VOLUME 34 NUMBER 3 JULY 1995
Articles and Notes
Hand-Rearing of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) in CAPRIM, by E. M. Patino, J. C. Ruiz, & J. T. Borda........1
Photoperiod and Activity Profiles of Captive Nocturnal Prosimians, by C. Frederick, D. Fernandes, & L. Pastorello........ 4
News, Information, and Announcements
Helen Shuman, 1936-1995........ 6
Resource Available: Animal Space........ 6
Editors' Notes: What Becomes of the Animals?........ 7
Workshop Announcement: Animal Care and Use Programs........ 8
Grants Available........ 9
Oral Cancer Research Centers; Emerging Viral Threats; Drugs for Treatment of HIV Infection; NIH Career Development Grants; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research; Fulbright Scholarships; In Vitro Fertilization
Travellers' Health Notes........ 11
Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever; Update: Cholera; Local Transmission of Malaria
From Our Local Newspaper: Zoo Matchmakers........ 14
From Another Newspaper: Baboon Trio Get High-tech Care........ 15
News Briefs........ 15
Marmoset Smuggler Sentenced; Obituary: Dao Van Tien; Mountain Gorillas Killed in Uganda; Fire in Brazil's Una Region
Status of the Primate Information Center........ 17
Award Nominations........ 18
Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award; SCAW Rowsell Award
Awards Granted........ 18
Moor-Jankowski Honored; AZA Awards to RI Zoo
Meeting Announcements........ 19
AZA/CAZPA; Gesellschaft fur Primatologie Societe Francophone de Primatologie; Canadian Assn for Physical Anthropology; Primate Society of Great Britain; 6TH FELASA Symposium
Accreditation Council Formed........ 20
CAAT Seeks Refinement Information........ 21
Educational Opportunity: Purina Animal Care Course........ 21
SCAW Will Conduct an IACUC Study........ 28
Positions Available........ 20
Postdoc Research Associate; Positions in Georgia; Lab Directorship, Phillipines; IVF/ART Technical Position Available;
Recent Books and Articles........ 22
Address Changes........ 28
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Exequiel M. Patino, Julio C. Ruiz, and Juan T. Borda
Centro Argentino de Primates
The rate of neonatal deaths is usually high in many captive primate species, but with careful management and appropriate hand-rearing methods the mortality can be reduced (Loudon, 1985). These methods have been tried in Old World monkeys (e.g., Sackett et al., 1979; Matsuabyashi, 1988) as well as New World monkeys (e.g., Kaplan, 1977, 1979), using various milk formulas. Among Saimiri spp, the high incidence of illness and neonatal death is a serious problem in captivity (Brady et al., 1990). Rasmussen et al. (1980) recorded that of 512 pregnant Saimiri sciureus, 84% gave birth to infants over a period of 9 years, of which 4% died within the first 24 hours; 7% died within the first week. Askel & Abee (1983) determined the mean fetal weight just before birth of Saimiri sciureus to be 95 g; neonates weighing less than 75 g rarely survived. At the Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM) we found that approximately 10% of newborn Saimiri boliviensis with body weights below 90 g and those with normal weights but reduced prehensile reflexes were not able to suck from their mothers and died a few hours after birth. In the present work we evaluate a hand-rearing method, using artificial mothers and substitute milk, which fits into CAPRIM's management system.
Methods and Materials
The subjects were 32 Saimiri boliviensis infants born alive at CAPRIM during 1993-1994, of which nine (the experimental group) were hand-reared. Seven of these (5 males and 2 females) were separated from their mothers 48 hours after birth. The birth weight of these seven averaged 118 g, with a range of 105-130 g.
Two other infants were also included in the experimental group: one female, abandoned by her mother at birth, and another female, 8 days old, whose mother died. The other 23 infants were fed and naturally reared by their mothers in outdoor cages (See Table 2).
All of the infants were weighed at birth and once a week thereafter. The Student t-statistic was used to test for significant differences in mean weight between the groups.
The infants in the nursery were housed individually in transparent glass boxes (26 x 26 x 30 cm) kept at 30-35°C by artificial mothers made of lamp-holders containing 5 watt, 12 volt AC light bulbs (the voltage was stepped down by transformer). They were covered with heavy cloth to permit grasping by the infant. The cloth was changed once a week for cleaning.
The food for the first 8 weeks of life was the milk formula S26® fortified with iron (Wyeth; Table 1), which yields 100 kcal when 19 g of powder is dissolved in 150 ml of water, and which has a 40:60 ratio of casein to other proteins (C:P).
Until 12 weeks of age, they were fed every two hours (9 meals a day) between 7:00 and 23:00 hours, via plastic syringes; afterwards they were fed at 7:00, 11:00 and 15:00 hours. The daily consumption of every infant was recorded.
S26® was used in the following dilutions: up to 2 weeks of life, 7.6 g of powder with 60 ml of water (40 kcal); from 3 to 12 weeks old, 15.2 g of powder with 60 ml of water (80 kcal). After 2 weeks of age, the infants were offered the usual "CAPRIM diet" of pellets (25% protein), moistened in water, and fruits.
After 8 weeks of age, the infants were placed together in a wire cage (70 x 62 x 75 cm) which had small branches to allow the infants to develop arboreal activity.
After 12 weeks, the milk was changed to NIDO Entera® (Nestle) which has 161 kcal when 32.5 g of powder is dissolved in 250 ml of water, with a C:P ratio of 82:18. (Table1).
| Components | S-26 | Nido | |(100 g of powder) | | | | | | | | Protein | 12.0 g | 26.4 g | | Fat | 28.0 g | 26.2 g | | Carbohydrate | 56.0 g | 38.6 g (*) | | Water | 2.0 g | 3.0 g | | Ash | 2.0 g | 5.8 g | | | | (*) Lactose |
Table 1: Composition of S26 Iron Fortified Infant Formula (Wyeth) and Milk NIDO Entera (Nestlé)
Seven (78%) hand-reared infants survived to the 20th week of age. Two infants died on the same day, during their first week of life. Twenty (87%) of the 23 mother-reared infants survived.
The infants reared by their mothers doubled their birth weights when they were 4-8 weeks of age, while the hand-reared infants doubled their birth weights at 8-12 weeks of age.
Age | Mother-rearing | Hand-rearing | t | df | p | | | | | Birth | 113.3+|-12.48g | 114.4+|-12.86g | -0.24 | 40 | 0.8152 | | | | | 4 wks | 184.7+|-17.08g | 151.0+|-14.32g | 4.17 | 34 | 0.0002 | | | | | 8 wks | 246.6+|-24.10g | 210.0+|-15.81g | 3.26 | 34 | 0.0025 | | | | | 12wks | 292.1+|-31.44g | 256.0+|-29.03g | 2.39 | 32 | 0.0228 | | | | | 16wks |344.6+|-36.05g | 304.0+|-35.07g | 2.32 | 29 | 0.0279 | | | | | 20 wks| 373.4+|-35.07g | 349.0+|-33.24g | 1.21 | 19 | 0.2421
Table2: Weight growth in Saimiri boliviensis: mother-rearing vs. hand-rearing.
The mother-reared infants weighed more than the hand-reared infants from birth to 16 weeks (t = 2.32; df = 29; p = 0.0279), but at 20 weeks of age there was no statistically significant difference in body weights (t = 1.21; df = 19; p = 0.2421) between the groups (Table 2).
The average consumption of milk (Table 3) increased sharply from the first to the 20th week, with a temporary decrease in the 12th week.
No digestive problems or illnesses occurred during the period of observation.
Week | Consumption | Week | Consumption | (ml) | | (ml) 1 | 20.7 | 11 | 54.9 2 | 32.6 | 12 | 51.0 3 | 36.1 | 13 | 51.3 4 | 36.6 | 14 | 41.4 5 | 37.6 | 15 | 53.3 6 | 38.0 | 16 | 60.7 7 | 34.5 | 17 | 67.1 8 | 35.4 | 18 | 76.4 9 | 40.1 | 19 | 82.6 10 | 44.7 | 20 | 86.5
Table 3: Mean individual milk consumption for hand-reared Saimiri boliviensis infants.
The differences in body weight during the first months of life between the groups could be due to the constant availability of food to infants fed by their mothers.
The temporary decrease in average consumption of milk in the 12th week was probably due to the change in the milk formula as well as the infants starting to eat solid food.
| Mother-rearing | Hand-rearing | | Number of infants at | | beginning of | | experiment | 23 | 9 | | Number of infants | | which died | | during experiment | 3 (13%) | 2 (22%) | | Number of infants | | which survived | 20 (87%) | 7 (78%)
Table4: Survival and mortality in Saimiri boliviensis: mother-rearing vs. hand-rearing.
The percentage of hand-reared infants that survived (78%) was lower than that of mother-reared (87%) (Table 4). It must be pointed out, however, that the only two deaths in the hand-reared group happened on the same day during the first week of life. There was a failure in the electrical supply, which turned off the lamps in the artificial mothers, causing hypothermia, compounded by an unusually cold night. The older infants were not affected by the loss of heat from their artificial mothers.
Success in artificially rearing primate infants depends on various factors: rearing environment (Sackett et al., 1979); artificial feeding (Matsuabyashi, 1988); frequency of feeding (ILAR, Committee on Nonhuman Primates, 1980); type and temperature of surrogate (Kaplan, 1979); etc. The type of milk used (Oftedal, 1980) and the temperature of the artificial mothers (Lubach et all, 1992) were critical.
The milk used during the first weeks must have a C:P ratio of 40:60 to allow normal gastric digestion. When casein is exposed to gastric acid and its enzymes it produces a hard coagulum in the stomach, which slows digestion. Other milk proteins, on the other hand, go quickly through the stomach (Oftedal, 1980).
Studies of human milk (Kunz & Lonnerdal, 1990) have shown the C:P ratio changes during lactation. At day 4, the ratio is 23:77; at 95 days, 42:58. This increment in casein and reduction of other proteins, apparently caused by changes in the mammary gland with continued nursing, apparently explains primates' tolerance of milk with higher C:P ratios some months after birth.
The other critical factor for the hand-rearing of infants is maintenance of constant temperature (30-35C), because infants do not thermoregulate well (ILAR, 1980). The importance of the primate mother in temperature regulation of her infant has been demonstrated in Macaca mulatta, particularly during the night, when the infant's body temperature falls (Lubach et al., 1992). We have found that it is also necessary to maintain the temperature in artificial mothers for several months, not only for the first weeks of life.
Askel, S. & Abee, C. R. (1983). A pelvimetry method for predicting perinatal mortality in pregnant squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).Laboratory Animal Science, 33, 165-167.
Brady, A. G., Williams, L. E., & Abee, C. R. (1990). Hypoglycemia of squirrel monkey neonates: Implications for infant survival. Laboratory Animal Science, 40, 262-265.
Institute of Laboratory Resources. Committee on Nonhuman Primates (1980). Artificial rearing. In Laboratory Animal Management: Nonhuman Primates (pp. 37-38). Washington, DC: Academic Press.
Kaplan, J. N. (1977). Breeding and rearing squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in captivity. Laboratory Animal Science, 27, 557-567.
Kaplan, J. N. (1979). Growth and development of infant squirrel monkeys during the first six months of life. In G. C. Ruppenthal (Ed.), Nursery Care of Nonhuman Primates (pp. 153-164). New York: Plenum Press.
Kunz, C. & Lonnerdal, B. (1990). Human-milk proteins: Analysis of casein and casein subunits by anion-exchange chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and specific staining methods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 37-46.
Loudon, A. S. I. (1985). Lactation and neonatal survival of mammals. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, 54, 183-207.
Lubach, G. R., Kittrell, E. M. W., & Coe, C. L. (1992). Maternal influences on body temperature in the infant primate. Physiology and Behavior, 51, 987-994.
Matsuabyashi, K. (1988). Handling and care of primates. In XII Congress of the International Primatological Society (pp. 143-159). Brasilia, Brazil.
Oftedal, O. T. (1980). Milk composition and formula selection for hand-rearing young mammals. In E. R. Maschgan, M. E. Allen, & L. E. Fisher (Eds.), Dr. Scholl Nutrition Conference .A Conference on Nutrition of Captive Wild Animals (pp. 67-83). Chicago: Lincoln Park Zool. Gardens.
Rasmussen, K. M., Ausman, L. M., & Hayes, K. C. (1980). Vital statistics from a laboratory breeding of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Laboratory Animal Science, 30, 99-106.
Sackett, G. P., Holm, R. A., & Fahrenbruch, C. E. (1979). Ponderal growth in colony- and nursery-reared pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). In G. C. Ruppenthal (Ed.), Nursery Care of Nonhuman Primates (pp. 187-201). New York: Plenum Press.
Authors' address: Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). C. C. 145 (3400) Corrientes, Argentina.
This study was supported in part by Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica (SECYT), Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE).
Thanks to Celman David Pitteri, Egle Rosa Chivesnik, Miguel Ramón, Ángel Martínez, and Felisa Fernández for their valuable contribution to this study, and to Anneke DeLuycker, for the English translation.
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Cheryl Frederick, Donna Fernandes, and Linda Pastorello
Franklin Park Zoo
Light influences nocturnal animals in a variety of ways. Light levels in a captive setting can inspire or inhibit activity (Frederick & Fernandes, 1994). The number of hours spent in darkness and in light appear to play a role in setting animals' circadian rhythms (Harker, 1964). Dawn and dusk are also important markers for the physiological clock (Kavanau et al., 1976; Pariente, 1979). At dusk, nocturnal animals venture out when ambient light reaches a level of physiological comfort. As dawn approaches, specific sequences of behavioral events may be triggered, such as the contact calling of the lemur Phaner furcifer (Pariente, 1979).
The nocturnal prosimian potto (Perodicticuspotto) was the subject of a recent behavioral study on the effects of lighting manipulations (Frederick & Fernandes, 1994). When the animals were subjected to an instantaneous "sunrise" (564 lux to 1560 lux at the flick of a switch), they exhibited the characteristic slow cryptic locomotion pottos display when disturbed (Charles-Dominique, 1977). To ameliorate this situation, the lighting regime was adjusted to provide gradual changes, controlled by timers. A series of lights were triggered at timed intervals in sequences which simulated dawn and dusk.
In the present study, we use this automated lighting system to adjust day length, and provide the pottos with a twelve-hour active "night" period instead of an eight-hour one. We compare the pottos' activity levels and behavior under the two night lengths, and also compare these data with the previously published activity cycles of three other species of nocturnal prosimians (Conway et al., 1977).
The subjects of this study were 1.1 pottos, ages three and nine years. They were housed in a 2.8 x 1.6 x 2.3 m diorama, open to the public from 09:00 to 16:00 hours. The pottos were originally kept on a reverse light cycle (dark/light 8:16, observed for 8 weeks), and then changed to a 12:12 schedule (4 weeks). During the latter schedule, an hour on each end was devoted to "dawn" and "dusk", simulated by three rows of fluorescent lights going on (dawn) or off (dusk) at twenty- minute intervals. A row of acetate-filtered incandescent track lights, which constituted the "night" lighting, was also synchronized to enhance this effect. Observational scans were taken once each hour throughout their "night" period, noting behavior and an associated activity level for each potto. The activity levels ranged from 0 (asleep) to 6 (highly active; see Frederick & Fernandes, 1994).
The earlier study by Conway et al. (1977) examined activity rhythms of nocturnal animals as a function of light intensity. The prosimians of that study were 1.1 greater galagos (Galagocrassacaudatus), 1.1 lesser galagos (G.senegalensis) and 1.2 slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang). All animals were housed in enclosures inside a building which is open to the public from 10:00 to 16:00 hours. Temperature and a reverse dark/light 12:12 light cycle were automatically regulated. The animals also experienced "dawn" and "dusk" brought about in three stages, with incandescent spotlights used for simulated "moon-light". Four 15-second observational scans were taken hourly for each animal, noting behaviors and activity levels (ranging from 0 to 3 according to intensity). The baseline portion of this study is presented here for comparison.
The statistical distribution of behaviors and activity levels did not differ significantly between the male and female pottos, so their data were combined. Under the 12-hour night, there was a significant increase in the pottos' stationary behaviors from the 8-hour one (Figure 1a), particularly in "asleep", "groom", and "passive visual". Smaller decreases in "hang" and "visual explore" were also noted. A substantial decrease was observed in only two locomotor behaviors (Figure 1b), "climb" and "locomote", under the extended night.
Figure 1: Frequency (as percent of scans) of behaviors during an 8-hour night and a 12-hour night: a. stationary behaviors; b. locomotor behaviors.
There was also a significant difference in the activity levels of the pottos between the 12-hour and the 8-hour night (G = 37.66, df = 6, p < .001). The observed frequency of level 0 (asleep) increased markedly with an extended night; however, frequencies for the highest activity levels (4, 5, and 6) were almost identical for both night lengths. Figure 2 presents the median activity levels of pottos and the mean activity levels for the three species studied by Conway et al. (1977). The slow loris and greater galago display activity cycles that are most similar to one another. The pottos' 8-hour activity cycle resembles that of the lesser galago, but under the 12-hour night it does not, for the most part, resemble any of the other species.
There was, however, an activity peak at 18:00 hours for the potto, slow loris, and lesser galago, and one at 17:00 hours for the greater galago. For all animals, then, a peak in activity occurred under a 12-hour cycle during the period that the exhibit was closed to the public.
The impact of a simulated dawn and dusk was difficult to ascertain because their effects were qualitatively, rather than quantitatively, observed. The pottos groomed vigorously and openly at dusk and moved to their sleeping site at the first light of dawn without engaging in the cryptic locomotion, usually a sign of disturbance, seen during the sudden light change.
Figure 2: Activity levels as a function of time of day in four nocturnal prosimian species on a 12-hour night light cycle. The pottos' activity levels (top) show median rank and both an 8- and 12-hour night. Arrows indicate public hours. Lower graph derived from Conway et al., 1977.
The four additional hours of darkness clearly affected the pattern of the pottos' daily activity. Their behavioral repertoire remained intact with the most notable change being the increase in amount of sleeping observed. The corresponding increases in grooming and passive visual behaviors are most likely associated with this change, since they tend to occur in conjunction with sleep. In contrast, when the pottos were active, they were as active as they had ever been. The additional time allotted to the pottos for their "night" seemed to result in a pattern of intermittent bouts of sleep with a peak in activity after public hours ended. Although slight differences in methodology and analysis between Conway et al. (1977) and this study may have obscured further similarities, their prosimians also showed this peak. However, we do not know whether the reason for this shift was the public or some other mechanism.
Our study indicates that photoperiod is a management issue for facilities housing nocturnal primates. Pottos, under an 8-hour "night", are more active without any loss to the behavioral repertoire. This activity pattern may have advantages for research protocols, public viewing, and staff observation.
The 12-hour photoperiod decreased the pottos' value as exhibit animals, but this could be offset by possible gains to their psychological well-being. Pottos and other shy species may benefit from beinallowed time to be active without the potentially stressful presence of public and staff. The 12-hour schedule could also positively affect breeding in species which are sensitive to disturbances in their surroundings.
Ultimately, we adopted an 8-hour night for use during a behavioral study, a 10-hour night for our exhibit potto, and a 12-hour night for an off-exhibit breeding pair of pottos.
Conway, K. M., Shaw, L. J., Micklesen S., & Crouse, D. W. (1977). Activity rhythms of ten species of nocturnal animals as a function of light intensity. In C. Crockett & M. Hutchins (Eds.), Applied Behavioral Research a tthe Woodland Park Zoological Gardens (pp. 102-140). Seattle: Pika Press.
Charles-Dominique, P. (1977). Ecology and Behavior of Nocturnal Primates. New York: Columbia University Press.
Frederick, C. & Fernandes, D. (1994). Increased activity in a nocturnal primate through lighting manipulation: The case of Perodicticus potto. International Zoo Yearbook, 33, 219-228.
Harker, J. E. (1964). The Physiology of Diurnal Rhythms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kavanau, J. L. & Havenhill, R. M. (1976). Compulsory regime and control of environment in animal behaviour. III. Light level preference of small nocturnal mammals. Behaviour,59, 203-225.
Pariente, G. F. (1979). The role of vision in prosimian behavior. In G. A. Doyle & R. D. Martin (Eds.), The Study of Prosimian Behavior (pp. 411-459). New York: Academic Press.
Authors' address: Franklin Park Zoo, One Franklin Park Rd, Boston, MA 02121.
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Helen Shuman, Managing Editor of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter from 1974 to 1985, died March 21, 1995. She was an important part of the staff during the changeover from manual to computer production, as well as the author of some poems published here. She leaves her husband, three sons, and four granddaughters. From 1986 to late 1994 she worked in the Division of Biology and Medicine at Brown University.
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The Department of Psychology at the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (located close to Toronto and the U.S. border) welcomes inquiries regarding animal housing and/or research contracts.
The facility was originally designed to group house nonhuman primates and rodents. Eight of the 14 animal rooms have large anterooms with one-way glass into the animal room for observation purposes. This facility can be adapted to house various other species and will be available in mid August. There are also two excellent technicians, experienced with nonhuman primates, who will otherwise be out of work in August.
For complete information please contact: Anne Harris, Dept. of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 [519-885-1211, Ext. 2032; FAX: 519-746-8631; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. -- Posted on CompMed
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It has come to our attention that there are individuals purchasing surplus laboratory animals, claiming that they will be kept in private zoos or otherwise "retired", but who are turning around and selling the animals at auction or privately as pets.
While laboratories, especially academic ones, are frequently "under the gun" to seek placement for surplus animals that are no longer "earning their keep," it is wise to insist on a very firm contract specifying disposition of animals and their offspring if you believe, as we do, that you retain an interest in the welfare of your animals after you have retired them. It should also be considered that it is illegal to use nonhuman primates (NHPs) or their offspring imported after 1975 for purposes other than bona fide scientific, educational, or exhibition purposes (as per notice in PSIC New Listings), and that the source of the animals might be considered liable for that diversion if it cannot be shown that due diligence was taken to insure proper placement.
Cathy Johnson-Delaney, of the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse, makes a mighty attempt to protect the information in the PSIC Listings, but the Freedom of Information Act guarantees public access to information generated under NIH grants. Only research institutions and AZA-accredited zoos can receive New Listings and Continuing Listings free of charge, and may advertise and receive referrals. Those who do not qualify thus can pay to receive the newsletters, and can pay to list their businesses in the Annual Resource Guide.
Dr. Johnson-Delaney specifically warns that the USDA's Breeder/Dealer classification does not prohibit the sale of monkeys to the pet trade. Unless the animals sold are CITES-listed, or there is an iron-clad contract, there is nothing that can be done after the fact. Until and unless legislation is passed outlawing exotic animal auctions and private ownership of NHPs (and that means state and local regulations), there will continue to be a market.
We have been asked by a researcher who feels that she was "taken" by a plausible appearing and sounding zoo owner, to print this warning to the primatology community. Ask questions, but don't just accept good sounding answers. Investigate the background of those you do business with, and insist on strong contracts.
Looking for Solutions
The question of surplus and otherwise retired NHPs is not one with easy answers. It is not only research animals that need to be dealt with: pets and animals used in entertainment are also retired when they get too old, or too strong, or for some other reason. What becomes of them all?
Years ago, the solution was to "send them to the zoo." Zoos at one time were simply collections of cages; now zoos must have the services of experts in genetics as well as nutrition, psychological well-being, and many other subjects. Zoos are no longer random collections. Even when they were, there would come a point when they could no longer take in all offered animals. The Primate Foundation of Arizona was born when Jo and Paul Fritz took into their own lives the "orphaned" chimpanzees that the Phoenix Zoo could not accept.
There are those who suggest returning these captive animals "to the wild." The major objection to this solution is that "the wild" is shrinking, disappearing. It would be no solution to return NHPs to an area where they would have to compete with humans burning off the forests for farming or hunting for "bush meat." Furthermore, captive-born animals, even if painstakingly taught the survival skills necessary to live in the wild, might be considered intruders by indigenous conspecifics.
The most frequent recent suggestion has been the creation of new, and the support and regulation of existing, sanctuaries or "retirement facilities" for various species of NHPs. In the article "Chimpanzees in AIDS research," (Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994, 23, 49-51), van Akker et al. state: "It is now generally accepted that chimpanzees must be retired at the end of their involvement in research, to live under conditions which provide for their social and psychological well-being, for the remainder of their 40-50 year life span... [N]o experiment should be carried out unless the supporting agency has guaranteed to provide the funds necessary for such retirement. Such funds must be kept in a secure annuity account. At present, approximately $30,000 - $60,000 per chimpanzee are standard charges for this purpose."
While this may be a solution for chimpanzees that are used in AIDS research, it does not address the question of chimpanzees and other NHPs that are in other research, roadside zoos, entertainment, or other private ownership. Nor does it address the question of how to assure that conditions in sanctuaries do indeed "provide for...social and psychological well-being."
Recently two groups have been organized to address some of the above concerns. One is the American Society of Primatologists' Private Ownership of Primates task force described on p. 7 of the last issue of the Newsletter. The other is the Council for Accreditation of Chimpanzee Sanctuaries and Retirement Facilities described on p. 20 of this issue. While the Council is directly concerned only with chimpanzees, the conclusions it reaches will extend beyond those animals, and beyond the great apes.
There are many differences of opinion on the subject of animal use but we would like to believe that there is universal condemnation of animal abuse. The problem with this good-sounding statement is that we have no universally accepted definition of "abuse". Still, hunger, thirst, temperature extremes, and physical restraint that causes physical damage to the body can be deplored by all, while many or even most persons define abuse to include other mistreatment. To those who say we must do more, We reply, "We should not do nothing while waiting to be able to do everything." -- J. S.
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The NIH Office of Extramural Research (OER), Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) is continuing to cosponsor workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The workshops are open to institutional administrators, members of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators and other institutional staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs. Ample opportunities will be provided to exchange ideas and interests through question and answer sessions and information discussions.
A workshop titled Internal Audits of the Animal Care and Use Program will be held September 14-15, 1995 at the Radisson Riverfront Hotel, Augusta, GA, cosponsored by the Medical College of Georgia. There is a $150 fee.
For registration, contact Ms. Katrinka Akeson, Dept of Continuing Education, HM100, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 [706-721-3967; FAX: 706-721-4642].
The Workshop will address processes whereby Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) can effectively evaluate their institution's animal care and use program. The PHS Animal Welfare Policy and USDA Regulations state that at least once every six months the institution's program for humane care and use of animals is to be evaluated by the IACUC using the Guide and USDA Regulations (Title 9, Chapter 1, subchapter A-Animal Welfare) as a basis. Topics to be included in the Workshop include: A review of the program as described in the Guide; institutional policy issues such as the occupational health and safety program; personnel training; and the activities of the IACUC and how effectively it meets its mandates. Other program issues to be included are veterinary care, the animal environment, and record reviews. Reports of the IACUC semiannual program and facility reviews will also be discussed. Approaches useful to IACUCs serving both small and large institutions will be included.
For further information concerning these workshops and future NIH/OER/OPRR Animal Welfare Education Workshops, contact: Ms Darlene Marie Ross, OPRR, OER, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd, Suite 3B01, Bethesda, MD 20892-7507 [301-496-8101, Ext. 233; FAX: 301-402-0527].
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Oral Cancer Research Centers
The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) invites applications from United States institutions for the support of Oral Cancer Research Centers. The goal of these centers is to support multidisciplinary basic and clinical research incorporating the range of parameters and academic disciplines necessary for reducing the morbidity and mortality due to oral cancer (e.g., epidemiology, behavioral sciences, nutrition, immunology, molecular biology, toxicology, and virology). Multifactorial, multistep approaches will be encouraged. Proposed centers should take full advantage of combined institutional strengths in various geographic locations.
The deadline for receipt of applications is August 22, 1995. For more information, contact Dr. Norman S. Braveman, Div. of Extramural Research, National Inst. of Dental Research, Natcher Bldg, Rm 4AN 24B, 45 Center Dr. MSC 6402, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2089; FAX: 301-480-8318; e-mail: BravemanN@ de45.nidr.nih.gov].
Emerging Viral Threats
The Virology Branch of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites applications for the establishment of Emerging Viruses Research Groups (EVRG), to perform multi-disciplinary, collaborative research on emerging viral diseases in general, with a special emphasis on hantaviruses. These research groups should develop coordinated basic and applied research projects yielding new data that will enhance prediction, prevention, treatment, and control of emerging and re-emerging viral diseases threatening the U.S. Since other initiatives are available to support research on influenza, hepatitis, herpes, papilloma, respiratory, syncytial, measles, and retroviruses/ HIV, projects on these viruses will not be considered. What will be considered are (1) basic and applied research that will help formulate coordinated strategies for anticipating, detecting, controlling, and preventing emergence or re-emergence of viral diseases; and (2) basic and applied research on the virus, on the infective process, and the host response to infection, which will be useful in development of vaccines and antiviral drugs.
The deadline for receipt of applications is July 20, 1995. For more information, contact Dr. James M. Meegan, Div. of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 3A-15, 6003 Executive Blvd MSC 7630, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-7453; FAX: 301-402-0659; e-mail: email@example.com].
Drugs for Treatment of HIV Infection
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites submission of program project applications for the discovery, preclinical evaluation, and development of novel agents and strategies that suppress HIV replication, interfere with disease progression, and ameliorate the consequences of infection. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) solicits grant applications directed toward identifying the mechanisms underlying the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with HIV infection. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) solicits grant applications directed toward studies on the neurological complications of HIV infection. Both institutes seek grant applications investigating potential CNS- targeted drug therapies that prevent or alleviate CNS dysfunction. Responsive applications will emphasize original research of under- exploited facets of HIV infection. Excluded from this PA are (1) anti-viral agents and strategies currently under intense investigation, (2) clinical studies, (3) studies of AIDS-related malignancies, and (4) studies of AIDS-associated opportunistic pathogens. Support will be provided to research consortia that include the private sector.
Application receipt date will be June 1, starting in 1996. For more information, contact Nava Sarver, Div. of AIDS, NIAID, Solar Bldg, Rm 2C01, 6003 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-8197; FAX: 301-402-3211; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
NIH Career Development Grants
The National Institutes of Health announce six new career development grant mechanisms (K-series) that replace the 14 previous awards. The new grant mechanisms simplify the career grant options so that prospective applicants can more easily understand how these awards mesh with their own career goals and can be used to enhance the development of their research skills. * The Mentored Research Scientist Development Award (K01) provides research scientists with an additional period of sponsored research experience as a way to gain expertise in a research area new to the applicant or in an area which would demonstrably enhance the applicant's scientific career. This award is generally reserved for individuals interested in switching to a new research field, for individuals who have interrupted their career because of illness or pressing family care responsibilities, or for faculty at minority institutions who wish to enhance their capacity for independent research. * The Independent Scientist Award (K02) supports recently independent scientists with outstanding potential to become future leaders in biomedical, behavioral or clinical sciences. * The Senior Scientist Award (K05) supports senior scientists who are recognized leaders in the field. * The Academic Career Award (K07) supports individuals who wish to develop expertise in a specific academic area or to support acknowledged experts in developing curricula and research capacity within an academic institution. * The Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Award (K08) supports individuals with health professional degrees who require an intensive, supervised research experience that will lead to independence as a researcher. * The Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Program Award (K12) is a program variant of the K08.
For additional information about the policies and procedures related to career awards, contact Dr. Walter Schaffer, Research Training and Special Program Office, NIH, Bldg 31, Rm 5B44, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-9743; FAX: 301-496-0166; e-mail: email@example.com].
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research
The Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invite applications for individual National Research Service Award fellowships or Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Awards from physicians and basic scientists interested in pursuing research related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The intent is to encourage research and career development for individuals with a strong commitment to a research career in the area of the inflammatory bowel diseases, either in one of the basic sciences relevant to IBD or, more specifically, in work aimed at either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Research related to the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis and/or treatment of these diseases is of particular interest. For information, contact Judith M. Podskalny, Ph.D., Div. of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, NIDDKD, Natcher Bldg, Rm 6AN-12E, 45 Center Dr. MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8876; FAX: 301-480-8300; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
One thousand Fulbright awards will be made for college and university faculty and nonacademic professionals to lecture or pursue advanced research and/or related professional activity abroad. These awards are available in every area of the social sciences, arts and humanities, sciences, and many professional fields. For U.S. candidates, grants are available to over 140 countries. Non-U.S. candidates must contact the Fulbright Commission or U.S. embassy in their home country to apply for awards to come to the United States. Activities include undergraduate and graduate teaching, individual research, professional collaboration, and joint research collaboration. Awards range in duration from two months to a full academic year. Most, but not all, teaching assignments are in English. August 1 is the deadline for the 1996-97 awards. For further information and applications, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 3007 Tilden St, NW, Suite 5M, Box NEWS, Washington, DC 20008-3009 [202-686-7877; e-mail: email@example.com].
In Vitro Fertilization
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) invites applications from investigators willing to participate in the ongoing multisite National Cooperative Program on Culture Conditions for Nonhuman In Vitro Fertilization and Preimplantation Development with the assistance of the NICHD through cooperative agreements. The principal goal of this Program is to improve the culture conditions for mammalian oocyte and preimplantation development. In order to achieve this goal, it is expected that methods for evaluation of the quality of mammalian oocytes, eggs and preimplantation embryos in culture will continue to be an important feature of the Program. It is anticipated that a multispecies approach will also continue to characterize the Program.
A letter of intent is due by August 11, 1995; the application receipt date is November 10, 1995. Direct inquiries to Richard J. Tasca, Ph.D., Center for Population Research, NICHHD, Bldg 61E, Rm 8B01, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-6515; FAX: 301-496-0962; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
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Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever
May 19 -- On May 6, 1995, CDC was notified by health authorities and the U.S. Embassy in Zaire of an outbreak of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF)-like illness in Kikwit, Zaire (1995 population: 400,000), located 240 miles east of Kinshasa. The World Health Organization and CDC were invited by the Government of Zaire to participate in an investigation of the outbreak.
On April 4, a hospital laboratory technician in Kikwit had onset of fever and bloody diarrhea. On April 10 and 11, he underwent surgery for a suspected perforated bowel. Beginning April 14, medical personnel employed in the hospital to which he had been admitted in Kikwit developed similar symptoms. One of the ill persons was transferred to a hospital in Mosango (75 miles west of Kikwit). On approximately April 20, persons in Mosango who had provided care for this patient had onset of similar symptoms.
On May 9, blood samples from 14 acutely ill persons arrived at CDC and were processed in the biosafety level 4 laboratory; analyses included testing for Ebola antigen and Ebola antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for viral RNA. Samples from all 14 persons were positive by at least one of these tests; 11 were positive for Ebola antigen, two were positive for antibodies, and 12 were positive by RT-PCR. Further sequencing of the virus glycoprotein gene revealed that the virus is closely related to the Ebola virus isolated during an outbreak of VHF in Zaire in 1976.
As of May 17, the investigation had identified 93 suspected cases of VHF in Zaire, of which 86 (92%) have been fatal. Educational and quarantine measures have been implemented to prevent further spread of disease.
Ebola virus and Marburg virus are the two known members of the filovirus family. Ebola viruses were first isolated from humans during concurrent outbreaks of VHF in northern Zaire and southern Sudan in 1976. An earlier outbreak of VHF caused by Marburg virus occurred in Marburg, Germany, in 1967 when laboratory workers were exposed to infected tissue from monkeys imported from Uganda. Two subtypes of Ebola virus -- Ebola-Sudan and Ebola-Zaire -- previously have been associated with disease in humans. In 1994, a single case of infection from a newly described Ebola virus occurred in a person in Côte d'Ivoire. In 1989, an outbreak among monkeys imported into the United States from the Philippines was caused by another Ebola virus but was not associated with human disease.
Initial clinical manifestations of Ebola hemorrhagic fever include fever, headache, chills, myalgia, and malaise; subsequent manifestations include severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Maculopapular rash may occur in some patients within 5-7 days of onset. Hemorrhagic manifestations with presumptive disseminated intravascular coagulation usually occur in fatal cases. In reported outbreaks, 50%-90% of cases have been fatal.
The natural reservoirs for these viruses are not known. Although nonhuman primates were involved in the 1967 Marburg outbreak, the 1989 U.S. outbreak, and the 1994 Côte d'Ivoire case, their role as virus reservoirs is unknown. Transmission of the virus to secondary cases occurs through close personal contact with infectious blood or other body fluids or tissue. In previous outbreaks, secondary cases occurred among persons who provided medical care for patients; secondary cases also occurred among patients exposed to reused needles. Aerosol spread has been documented among nonhuman primates, but not among humans. Based on this information, the high fatality rate, and lack of specific treatment or a vaccine, work with this virus in the laboratory setting requires biosafety level 4 containment.
CDC has established a hotline for public inquiries about Ebola virus infection and prevention [800-900-0681]. CDC and the State Department have issued travel advisories for persons considering travel to Zaire. Information about travel advisories to Zaire and for air passengers returning from Zaire can be obtained from the CDC International Travelers' Hotline, 404-332-4559. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 381-382.
June 1 -- The International Committee on Scientific and Technical Coordination, supported by the team of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Zaire, confirmed that the acute phase of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic is over. The number of cases detected since the beginning of the epidemic is still increasing but almost exclusively due to cases occurring between January and March 1995 which are now being identified after careful investigations. Specialists are still expecting a number of new cases in persons currently in the incubation period, but transmission seems now to be completely halted.
Priority is now given to strengthening of health facilities and to research activities. Specialists from the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, USA, are expected in Kikwit as well as a US Army team which will try to identify animal reservoirs of the virus. Their aim is to enlarge scientific knowledge of the disease in order to prevent further outbreaks of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever. -- from a WHO Press Release
June 8 -- The outbreak appears to be under control. Small numbers of cases are expected to continue to occur among persons previously exposed. Up to 7 June, a total of 250 cases had been detected through active surveillance and tracing of cases and deaths retrospectively back to January 1995. Of 247 cases with known outcome, 201 have died (81%). About 85% of the cases have been reported in Kikwit, the remaining ones have been in Mosango, Bulungu, Gungu, Imbongo and Mukala in the Sub-Region of Kwilu, Bandundu Region. No cases have been detected outside the Bandundu Region. All rumors of possible cases are being investigated. Members of the households where cases have occurred will be monitored during the incubation period and beyond.
For further information, contact Philippe Stroot [41-22-791-2535] or Valery Abramov [41-22-791-2543], Health Communications and Public Relations, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland [Fax: 41-22-791-4858]. -- from a WHO Press Release
The cholera epidemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 that began in January 1991 has continued to spread in Central and South America. In southern Asia, the epidemic caused by the newly recognized strain V. cholerae O139 that began in late 1992 also has continued to spread.
From the onset of the _V._cholerae_ O1 epidemic in January 1991 through September 1, 1994, a total of 1,041,422 cases and 9642 deaths were reported from countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the numbers of reported cases and deaths were 204,543 and 2362, respectively. From January 1 through September 1, 1994, a total of 92,845 cases and 882 deaths were reported. In 1993 and 1994, the number of reported cases decreased in some countries but continued to increase in several areas of Central America, Brazil, and Argentina.
The epidemic of cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 has affected at least 11 countries in southern Asia. V. cholerae O139 produces severe watery diarrhea and dehydration that is indistinguishable from the illness caused by V. cholerae O1 and appears to be closely related to V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains. Specific totals for numbers of V. cholerae O139 cases are unknown because affected countries do not report infections caused by O1 and O139 separately; however, more than 100,000 cases of cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 may have occurred.
In the United States during 1993 and 1994, 22 and 47 cholera cases were reported to CDC, respectively. Of these, 65 (94%) were associated with foreign travel. Three of these were culture-confirmed cases of V. cholerae O139 infection in travelers to Asia.
Cholera is transmitted through ingestion of fecally contaminated food and beverages. Because cholera remains epidemic in many parts of Central and South America, Asia, and Africa, health-care providers should be aware of the risk for cholera in persons traveling in cholera-affected countries--particularly those persons who are departing from the usual tourist routes, because they may be more likely to consume unsafe foods and beverages.
Persons traveling in cholera-affected areas should not eat food that has not been cooked and is not hot (particularly fish and shellfish) and should drink only beverages that are carbonated or made from boiled or chlorinated water. They also should not transport food from cholera-affected areas. The licensed parenteral cholera vaccine provides only limited and brief protection against V. cholerae O1, may not provide any protection against V. cholerae O139, and has a high cost-benefit ratio; therefore, the vaccine is not recommended for travelers. New oral cholera vaccines are being developed and provide more reliable protection, although still at a high cost per case averted. None of these vaccines have attained the combination of high efficacy, long duration of protection, simplicity of administration, and low cost necessary to make mass vaccination feasible in cholera-affected countries.
The diagnosis of cholera should be considered in patients with watery diarrhea who have recently (i.e., within 7 days) returned from cholera-affected countries. Patients with suspected cholera should be reported immediately to local and state health departments. Treatment of cholera includes rapid fluid and electrolyte replacement with adjunctive antibiotic therapy. Stool specimens should be cultured on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar. Clinical isolates of non-O1 V. cholerae should be referred to a state public health laboratory for testing for O139 if the patient traveled in an O139-affected area, has life-threatening dehydration typical of severe cholera, or has been linked to an outbreak of diarrhea. -- From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 215-219 and 385-386.
Local Transmission of Malaria
Malaria continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly because of the development of drug-resistant strains, and is a continuing concern in the United States because of increased international migration, travel, and commerce. The basic requirements for local transmission of malaria--including persons (who may or may not be ill) with malarial gametocytes in their blood, competent vectors, and conducive weather conditions--exist in many areas of the United States. A recent report in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (1995, 44, 295, 301-303) summarizes the investigation of three persons who acquired Plasmodium vivax infection in Houston, TX, by presumed mosquito transmission during 1994. None of the patients had traveled outside of the United States since 1956, nor had any other risk factors, except that all had prolonged nighttime exposure to mosquitos, either through working outdoors at night or sleeping in housing without windowpanes and/or with unscreened windows and doors.
Seven other cases of P. vivax were identified in Houston and Harris county during the investigation; all had traveled to countries where malaria is endemic; three were treated with chloroquine only and had not received primaquine to prevent a relapse infection.
The Harris County Mosquito Control District identified adult female Anopheles quadrimaculatus, a competent vector of malaria, in mosquito traps placed near the residences of two of the patients.
Important strategies for preventing the re-establishment of malaria as an endemic disease in the United States are prompt recognition and reporting of cases of malaria; appropriate treatment of all malaria cases, including primaquine for P. vivax and P. ovale infections to prevent relapse; and implementation of appropriate control measures.
In recent discussions on primate-talk, it was reaffirmed that the best protection against mosquitos is protective clothing in evening and early morning (long pants and long sleeves) and to stay inside a tent or building at night, since mosquitos are usually not active during the day. Several insect repellants were discussed, with the pros and cons of using Deet vigorously debated. A citronella-based product called Green Ban got generally good reviews, while one from 3-M called Ultrason, which contains 35% DEET in a polymer lotion that reduces skin absorption (and possible toxicity) was reported to be "truly effective." The latter can be ordered through Tropical Medicine at 1-800-TRAV-MED.
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From the Providence Journal-Bulletin, Monday, May 1, 1995, C5.-- As part of an effort by about 50 zoos throughout the United States to mix and mate more than 200 cotton-top tamarin monkeys and prevent the endangered species from moving closer to extinction, eight members of the cotton-top Species Survival Plan management committee from around the country, armed with thick notebooks, data sheets, a computer, and blue and pink index cards pinned to a large corkboard, were doing some serious matchmaking at Roger Williams Park Zoo. They paired up new couples, broke apart old ones, and decided which pairings would be allowed to have children.
When it was all over, the committee decided, for example, that the male nicknamed Trouble would be allowed to make some whoopie with a young female named Moon Unit. Joyce and Igor, who had been an item for a few years but had produced no offspring, were going to be forcibly divorced. Igor would move to Louisiana and set up housekeeping with Juanita. Joyce would be getting a new mate named Gimpy. And while the oldest son of Roger Williams' cotton-top family, Moses, was going to be sent to Battle Creek, MI for a liaison with a female from Brownsville, TX, the committee also decided that Cass, who had had several children at Roger Williams with her mate Ringo, was going to be put on "the Pill" for a while.
Last week's meeting, which ended Saturday afternoon after 26 hours of trying to match up the monkeys, was a serious effort to mix and match the cotton-tops -- squirrel-size primates with shocks of white hair -- in a way that will help the species survive over the long haul.
Biologists making such swaps explain how it promotes "genetic diversity." By encouraging matings between unrelated couples, zoo officials are trying to ensure that the genetic factors that make one cotton-top different from the next are preserved for future generations. Without such diversity, all of the animals eventually become close relatives with very similar traits. Such inbreeding not only increases the risk of problem pregnancies and birth defects, it also reduces the likelihood that some cotton-tops will be different enough to survive if a deadly virus sweeps through the population.
"If disease comes in and everyone is the same, it will wipe out everybody," said Robert J. Wiese of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association.
To keep the genetic pot stirred, the matchmakers used computer-generated lists--which showed which monkeys were related and how many children they had sired--to set up liaisons with unrelated animals. Young cotton-tops that had produced no children got the best opportunities, while prolific animals that had already donated plenty of offspring to the gene pool were given red stickers on their cards, indicating that they would be receiving contraceptives for a while.
There are other factors to take into consideration as well. A cotton-top isn't eligible for the pairing program until it has learned to be a good parent by helping its parents raise at least four brothers or sisters. (A cotton-top couple can produce twins every seven months or so.) "Without that experience, they may kill or abuse their own offspring," said Anne Savage, Roger William's director of research.
In addition, if a monkey is considered experienced enough to be mated, the animal must be taken from its family. Mature children won't mate as long as they are still living with both parents.
With the decisions made, the zoos will begin playing musical monkeys almost immediately, although it will probably take several months to coordinate all of the traveling necessary for the scores of arranged marriages. "American Airlines will be shipping a lot of cotton-tops," said Savage.
After all this reshuffling, will the newly paired cotton-tops be willing to monkey around? A male and female monkey left alone in the same exhibit invariably decide to tango. Said Savage: "Love is blind in the eyes of cotton-tops."
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San Antonio (AP) -- Researchers are hailing the recent birth of baboon triplets as the first by any of the so-called Old World primates, which include gorillas, chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. Albert, Butch and Charlie were born last Sunday morning at Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. Foundation researchers say they can't find a record of three or more live births among those primate groups.
"This is a unique event in primatology," said Dr. Michelle Leland, an assistant veterinarian who delivered the baboons by Ceasarean section.
The baboons weighed between 275 grams and 441 grams at birth, far less than the typical birth weight of 850 to 950 grams. The birth actually produced quadruplets, but a fourth died immediately from multiple defects. The remaining three survived because of high-tech care normally used on premature human infants. The treatment was possible because the foundation has a fully equipped neonatal intensive care unit.
"There aren't very many places that have facilities like ours, so if someone had multiple births at a zoo or something like this, there's not a lot they can do," Leland said. "They can't take them to a human hospital."
Southwest Foundation has one of the world's largest baboon colonies with more than 3,000 animals. Two-thirds of those animals have carefully recorded pedigrees and are bred to track and maintain their medical and genetic histories. But the triplets weren't conceived through any type of specialized breeding program.
"She got pregnant through the fence," Leland said, adding that the father's identity has yet to be determined. "It's not difficult to do paternity testing, just like we do in people. We know exactly who was next to her when the event occurred." _From the Houston Chronicle, April 30, 1995, posted by Shirley McGreal to primate-talk
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Marmoset Smuggler Sentenced
On October 5, 1994, Marcelo Perez pled guilty to charges of illegal importation into the United States of four live pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygme), and was sentenced by Judge Lenore Nesbitt of Miami, FL to six months of house arrest and two years of probation.
On September 7, 1994, a U.S. Customs Service inspector at Miami International Airport became suspicious of Perez, who arrived in Miami on a flight from Lima, Peru, wearing baggy clothing and appearing quite nervous. The inspector initiated a search of his baggage and clothing and discovered two live pygmy marmosets concealed in Perez' sweatshirt pocket and two more hidden inside his waist bag. Perez later admitted to federal agents that he planned to sell the four marmosets to a pet store in New York for a substantial profit.
The pygmy marmoset sells on the U.S. retail market for approximately $1500-$2000. It is protected under Appendix II of CITES. -- From a U.S. Dept. of Justice news release, printed in TRAFFIC, 14 , March, 1995.
Obituary: Dao Van Tien
Dao Van Tien, Emeritus Professor of Biology at the National University of Hanoi, died in his sleep May 3, 1995, at the age of 78. Professor Tien was educated in Hanoi under the French colonial administration. He taught several generations of Vietnamese scientists and carried his Biology Faculty through the difficult years after his country gained its freedom. Though Professor Tien's principal works and many of his papers were in mammalian zoology, his advice, his academic research, and most importantly his student support was never limited to this. Certainly, all senior biologists in northern Vietnam today gladly call Professor Tien their teacher. It is hard to calculate the importance of this gentle and thoughtful man in the history of Vietnam's science. He was the father of his field in Vietnam. His loss was a great blow for us, though he left for the world an incalculable legacy of studies of the rich biology of Vietnam, and a scholarly tradition for those who will follow in his footsteps.
He will be known to primatologists for the description of a number of new taxa, including Trachypithecus francoisi hatinhensis, a highly distinctive member of the black langurs, which live in limestone hills, and Trachypithecus cristatus caudalis, a "mystery" langur, still known only by two individuals that were in the Hanoi zoo. He was also the first person in recent times to record the presence of all-black gibbons, which he referred to as Hylobates concolor hainanus, between the Red River delta and the Chinese border to the northeast. -- From postings to Primate-Talk by Colin Groves and Vern Weitzel
Mountain Gorillas Killed in Uganda
Four of the world's few remaining mountain gorillas were killed by poachers in late March in a secluded national park in Uganda. The killings of a nursing female, an 8-year-old male, and two juvenilemountain gorillas represent the largest known slaughter of the highly endangered creatures in more than a decade. Approximately 600 mountain gorillas survive in the wild today in Uganda, Rwanda, and Zaire.
"Because the nursing mother's baby was not found, we believe the fiercely protective family was killed to reach the infant," said WWF Vice President Henri Nsanjama. The Ugandan customs authorities have been alerted to the possibility that the infant may have been stolen.
An autopsy found that the gorillas, which lived in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, were speared to death. The International Gorilla Conservation Program (a joint project of WWF, the African Wildlife Foundation, and the Fauna and Flora Preservation Society) and the Uganda National Parks Office reported and investigated the poaching.
Unlike neighboring Rwanda, which also is home to the mountain gorillas, Uganda has been relatively stable. "Conservationists were thinking that the one place mountain gorillas were the safest was in Bwindi," Nsanjama said. "That four gorillas were killed there at one time is just unthinkable. All eyes were on Rwanda for possible foul play"
Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, a World Heritage Site, is located in the southwest corner of Uganda. -- From WWF's FOCUS, May/June, 1995
Fire in Brazil's Una Region
A fire that raged out of control for several days in March in the Brazilian state of Bahia reached the edges of Una Biological Reserve, where the World Wildlife Fund has worked for a decade to protect the endangered Atlantic Forest and golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). The fire burned about 2500 acres of a degraded portion of the reserve, presenting "a real setback to the forest regeneration process," according to WWF Senior Program Officer Lou Ann Dietz. WWF-supported researchers joined reserve guards to fight the fire.
The Una region, which normally has year-round rainfall, is in the middle of a severe drought. According to Dietz, the fire was started by local farmers, who often burn vegetation to prepare their fields. "Now that we know the region's rainfall can't be counted on to make the reserve fire resistant," says Dietz, "we're going to have to expand our education program to encourage neighboring farmers not to use fire near the reserve."
Although the Atlantic Forest once stretched along the entire coast of Brazil, occupying nearly 12% of the country, today only a little more than 8% of the original dense forest remains. The 15,000-acre Una Reserve, which contains perhaps the highest biodiversity levels in the world, was set aside specificially for the protection of the golden-headed lion tamarins. -- From WWF's FOCUS, May/June, 1995
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The Primate Information Center (PIC) is alive and functioning! Much has happened since October of last year, when an announcement was made that the PIC would be closing. Shortly after that original announcement, further deliberations by our parent organization, the Washington Regional Primate Research Center, resulted in a decision to keep the PIC open through at least April 30, 1997. However, as of May 1, 1995 the Primate Information Center has been forced to operate with a greatly reduced staff size and budget (between a 50-60% decrease in both).
In must be emphasized that these decisions regarding the Primate Information Center have been fueled by the general budgetary problems of the Washington Primate Center. The PIC is one of many programs at the Primate Center that have been either cut or curtailed. The dramatic reduction in the PIC budget was required for the Center to balance its financial affairs, but in no way reflected negatively on the PIC itself. The PIC has always managed to operate within its allotted budget, while maintaining a consistent and high-quality level of informational service. The PIC simply became the victim of difficult financial decisions made by our parent organization.
Currently, the Primate Information Center is operating as normally as possible, given our budgetary and staffing reductions. Our monthly journal, Current Primate References, is unaffected. We do not anticipate any impact on the regularity or quality of this journal. Thevsame is true for our leased database, PRIMATES. The two areas that will be impacted the most are Topical Bibliographies and Custom Retro- spective Searches. Topicals are bibliographies that the PIC publishes on subjects of high interest to primate researchers. We have several hundred such titles available for purchase. In all probability, no new Topicals will be produced until staffing levels return to a more normal level. Custom Retros are searches done on an individual basis in consultation with requestors. The PIC has always tried to get such searches in the mail the next business day after the request is received. That may no longer be possible in all cases.
During these austere times, the Primate Information Center asks for both the understanding and the support of the primate research community. We need your understanding for those times in which we may not be able to respond to your request as rapidly as we would like. Some requests that might require a lot of staff time may even have to go unfilled. We desperately need the support of primate researchers in continuing to request and use our services. We hope that subscriptions to Current Primate References will remain steady or even increase. The revenue from Topicals and Custom searches will ensure that we can maintain our service through the coming year. It is very important that we show, during these difficult times, that the PIC is both needed and used, and the best way for researchers to do that is through continued strong patronage of our bibliographic services.
What does the future hold for the Primate Information Center? As manager, I can say that I am guardedly optimistic. The PIC has just completed a grant application that, if successful, will restore staff and resources to more normal levels. We have asked for funds and personnel to add abstracts to our database and to initiate a document delivery system. In addition to our current services, we have proposed publishing actual compendia of normative data on various aspects of primate physiology, reproduction, and colony management. The PIC hopes to take advantage of the many non-paper technologies available to deliver our products more quickly and efficiently.
If all goes well, the Primate Information Center will not only continue our 30-year tradition of service, but we will improve upon that service by taking advantage of new technologies and new opportunities for meeting the information needs of the primate community. The PIC is looking forward to being a viable information provider well into the 21st century, and with the help of primate researchers worldwide, we can meet that goal. -- Jackie Pritchard Manager PIC, Univ. of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195- 7330 [206-543-4376; FAX: 206-685-0305; e-mail: email@example.com]
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Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award
The Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award will be given annually for five years to up to five outstanding scientists whose research will greatly affect children with HIV/AIDS. The award will provide between $100,000 and $150,000 in support each year. International candidates are encouraged to apply. Each candidate must have an M.D., Ph.D., or D.V.M. degree and be at the associate professor level or above, or be eligible for an associate professor appointment at the time of application. This award, however, is not intended for well-established investigators.
For more information, contact Candace Devine, Pediatric AIDS Foundation, 1311 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, CA 90404. The application deadline is August 15, 1995.
SCAW Rowsell Award
In 1992 the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) established an award to honor Dr. Harry C. Rowsell, who has made major contributions in promoting animal welfare nationally and internationally. The first award was presented to Dr. Rowsell himself, the second to Franklin M. Loew. The award is given to persons who are known for commitment to fostering the dual goals of good science and the humane treatment of animals. To nominate an individual for the 1995 award, submit a description of the work you think meets these goals on one single-spaced page. Additional materials such as a curriculum vitae and project description may be included. Send all materials to SCAW, Attn: Harry C. Rowsell Award, 4805 St. Elmo Ave, Bethesda, MD 20814 [FAX: 301-345-3503].
* * *
Jan Moor-Jankowski, MD, Research Professor at the New York University School of Medicine and founder and director of the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP), a World Health Organization Collaborating Center located in Sterling Forest, NY, was unanimously elected on 28 March, 1995 to the French Academy of Medicine, as its only American member at present.
The French Academy of Medicine was created in 1820 to provide a forum for medical debates and to advise the French government on health-related matters. The members are elected for life and an election takes place when a chair is vacated. The predecessor of Dr. Moor-Jankowski was the late Dr. Linus Pauling.
Dr. Moor-Jankowski's laboratory, LEMSIP, has been participating in international collaborative studies leading to the development of tests and vaccines against various forms of infectious hepatitis since 1967 and, since 1987, in collaboration with Institut Pasteur, Paris, in the development of vaccines against AIDS.
AZA Awards to RI Zoo
The Roger Williams Park Zoo in Providence, RI, received two Significant Achievement Awards at the 70th Annual Conference of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association last September. The Significant Achievement Award for Education honored "ZooPower," a program that trains at-risk and disadvantaged youths to serve as paid, after-school environmental educators of younger children.
The Significant Achievements Award for Conservation honored the program "Proyecto Titi: A Multi-disciplinary Approach to the Conservation of the Cotton-Top Tamarin in Colombia." Dr. Anne Savage, Research Director for the Zoo, is project director. A field research program examines what factors are causing the decline of wild populations. Information is passed on to government officials in charge of establishing protected reserves, local officials regulating resource consumption, and local people living in the area who are often directly competing for the resources needed by the tamarins. In order to involve local people in conservation efforts, community action programs have been established, including peer-teaching programs where older children lead trips to the forest with younger children and an international exchange of information between school children in Rhode Island and Colombia that examines how water pollution affects the lives of the local community and long-term conservation of natural resources.
* * *
The Annual Conference of the American Zoo and Aquarium Assn and the Canadian Assn of Zoological Parks and Aquaria will be held 15-19 September, 1995, in Seattle, WA. Contact Mike Waller, Woodland Park Zoo, 5500 Phinney Ave N, Seattle, WA 98103 [206-233- 2678].
Gesellschaft für Primatologie
The Fourth Congress of the Gesellschaft für Primatologie will be held 20-24 September, 1995, in Kassel, Germany. The focus will be on interactions between primatological field and laboratory research, such as the application of laboratory- based physiological, endocrinological. and genetic methods in primate field research. Contact Prof. Dr. Christian Welker, Zoologie und Vergl. Anatomie, Primatenethologie, Univ. Kassel, D-34109 Kassel, Germany [FAX: 49-561-804-4604].
Societe Francophone de Primatologie
The 7th Colloque de la Societe Francophone de Primatologie will be held 12-13 October, 1995, at the Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse. There will be papers, poster sessions, roundtables on issues such as enrichment, breeding, and experimental models. Contact Prof. Patrick Bernard, Chaire de Biochimie, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, 23 Chemin des Capelles, 31076, Toulouse Cedex, France [61 19 38 45; FAX: 61 19 39 78].
Canadian Assn for Physical Anthropology
The Annual meeting of the Canadian Association for Physical Anthropology will be held at the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas, October 26-29, 1995. The abstract deadline is August 1. Contact: Jerry Melbye [firstname.lastname@example.org] or Anne Katzenberg [email@example.com].
Primate Society of Great Britain
The Primate Society of Great Britain will hold its Winter Meeting 29 November, 1995 at the London Zoo. The focus will be on biology and conservation of New World monkeys. There will be papers by K. B. Strier, C. R. Pryce, E. Visalberghi and D. Fragaszy, A. Barnett and D. Brandon-Jones, A. B. Rylands, H. O. Box, E. Heymann, H. Buchanan-Smith and S. Hardie. Contact Hilary Box, University of Reading, Dept of Psychology, Bldg 3, Early Gate, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 2AL, UK [0734 875 123; FAX: 0734 316 604].
6TH FELASA Symposium
The SGV (Schweizerische Gesellschaft fur Versuchstierkunde) will host the 6th FELASA SYMPOSIUM on International Harmonization of Laboratory Animal Husbandry Requirements, June 19-21, 1996 in Basel, Switzerland. FELASA is the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations. Scientific topics will include * Ethology: requirements of the animals * Hygiene: requirements of the researcher and of the animals * Nutrition: standard diets versus dietary enrich- ment * Transgenic animals: meeting the high requirements for health care and colony management * Maintaining control over the experiment: reproducibility, standardization, control groups * Organizational requirements, financial constraints * Legal aspects: national laws and supranational directives. The official language is English. The deadline for the submission of abstracts is December, 1995. For more information, contact the 6th FELASA Symposium 1996, Convention Center Basel, Messeplatz 21, CH - 4021 Basel, Switzerland [++41 61 686 28 28; FAX:++41 61 686 21 85; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been primate-talk, the computer mailing list run by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Library.
* * *
Postdoc Research Associate
Applications are being accepted for a position to be filled as soon as possible at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The successful applicant will have a doctoral degree and research experience in energy metabolism, diabetes mellitus and its complications, or general endocrinology as it relates to aging or obesity. Experience with nonhuman primates is desirable but not essential, and computer and instrumentation skills are especially advantageous. Send letter of application, CV and names of three references to: Joseph W. Kemnitz, Ph.D., Wisconsin Regional Primate
Research Center, UW-Madison, 1223 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299. The University is an equal opportunity employer and women and minority scientists are encouraged to apply.
Positions in Georgia
Four positions are available at AAALAC-accredited facilities in the Atlanta, GA area. The qualifications are a 2- or 4-year degree; Lab Animal Technologist certification by AALAS; at least 2 years of supervisory experience; and good written and verbal communication skills. Nonhuman primate experience is desirable. The salary ranges are $42-48K for each of two Facility Managers and $34-40K for each of two
Facility Supervisors. For more information, and to apply, contact Jesse Price, Charles River Labs, 1211 Richmond Dr., Stafford, VA 22554 [703-659-4474; FAX: 703-720-5055].
Lab Directorship, Phillipines
A candidate is sought to direct a new In Vitro Fertilization/Assisted Reproductive Technology (IVF/ART) laboratory in Manila, Phillipines. Applicants should have experience in gamete biology or cell culture. This person will train in assisted reproduction for six months to one year prior to taking over the Manila facility. Previous IVF/ART experience is desirable, but not required. A Masters or Ph.D. in a related biological field is required. Salary and benefits will be commensurate with experience. Applicants should mail or fax a c.v. and the names and phone or fax numbers of three references to Richard G. Rawlins, Ph.D. HCLD, IVF Consulting, 520 Forest Ave, Oak Park IL 60302 [FAX: 708-383-1658; e-mail: email@example.com].
IVF/ART Technical Position Available
An Embryologist/Andrologist with a Bachelors or Masters degree is sought as soon as possible for a new IVF/ART Program opening 1 January 1996 at Rush North Shore Hospital, Skokie, Illinois. The successful
candidate will train for 6 months prior to entry at the new facility. Experience in gamete biology/cell culture is desirable, previous IVF work a plus. Salary will be commensurate with experience.
Interested candidates should send a resume and references to Dr. Rawlins at the address above.
* * *
The Council for Accreditation of Chimpanzee Sanctuaries and Retirement Facilities is being formed. The Council is being formed to assure that decent and sustainable environments can be provided for chimpanzees if they cannot be accommodated in zoological parks, research centers, or private settings. The Council currently consists of over 91 members, including experts in chimpanzee health and veterinary care, environmental enrichment & design, communication & cognition, advocacy/welfare/ethics/rights, natural behavior & ecology, and financial & management issues. This is an inclusive effort drawing together an array of scientists and activists in order to pool all resources on behalf of the well-being of chimpanzees and to assure that their best interests are served. We hope to have the full support of the entire primatological and advocacy communities. The Council is not connected with ASP or my employer. -- Joe Erwin
* * *
The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) is dedicated to fostering the development of scientifically acceptable in vitro and other alternatives for use in the development and safety evaluation of commercial and therapeutic products. Alternatives are defined as methods which reduce animal use, replace whole animal tests, or refine existing tests by minimizing animal distress.
CAAT is in the process of compiling data on the "forgotten R," refinement. They are soliciting descriptions of refinement methods that have been developed or established through personal laboratory experience which decrease animal stress or discomfort. They intend to publish a collection of refinement methods for distribution to the scientific community. Their goal is two-fold: 1) to expose scientists to refinement methods and 2) to provide a mechanism to encourage scientists who are already interested in alternatives to utilize identified refinement methods. All contributors will be acknowledged if their data/methods are included in the resulting publication.
Please review the following questions to determine if your work can be recognized as a refinement alternative. If you are able to answer yes to any of these questions, your experience in the laboratory most
likely involved a refinement method suitable for inclusion in the study.
1. Have you developed or used a technique or procedure (e.g. surgical) that decreases animal stress or discomfort ?
2. Have you developed, or determined through experience, a handling or housing method that decreases animal stress or discomfort ?
3. Have you found drugs that decrease animal stress or discomfort (e.g., are less irritating upon infusion or injection)?
Please provide a summary of the refinement alternative that you have found to decrease animal discomfort or distress based on your personal experience with laboratory animals. In addition, please discuss the perceived impact of your refinement methods on the welfare of laboratory animals. We ask that you also include answers to the following questions in your report.
4. How do you determine that an animal is in pain ?
5. How do you determine that an animal is in distress (non-pain induced) ?
6. Which of the animal handling or experimental procedures that you routinely use cause you the most concern regarding their potential for causing animal pain or distress ? [If you would prefer that your answer to this question be treated anonymously in the report, please indicate].
Send your summary to REFINE, Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, 111 Market Place, Suite 840, Baltimore MD 21202-6709 [410-223-1693; FAX: 410-223-1603; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. Please be sure to include your telephone/fax number or e-mail address so that you may be contacted if further information is needed.
* * *
Purina Mills has recently updated and re-released the long popular Lab Animal Care Course. Written by and for lab technicians, it provides an extensive knowledge base about the care and handling of animals used for laboratory research. It also follows all recommended legal and ethical standards recognized by AALAS. It can be self-taught or classroom-administered and certificates recognizing successful completion of the course are given to each participant. If taken as an independent study course, a supervisor must certify that each section has been completed. The cost is $50 per course -- call for a price quote if more than 20 courses are needed. For further information, or to have an application sent to you, contact Nancy Plumer, Administrator, Purina Mills, Inc., PO Box 548, Richmond, IN, 47375 [317-962-9561, ext. 248; FAX: 317-962-8169; e-mail: email@example.com]. -- Posted on compmed.
* * *
In accordance with the mandates of the Animal Welfare Act, most academic institutions have had Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) for some years. In 1992 the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) formed a committee to study the effectiveness of IACUCs.
SCAW believes that it would be helpful to inquire about how IACUCs in both academia and industry function at different institutions and how effective they are at completing their tasks. A questionnaire has been developed that will be issued to members of IACUCs. Cygnus Corporation, a Washington, DC-based marketing group, has been chosen to manage the distribution and information retrieval of the survey. In order to maintain confidentiality of the responses, identification codes will be held only at Cygnus headquarters.
The mailing of the survey is scheduled for September, 1994, with a final report submitted to SCAW in January, 1996. A conference to discuss the findings of the study will be held in spring, 1996, and the results and comments from the conference will be published.
If you are involved with the IACUC Committee at your institution, it is a good possibility that you will receive the IACUC survey. SCAW hopes that you will encourage prompt completion. If the response rate is significant, it has the potential of documenting the IACUC's role in research animal care and use, as well as indicating some best practices for IACUC functions.
For more information about this study, contact SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770 [301-345-3500; FAX: 301-345-3503].
* * *
(Addresses are those of first authors)
*Chimpanzee Cultures. R. W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, F. B. M. de Waal,
& P. G. Heltne (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. xxiii
+ 424 pp. [Price: $39.95]
. . Contents: Preface, by P. G. Heltne. Foreword, by J. Goodall. Study sites in Africa. The challenge of behavioral diversity, by R. W. Wrangham, F. B. M. de Waal & W. C. McGrew.
. . I. Ecology. Overview--Ecology, diversity and culture, by R. W. Wrangham. Tools compared: The material of culture, by W. C. McGrew. Party size in chimpanzees and bonobos: A reevaluation of theory based on two similarly forested sites, by C. A. Chapman, F. J. White, & R. W. Wrangham. The significance of terrestrial herbaceous foods for bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, by R. K. Malenky, S. Kuroda, E. O. Vineberg, & R. W. Wrangham. Hunting strategies of Gombe and Taï chimpanzees, by C. Boesch. Comparative locomotor behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: Species and habitat differences, by D. M. Doran & Kevin D. Hunt. Comparative analyses of nest-building behavior in bonobos and chimpanzees, by B. Fruth & G. Hohman. Diversity of medicinal plant use by chimpanzees in the wild, by M. A. Huffman & R. W. Wrangham.
. . II. Social Relations. Overview--Diversity in social relations, by W. C. McGrew. Social role and development of noncopulatory sexual behavior of wild bonobos, by C. Hashimoto & T. Furuichi. Grooming relationships in two species of chimpanzees, by Y. Muroyama & Y. Sugiyama. Reproductive success story: Variability among chimpanzees and comparisons with gorillas, by C. E. G. Tutin. Ethological studies of chimpanzee vocal behavior, by J. C. Mitani. Pacifying interventionsat Arnhem Zoo and Gombe, by C. Boehm. Social relationships of female chimpanzees: Diversity between captive social groups, by K. C. Baker & B. B. Smuts. Chimpanzee's adaptive potential: A comparison of social life under captive and wild conditions, by F. B. M. de Waal.
. . III. Cognition. Overview--Culture and Cognition, by F. B. M. de Waal. Understanding chimpanzee understanding, by J. A. R. A. M. von Hooff. What chimpanzees (might) know about the mind, by D. J. Povinelli. The question of chimpanzee culture, by M. Tomasello. Biobehavioral roots of language: A comparative perspective of chimpanzee, child, and culture, by D. M. Rumbaugh, E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh, & R. A. Sevcik. Individual differences in the cognitive abilities of chimpanzees, by S. T. Boysen. Field experiments on use of stone tools in the wild, by T. Matsuzawa.
. . Afterword--Review of recent findings on Mahale Chimpanzees: Implications and future research directions, by T. Nishida. Postscript--Conservation and the future of chimpanzee and bonobo research in Africa, by J. Goodall.
*Aotus: The Owl Monkey. J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller, & I. Kakoma
(Eds.). San Diego: Academic Press, 1994. xix + 380 pp. [Price: $74.95]
. . Contents: Taxonomy and distribution of the owl monkey, by S. M. Ford; Owl monkey populations in Latin America: Field work and conservation, by R. Aquino & F. Encarnación; The behavior and ecology of the owl monkey, by P. C. Wright; Reproductive biology of the owl monkey, by A. F. Dixson; Husbandry and medical management of the owl monkey, by J. F. Baer; Hand-rearing the owl monkey, by C. A. Málaga; Infectious and noninfectious diseases of owl monkeys, by R. E. Weller; The owl monkey as a model for malaria, by W. E. Collins; The owl monkey in oncogenic virus research, by N. W. King; Ophthalmologic research in the owl monkey, by T. E. Ogden; The functional organization of visual cortex in owl monkeys, by J. Allman, R. Jeo, & M. Sereno; The organization of sensory and motor cortex in owl monkeys, by J. H. Kaas; Parasites of the Aotus monkey, by M. Tantaleán & A. Gozalo.
*The Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research. Volume II. Care, Husbandry,
and Well-Being: An Overview by Species. B. E. Rollin & M. L. Kesel
(Eds.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1995. 546 + xiii pp.
. . The authors of the chapters in this volume were charged with providing researchers and others involved with animal use in biomedicine with basic essential information about the needs and natures of the diverse animal species used in research. The nonhuman primate chapters and their subheadings are: Old World monkeys, by D. P. Rosenberg & M. L. Kesel (Introduction and biology, Husbandry of macaques, Enrichment, Diseases in macaques, Biosafety, and Anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia); Marmosets and tamarins, by J. P. Hearn (Introduction, Basic biology, behavior, and reproduction, Husbandry, nutrition, veterinary care, and contraception, Handling, Disease, Anesthesia, analgesia, and stress, Natural behavior and psychological needs, Enrichment of environment, Special considerations, and Conclusions); Chimpanzees, by C. J. Mahoney (Introduction, The nature of the chimpanzee, Uses in research, Housing and environment, Indoor housing, Indoor-outdoor housing, Semifree-ranging corrals, Island holdings, Bedding materials and husbandry systems, Control of disease, Natural behaviors and the psychological and social needs of chimpanzees).
*Gorilla: A Vanishing Species: A Student Guide to Environmental
Activism. K. Williams. Cincinnati: Creative Company, 1995. 180 pp. [Price:
$14.95 + $1.00 shipping]
. . A workbook for children in grades 3-5, intended for "...[t]urning awareness into responsible action...by student involvement in fundraising, letter writing campaigns, petitioning, boycotts, and public education forums in support of gorilla conservation.
*Spontaneous Neoplasia in Nonhuman Primates, A Selective Bibliography, 1984-April 1995. D. Paros. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1995, 30 pp. (422 citations, primate index) [Price: $10.00. Stock #95-005. Order from PIC, Univ. of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195-7330]
*Primate Housing and Cage Design Issues. A Selective Bibliography, 1986-1994. A. Longley. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1995, 30 pp. (420 citations, primate & subject indexes) Price: $11.00. Stock #95-006. Ordering information same as above]
*Mammalian Models for Biomedical Research. Bethesda: National Center for Research Resources, 1994. 82 pp. 49 references. [Available from the Office of Science & Health Reports, NCR, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892]
Magazines, Newsletters, and Reports
*Gorilla Conservation News, May 1995, No. 9. [K. J. Stewart, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616]
*IPPL News, April, 1995, 22. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484].
*National Association for Biomedical Research 1994 Annual Report. [NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]
*Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1995, 3. [Conservation
International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte,
Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . Includes articles and news reports in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
*Our Animal WARDS, Spring, 1995. (WARDS, Inc., 1660 L St N.W., Suite
612, Washington, DC 20036-5603).
. . Includes a review by C. Byrnes of Deborah Blum's The Monkey Wars.
*SCAW Newsletter, Spring 1995, 17. [Scientists Center for
Animal Welfare, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770]
. . This issue includes a report on the 1994 CITES meeting, by A. M. Roberts & C. J. Wood.
*Primates, 1994, Supplement to Vol. 35.
. . Cumulative contents, author index, and scientific name index for volumes 31-35 (1990-1994).
*Lymphocyte subset markers as predictors of survival after concordant cardiac
xenotransplantation. Fukushima, N., Fagoaga, O., Kawauchi, M., Grinde, S.,
Folz, J., Thorpe, R., & Nehlsen- Cannarella, S. (S. L. N.-C., Immunology
Ctr, Loma Linda Univ. Med. Ctr, 11234 Anderson St, Loma Linda, CA 92354).
Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 1212-1213.
. . A comparison of the early lymphocyte subset profiles of baboons receiving rhesus monkey hearts, one group given no immunosuppression, and the other given triple immunosuppression therapy. Untreated controls survived 6 to 10 (mean = 8) days, while treated baboons survived 35 to 502 (mean = 127) days.
*Xenotransplantation from pig to cynomolgus monkey: The potential for
overcoming xenograft rejection through induction of chimerism. Tanaka, M.,
Latinne, D., Gianello, P., Sablinski, T., Lorf, T., Bailin, M., Nickeleit, V.,
Colvin, R., Lebowitz, E., Sykes, M., Cosimi, A. B., & Sachs, D. H. (D. H.
S., Transplantation Biology Research Ctr, Mass. General Hospital, MGH-East,
Bldg 149, 13th St, Boston, MA 02129). Transplantation Proceedings,
1994, 26, 1326-1327.
. . Results support the possibility that the strategy of inducing tolerance to solid organ transplants through hematopoietic mixed chimerism may be applicable in discordant species combination. Further efforts are being directed toward decreasing the toxicity of the preparative regimen and increasing the percentage and persistence of mixed chimerism.
*Which is the target vessel of lung rejection? A primate heart-lung
transplantation study. Kawauchi, M., Matsumoto, J., Takeda, M., Nakajima, J.,
Furuse, A., Oka, T., & Yoshitake, T. (Dept of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Fac.
of Med., Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113 Japan).
Transplantation Proceedings, 1994, 26, 2338-2339.
. . Studies of eight Macaca fuscata which received orthotopic heart-lung transplants showed that the early process of rejection was most severe not in the smallest venules but in the small veins, almost 100 to 300 micrometers in diameter.
*Scene-specific memory for objects: A model of episodic memory impairment in
monkeys with fornix transection. Gaffan, D. (Dept of Experimental Psychology,
Oxford Univ., South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3UD, U.K.). Journal of Cognitive
Neuroscience, 1994, 6, 305-320.
. . In experiments with six fornix-transected rhesus monkeys, the most severe impairment was in object-in-place learning. Fornix transection did not impair object discrimination learning in varying backgrounds. The results from place discrimination and object discrimination learning showed intermediate severity of impairment. The idea that fornix transection in the monkey impairs spatial memory but leaves object memory intact is thus shown to be an oversimplification. The impairments of object memory in the present experiments are analogous to the impairments of episodic memory seen in human amnesiac patients.
*Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and coronary artery disease. Pepine,
C. J. (Div. of Cardiology, Univ. of Florida College of Med., 1600 Archer Rd,
P.O. Box 100277, Gainesville, FL 32610). Journal of
Hypertension, 1994, 12(suppl. 4), S65-S71.
. . ACE inhibitors prevent the development of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic animal models, including cynomolgus monkeys. They also prevent the myointimal proliferative response to injury in some animal models, but not in higher animal species or in humans. They can reduce the number of cardiac ischemic events in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction.
*CD8+ T lymphocytes of African green monkeys secrete an immunodeficiency
virus-suppressing lymphokine. Ennen, J., Findeklee, H., Dittmar, M. T., Norley,
S., Ernst, M., & Kurth, R. (R. K., Paul-Ehrlich Inst., Paul-Ehrlich Str.
51-59, 63225 Langen, Germany). Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences,U.S.A., 1994, 91, 7207-7211.
. . There is as yet no convincing explanation for the continuous health of SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGM). This study determined the subsets in AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells susceptible to infection with SIVagm, then determined that an SIVagm-inhibiting factor is synthesized by CD8 T lymphocytes.
*Persistent infection with SIVmac chimeric virus having tat, rev,
vpu, env and nef of HIV type 1 in macaque monkeys. Igarashi, T.,
Shibata, R., Hasebe, F., Ami, Y., Shinohara, K., Komatsu, T., Stahl-Hennig, C.,
Petry, H., Hunsmann, G., Kuwata, T., Jin, M., Adachi, A., Kurimura, T., Okada,
M., Miura, T., & Hayami, M. (M. H., Research Ctr for Immunodeficiency
Viruses, Inst. for Virus Research, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan).
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1994, 10, 1021-1029.
. . A chimeric human and simian immunodeficiency virus did not induce any clinical symptoms associated with AIDS in cynomolgus monkeys within 88 weeks, but antibodies to viral proteins, including neutralizing activity, were maintained. If neither this nor another chimeric virus, previously reported, induce any symptoms in the future, they may be useful as live attenuated vaccine candidates against HIV-1 infection.
*Cortical reorganization and deafferentation in adult macaques. Lund, J. P.,
Sun, G.-D., & Lamarre, Y. (Dept de Stomatologie, Fac. Méd. dentaire, Univ.
Montréal, Montréal, P.Q. H3C 3J7, Canada). Response. Pons, T. P.
Science, 1994, 265, 546-548.
. . The authors propose an alternative explanation for the results of Pons et al.'s 1991 work.
*Latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in cottontop tamarins: A possible model
for Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans. Niedobitek, G., Agathanggelou, A.,
Finerty, S., Tierney, R., Watkins, P., Jones, E. L., Morgan, A., Young, L. S.,
& Rooney, N. (Dept of Pathology, Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT,
U.K.). American Journal of Pathology, 1994, 145, 969-978.
. . Results suggest that immunized cotton-top tamarins are capable of establishing a latent EBV infection that is not associated with the development of malignant lymphomas. This may also happen in nonimmunized animals in which virus-induced lymphomas regress spontaneously. Further studies are required to evaluate the potential of EBV-infected cotton-tops as a model for human virus-associated diseases.
*Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques.
Reinhardt, V. (4605 Crescent Rd, Madison, WI 53711). Journal of Medical
Primatology, 1994, 23, 426-431.
. . Having transferred 378 adult and juvenile rhesus from single- to isosexual pair-housing, with 0.8% serious injury in the first year, the author concludes that pair-housing offers a safe option to address the animals' social needs in compliance with federal rules and professional standards.
*Social factors influencing performance of a foraging task for captive
chimpanzees. Brent, L., Fisher, S., & Eichberg, J. W. (Dept of Lab. Animal
Med., Southwest Foundation, West Loop 410 at Military Dr., San Antonio, TX
78228-0147). Folia Primatologica, 1993, 61, 177-185.
. . The performance of captive Pantroglodytes during a simulated foraging activity was compared to the foraging behavior of wild chimpanzees. The behavior of the captives was similar to that observed in the wild, but subtle differences did occur. "Possible explanations for these differences include the influence of the captive environment, genetic change over time, or a combination of factors. As the number of wild-born primates in captivity declines, it will be important to observe how the new generations adapt to the pressures imposed by captivity and if these adaptations are translated into new behaviors or social organization."
*Which adult male savanna baboons form coalitions? Noë, R. & Sluijter, A.
A. (A. A. S., Max-Planck-Inst. für Verhaltensphysiol., Abt. Wickler,
Seewiesen, 82319 Starnberg, Germany). International Journal of
Primatology, 1995, 16, 77-105.
. . Data from observation of three groups imply that relative fighting ability forms the key factor in coalition formation. High-ranking males do not need coalitions; low-ranking males cannot form effective coalitions among themselves. "Friendship" may be an additional factor.
*Variation in the parental care systems of mammals and the impact on zoo
breeding programs. Baker, A. (Burnet Park Zoo, 1 Conservation Pl., Syracuse, NY
13204). Zoo Biology, 1994, 13, 413-421.
. . A review of factors, such as paternal care and alloparenting, which must be taken into account in managing captive breeding programs of many species.
*Separation and depression in infant gorillas. Hoff, M. P., Nadler, R. D.,
Hoff, K. T., & Maple, T. L. (Dalton College, Dalton, GA 30720).
DevelopmentalPsychobiology, 1994, 27, 439-452.
. . Three infant gorillas were removed from their mothers for veterinary/husbandry reasons, and kept together as a group for 24 weeks. The infants initially showed threat responses and increased locomotion, characteristic of the protest stage of anaclitic depression in children. Within several days, these were replaced by dorsoventral contact, as well as self-holding and fetal positioning. There was substantial recovery of social and nonsocial behaviors later in the separation. Upon reunion, the infants spent more time in contact with each other than with their mothers for the first several days, indicating detachment. Following this, there was an increase in mother-infant attachment behaviors.
*The development of affiliative and agonistic social patterns in differentially
reared monkeys. Andrews, M. W. & Rosenblum, L. A. (Dept of Psychiatry, Box
120, SUNY Health Sci. Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203). Child Development,
1994, 65, 1398-1404.
. . This study explored the long-term consequences of rearing monkeys under conditions that produced in the infants, by the age of 6 months, a relative inability to use their mothers as a secure base from which to explore a novel environment. Assessment of social patterns was conducted an average of 2.5 years later when all subjects had been living for at least 2 months in their age-matched rearing cohorts without their mothers and without contact with unfamiliar individuals. Social patterns of the monkeys were evaluated under increasingly unfamiliar and complex social contexts. This study produced long-term effects despite the presence of the mother and peers during early development.
*Brainstem auditory evoked response development in preterm and term baboons
(Papio hamadryas). Edwards, D. A., Henderson-Smart, D. J., Pettigrew, A.
G., Wetzlar, A., & Phippard, A. F. (D. J. H.-S., Dept of Perinatal Med.,
King George V Hospital, Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia).
Developmental Brain Research, 1994, 82, 181-184.
. . Brainstem auditory evoked responses were recorded longitudinally from 11 neonatal baboons, 6 of which were preterm, from day 161 to day 362 after conception (term = 182 days). The pattern of development of both waveform morphology and of wave latency was consistent with that seen in the human neonate, with a rapid maturation of the response during the perinatal period, and then a slower development to adult values.
*Pathology of simian immunodeficiency virus induced disease. Lackner, A. A.
(California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Current Topics in
Microbiology and Immunology, 1994, 188, 35-64.
. . A review, focusing on infection of macaques by SIVmac and SIVsmm.
*Simian immunodeficiency viruses of African green monkeys. Kurth, R. &
Norley, S. (Paul-Ehrlich-Inst., Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 51-59, 63225 Langen,
Germany). Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 1994,
. . A review of what is probably the oldest known example of a natural lentivirus infection, SIV of the four species of Cercopithecus aethiops.
*Encephalomyelitis due to a Sarcocystis neurona-like protozoan in a
rhesus monkey (Macacamulatta) infected with simian immunodeficiency
virus. Klumpp, S. A., Anderson, D. C., McClure, H. M., & Dubey, J. P.
(Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). American Journal of Tropical
Medicine and Hygiene, 1994, 51, 332-338.
. . Sarcocystosis, usually of no clinical significance in nonhuman primates, caused a chronic necrotizing encephalomyelitis with intralesional protozoal schizonts in a captive-born rhesus monkey. Sarcocystis neurona has recently been identified as an etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in horses, raccoons, and mink.
*WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record, 1995, No. 10.
. . Reports on yellow fever in 1992 and 1993, which were relatively mild in terms of total numbers of cases of yellow fever, but noteworthy in that the first outbreak ever recorded in Kenya was documented. In a dramatic decrease, only Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana reported cases in this period.
*Back in the hot zone. Preston, R. NewYorker, 1995, 71,
. . Background, as of May 22, of the current Ebola virus epidemic.
*The Y-autosome translocation of Callimicogoeldii. Margulis, S.
W., Chin, J., Warneke, M., Dubach, J. M., & Lindgren, V. (Committee on
Evolutionary Biology, Univ. of Chicago, 940 E. 57th St, Chicago, IL 60637).
International Journal of Primatology, 1995, 16, 145-155.
. . Karyotypic analyses on 40 captive Callimicogoeldii revealed that 39 had a diploid chromosome number of 47, including Y-autosome translocation. The remaining male had 48 chromosomes; he, too, carried the translocation along with two X chromosomes. This translocation appears not to be a polymorphism, as previously reported, but rather a feature characteristic of all males in the population.
Instruments & Techniques
*Preliminary observations on soluble CD8 measurements in cynomolgus monkeys.
Evans, G. O. & Fagg, R. (Drug Safety Evaluation, Wellcome Research Labs,
Beckenham, Kent BR3 3BS, UK). Comparative Haematology International,
1994, 4, 143-145.
. . A study to determine if a 'sandwich' enzyme-linked immunoassay for sCD8, designed for use with human sera, could be used with sera from cynomolgus monkeys.
*Demonstration of invitro infection of chimpanzee hepatocytes with
hepatitis C virus using strand-specific RT/PCR. Lanford, R. E., Sureau, C.,
Jacob, J. R., White, R., & Fuerst, T. R. (Dept. of Virology &
Immunology, Southwest Foundation, San Antonio, TX 78228). Virology,
1994, 202, 606-614.
. . Two new methods of reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction were developed that permit accurate distinction between positive and negative strand HCV RNA. This system should be amenable to the study of HCV replication, antiviral compounds, and the development of neutralization assays.
*Training adaptations of baboons to light and moderate treadmill exercise. Ivy,
J. L., Coelho, A. M., Jr., Easley, S. P., Carley, K. D., Rogers, W. R., Shade,
R. E. (A. M. C., Behavioral Med. Lab., Southwest Foundation, P.O. Box 28147,
San Antonio, TX 78228-0147). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1994,
. . Baboon response to exercise training was similar to that of Homo sapiens, and dependent on exercise intensity.
*Intracellular mechanism of penile erection in monkeys. Trigo-Rocha, F., Hsu,
G.-L., Donatucci, C. F., Martinez-Pineiro, L., Lue, T. F., & Tanagho, E. A.
(T. F. L., Dept of Urology, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0738).
Neurourology and Urodynamics, 1994, 13, 71-80.
. . A study of the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) systems in Macaca nemestrina. Both systems may be involved in cavernous smooth muscle relaxation, and cGMP is probably the predominant intracellular second messenger in penile erection in monkeys. Stimulants of the cGMP system, such as nitric oxide releasers, could represent an effective physiological approach in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
*Use of behavior to evaluate reproductive problems in captive mammals.
Lindburg, D. G. & Fitch-Snyder, H. (Research Dept, Zool. Soc. of San Diego,
P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112). Zoo Biology, 1994, 13,
. . Behavioral inadequacies affecting reproductive performance may be attributable to deficient early rearing environment, the social milieux in which animals are held, or the way pairings for mating are staged. A biologically based approach which integrates species-typical behavior with concerns for genetics, physiology, and health in designing breeding programs will improve prospects for success.
*Mammalian sociobiology and zoo breeding programs. Kleiman, D. G. (Dept of
Zool. Research, National Zool. Park, Washington, DC 20008). Zoo Biology,
1994, 13, 423-432.
. . A discussion of the impact of the social and physical environment on the potential for reproductive success of mammals in zoos. The effects of physical requirements, mating systems, social dynamics, and such social characteristics as familiarity are stressed.
*Follicle-stimulating hormone priming of rhesus monkeys enhances meiotic and
developmental competence of oocytes matured in vitro. Schramm, R. D. &
Bavister, B. D. (Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715).
Biology of Reproduction, 1994, 51, 904-912.
. . FSH priming of monkeys enhanced nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes in vitro, and resulted in production of the first in vitro-matured/in vitro-fertilized primate blastocysts. In nonhuman primates, cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes may require more time to complete than nuclear maturation and may commence well in advance of meiotic resumption. While critical events occur during nuclear maturation in vitro that have subsequent effects upon embryonic development, important events also occur during folliculogenesis, prior to meiotic resumption, that have subsequent effects upon the meiotic and developmental capabilities of oocytes. Absolute normality of IVM/IVF monkey embryos has not yet been verified by embryo transfer and production of normal offspring, as has been done in cattle, sheep, and humans.
*Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca
fascicularis). Sankai, T., Terao, K., Yanagimachi, R., Cho, F., &
Yoshikawa, Y. (Tsukuba Primate Ctr for Med. Science, NIH, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305,
Japan). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1994, 101,
. . The best sperm survival rate was obtained after freezing spermatozoa in an egg yolk based semen-diluting medium containing 5% glycerol with 30 min equilibrium time. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa had a shorter lifespan in capacitation medium than did fresh, unfrozen ones.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest.
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Richard A. Hahn, 1894 N.W. Eucalyptus Ave, Arcadia, FL 33821.
Tim Martin, Dept of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurol. Inst., 350 W. Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ 85013.
Christian E. Newcomer, Director, Div. of Lab. Animal Med., CB#7115-B12 Berryhill Hall, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7115.
Scott Perkins, MSKCC, Box 270, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10021.
Primate Information Center, Univ. of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195-7330.
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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853,
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912.
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health
Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program,
National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover drawing of black spider monkey
(Ateles paniscus) by Jaime Aviles.
Copyright @1995 by Brown University
Editor: Judith E. Schrier, M.Sc.
Associate Editor: James S. Harper, D.V.M.
Consulting Editor: Morris L. Povar, D.V.M.
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen, B.A.
Founding Editor: Allan M. Schrier, Ph.D.
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