimental reconstitution of three different responses of the baboon to lethal E. coli. Taylor, F. B., Jr., Kosanke, S., Randolph, M., Emerson, T., Hinshaw, L. B., White, G. L., Chang, A. C. K., Peer, G., & Blick, K. (Cardiovascular Biology Prog., Oklahoma Med. Research Foundation, 825 N.E. 13th St, Oklahoma City, OK 73104). Circulatory Shock, 1994, 42, 92-103.
. . Data over 6 years of LD100 Escherichia coli studies show that nonsurvivors can be divided into groups based on duration of survival: immediate (< 12 hr); intermediate (12 to 30 hr), and delayed (> 30hr). Time of survival correlated with a unique clinical syndrome, which the authors reproduced by infusion of either tumor necrosis factor or C4b binding protein with sublethal E. coli. This provides models of the three responses to E. coli for study of mechanism and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

*Fetal toxicity of Zidovudine (Axidothymidine) in Macaca nemestrina: Preliminary observations. Ha, J. C., Nosbisch, C., Conrad, S. H., Ruppenthal, G. C., Sackett, G. P., Abkowitz, J., & Unadkat, J. D. (J. D. U., Dept of Pharmaceutics, BG-20, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 1994, 7, 154-157.
. . Pregnant macaques were administered AZT or water via gastric catheter throughout pregnancy. Twelve pregnancies were brought to term. There were no significant differences in any ultrasound measure of fetal growth, and AZT-exposed infants exhibited little behavioral delay or impairment.

*Effect of plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and degree of parkinsonism on the blood-to-brain transport of levodopa in naive and MPTP parkinsonian monkeys. Alexander, G. M., Schwartzman, R. J., Grothusen, J. R., & Gordon, S. W. (Dept of Neurology, Jefferson Med. College, 1025 Walnut St, Suite 511 College Bldg, Philadelphia, PA 19107). Neurology, 1994, 44, 1491-1499.
. . The authors found an inverse relationship between macaques' ability to transport levodopa from blood to brain and their degree of parkinsonism. Oral administration of a high-protein meal or intravenous infusion of large neutral amino acids before the administration of the levodopa plus carbidopa reduced the transport of levodopa into the brain.

*Beta-Adrenergic control of lipolysis in primate white fat cells: a comparative study with nonprimate mammals. Bousquet-Melou, A., Galitzky, J., Carpene, C., LaFontan, M., & Berlan, M. (INSERM, U317, Lab. de Pharm. Med. et Clin., Fac. de Med., Univ. Paul Sabatier, 37 All. Jules Guesde, 31073 Toulouse cedex, France). American Journal of Physiology, 1994, 267, (Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol. 36) R115-R123.
. . The lipolytic effect of norepinephrine involves beta1- and/or beta2-adrenoceptors in baboon, macaque, and human. The baboon and macaque constitute valuable models for studying the beta-adrenergic control of lipolysis.

*Quantitative histological studies of primate corneas after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Beuerman, R. W., McDonald, M. B., Shofner, R. S., Munnerlyn, C. R., Clapham, T. N., Salmeron, B., & Kaufman, H. E. (LSU Eye Ctr, 2020 Gravier St, Suite B, New Orleans, LA 70112). Archives of Ophthalmology, 1994, 112, 1103-1110.
. . Sixteen African green monkey corneas were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy 6 weeks to 18 months after 1.5- or 3-diopter photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Findings support the relationship between clinical observations of corneal haze after PRK, reestablishment of the epithelial cell layer, and the potential for stromal remodeling by active fibroblastic keratocytes beneath the ablation zone. Overall, quantification of several morphological parameters indicated that the values for the treated zone tended, with time, to approach those of the untreated cornea.

*Cerebral blood flow in primates is increased by isoflurane over time and is decreased by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. McPherson, R. W., Kirsch, J. R., Tobin, J. R., Ghaly, R. F., & Traystman, R. J. (Meyer 8-138, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21287). Anesthesiology, 1994, 80, 1320-1327.
. . Cerebral blood flow measurements in five cynomolgus monkeys anesthized with isoflurane.


*Influences of environmental demand on maternal behavior and infant development. Rosenblum, L. A. & Andrews, M. W. (Dept of Psychiatry, Box 120, SUNY Health Sci. Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203). Acta Paediatrica, 1994, Suppl. 397, 57-63.
. . An experiment with bonnet macaques, in which mothers and infants were faced with varying amounts of "foraging demand," showed that when the mother's survival requirements increase, and her coping capacities are exceeded, both short- and long-term deleterious effects on her developing offspring may emerge. Particularly when confronted with an unpredictable environment, mothers are less able to maintain effective, stress-buffering, maternal-coping mechanisms which can preserve a stable attachment relationship and permit normal infant development.

*Relationships between position in the central-peripheral structure, age, and the dominance index in the Tanaxpillo colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Rasmussen, D. R. & Farrington, M. (Animal Behavior Res. Inst., Florida State Univ., Panama Canal Branch, PSC No. 2, Box 2663, APO AA 34002). Primates, 1994, 35, 393-408.
. . The central-peripheral structure of a troop of stumptails was measured with a descriptive statistic, assessing the degree to which each troop member's range use differs from the troop's. Measure of central-peripheral structure may help link studies of social organization and ecology.
. .

*Mating patterns, mate choice, and birth season heterosexual relationships in free-ranging rhesus macaques. Manson, J. H. (Dept. of Anthropology, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90024-1553). Primates, 1994, 35, 417-433.
. . In a study of 50 free-ranging females in two social groups at Cayo Santiago, PR, adult heterosexual relationships characterized by particularly high frequencies of spatial proximity, grooming, or both were designated "friendships". Results indicate that, in rhesus macaques, protection from aggression is the primary benefit to females of birth season heterosexual relationships; the most effective protectors are in greatest demand as friends; and friendship has no effect, or an inhibitory effect, on mate choice. Benefits to males were not apparent, but may include coalitional support against lower-ranking males.

*Costs and benefits of maternal aggression in lactating female rhesus macaques. Maestripieri, D. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., 2409 Taylor Ln., Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Primates, 1994, 35, 443-453.
. . Data from over 400 hr of observation. The author argues that the occurrence and distribution of maternal aggression among species and individuals depends on the risk posed to infants by conspecifics as well as on the characteristics of the social structure (e.g., degree of asymmetry of agonistic contests) and of the mother (e.g., her dominance rank), which may affect the probability of retaliation.


*Removal of a trauma-inflicting alpha matriline from a group of rhesus macaques to control severe wounding. Judge, P. G., de Waal, F. B. M., Paul, K. S., & Gordon, T. P. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30329). Laboratory Animal Science, 1994, 44, 344-350.
. . Identifying and removing the animals responsible for an unusual outbreak of serious wounding in a large captive group proved an effective management procedure for controlling such injuries.

*Vocalizations as indicators of emotional state and psychological wellbeing in animals. Mulligna, B. E., Baker, S. C., & Murphy, M. R. (M. R. M., AL/OER, 8308 Hawks, Rd, Brooks AFB, TX 78235-5102). AWIC Newsletter, 1994, 5[3], 3-4.
. . "Effects of environmental enrichments, new caretaking procedures, more humane research protocols, etc., can be evaluated in terms of emotional impact" by keeping and comparing records of vocalizations.


*Conservation of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in Yakushima: The need for effective protected areas. Hill, D. A. (Dept of Anatomy, Univ. of Hong Kong, Li Shu Fan Bldg, 5 Sassoon Rd, Hong Kong). In Itoigawa, N., Sugiyama, Y., Sackett, G. P., & Thompson, R. K. R. (Eds.), Topics in Primatology. Vol. 2. Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (pp. 395-401).
. . The case of M. fuscata yakui, a subspecies found only on the island of Yakushima, exemplifies some of the problems involved in the conservation of Japanese macaques, and clearly illustrates the inadequacy of existing protected areas to ensure their future survival.


*Adenocarcinoma in the rectum of a capped langur (Presbytis pileata). Yanai, T., Hosoi, M., Masegi, T., Ueda, K., Iwasaki, T., Kimura, N., Katou, A., & Kotera, S. (Dept of Vet. Pathology, Fac. of Agriculture, Gifu Univ., Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-11, Japan). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23, 410-412.
. . Case history of a tumor in a 22-year-old, captive born capped langur. The report describes the light and electron microscopic features and immunohistochemical findings at necropsy.

*Diagnosis and management of human B virus (Herpesvirus simiae) infections in Michigan. Davenport, D. S., Johnson, D. R., Holmes, G. P., Jewett, D. A., Ross, S. C., & Hilliard, J. K. (Bronson Med. Center East, Suite 362, 252 E. Lovell St, Kalamazoo, MI 49007). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1994, 19, 33-41.
. . A report on three human cases of B virus associated with handling infected macaques. Viral culturing, ELISA and western blot antibody testing, and MRI all proved useful in diagnosis. One patient, treated only after respiratory arrest and other signs of advanced brain stem dysfunction, died, while the others, identified earlier in the course of the disease, recovered.

*Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B-virus infections in exposed persons. Holmes, G. P., Chapman, L. E., Stewart, J. A., Straus, S. E., Hilliard, J. K., Davenport, D. S., & the B Virus Working Group (L. E. C., MS A-32, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1995, 20, 421-439.
. . Guidelines based on information from published cases, unpublished cases managed by working-group members, knowledge of the behavior of herpes simplex virus, and -- in the absence of hard data -- the collective judgment of the group. See the note on p. 5 of this Newsletter.

*Malignant rhabdoid tumor in the gastric wall of an aged orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Schauer, G., Moll, R., Walter, J. H., Rumpelt, H. J., & Goltenboth, R. (Schering AG, Pharm. Div., Central Biol. Research, Inst. for Exp. Toxicology, Muellerstr. 178, D-13342 Berlin, Germany). Veterinary Pathology, 1994, 31, 510-517.
. . A metastasizing gastric tumor in an aged orangutan showed histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features similar to those of a renal malignant rhabdoid tumor of infant humans, which occurs rarely.

*Bronchiolar-alveolar adenoma in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Miller, G. F. (Lab. Science Sect., Vet. Resources Branch, NCRR, NIH, Bldg 28A, Rm 117, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892). Veterinary Pathology, 1994, 31, 388-390.
. . The first reported case of a spontaneous primary pulmonary adenoma in a macaque is described.

*Diagnostic exercise: Meningoencephalitis in Macaca fascicularis. Copps, J., Jacobs, S., Smits, B., & Percy, D. (Dept of Pathology, Ontario Vet. College, Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, P.O. N1G 2W1, Canada). Laboratory Animal Science, 1994, 44, 372-373.
. . This report illustrates the necessity of a complete postmortem with examination of the brain of any sudden death in a colony.

*Crossing over: The interspecies traffic of emerging infections. Morse, S. S. (Rockefeller Univ., 1230 York Ave, Box 120, New York, NY 10021-6399). Journal of NIH Research, 1994, 6[10], 52-56.
. . Review of the appearance of several "emerging" viruses, usually existing viruses with opportunities to infect new host populations. Many are zoonotic, crossing species from their natural hosts into the human population. Environmental and social changes, frequently the result of human activities that place people in contact with a virus's natural host, can accelerate this viral "traffic," with consequent increases in the emergence of new disease. Other factors, such as rural urbanization and travel, may then disseminate localized infections.

*Molecular typing of Pseudomonas pseudomallei from imported primates in Britain. Trakulsomboon, S., Pitt, T. L., & Dance, D. A. B. (Lab. of Hospital Infection, Central Public Health Lab., 61 Colindale Ave, London NW9 5HT, U.K.). Veterinary Record, 1994, 135, 65-66.
. . Pseudomonas pseudomallei infection was identified in 13 of 50 animals from a batch of feral cynomolgus monkeys imported to Britain from the Philippines. The disease was also identified in three other cynomolgus imported from Indonesia which did not have direct contact with the Filipino batch. P. pseudomallei was isolated from eight monkeys while the remainder had clinical and/or serological evidence of melioidosis. Three distinct strains were isolated from four monkeys which had been imported in the same batch. This finding favors multiple unrelated importation of P. pseudomallei in animals captured in endemic areas. It is likely that further cases will occur as long as animals continue to be imported from S.E. Asia.

*Experimental fetal and transplacental Neospora infection in the nonhuman primate. Barr, B. C., Conrad, P. A., Sverlow, K. W., Tarantal, A. F., & Hendrickx, A. G. (Calif. Vet. Diagnostic Lab. System, P.O. Box 1770, Davis, CA 95617-1770). Laboratory Investigation, 1994, 71, 236-242.
. . Neospora is a protozoan that causes spontaneous abortion and/or neonatal disease in a wide range of animals, including rhesus macaques. Fetal lesions in rhesus monkeys after transplacental infection are similar to those induced by similar Toxoplasma infections in primates.

Evolution and Genetics

*Kin selection, social structure, gene flow, and the evolution of chimpanzees. Morin, P. A., Moore, J. J., Chakraborty, R., Jin, L., Goodall, J., & Woodruff, D. S. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616-8522). Science, 1994, 265, 1193-1201.
. . Genotyping of free-ranging individuals from 20 African sites supports the kin-selection hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation among males. The unexpectedly large genetic distance between the western subspecies, Pan troglodytes verus, and the other two subspecies suggests a divergence time of about 1.58 million years, implying that P. t. verus should be elevated to full species rank.

*Paternity exclusion in a community of wild chimpanzees using hypervariable simple sequence repeats. Morin, P. A., Wallis, J., Moore, J. J., & Woodruff, D. S. (Address same as above). Molecular Ecology, 1994, 3, 469-478.
. . All 43 living members of a habituated community of wild chimpanzees were sampled and 35 were genotyped at 8 simple sequence repeat nuclear loci using DNA amplified from hair. Although the samples were sufficient to establish paternity in only a few cases, the methods allow the addition of data on individuals by other researchers and other laboratories in the future.

*The evolution of conspicuous oestrous advertisement in Old World monkeys. Pagel, M. (Dept of Zoology, Univ. of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PS, England). Animal Behaviour, 1994, 47, 1333-1341.
. . It is argued that prominent oestrous swellings are sexually selected traits that reliably advertise some aspect of a female's quality or condition, and which have evolved because of competition among females to attract males. An individual female benefits from a prominent swelling because it increases males' willingness to compete, or because it draws their attention away from other females and towards herself.

*The molecular genetics and evolution of primate colour vision. Tovee, M. J. (Dept of Psychology, Ridley Bldg, Univ. of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 7RU, England). Trends in Neurosciences, 1994, 17, 30-37.
. . The color vision system in platyrrhines might represent an intermediate step between the dichromacy of nonprimate mammals and the full trichromacy of catarrhines. Alternatively, it may be an adaptation to allow a diversity of forms of color vision within a family group.

*Climbing the family tree: What makes a hominid a hominid? Shipman, P. Journal of NIH Research, 1995, 7[1], 50-55.
. . A review of recent discoveries and theories in primate evolution.

Instruments & Techniques

*Use of human leukocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies for clinically immunophenotyping lymphocytes of rhesus monkeys. Reimann, K. A., Waite, B. C. D., Lee-Parritz, D. E., Lin, W., Uchanska-Ziegler, B., O'Connell, M. J., & Letvin, N. L. (Div. of Viral Pathologenesis, Dept of Med., Beth Israel Hospital, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215). Cytometry, 1994, 17, 102-108.
. . Eighty-nine cell-specific monoclonal antibodies which define 27 clusters of differentation on human leukocytes were tested for cross-reactivity with monkey cells. Certain cell surface antigens were well conserved since the majority of tested antibodies reacted with an analogous subset of cells in monkeys. Other cell surface antigens were not recognized on monkey cells. A sufficient number of antibody reagents was identified to allow the authors to gate lymphocytes by flow cytometry and accurately immunophenotype rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes.

*Behavioral and pharmacological modulation of respiration in rhesus monkeys. Howell, L. L. & Landrum, A. M. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1994, 62, 57-72.
. . This study describes a method for monitoring ventilation continuously in actively responding nonhuman primates. The design of the head plethysmograph eliminates nonrespiratory movement artifacts that are frequently obtained with alternative methods and permits precise control of the content of air or gas inhaled by the subject. The technique permitted studies of the behavioral and respiratory effects of selected drugs in subjects with schedule-related elevations in ventilation.

*Detection of active UV-photoproduct repair in monkey skin in vivo by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Qin, X., Zhang, S., Nakatsuru, Y., Oda, H., Yamazaki, Y., Suzuki, T., Nikaido, O., & Ishikawa, T. (Y. N., Dept of Pathology, Fac. of Med., Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan). Cancer Letters, 1994, 83, 291-298.
. . Results suggest that monkey skin can remove ultraviolet-DNA photoproducts, believed to play an important role in skin cancer development in sun-exposed areas, with slightly reduced efficiency as compared with human cells. The method developed for the detection of these products is simple and sensitive, and should be useful for further studies of their induction and removal.

*Measurement of faecal steroids for monitoring ovarian function in New World primates, Callitrichidae. Heistermann, M., Tari, S., & Hodges, J. K. (Dept of Reproductive Biology, German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gottingen, Germany). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1993, 99, 243-251.
. . Measurement of immunoreactive progesterone, pregnanediol, and estradiol in feces collected throughout ovarian cycles in three species of callitrichids is reported. Measurement of immunoreactive pregnanediol in particular enables a multispecies application of a single assay methodology for comparative studies on callitrichid reproductive function.

*Ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in the owl monkey. Pekow, C. A., Weller, R. E., Kimsey, B. B., & Allen, M. K. (V. A. Med. Center, Research (151-L), 1660 S. Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108). Laboratory Animal Science, 1994, 44, 365-368.
. . Description of a method which provided a rapid, minimally traumatic, and safe method for repeated bile sampling in a small nonhuman primate.

*Individualized gonadotropin regimens for follicular stimulation in macaques during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Zelinski-Wooten, M. B., Alexander, M., Christensen, C. L., Wolf, D. P., Hess, D. L., & Stouffer, R. L. (R. L. S., Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23, 367-374.
. . Terminating gonadotropin treatment after 7, 8, or 9 days, depending on the time required to attain preselected criteria of follicular maturation, does not compromise follicle or gamete quality.

*Manipulating blood T cells and B cells from squirrel monkeys: Some technical considerations. Garraud, O., Perraut, R., Gysin, J., Behr, C., Dubois, P., Bonnemains, B., Jouin, H., Michel, J.-C., & da Silva, L. P. (Clinical Parasitology Sect., Lab. of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 4, Rm 126, Bethesda, MD 20892). Journal of Immunological Methods, 1994, 173, 165-173.
. . Particular emphasis is given to the in vitro differentiation of squirrel monkey B cells into immunoglobulin secreting cells, with respect to Plasmodium falciparum antigens.


*Hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular function in male Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in non-mating season. Torii, R. & Nigi, H. (Inst. Exper. Animals, Shiga Univ. of Med. Science, Seta tsukinowa-cho, Ohtsu-shi, Shiga 520-21 Japan). Experimental Animals, 1994, 43, 381-387. [Japanese, with English summary and graphs]
. . Data collected monthly in five animals over a year suggest that one reason for the reduction in testicular function in the nonmating season was a decline in secretive function of hypothalamic LH-RH.

*Social and reproductive influences on plasma cortisol in female marmoset monkeys. Saltzman, W., Schultz-Darken, N. J., Scheffler, G., Wegner, F. H., & Abbott, D. H. (Wisconsin RPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299). Physiology & Behavior, 1994, 56, 801-810.
. . Plasma progesterone and cortisol were monitored in 32 adult female common marmosets while they were housed in heterosexual pairs, during the first 3 days of heterosexual group formation, and while animals were housed in established social groups. Cortisol differences between dominant and subordinate females appear to be associated with differences in reproductive function rather than with social status per se.

*Nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity colocalized with NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in monkey cerebral cortex. Hashikawa, T., Leggio, M. G., Hattori, R., & Yui, Y. (Lab. for Neural Systems, Frontier Research Prog., Inst. of Physical & Chem. Research, Wako 351-01, Japan). Brain Research, 1994, 641, 341-349.
. . In Macaca fuscata, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase positive cells were consistently also nitric oxide synthase positive and presented a relatively uniform distribution from area to area, but area-specific differences were observed in the pattern of distribution of fiber plexuses.

*Bone mass in female cynomolgus macaques: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study by age. Jayo, M. J., Jerome, C. P., Lees, C. J., Rankin, S. E., & Weaver, D. S. (Comparative Med. Clinical Research Ctr, Bowman Gray School of Med, Wake Forest Univ., Med. Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Calcified Tissue, 1994, 54, 231-236.
. . Measurements in 171 animals ranging in age from 3.7 to 22.0 years. Peak bone mass in the lumbar spine was achieved by 9 years of age.

*Evaluation of intra-blood brain barrier IgG synthesis rate and blood-brain barrier function in normal rhseus monkeys. Jordan, E. K., Woodward, R. A., Shiferaw, Y., Black, J., & Safar, J. (Animal Health & Care Sect., NINDS, NIH, Rm 4A19, Bldg 36, Bethesda, MD 20892-0036). Primates, 1994, 35, 473-487.
. . The authors establish normal juvenile rhesus monkey values for central nervous system IgF, albumin, intra-thecal IgG synthesis, and blood brain barrier function.


*Combined effects of Depo-Provera and Fadrozole on the sexual behavior of intact male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Zumpe, D. & Michael, R. P. (R. P. M., Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sci., Emory Univ. School of Med., Georgia Mental Health Inst., 1256 Briarcliff Rd, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30306). Physiology & Behavior, 1994, 56, 665-669.
. . As in previous studies, Depo-Provera (MPA) significantly decreased plasma testosterone (T) levels and sexual behavior. Additional treatment with Fadrozole, which had decreased male sexual behavior in previous studies, caused a rapid increase in plasma T levels along with a further decline in sexual behavior.

*Seasonal changes in the spermatogenic epithelium of adult Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata). Enomoto, T., Matsubayashi, K., Nagato, Y., & Nakano, M. (Dept. of Morphology, Tokai Univ. School of Med., Bokseidai, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-11, Japan). Primates, 1994 35, 465-472.
. . Findings from studying biopsy specimens from five adult, laboratory-maintained males in mating and nonmating seasons suggest that spermiogenesis, as well as spermatocytogenesis, is inhibited in the nonmating season.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest.

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.

Phone: 401-863-2511
FAX: 401-863-1300


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover drawing of black spider monkey
(Ateles paniscus) by Jaime Aviles.

Copyright @1995 by Brown University

Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.

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