Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Reorganization of Dominance Rank Among Adult Males in a Captive Group of Tufted Capuchins (Cebus apella), by G. Byrne, K. M. Abbott, & S. J. Suomi...... 1

Rotational Use of a Recreational Cage for the Environmental Enrichment of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) , by G. W. Tustin, L. E. Williams, & A. G. Brady...... 5

Topics and Taxa of Papers and Posters Presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Primatologists: 1985-1994, by E. L. Zucker & S. A. Stacks...... 8

News, Information, and Announcements

Editor's Notes...... 7
. . The Newsletter Joins the WWW; The Price of Postage

Information Available...... 11
. . Health and Safety Guidelines; WRPRC Audiovisual Archives; Primatology and Related Information on the WWW; Introducing ABSLnews; Slide Set on Emerging Diseases

Primate Film Competition...... 12

Retirement Surprise...... 13

Travelers' Health Notes: Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine Recommendations...... 13

Meeting Anouncements...... 14
. . The Evolution of Human Language; 9th International Congress on Isozymes, Genes, and Gene Families; International Orangutan Keepers

IPS/ASP Joint Congress in Madison, Wisconsin...... 14

News Briefs...... 16
. . Mountain Gorillas Still Threatened; Ebola-Zaire: Skin Test Developed; UW Field Station AWA Violations; WHO Reports from Africa; Gorilla Birth and Death in Seattle; Primates Intercepted in Manila; Dengue in Gibbon Colony -- Thailand; Court Rules Against Berosini

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 18
. . Summer Apprenticeship Program, Washington State; Zoo Animal Behaviour & Welfare, Scotland; Fyssen Foundation 1996-1997 Fellowships; Fellowships in Animal Cognition, Washington DC; Fellowships for Research in Japan; Animals and Public Policy

Award Nominations: Fyssen Foundation 1996 International Prize ...... 20

Awards Granted...... 20
. . Goodall to Receive Procter Prize; Primate Center Library Honored

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research...... 21

Grants Available...... 30
. . Small Grant Program for the NIDCD; Minority Dissertation Grants in Aging

Philadelphia Zoo Fire ...... insert


Address Changes...... 13

Positions Available...... 15
. . Psychology, Wheaton College; Field Station Manager, Costa Rica; Environmental Enrichment Technician, Texas

Recent Books and Articles ...... 31

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Reorganization of Dominance Rank Among Adult Males in a Captive Group of Tufted Capuchins (Cebus apella)

Gayle Byrne, Kristin M. Abbott, and Stephen J. Suomi

Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, NIH


Adult males play several important roles in capuchin social groups. Dominant males in particular have been characterized as watchdogs and protectors (Defler, 1979; Izawa, 1980; van Schaik & van Noordwijk, 1989), in addition to being centers of troop attention. Dominant males enjoy uncontested access to food and receptive females (Janson, 1984, 1985; Welker et al., 1990). In general, there is a high degree of tolerance among males in multimale groups of Cebus apella, and affiliations between adult males appear to be psychologically important to those involved (Izawa, 1980; Welker, 1992). However, serious aggression does occasionally occur between males. Although relatively rare, such instances merit description by virtue of the potentially injurious consequences for males housed together in captive colonies.

This paper describes an incidence of rank challenge and ensuing dominance change among four adult males in a previously stable group of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). After a fight between the alpha and beta males necessitated their removal from the group, the third-ranking male took over as alpha; he subsequently defended his position when the higher-ranking males were returned to the group. Upon the removal of the third male, the former beta male successfully took over the alpha position. Neither the deposed alpha male nor the third-ranking male was able to remain in the group after these changes took place. By supporting higher-ranking males against lower ones, juveniles of both sexes played a large part in the success or failure of adult males in obtaining and maintaining dominance positions.


In June of 1990 the Laboratory of Comparative Ethology acquired a group of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) consisting of 4 adult males, 7 adult females, and 5 juveniles (2 females, 3 males). The group had reportedly been formed more than 15 years previously. The alpha male (Aslan) was approximately 13 years old and the beta male (Othello) approximately 10. The third- and fourth-ranking males (Simon and Hamlet, aged 10 and 9) were reported to be offspring of the dominant female. Over the next four years two lower-ranking females were removed from the group and seven additional juveniles (5 males, 2 females) were born. This group lives in an outdoor corncrib (5 m in diameter, 4.2 m high) from May to October, and is moved to an indoor-outdoor run (two connecting areas, each 2.5 x 3 x 2.5 m) for the rest of the year.

From 1990 to 1993 there were four occasions on which adult males were removed for treatment of injuries. Othello, Simon, and Hamlet were all removed from the group at different times (Hamlet twice) and treated for bite wounds. There was no observable evidence of increased aggression in the group prior to these incidents, and it is unknown how these wounds were received. Medical treatment required isolation of the males for periods ranging from six days to two weeks. Upon each male's return to the group, other animals, particularly juveniles, became highly excited. In some cases they rushed to embrace the returning male; in others they avoided him or approached cautiously, sniffing him and inspecting the site of the wound. At no time was there any aggression to the returning male, nor did there seem to be any change in group relationships during his absence.

In August of 1993 Aslan and Othello were both injured in a fight and had to be removed from the group for treatment. When Aslan and then Othello were reintroduced two and three weeks later, respectively, they were each threatened and attacked by the other adult males (particularly Simon, the third-ranking male) and juveniles. Within a day of each reintroduction the returning animal was again removed for medical treatment.

Reactions to the two animals' initial returns were very dissimilar. In his absence Aslan had lost much of his thick coat, and he appeared thinner and less muscular. Upon his return the group behaved as though they did not recognize him. He was threatened by the adult males and juveniles and avoided by the adult females. Upon Othello's return, reactions were mixed. Simon threatened him from a distance, accompanied by several juveniles. Some older juveniles greeted Othello with hugging and grooming, and stayed in close proximity to him. Adult females neither greeted nor actively avoided him.

It was decided to remove Simon and reintroduce Aslan, the former alpha, and Othello, the former beta, simultaneously. The group again accepted Othello but was more antagonistic towards Aslan. Othello and several juveniles were observed to threaten him on a number of occasions. The following day Aslan was found with a slight injury. He was moved to an adjacent cage in visual and auditory contact with the group. Over the next two days he was allowed into another cage for brief periods where tactile contact with other group members was possible. Some adult females and younger juveniles "visited" him there, touching him through wire mesh and vocalizing to him. Three days later he was let back into the main group for several hours without incident. After being separated overnight, Aslan and the group were then moved to two connecting outdoor runs prior to moving to their permanent winter housing. At this time Aslan was allowed full access to the group. He consistently avoided Othello and occasionally received threats from the adult males and juveniles. Three days later Aslan was again attacked and injured, and he was permanently removed from the group.

Figure 1: Comparison of Aslan's and Othello's social scores in 1992 and 1993. Data represent mean number of samples/10 minutes in which each male was in proximity to each category of partner. Vertical bars denote Standard Error of the Mean.

An attempt was then made to reintroduce Simon. The door between the runs was closed. Simon was put in one run and the entire group in the other for two hours, with visual and auditory contact. The connecting door was then opened; when Simon entered the next run he was almost immediately attacked by Hamlet and several juveniles and injured severely. He was removed and no further attempts were made to reintroduce him.

Social Proximity Data

The only data being collected from this group over this period were on social proximity patterns, and even for those scores no data were available for the August prior to the fight. In April, June, and July social proximity patterns were scored during

10-minute focal animal sessions 2-3 times/week. Every 20 seconds an observer noted all the animals in proximity (15 cm) to each focal animal. Correlated t-tests were used to examine the data for changes over time in Aslan's or Othello's proximity scores with all adult females, all juveniles, high-ranking adult females (the two highest in the group), low-ranking females (the lowest two), and juveniles from the two highest- and two lowest-ranking families (relative rank was assigned according to the direction and outcome of aggressive encounters over the years). Proximity data were also compared to data collected from the same time period in the previous year.

Comparison of 1992 vs. 1993 scores

The only significant changes in social scores from the previous year were increases in Othello's scores with high-ranking females (t = 31.0, 1 df, p <. 05) and with high-ranking juveniles (t = 3.9, 5 df, p < .05) from 1992 to 1993 (Figure 1).

Changes during 1993

In the months before the fight Aslan's scores with juveniles declined; scores with all juveniles (t = 3.24, 10 df, p < .01) and with high-ranking juveniles (t = 4.11, 5 df, p < .01) were significantly lower in July than in April. No significant differences were observed in Aslan's scores with adult females (Figure 2).

Othello showed no significant changes from April to July in social scores with adult females or juveniles of either rank (Figure 3). Othello showed increased proximity scores in September with all juveniles (t - 3.7, 10 df, p < .01) and high-ranking juveniles (t = 4.9, 5 df, p < .01), after he was established as alpha. Although not tested statistically, it is interesting to note that Aslan's and Othello's proximity scores with each other were extremely low during July, and Othello's scores with Simon during that month were higher than they had been in the previous two years.

Figure 2: Aslan's social scores during the months preceding the fight. Top figure shows scores with adult females, juveniles, and Othello and Simon. Bottom figure breaks down scores with adult females and juveniles by rank. Vertical bars denote Standard Error of the Mean.

To summarize, an overall pattern of increase from the previous year in social proximity scores with high-ranking individuals was observed for Othello, but not for Aslan. For Aslan, a low point was evident for scores with juveniles of high-ranking families in July of 1993, the month before the fight. However, these changes were all very subtle and surrounded by a great deal of variation.


We do not know what precipitated the initial fight between Aslan and Othello, which led to the subsequent changes in social structure in this group. There had been no change in levels of aggression prior to this incident that were noticed by observers. In hindsight, changes in social proximity patterns in the months before the fight may provide useful information, but they did not draw unusual attention at the time they occurred.

It is also unknown how long Aslan had been alpha before the group was acquired, or what the kinship relations may have been among Aslan, Othello, and the other group members. Subsequent genetic analysis indicates that this group has become highly inbred. Without more information on the group's prior history, however, speculation on the origin of the initial rank challenge is problematic.

Figure 3: Othello's social scores during the months preceding the fight. Top figure shows scores with adult females, juveniles, and Aslan and Simon. Bottom figure breaks down scores with adult females and juveniles by rank. Vertical bars denote Standard Error of the Mean.

Some useful insights can be derived from this incident, however, that may aid in future colony management decisions. It appears that if the alpha male remains in the group, subordinates coming and going do not cause problems in multimale Cebus apella groups. If the dominant male is removed, however, subordinate males may attempt to take over his position and defend it when he is returned.

In the present case, juveniles appeared to play a large part in the politics of male-male interactions. Older juveniles (ranging in age from 2 to 5 years) were major participants in aggressive incidents, often hugging the resident male or staying in close proximity to him. The presence of a large number of juveniles backing up adult males was a significant factor contributing to the inability of the reintroduced males to escape in aggressive encounters. It is interesting to note that in the month before the fight Aslan's scores with juveniles had declined slightly. In contrast, Othello's proximity scores with juveniles increased dramatically during and immediately after his takeover. During the following year, however, after being established as alpha, Othello's proximity scores with juveniles fell to their lowest values ever (unpublished data).

Both male and female juveniles were seen to participate in alliances with resident males. Large cohorts of maturing adolescent females have been implicated in severe aggressive outbreaks among macaques and baboons (e.g., Walters, 1980; Samuels & Henrickson, 1983). However, these attacks differ from the present case in that they largely involved rank challenges toward other females.

Adult female capuchins were not seen to aid in aggressive encounters; for the most part they either ignored the introduced male or actively avoided him. Within three weeks of Othello's takeover females began to solicit him for copulation. In the three years prior to the takeover Aslan had always been the main target of their solicitations. However, a mid-ranking female had been observed copulating with Othello at the end of July; this female was the only one who was ever observed to solicit or copulate with him on more than one occasion during Aslan's tenure. If there were changes in females' preferences for adult males, either in social proximity or in sexual solicitations, they were very subtle and did not forewarn of the rank challenge that was imminent.

Few instances of rank reversal in wild capuchins have been described. In the wild, with more room to disperse, deposed adult males may remain on the fringes of their groups without severe harassment (Izawa, 1990; Perry, 1994). In a captive situation this is usually not possible. Some captive multimale groups may remain relatively peaceful (Phillips, 1993). The present case, however, coupled with other observations from our laboratory, indicates that even groups that have been stable for years run the risk of aggressive outbreaks among males. The presence of large numbers of juveniles may intensify such conflicts. Some rearrangement of group membership may be needed to restore stability.

In a final note, Aslan and Simon were paired after being rejected by the group, and later two older juveniles, who had been harassing an adult female in the group, were added. Simon is the dominant male in the group. No aggression was observed upon the formation of this group which, almost two years later, is still together.


Defler, T. R. (1979). On the ecology and behavior of Cebus albifrons in eastern Colombia: II. Behavior. Primates, 20, 491-502.

Izawa, K. (1980). Social behavior of the wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella). Primates, 21, 443-467.

Izawa, K. (1990). Social changes within a group of wild black-capped capuchins (Cebus apella) in Colombia (II). Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia, 3, 1-5.

Janson, C. H. (1984). Female choice and mating system of the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella. Primates: Cebidae). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 65, 177-200.

Janson, C. H. (1985). Aggressive competition and individual food consumption in wild brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 18, 125-138.

Phillips, K. A. (1993). Mating patterns and sexual competition in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): Implications for captive housing. AAZPA Regional Conference Proceedings, 742-747.

Samuels, A. & Henrickson, R. V. (1983). Outbreak of severe aggression in captive Macaca mulatta. American Journal of Primatology, 5, 277-281.

van Schaik, C. P. & van Noordwijk, M. A. (1989). The special role of male Cebus monkeys in predation avoidance and its effect on group composition. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 24, 265-276.

Walters, J. (1980). Interventions and the development of dominance relationships in female baboons. Folia Primatologica, 34, 61-89.

Welker, C. (1992). Long-term studies on the social behavior of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Perspectives in Primate Biology, 4, 9-16.

Welker, C., Hohmann, H., & Schafer-Witt, C. (1990). Significance of kin relations and individual preferences in the social behaviour of Cebus apella. Folia Primatologica, 54, 166-170.

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Rotational Use of a Recreational Cage for the Environmental Enrichment of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata)

George W. Tustin, Lawrence E. Williams, and Alan G. Brady

University of South Alabama

Published studies on the use of manipulable objects (Line et al., 1989; Weld & Erwin, 1990), perches (Reinhardt, 1989), and Prima-Hedronsreg. (Primate Products, Redwood City, CA; O'Neill et al., 1990) for the environmental enrichment of nonhuman primates have shown the success of these devices to be variable. Nor does moving monkeys to a larger cage necessarily enrich their environment (Bayne & McCully, 1989). On the other hand, moving animals from a group or larger cage to single housing does increase stress and stereotypic behavior (Brent et al., 1989).

At the University of South Alabama we have used a variety of simple methods to provide environmental enrichment to our Old World monkeys. For example, unflavored rawhide chews are placed inside the animals' cages, and Nylabonereg. balls (Nylabone Corporation, Neptune City, NJ), made from a durable, hard plastic material, are placed inside cages or attached to a reachable tether outside the cages (Ross & Everitt, 1988). Puzzle feeders (Primate Products, Redwood City, CA) are also made available to the animals. The level of behavioral stimulation provided by all these devices has been variable and, overall, disappointing.

The study we describe here was designed to measure activity levels in ]Macaca fuscata as they were routinely moved from small home cages to a larger exercise pen and back.


The study group consisted of four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). All animals were on the same research protocol, which involved daily auditory testing in a soundproof booth, with food rewards as positive reinforcement. Subjects received a daily ration of a commercial monkey chow (Purina Old World Monkey Chow #5038) based on body weight, supplemented with fruits or vegetables and 250 ml of a fruit-flavored drink after their experimental testing. Water was available ad lib. Room temperature was maintained between 22-25deg.C with a 12-hour light/dark schedule. All animals were cared for in accordance with NIH guidelines (ILAR, 1985).

The subject animals were individually housed in a four-cage rack. The cages measured 26.5" x 24" x 30". Each macaque was given a rawhide chew in its home cage, and either the Nylabonereg. ball in the cage or the ball and tether ouside the cage. The two types of ball toys were rotated every other week during the observations so that all animals were equally exposed to both types.

A recreation cage (Research Equipment Company, Bryan, TX) with interior dimensions of 59" x 30" x 72" was kept in the same room as the subjects' individual cages. Four such cages were used in rotation, so they could be cleaned and used for other purposes. Each recreation cage (Figure 1) contained perches made of 1.5" PVC pipe, and one 18" Prima-Hedronreg.. The Prima-Hedronreg. was mounted as a swing in three cages and wall-mounted in the fourth. Each animal had a continuous view of the recreation cage and could watch when other members of the study group were in the cage. Enrichment devices in the recreation cage included, beside the Prima-Hedronreg., the rawhide chew and Nylabonereg. ball from the subject's home cage. The recreation cages were cleaned daily and sanitized on a 14-day schedule.

Figure 1: Representative recreation cage configuration (wire mesh omitted for clarity).

Rotation through the recreation cage was accomplished by removing the subjects from their individual cage using a pole and collar. The subjects were allowed one day in the recreation cage before being removed. A food reward was used to lure them to a door, where they were secured with the catch pole. After each subject was removed, the next animal in the rotation schedule was moved to the recreation cage after its daily testing period.

Enrichment was evaluated using instantaneous scans, at three-minute intervals, for one-half hour. Nineteen observation sessions were made over a two-month period: nine morning sessions between 700-800 hrs and ten afternoon sessions between 1600-1800 hrs. Categories used in recording observations including resting, auto-grooming, foraging, cage investigation, use of enrichment devices, and stereotypic responses (including repetitive motion, rubber bottle-stopper chewing, and hair plucking). The use of an enrichment device category denoted actual manipulations or investigations of the device, not accidental contact through movement or resting.


The average responses of animals before and after introduction into the recreation cages is depicted in Figure 2. The small number of subjects precluded statistical analysis. Auto-grooming decreased in the recreation cage (17.13% compared with 24.4%). Animals rested less in the recreation cage (42.5%) compared with their home cages (49.3%). The only exception was Subject One, who was the most active macaque in whatever type of cage. Resting posture of the animals in their individual cages changed over the observations from mainly the head-down sleeping position to an alert-rest posture, in which the macaques would watch the activities of the animal in the recreation cage and frequently respond either through vocalization or lip smacking. The macaques in the recreation cage used the Prima-Hedronreg. as a "nest" for sleeping or resting.

Figure 2: Mean (+ sd) percent of scans during which each response category was recorded in each cage. Time spent resting, auto-grooming, and in stereotypical responses decreased in the recreation cage, while foraging, cage investigations, and use of enrichment devices increased.

The time spent foraging was twice as high in the recreation cage (11.5%) as in the individual cage (5.5%). The macaques were better able to mimic their natural foraging behavior by coming down off the perches to forage on the cage floor. This was especially noticeable during the afternoon observations, which followed their feeding time. The macaques would make frequent trips to the floor to retrieve chow and then return to the perch. In their individual cages the macaques frequently expressed foraging behavior by picking at imaginary material on the front bars of their cages.

Cage investigation remained stable in the two conditions (8.3% of time in the recreation cage vs. 7% in the home cage). Subject Four had no observations recorded under this category, though he did do some outside of the observation periods. While cage investigation was similar in both cages, there was a shift away from the manipulation of bottle latches and locks in the home cages to exploring the sides of the recreation cage, perhaps due to the increased cage area.

The use of the ball and rawhide chew devices increased in the recreation cage (19% v. 8.5%), along with investigation and manipulation of the Prima-Hedronreg., which was only available in the recreation cage. The rotation through the recreation cage led to increased use of the enrichment devices in the individual cages during the observations. Before rotation through the recreation cage, only Subject One would regularly use the rawhide chew, but after rotation was initiated, all the macaques started using theirs.

Stereotypic responses decreased with use of the recreation cage. It decreased from 5.5% of the animals' time in the individual cages to 1.6% of the time in the recreation cage. This decrease was most noticeable in two ways. The thighs of the subjects were almost bald before the introduction of the recreation cage, due to pulling their own hair. After the introduction, hair returned to these areas. Subject Four, who spent the highest percent of time in stereotypic behavior in his home cage (10%), showed no such behavior in the recreation cage.


This study provides evidence that the problem of boredom and declining use of enrichment devices usually seen with nonhuman primates can be addressed by rotating the animals through a recreation cage larger than the standard individual cage. The rotational use of the recreation cage resulted in increased use of enrichment devices in all four Japanese macaques even though the animals were not permanently housed in the larger cage. Keeping the recreational cage in the same room with the home cages allowed the animals to watch each other there.

The recreation cage seemed to lead to more interaction among the macaques in their individual cages. After watching individuals in the recreation cage, subjects began passing ball and tether devices back and forth to each other while in their home cages. Hand contacts were also seen between macaques with cages directly over each other.

The rotational use of a recreation cage offers a means of providing environmental enrichment to nonhuman primates that cannot be socially housed. Activity within the recreation cage benefits all animals in the room through visual interaction. The use of the recreation cage seems to lead to a shift from more passive behaviors to more active ones, and to a decrease in stereotypic responses. In addition, there has been an increase in affiliative contacts between animals in adjacent cages. This method of enrichment allows for flexibility when budgetary, spatial, or experimental constraints or social incompatibility limits the use of more complex housing arrangements or socialization for enrichment.


Bayne, K. A. L. & McCully, C. (1989). The effect of cage size on the behavior of individually housed rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Animal, 18[7], 25-28.

Brent, L., Lee, D. R., & Eichberg, J. W. (1989). The effects of single caging on chimpanzee behavior. Laboratory Animal Science, 39, 345-346.

ILAR (1985). Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. DHHS publication no. (NIH)86-23.

Line, S. W., Clarke, A. S., & Markowitz, H. (1989). Adult female rhesus macaque responses to novel objects. Laboratory Animal, 18[4], 33-40.

O'Neill, P. L., Novicky, P., & George, E. (1990). Preliminary evaluation of Prima-Hedron play structures for non-human primates. Laboratory Animal, 19[5], 40-41.

Reinhardt, V. (1989). Evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal, 18[6], 31-33.

Reinhardt, V. (1990b). Comparing the effectiveness of various options of animate and inanimate cage enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 225.

Ross, P. W. & Everitt, J. I. (1988). A nylon ball device for primate environment enrichment. Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 481-483.

Weld, K. & Erwin, J. (1990). Provision of manipulable objects to cynomolgus macaques promotes species-typical behavior. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 243.

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Editor's Notes

The Newsletter Joins the WWW

The most recent dozen or so issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter with graphics, including cartoons and cover art, are now available on the World Wide Web at The most recent Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and indexes back to 1980 are also there. More back issues will be added over the next year. Comments are welcome.

More and more journals and organizations are posting material to the Web. See page 11 for a partial list of web sites of interest to primatologists.

The Price of Postage

The price of mailing in the United States went up in 1995, and we must therefore increase the amount we charge to send the LPN to foreign addresses. From now on surface mail will cost $US7/year, and air mail $US14/year. Subscribing for multiple years will save money, not only for buying dollars, but also because it will protect the subscriber from further increases. It also saves us bookkeeping effort, of course.

We encourage foreign subscribers to read the LPN on the World Wide Web, or by e-mail subscription to LPN-L (see the Policy Statement inside the front cover for details on how to subscribe to LPN-L).

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Topics and Taxa of Papers and Posters Presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Primatologists: 1985-1994

Evan L. Zucker and Sharon A. Stacks

Loyola University

One way to assess the current status of a particular area of study, as well as the trends leading to that status, is to examine the literature published, for some period of time, in that area of study. In research that uses animals as subjects, the topics of published articles and the taxonomic groups studied both provide information about the work being done in that area of study. One of the more famous examples of this approach was that of Beach (1950), who examined the contents of the leading comparative psychology journal(s) between 1908 and 1947, noting that as the number of articles published increased, the number of different species being studied decreased. In primatology, other examples of this approach are Southwick and Smith's (1986) analysis of the growth of field studies, Erwin and Zucker's (1987) analysis of the use of African monkey species in behavioral research for the five-year period of 1980 through 1984, and Hebert and Courtois' (1994) analysis of behavioral research on great apes.

Erwin (1981) used the citations that appeared in Current Primate References in 1980 in his assessment of the field of primatology. Using the 20 areas that the Primate Information Center (University of Washington) uses to classify the citations, Erwin described the results of his analysis as indicative of "breadth and balance" in primatology. In 1980, the most references were to works dealing with nonhuman primate nervous systems, followed in decreasing order by pharmacology/therapeutics, behavior, dental/oral structures, endocrinology, cardiovascular system, reproductive systems, toxicology/environmental health, and general primatology. These areas comprised the top nine in frequency, and each represented 4.0% or more of the 3809 citations (Erwin, 1981).

As Erwin (1981) suggested, another way to assess the scientific activity within a field such as primatology is to examine the papers presented at the meetings of scientific societies. In this report, a descriptive analysis is presented of the topics and taxa of papers and posters presented at the annual meetings of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) for the 10-year period of 1985 through 1994, inclusive.


Sources of Data

Programs and abstracts of the annual meetings of the ASP, 1985 through 1994, were reviewed. The abstracts of the papers and posters accepted for presentation at these meetings have been published in the American Journal of Primatology. The programs of these meetings also appeared in the American Journal of Primatology beginning in 1988. For the three years prior to their publication in this journal, the printed programs distributed at the meetings were reviewed.

Categorization of Data

First, the titles of every oral paper session at the annual meetings were listed, then combined, by similarity, to form a list of 18 topics (see Table 1). Subtopics included within the more global ones also are indicated in Table 1. All the oral papers within each session were categorized according to which one of the 18 topics was assigned to that session.

Using these same 18 topics, poster presentations were categorized on the prevalent topic found in the title. If a poster title indicated several possible topics, a primary topic was determined, usually based on the independent variable(s). For example, if estrogen levels were manipulated in order to study receptivity of females, it was classified as "endocrinology" rather than "reproduction."

Symposia papers and invited addresses were excluded from the analyses.

Category               Other Included Topics and    
Biomedicine            Animal models of disease    
Colony Management      Husbandry, housing & housing changes 
Development            Aging, mother-infant behavior, separations 
Ecology                Habitat use
Endocrinology          Steroid hormones and behavior 
Enrichment             Provision of objects, "well-being" 
Human Evolution/       Growth & development, organ 
  Anatomy              development, laterality 
Learning/Language/     Sensation, perception, tool use 
Neuroscience           Brain sites of action, neurotransmitters  
                       and their effects 
Physiology             Stress, immunology, body weight, sleep/ 
Research Methods       radioimmunoassays, ultrasound, apparatus,  
                       computer software/hardware 
Social Behavior        Aggression, vocalizations, communication,  
                       scent marking, affiliation
Veterinary Medicine    Diseases, parasites 

Table 1: Topics for the Paper and Poster Categories

The species studied was noted, from titles and abstracts, for as many oral papers and posters as possible. The taxonomic designation provided by the author(s) was used. Species were then grouped into five categories: Prosimians, New World monkeys, Macaques, Old World monkeys other than macaques, and Apes. For comparative studies and studies of more than one species, the category of "multiple species" was used for classification purposes. If only common or generic names were used without an accompanying scientific name or species name, the paper or poster was categorized based on the most prevalent species within that group, e.g., "baboons" were considered to be Papio cynocephalus, "chimpanzees" to be Pan troglodytes, etc.

The information for oral papers and posters initially was tabulated separately by year, but combined for the results included here. Data for topics and taxa are presented independently.


For the 10-year period, 1500 oral papers and posters were classified by topic (1085 papers and 415 posters) and 1330 (88.7%) of these were classified by the taxonomic group studied.


The total number of papers and posters, by topic, is presented in Table 2. As the yearly means are easily calculated, they are not included, but the standard deviations are included in this table. The percentage of the grand total and the rank order for each of the 18 topics are also included in Table 2. These data show that studies of Social Behavior were the most prevalent, accounting for 18.6% of the total. In decreasing order were Physiology (10.9% overall), Behavioral and Social Development (8.9%), Breeding and Reproduction (8.5%), Ecology (7.1%), Enrichment (6.7%), Learning, Language, and Cognition (6.2%), Colony Management (5.2%), Demographics/Population Studies and Endocrinology (4.6% each), Conservation and Feeding/Nutrition (3.3% each), Biomedicine (2.8%), Evolution/Anatomy/Growth (2.4%), Neuroscience (2.1%), Genetics (1.9%), Research Methods (1.8%), and Veterinary Medicine (1.0%).

The number of papers and posters in each of the topics varied over the ten-year period. Six of the 18 topics were represented in every year: Social Behavior, Breeding/Reproduction, Colony Management, Development, Learning/Language/Cognition, and Physiology. Another four topics were represented in 9 of the 10 years (Demography/Population, Ecology, Endocrinology, and Feeding/Nutrition).

Topic              #       #       Total (sd)     %    Rank 
                 Papers  Posters

Biomedicine       35       7        42 (6.32)   2.80   13 
Breeding/Reprod.  98      30       128 (6.92)   8.53    4 
Colony Mngment    51      26        78 (4.49)   5.20    8 
Conservation      46       4        50 (6.07)   3.33   11 
Demogr./Popul.    57      12        69 (9.29)   4.60    9.5 
Development      110      23       133 (5.35)   8.87    3 
Ecology           81      25       106 (6.60)   7.07    5 
Endocrinology     42      27        69 (7.35)   4.60    9.5 
Enrichment        66      34       100 (7.25)   6.67    6 
Feeding/Nutrition 34      15        49 (6.04)   3.27   12 
Genetics          23       6        29 (4.51)   1.93   16 
Evol/Anat/Growth  14      22        36 (4.14)   2.40   14 
Learning/Lang/Cog 73      20        93 (5.01)   6.20    7 
Neuroscience      21      11        32 (7.02)   2.13   15 
Physiology       109      54       163 (8.00)  10.87    2 
Research Methods  11      16        27 (2.94)   1.80   17 
Social Behavior  205      74       279 (13.13) 18.60    1 
Veterinary Med.   10       5        15 (3.10)   1.00   18 

Note: As these totals are based on a 10-year period, the mean (per year) can be calculated easily. The standard deviations are for papers and posters combined for each year.

Table 2: Frequencies, Percentages, and Ranks for the 18 Topics Across the 10-Year Period.


For the entire 10-year period, papers and posters about research with macaque species were the most prevalent (46.24%), followed by, with decreasing percentages, New World monkeys (19.55%), apes (16.69%), Old World monkeys other than macaques (13.23%), and prosimians (4.29%).

Within each of these five taxonomic categories, the most-prevalent single species were ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The number of presentations and the percentage of the taxonomic grouping represented by these species are shown in Table 3.

Taxonomic Group        Species         Total  % of   % of 
                                              Group  Total 
Prosimians           Lemur catta         19   33.3    1.43 
New World Monkeys    Saimiri sciureus    82   31.5    6.17 
Macaques             Macaca mulatta     328   53.3   24.66 
Other Old World      Papio cynocephalus  54   30.7    4.06 
Apes                 Pan troglodytes    155   69.8   11.65 

Table 3: Most Prevalent Species within Each of the Five Taxonomic Categories

The frequencies of presentations for these five large taxonomic groupings are presented in Table 4, along with the percentage of the program that that frequency represented. For these five taxonomic groups, the percentage of the programs represented by these groups ranged from 1.4% to 9.2% for Prosimians, 8.3% to 24.8% for New World Monkeys, 38.7% to 55.6% for Macaques, 10.9% to 20.4% for Old World Monkeys other than Macaques, and 6.5% to 24.7% for the Apes. A total of 88 nonhuman primate species have been the subjects of the 1330 classifiable presentations (15 prosimian species, 24 New World monkey species, 16 macaque species, 25 other Old World monkey species, and 8 ape species).


Over the past 10 years, research with macaques and social behavior predominated. Nearly 50% of all presentations were based on research with macaque species (see also Erwin and Zucker, 1987) and nearly 20% of all presentations focused on social behavior. The number (and percentages) of presentations for the various taxonomic groups remained fairly constant over the years, as did presentations in several areas of study. Ten of the 18 areas were represented almost every year.

       Prosimians New World  Macaques   Other Old     Apes
                   Monkeys            World Monkeys

Year n % n % n % n % n % 1985 10 9.2 9 8.3 60 55.6 22 20.4 7 6.5 1986 8 6.5 26 21.1 53 43.1 19 15.5 17 13.8 1987 3 2.0 30 20.3 70 47.3 20 13.5 25 16.9 1988 3 2.5 24 19.8 63 52.1 15 12.4 16 13.2 1989 3 2.9 22 21.1 45 43.3 12 11.5 22 21.2 1990 6 4.3 24 17.1 63 45.0 19 13.6 28 20.0 1991 2 1.4 31 21.8 56 39.4 18 12.7 35 24.7 1992 2 1.5 30 22.2 69 51.1 17 12.6 17 12.6 1993 11 6.4 30 17.4 83 48.3 19 11.0 29 16.9 1994 9 6.6 34 24.8 53 38.7 15 10.9 26 19.0

Note: n = number of presentations (oral papers + posters) that could be classified as to taxon studied; percentages within each year sum to 100.0.

Table 4: Yearly Number of Presentations and Percentage of Program for Each Taxonomic Group

While Social Behavior and Physiology were the prevalent topics, the number of presentations in these areas showed the greatest variability. Similarly, Demography and Population Studies were highly variable over the 10-year period.

The predominance of presentations about social behavior is not surprising given that the largest proportion of members of the American Society of Primatologists identified themselves as studying "behavior" (French, 1993). In the classification system used here, behavior could include a number of topics in addition to that of Social Behavior, including Breeding/Reproduction, Enrichment, Development, and the combined category of Learning/Language/Cognition.

Whereas several species predominated in several of the taxonomic groups, there was a large number of species represented in the ASP program over the 10-year period. The number of species studied and the topics reflect the diversity that continues to be present within primatology.


Beach, F. (1950) The snark was a boojum. American Psychologist, 5, 115-124.

Erwin, J. (1981). Breadth and balance in primatology. American Journal of Primatology, 1, 261-263.

Erwin, J. & Zucker, E. L. (1987). African monkeys in behavioral research: A 5-year retrospective analysis. In E. L. Zucker (Ed.), Comparative Behavior of African Monkeys (pp. 1-21). New York: Alan R. Liss.

French, J. A. (1993). A demographic analysis of the membership of the American Society of Primatologists: 1992. American Journal of Primatology, 29, 159-165.

Hebert, P. L. & Courtois, M. (1994). Twenty-five years of behavioral research on great apes: Trends between 1967 and 1991. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108, 373-380.

Southwick, C. H. & Smith, R. D. (1986). The growth of primate field studies. In D. R. Swindler & J. Erwin (Eds.), Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 2A: Behavior, Conservation, and Ecology (pp. 73-91). New York: Alan R. Liss.

* * *

Information Available

Health and Safety Guidelines

Organizations receiving grant or contract awards from the Federal Government are responsible for protecting their employees from hazardous conditions. The Government is not legally liable for accidents, illnesses, or claims arising out of research, but the National Institutes of Health nonetheless encourage awardees to minimize the hazards that may threaten the safety and health of laboratory and clinical research personnel.

Several guidelines and standards are available that can assist grantees and contractors in providing a safe work environment for research personnel. These include, but are not limited to: Biosafety in Microbiological and Biological Laboratories, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. HHS Publication No. (CDC)93-8395 [available from Div. of Safety, Office of Research Services, NIH, Bldg 31, Rm 1C02, 31 Center Dr. MSC 2260, Bethesda MD 20892-2260] and Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials [Price $19.95 from National Academy Press, 2102 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418].

Additional guidance is available from the Regional Offices of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and state and local environmental, health, and/or occupational safety agencies. -- NIH Guide, September 22, 1995, 24[33].

WRPRC Audiovisual Archives

If you have videotape materials or slides related to nonhuman primates and would consider contributing copies to the archive, please contact me or Ray Hamel, Special Collections Librarian, at the WRPRC. Please do not prejudge your material as inappropriate for the archive. Image clarity is the minimum criterion. Finished pieces as well as data tapes should be preserved. We would like to have 50 or more slides for EACH species to have good taxonomic, behavioral and other descriptive documentation. Please keep in mind that people who have been a part of the growing history of the discipline should also be photodocumented. We gratefully acknowledge the more than 475 contributions received to date.

WRPRC Archival materials are loaned internationally for educational and research purposes. Any requests to republish photographic materials from the archive must be approved by the photographer. If you have materials available or are planning laboratory or field work which involves videotaping or photography, please send us a note -- Larry Jacobsen,

Primatology and Related Information on the WWW

A number of resources are now available on the World Wide Web. All of the following URLs (WWW addresses) begin with "http://" which has been omitted so that most will fit onto one line.

* The current issue and several back issues of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter are now available at More back issues will be posted in the future.

* The American Society of Primatologists:

* Pan Africa News Vol. 2, No. 2 is available at

* The German Primate Center:


* Primate Gallery, including sound and movies:

* Primate Cytogenetics Network:

* Pan American Health Organization:

* International Council for Laboratory Animal Science:

* A site dedicated to emerging diseases:

* The Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos:

* British Medical Journal:

* Canadian Medical Association Journal:

* Journal of Immunology:

* Journal of the American Medical Association:

* Journal of the National Cancer Institute:

* Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report:

* Neurobiology of Disease:

* Nature:

* Science:

* Lab Animal Magazine:

* International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare:

Introducing ABSLnews

The Animal Behavior Society has a new mailing list, with news of United State congressional bills that will affect research and, on occasion, have general importance for broader topics such as conservation. To subscribe, send the message: subscribe abslnews to

Slide Set on Emerging Diseases

A slide set and information packet have been developed to accompany "Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States," the strategic plan developed in 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners. The packet contains technical notes to accompany 40 slides, which define the problem of emerging infectious diseases, provide information about these challenges, and propose solutions. Also included are lists of references and suggested readings that give additional information on today's and tomorrow's emerging infectious diseases. It can be used in workshops, lectures, and courses, and might be of particular interest to health-care providers, public health professionals, and others interested in public health issues, especially those related to infectious diseases. The slide set can be found on CDC's World-Wide Web (WWW) site at:

* * *

Primate Film Competition

A Primatology Film Competition is to be held to judge the best films/videos produced in the area of primatology since January, 1990. The best productions will be screened at the joint meetings of the International Primatological Society and American Society of Primatologists to be held in Madison, Wisconsin, August 11-16.

There will be two categories of entries: (1) Professionally made (e.g. commercial or public television company production with budget above $25,000), (2) non-professional, independent production with cost of production under $25,000. There will be preliminary screenings and judging by Ph.D. level primatologists at one or more locations, and the five best entries in each category will be screened in Madison. The best films in each category will be chosen there. Monetary prizes will be awarded to the top three entries in the non-professional category and appropriate certificates from the International Primatological Society will be awarded the winners in the professional category.

Each film will be ranked from 1 to 10 in the following categories by each judge: scientific accuracy/value esthetics and film craft educational value historical importance.

Each entry should be shipped prepaid, insured, and packed in proper containers, and should have a written synopsis of its content in English. The shipping fee to return a tape within the U.S. is $10 ($25 internationally). In addition, there is an entry fee of $25 for non-professional entries and $50 for professional entries. Entry fees and return shipping fees should be paid by check, in U.S. dollars drawn on a U.S. Bank. Checks should be made out to: Rockefeller University Account #11330. This program is sponsored and endorsed by the I.P.S.

The deadline for receiving entries is March. 1, 1996. Only tapes using NTSC standard will be considered. Tapes will be accepted in 3/4 inch (U-matic), and 1/2 inch VHS formats.

Entries and/or questions regarding the competition should be sent to Charles Weisbard, Box 165, Rockefeller Univ., 1230 York Ave, New York, N.Y. 10021-6399 [718-274-2365; Fax: 212-327-8634; e-mail:].

* * *

Retirement Surprise

Paul Fritz, co-founder of the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) breeding center, is retiring at age 69 after spending 28 years caring for the PFA chimpanzees. The PFA staff would like to prepare a surprise scrapbook for him, containing letters from well-wishers. Please send your letter as soon as possible to: Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

And please, don't tell him that we're doing this! -- The PFA Staff

* * *

Address Changes

Alexandra C. Floyd, 1913 Waverly St, Philadelphia, PA 19146.

Gwen Choi, Schering-Plough Res. Inst., 2015 Galloping Hill Rd K-15-LL MS 0600, Kenilworth, NJ 07033.

Thomas L. Ferrell, 74 Brigham Rd, Worcester, MA 01609.

Della Garell, Cheyenne Mt. Zool. Park, 4250 Cheyenne Mt. Zoo Rd, Colorado Springs, CO 80906.

Richard Huneke, Washington Univ., Div. of Comp. Med., Box 8061, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110.

J. Moor-Jankowski, Center for Academic Freedom, 401 E. 34th St, #N-21B, New York, NY 10016.

David K. Johnson, NY Comed, Inc., 466 Devon Park Dr., Wayne, PA 19087-8630.

Amy J. Kooi, P.O. Box 832, Punta Santiago, PR 00741-0832.

Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Ctr Westlake Facility, 1101 Westlake Ave North, Seattle, WA 98109.

Creighton J. Trahan, Dir., Div. of Lab. Animal Resources, H41A, Chandler Med. Ctr, Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0084.

* * *

Travelers' Health Notes

Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine Recommendations

In February 1995, Havrix ®, an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine distributed by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in persons 2 years or older to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Hepatitis A vaccine can be administered simultaneously with other vaccines and toxoids --including hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, oral typhoid, cholera, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, and yellow fever --without affecting immunogenicity or increasing the frequency of adverse events.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices advises that all susceptible persons traveling to or working in countries with intermediate or high HAV endemicity (countries other than Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Western Europe, and Scandinavia) should be vaccinated with hepatitis A vaccine or receive immune globulin (IG) before departure. Hepatitis A vaccine at the age-appropriate dose is preferred for persons who plan to travel repeatedly to or reside for long periods in these high-risk areas. IG is recommended for travelers aged less than 2 years.

Additional information and recommendations about hepatitis A vaccine is available from CDC's Hepatitis Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, telephone (404) 639-3048. -- From a report in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 559-560.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

The University of Edinburgh, the Royal Anthropological Institute, and the Linguistics Association of Great Britain will sponsor "The Evolution of Human Language" at the University of Edinburgh, April 1-4 1996. For more information, contact Professor James R Hurford, Dept. of Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, Adam Ferguson Building, 40 George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9LL [email:].

The 9th International Congress on Isozymes, Genes, and Gene Families will be held April 14-19, 1997 in San Antonio, TX. The theme of the congress is "Fundamental and applied research on the structure, function, evolution, and regulation of genes and their products." Plenary speakers include Drs. Michael Brown, Arthur Kornberg, and Joshua Lederberg. Contact Ms. Daphne Wright, Congress Liason, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147 [Fax: 210-670-3337; e-mail:].

The Toledo Zoo will sponsor an International Orangutan Keepers' Workshop for orangutan keepers in Toledo, OH, May 2-5, 1996. Contact Andrea Steedle by e-mail [] or Suzanne Husband by phone [419-385-5721].

* * *

IPS/ASP Joint Congress in Madison, Wisconsin

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center cordially invites you to the 16th IPS/19th ASP 1996 Joint Congress to be held August 11-16, 1996. All paper sessions, symposia, posters, exhibits and business meetings will be held at the Memorial Union and adjacent buildings at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Deadlines for registration and free communications abstracts is February 1, 1996. Registration fees are $150.00 for regular members, $80.00 for student members, $200.00 for non-members and $80.00 for guests (social events). Registration includes the opening and closing receptions and the program and abstract booklets. After February 1, 1996, all rates will increase by $50.00.

If you are not a member of IPS or ASP, please consider joining now. Contact Dr. Jeffrey French, Treasurer of ASP, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68182 [or e-mail Beth MacDonald]; or, contact Dr. Reinhold Hutz, Treasurer of IPS, Dept of Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 413, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3201 N. Maryland Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413 [e-mail: rjhutz@csd]. If you are not a member of IPS or ASP and would like to receive a registration/abstract packet, please contact Ms. Edi Chan, Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3500; Fax: 608-263-4031; e-mail:].

We have reserved blocks of hotel rooms and other room accommodations ranging from $40.00 up to $105.00 (US dollars). Reservations must be made by June 15 or July 10, 1996, depending on the facility.

The Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV) will meet immediately after the Congress from August 16-18, 1996. Congress registrants wishing to attend the APV meeting must contact Dr. Tom Nolan, 531 Main St, Harleysville, PA 19438 [e-mail:] no later than March 1, 1996.

Airline discounts have been arranged with United Airlines for the IPS/ASP 96 Congress, for US Travel only. Call United's toll-free number (1-800-521-4041) to book your reservations, referring to Meeting ID Code #561ZL.

All participants and registered guests are invited to attend the Opening Ceremony on Sunday, August 11, 1996, and a welcome reception immediately after. There will be live music and dinner on Tuesday, August 13, and live music with a closing buffet on Thursday, August 15. On other evenings there will be a social center and music at the Memorial Union conference site.

Current information about the IPS/ASP `96 Congress is available to those with Internet access through Primate Info Net (PIN), a World Wide Web (WWW)/Gopher server maintained by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. The WWW site also provides a link to the Madison Chamber of Commerce, which has information about dining and shopping in the Madison area, and an on-line map of downtown Madison. WWW users can reach PIN at: Gopher users can reach PIN at: ( -- Edi Chan - Congress Coordinator, John Hearn - Congress Chairman

* * *

Positions Available

Psychology, Wheaton College

The Psychology Department of Wheaton College invites applications for a newly created two-year, renewable, tenure-track appointment at the assistant professor level beginning fall, 1996. Training and research may be in any of the subdisciplines of psychology except social or psychobiology.

Applicants should be prepared to teach a course in at least one of the following areas: family studies, ethnicity, applied psychology, health psychology/behavioral medicine, or language/communication. The position involves teaching courses at the introductory and advanced levels, including methods and/or a laboratory course in the candidate's area of expertise. A completed doctorate and previous undergraduate teaching experience are preferred.

Applicants should send a letter of application, a vita, one copy of selected publications, evidence of teaching effectiveness, and a transcript, and should arrange for three letters of reference to be sent by February 15, 1996 to Bianca Cody Murphy, Chair, Search Committee, Psychology Dept., Wheaton College, Norton, MA 02766.

Field Station Manager, Costa Rica

The Canadian Organization for Tropical Rainforest Education and Conservation (COTERC), a non-profit organization dedicated to conserving and protecting rainforests through education, maintains Caño Palma Biological Station, a field research facility located in a remote area of Costa Rica in Atlantic tropical lowland rainforest. It provides facilities for visiting researchers and students.

The Station Manager works in partnership with the Scientific Officer to provide the support needed by researchers, including maintenance of facilities (buildings, equipment and trail system, meal preparation, obtaining provisions, and interacting with local suppliers). Regular reports to the Canadian office are expected, as well as contributions to the newsletters.

Candidates should have a commitment to conservation and knowledge of environmental issues relating to rainforest conservation; common sense; good practical skills; good communication skills; ability to repair small motors; some construction knowledge; sensitivity to local community issues; previous experience in isolated field conditions; and be a self-starter. An academic degree in a related field is desirable.

Because we are a small non-profit organization, salary is minimal. Room and board plus travel expenses are provided. Contact Marilyn Cole, Executive Director, COTERC, Box 335, Pickering, Ont. L1V 2R6 [905-683-2116; fax: 905-683-5897; e-mail:].

Environmental Enrichment Technician, Texas

The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is seeking an Animal Technician to participate in our behavioral management program, maintaining the well-being of rhesus monkeys in our federally-funded Specific-Pathogen-Free breeding colony. Minimum requirements are: a high school diploma or equivalent, plus two years experience in animal caregiving or two years of college level coursework. Experience with primates or coursework in behavioral sciences, psychology, or primatology is preferred. A commitment to maintaining the well-being of primates in captivity and motivation to achieve our goals are crucial.

Responsibilities will include scheduling the daily enrichment program; daily implementation of a variety of feeding, physical, sensory, and occupational enhancements depending upon the requirements for particular studies; design of new enrichment techniques and devices; safe, sanitary, and functional maintenance of enrichment devices and equipment according to established protocols; documentation of enrichment progress and maintenance of daily records; understanding operant conditioning principles and the use of positive reinforcement training techniques; participation in husbandry activities as assigned.

The individual will be entrusted with confidential information and must maintain confidentiality. The annual base salary will be $15,300. UTMDACC is a tobacco-free, drug-free, equal-opportunity, affirmative-action employer in full compliance with the ADA.

For more information, contact: Steve Schapiro or Susan Lambeth, Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Ctr, Dept of Vet. Sciences, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602 [512-321-3991; FAX: 512-332-5208; e-mail:].

* * *

News Briefs

Mountain Gorillas Still Threatened

Although Rwanda's mountain gorillas have largely escaped harm in the past years, gorillas in neighboring Zaire and Uganda seem to be under renewed threat. Less than five months after four mountain gorillas were killed in Uganda, conservationists in August discovered three more of the highly endangered animals slain, this time in Zaire. An adult male and female found early in August in Zaire's Virunga National Park were reportedly killed just hours after tourists had visited the site. Just a few weeks later, the body of a male silverback named "Luwawa" was found in the thick vegetation covering the slopes of Mount Mikeno volcano, also in Zaire.

The three killings brings the number of mountain gorillas killed this year to seven. This follows a ten-year period in which none of the animals were killed. About 600 mountain gorillas are left in the wild, only in Rwanda, Uganda, and Zaire.

In March, four mountain gorillas, including a nursing mother, were killed in Uganda's Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Speared to death, the gorillas are believed to have been killed to reach a nursing infant. In subsequent months suspected poachers were detained, but no arrests were made.

The Rwanda Tourism and National Parks Authority is re-established and tourists daily visit two gorilla groups. Revenue generated by gorilla viewing is on the increase and is critically needed to cover park expenses. -- From Focus, November/December 1995, a WWF publication

Ebola-Zaire: Skin Test Developed

Dr Sherif R. Zaki of CDC has developed a color test that shows Ebola virus in formalin-preserved skin snips of infected people. This is a breakthrough in diagnosis, because formalin inactivates the virus, so the specimens can be safely transported and do not need to be handled in a hot lab. Also, the results are available in 24 hours.

The color test has also shown that the virus is present in sweat glands and the air sacs of the lungs of cases, raising anew the question of skin contact and airborne transmission. Hantavirus and hepatitis B virus are also found in the skin without producing any visible signs, but at much lower concentrations than Ebola virus, and it is presumed that those viruses cannot be transmitted through skin contact. -- New York Times, 21 Sep 1995 -- posted on the ProMED mailing list

UW Field Station AWA Violations

The University of Washington (UW) has agreed to pay $20,000 to settle an animal care complaint filed by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act. In the consent agreement, UW neither confirms nor denies the allegations in USDA's June, 1995 complaint against UW's Primate Field Station. The USDA alleged that the University was inconsistent in reporting to appropriate oversight agencies and was not timely in repairing the facility. The USDA also had concerns about animal welfare related to higher-than-normal incidence of diarrhea in some group-housed monkeys and the accidental deaths of five baboons from exposure.

"The UW took very seriously the conditions that led to the primate deaths," said Dr. William Morton, acting director of the UW's Regional Primate Research Center. He added, "The conditions mentioned in the USDA complaint have long since been rectified, and additional training took place to respond to the concerns. We are greatly concerned for the safety and well-being of the primates in our care, and are committed to conforming to the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act and the University's own high standards of care. We continue to work closely with the USDA toward that end. The field station independently took precautions to prevent recurrence."

Half of the $20,000 civil penalty will be used for facility improvements and repairs, environmental enrichment and employee training. UW's field station houses about 1200 monkeys and 200 baboons. -- From the NABR Update, 16 October 1995

WHO Reports from Africa

The World Health Organization says that expulsions of Rwandese refugees by the Zaire government could lead to another round of epidemics. In particular, WHO is concerned about the spread of cholera, which accounted for approximately 50,000 deaths during the mass exodus of refugees from Rwanda in 1994. Outbreaks of dysentery and meningitis are also cited as serious threats. -- WHO/63 Press Release, 24 August 1995

The World Health Organization says it is concerned at an increase in the number of cases of cholera in Burundi. The WHO Division of Emergency and Humanitarian Action (EHA), in collaboration with the Regional Office for Africa, has delivered medical supplies to the area including oral rehydration salts and intravenous fluids to treat the more severe cases of the disease. -- WHO/68 Press Release, 11 September 1995

Gorilla Birth and Death in Seattle

A male gorilla infant was born November 8 at 6:42 a.m. to Amanda, 25 years old and Congo, 36 years old, two of Woodland Park Zoo's resident gorillas. It was the first offspring for both. After approximately four hours of labor, Amanda gave birth to her baby in the gorilla holding area. Gorilla keeper Judy Sievert was with Amanda during the labor period and birth. Congo was in an adjacent enclosure and showed interest in Amanda's labor process. At one point during Amanda's contractions, Congo reached through the bars and gently touched Amanda.

At about 3:30 p.m. November 12, keepers noted that the infant appeared listless. The infant was pulled and taken to the animal health department. As the baby was inactive and the body temperature was very low, fluid therapy and necessary medications were administered as well as wrapping it in warm water blankets. The infant, which was a 4-pound, 9-ounce male, seemed to respond favorably: its condition seemed to stabilize and it was fed pediatric fluids. In spite of this, the 5-day-old baby gorilla died at 3:00 a.m. on November 13th.

A necropsy, conducted by Dr. Darin Collins, associate veterinarian at the Zoo, and by University of Washington pathologists, revealed that the newborn infant suffered from a cleft palate, a heart valve infection and a head injury.

This is the seventh gorilla born at Woodland Park Zoo, the last of which was born November 1990. Congo, who is on breeding loan from the Honolulu Zoo, is also the father of another baby expected to be born at the end of next January. The mother of this expected infant is Jumoke, who has been sharing Congo's exhibit for the past two years. Amanda is also on long-term breeding loan and arrived from Toronto last spring as a second mate for Congo. -- Reported by Laurence Gledhill, Woodland Park Zoo, on Primate-Talk

Primates Intercepted in Manila

On 11 April 1995, after making an intermediate stop in Bangkok, Thailand, a Pakistan Airlines flight arrived in Manila, the Philippines, from Karachi, Pakistan. Upon inspection of baggage belonging to two Pakistani passengers, Tasleem Khan and Jawaid Ascam Khan, Philippine airport officials discovered one live baby western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. graueri), four vervets (Cercopithecus pygerythrus), two patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas), and one baboon (Papio sp.) squeezed inside two wooden crates measuring only 2.3 x 1.5 x 1.5 ft.

When asked to document the legal origin of the primates, the Pakistanis produced only a document titled "Free Disposal Permit #37856-Annex A" for "trophies." The permit was supposedly issued by authorities in Kana, northern Nigeria, but turned out not to be a legal document.

Since there are very few gorillas in Nigeria, officials suspect that the smuggled gorilla originated in Cameroon. They believe that the shipment's final destination was a Philippine dealer in Cartimar, one of Manilla's main animal markets, where two gibbons were confiscated by wildlife authorities in 1991. -- From Traffic USA, 1995, 14[2], reported by the IPPL

Dengue in Gibbon Colony -- Thailand

Eight gibbons at the Primate Rehabilitation Center outside Bangkok have died recently from what appears to be dengue hemorrhagic fever. According to Leonie Vejjajiva: "They become ill, refuse to eat, have no energy, have ulcerated mouths and die after a few days. Our center is in the country three hours' drive from the nearest veterinarian. Two gibbons were brought to Bangkok before they died; the autopsy showed bleeding in either the lungs or intestines. It is almost impossible to obtain blood analysis here for animals." The center now has a volunteer veterinarian, Dr. Werner Krause, who will stay three months and do as much research as he can during this period of time. -- Reported by Dorothy B. Preslar, Coordinator, ProMED-AHEAD (Animal Health/Emerging Animal Diseases Project), Federation of American Scientists

Court Rules Against Berosini

The Nevada Supreme Court has ruled that Las Vegas animal trainer Bobby Berosini is not entitled to a $3.1 million libel judgment against People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Performing Animal Welfare Society (PAWS). The Court reversed a 1992 ruling. Berosini had claimed he was defamed by PETA and PAWS when the group distributed to the media secretly filmed videotapes of the animal trainer disciplining his orangutans backstage at a Las Vegas hotel where he was performing. In the latest decision, the Supreme Court Justices wrote that what they saw on the videotape was "clear and unequivocal." The Associated Press reported that "because PETA didn't alter the tape to show something that wasn't true, Justices decided the organization should not have been found guilty of defamation by a Clark County District Court jury." -- From the NABR Update, June 7, 1995, 16[13]

Research and Educational Opportunities

Summer Apprenticeship Program, Washington State

The Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute at Central Washington University is currently taking applications for its 10-week Summer Apprenticeship Program. The dates of the program are June 17 - August 23, 1996. The research at CHCI involves a group of five chimpanzees, Washoe, Moja, Tatu, Dar, and Loulis, who use the signs of American Sign Language (ASL).

One University level ASL course is mandatory for Apprentices wishing to participate in sign language interactions with the chimpanzees. Those who do not take a sign language course will still have an active part in the program and will have many chances to participate in observational research projects.

Apprentices will have the opportunity to take part in and be trained in almost all aspects of the facility, including husbandry, care, enrichment and research. Also, through selected readings and discussions, Apprentices will learn about this project's history and the directions in which it is currently going.

Graduate and undergraduate students are encouraged to apply. Application requests should be sent by e-mail to or by writing: CHCI, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573, Attn: Summer Apprenticeship Program. If you wish to phone, call 509-963-2215. The application deadline is March 22, 1996. There is a $1000.00 program fee. There are a limited number of scholarships available that will cover 80% of the program fee. Information on the scholarship application procedures will be provided along with the program application forms.

Zoo Animal Behaviour & Welfare, Scotland

The Edinburgh Zoo, in conjunction with the University of Edinburgh, are again running their new course on Zoo Animal Behaviour and Welfare, weekdays from Monday 15 July to Friday 26 July 1996. The course aims to demonstrate how the latest scientific knowledge about the behavior, management, and welfare of captive animals can be put into practice. Participants will learn how the most up-to-date scientific theories can be used to improve the husbandry, management, and welfare of animals in zoos. There will also be training in observational techniques to assist in project work during the course.

Course components are: study of animal behavior, including behavioral needs and motivation, captive animal behavior, and measuring behavior; animal welfare, including concepts of stress, methods of assessing animal welfare, causes of behavioral problems and how to solve them; environmental enrichment, including enclosure design, management of and devices for environmental enrichment, and studies of behavioral enrichment; and the global context of zoos. The latter includes captive breeding programs, inter-zoo cooperation, the role of zoos in conservation, and the in situ perspective. All subjects will be taught by leading researchers in their respective fields.

For further information and details of registration, contact Hamish Macandrew, UnivEd Technologies Ltd, FREEPOST, 16 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh, EH8 0LL, Scotland [0131 650 3475; FAX: 0131 650 3474]. The closing date for registration is 31 May 1996.

Fyssen Foundation 1996-1997 Fellowships

The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." The Fyssen Foundation awards grants of up to 120,000 French francs per year for the training and support of postdoctoral researchers under 35 years of age, working on topics in keeping with the goals of the Foundation, which wishes to support, particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes, their embryonic and post-natal development, and their elementary mechanisms. Anthropology-Ethnology: Cognitive aspects of the representations of natural and cultural environments; analysis of their construction principles and transfer mechanisms; analysis of forms of social organization and their technological systems. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.

Fellowships will be given to French scientists to work abroad and to foreign scientists to work in French laboratories. Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications by the Foundation is March 31, 1996.

Fellowships in Animal Cognition, Washington DC

Pre- and post-doctoral fellowships are available for research on animal cognition in the National Zoo's new Think Tank, an exhibit on animal thinking. Think Tank has an age-graded group of five orangutans, a stable age-graded group of Sulawesi black macaques, a colony of leaf-cutter ants, and a colony of terrestrial hermit crabs. Ongoing primate studies include acquisition of a computerized symbolic language, self-awareness, tool use, object permanence, and innovation and social transmission.

Proposed research must focus on cognition, be non-invasive, and must incoporate animal care and public education. Other species are available in the Zoo's collection for comparative studies. Stipends are $25,000 per year for post-doctoral fellows and $14,000 per year for pre-doctoral fellows, plus a research and travel allowance. Stipends are prorated for periods of less than 12 months. Send applications, including a three-page research proposal, a CV, and three letters of recommendation (including one from thesis supervisor for pre-doctoral applicants), to Lisa Stevens; Curator, Think Tank; NZP; Washington, D.C. 20008 by 15 January 1996. Direct questions to Lisa Stevens [202-673-4888], Benjamin Beck [202-673-4783], or

Fellowships for Research in Japan

Through arrangements made with the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA) is offering five fellowships for American researchers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences to pursue collaborative research in selected Japanese public-sector laboratories. STA Fellowship funding is available for stays ranging from one to three months. Researchers at all stages in their careers may apply.

These fellowships are intended to enhance American-Japanese collaboration by providing flexible opportunities for capable American scientists to work with colleagues in leading Japanese laboratories on substantive projects of mutual interest. The fellowships are being offered as a pilot program at this time only. Because recipients must arrive in their host laboratories in Japan by March 31, 1996, interested persons should contact the Fogarty International Center immediately.

For more information on this program and for a detailed description of the program and application instructions contact: Director, Division of International Relations, Fogarty International Center, Attn: JSPS Fellowships, 31 Center Dr., Rm B2C11 - MSC-2220, Bethesda, MD 20892-2220 [301-96-4784; FAX: 301-480-3414; e-mail:].

Information is also available about 30 short-term (less than 12 months duration) as well as long-term (at least 12 months duration) fellowships at Japanese universities and at STA-eligible host institutions for at least six months duration. Specify clearly whether you want information on (a) STA or university fellowships and (b) short or long-term fellowships.

Animals and Public Policy

Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy, North Grafton, MA, offers a one-year, graduate degree dealing with animals and public policy. This is the only graduate degree program in North America (and possibly the world) in the field of human-animal relationships and related public policies. There are eight students enrolled in the first year. The organizers of the program are very pleased with the way the students are responding to the available opportunities and their interactions in the classes and seminars. It is a full-time program that is expected to take nine to twelve months to complete. The program consists of three core courses, four tutorial (or independent study) courses and a thesis project.

Applicants for admission should have either a graduate degree or a bachelor's degree combined with a work history that indicates experience in the gathering and/or analysis of data or argument. Applicants should have completed at least two semesters in either animal or human biology.

For an application package, contact the Center for Animals & Public Policy, Tufts Univ. School of Vet. Med., 200 Westboro Ave, N. Grafton, MA 01536 [508-839-7991; Fax: 508-839-2953; e-mail: dpease@opal.tufts .edu or].

* * *

Award Nominations

Fyssen Foundation 1996 International Prize

The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development."

An International Prize of 200,000 ff is awarded annually to a scientist who has conducted distinguished research in the areas supported by the Foundation (see training grant announcement on p. 18). It has been awarded to Professors A. Leroi-Gourhan (1980), W. H. Thorpe (1981), V. B. Mountcastle (1982), H. C. Conklin (1983), R. W. Brown (1984), P. Buser (1985), D. Pilbeam (1986), D. Premack (1987), J. C. Gardin (1988), P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1989), J. Goody (1990), G. A. Miller (1991), P. Rakic (1992), L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1993) and L. R. Gleitman (1994). The topic considered for the 1996 prize is Technics and Symbols in Human Evolution. Nominations should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France before October 1, 1996.

* * *

Awards Granted

Goodall to Receive Procter Prize

Renowned animal behaviorist Jane Goodall will receive the 1996 William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement during Sigma Xi's Forum and Annual Meeting March 7-10 in San Diego, California, where she will deliver the Procter Prize address.

Dr. Goodall is founder of The Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education, and Conservation in San Francisco. As a young Englishwoman, she went to work in Tanzania, East Africa, for famed anthropologist and paleontologist Dr. Louis Leakey, who was studying chimpanzees to gain insight into how our ancestors may have lived. Thirty-five years later, Goodall and her Tanzanian field staff's uninterrupted research continues to contribute significant findings on chimpanzee behavior. Her scientific discoveries have laid the foundation for all primate studies and have transformed natural history field studies. Her observations of chimpanzees making and using tools, a behavior previously believed to separate man from other animals, amazed the world.

Dr. Goodall earned her Ph.D. in ethology at Cambridge University in 1965 and then returned to Africa to establish the Gombe Stream Research Center. Her efforts not only include protecting wild chimp populations, which are increasingly threatened by poaching and deforestation, but also working to improve the lives of chimpanzees in captive situations. Her latest endeavor is an international, environmental youth program, "Roots & Shoots," which promotes hands-on activities to lead to a better understanding of problems regarding environmental, animal, and community issues. Her many honors include the title of Commander of the British Empire, bestowed by the Queen of England; the National Geographic Society's prestigious Hubbard Medal; Japan's Kyoto Prize in Basic Science; and The Ark Trust Lifetime Achievement Award. The annual William Procter Prize is Sigma Xi's highest award. Previous recipients include Michael E. DeBakey, Stephen Jay Gould, Walter Stockmayer, and Leon Lederman. -- From the American Scientist, Nov-Dec 1995, reported on Primate-Talk

Primate Center Library Honored

The Wisconsin RPRC Library has been named Wisconsin Library of the Year for 1995 by the Wisconsin Library Association. The award is conferred "for distinguished achievement in service." This is well-deserved recognition for Larry Jacobsen, Ray Hamel, Joanne Brown, and their many student helpers over the years.

* * *

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (1996)


* Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.A. and Ph.D. in Anthropology. Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional anatomy, and primate evolution. Facilities include extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, a variety of specimens for dissection, and excellent computing capabilities. Faculty interests include relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, functional anatomy and locomotion. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, nocturnal prosimians, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (physical anthropology, primate anatomy, paleoanthropology, human evolution, growth and development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Drs. Leanne T. Nash or Mary W. Marzke, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 [602-965-6213; Dr. Nash: 602-965-4812; e-mail atltn @asuacad.bitnet;; Dr. Marzke: 602-965-6237; e-mail: atmwm@asuacad.bitnet;].

* Primate Foundation of Arizona, in association with Arizona State University
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: A private, non-profit, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) breeding colony pursuing research in social behavior to improve captive management, quality of life, and reproductive potential. Internships: Minimum of 60 days during summer months. No stipend. Study the behavior, well-being, and management of captive chimpanzees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jo Fritz, Director & Research Director (captive management and general behavior); Sue Howell, M.A. (individual differences, environmental enrichment and well-being); Leanne Nash, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (social behavior); Mary Marzke, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology, A.S.U. (physical growth and development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.


* California State University, San Marcos, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME: Master of Arts in General Experimental Psychology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Nancy Caine (callitrichid behavior), with possibilities for collaboration with primatologists at the San Diego Zoo and Wild Animal Park.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Nancy Caine, Dept. of Psychology, CSU San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096 [e-mail:].

* University of California, Berkeley, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Primate Studies Program. A comprehensive program in primate studies emphasizing behavior, development, and ecology, focused on primate species as integrated systems.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Phyllis Dolhinow (development and behavior of human and nonhuman primates, primate evolution); Katharine Milton (energetics, behavior and ecology of human and nonhuman primates, special interest in dietary questions).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Office, Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.


* University of Florida, Psychology Department
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology, experimental analysis of behavior).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 [904-392-0601; e-mail:].


* Emory University, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Psychobiology Program. All faculty hold joint appointments with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center and do research at either the Main Station on the Emory Campus or at the Field Station, 20 miles away in Lawrenceville, GA. All students receive full stipend support ($11,800 in 1995) and tuition for four years. Four to six students are accepted in Psychobiology each year; typically, half of these are interested in primate research.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Ronald Boothe (development of primate vision); Harold Gouzoules (primate communication and social behavior); Frans de Waal (primate social systems and reconciliation); Hillary Rodman (primate cognitive neuroscience; visual system); Kim Wallen (primate behavioral endocrinology & development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Harold Gouzoules, Program Director, Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-7444; e-mail:]. For application materials or brochures: Katherine Gaddie, Graduate Coordinator [404-727-7456; e-mail:].

* Georgia State University, Language Research Center, Dept. of Psychology, Biology, & Communication
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Comparative biobehavioral, cognitive, and language studies with primates.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh (PI for primate cognition, biopsychology, primatology, apes and language); Duane M. Rumbaugh (project director; primate intelligence and cognition); Rose Sevcik (developmental comparative psychology; language acquisition in special populations of children); Shelly Williams (learning and communication); David Washburn (comparative cognitive psychology); Daniel Rice (cognition). Also, co-investigators in various disciplines at GSU and other universities here and abroad.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Language Research Center, Georgia State Univ., University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303-3083 [e-mail:].

* University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology and Anthropology Departments
PROGRAM NAMES: Biopsychology with a specialty area in primatology; Biological Anthropology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Psychology: Irwin S. Bernstein (primatology, social organization, aggression, sex, dominance); Roger K. Thomas (cognition, intelligence, concept use, learning and memory); B. E. Mulligan (sensory psychology, animal communication, human factors psychology); Joseph D. Allen (human psychophysiology, animal learning, adjunctive behavior, laboratory instrumentation); Dorothy Fragaszy (primate behavior, cognition, development, motor skills, social behavior). Anthropology: Carolyn L. Ehardt (biological anthropology, primate social organization, affiliation, kinship, epidemiology); Ben G. Blount (primate communication, socialization); Charles R. Peters (physical anthropology, human origins, ecology, primate diet, Africa). We also enjoy full cooperation with other departments and universities within the University of Georgia System, as well as collaboration with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University and the Atlanta Zoo.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Biopsychology Program, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3013 [706-542-2174; FAX: 706-542-3275]. Graduate Coordinator for Anthropology (Biological Anthropology Program), Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 [706-542-3922].


* Northwestern University Medical School, Department of CMS Biology
PROGRAM NAME: Integrated Graduate Program in the Life Sciences
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: L. R. Cochard (dental allometry); M. Dagosto (prosimian evolution, systematics, locomotion); M. J. Ravosa (experimental functional morphology, skull form); B. T. Shea (growth, allometry, Miocene and recent hominoids); A. Yoder (molecular systematics, living and subfossil Malagasy lemurs).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above faculty or Dr. A. Telser, Director, IGP, at: Dept CMS Biology, Northwestern Univ. Med. School, 303 E. Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 [1-800-255-4166].

* Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.A. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, evolution, and behavior. Specializations in anthropoid evolution, paleontology, comparative anatomy, human osteology and epidemiology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Brenda R. Benefit (primate paleontology, especially catarrhines; functional anatomy; diet and dentition; paleoecology); Robert S. Corruccini (paleontology, osteology, multivariate methods, dental anthropology, epidemiology); Susan M. Ford (primate evolution, especially platyr-rhines; functional morphology; evolutionary theory and systematics; locomotion). In other departments: Lee C. Drickamer (Zoology: animal behavior, particularly rodents and primates); Carey Krajewski (Zoology: molecular systematics and evolution).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-4502 [e-mail:].

* University of Chicago, Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology & Evolution, Committee on Evolutionary Biology
PROGRAM NAMES: Doctoral programs, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology & Evolution.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jeanne Altmann (Evolutionary Biology: life histories and behavioral ecology, especially maternal behavior and behavioral ontogeny); Martha McClintock (Biopsychology, Evolutionary Biology, Human Development: menstrual synchrony, pheromonal communication); Russell Tuttle (Anthropology, Evolutionary Biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior). Leigh Van Valen (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Michael J. Wade (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Carole Ober (Obstetrics & Gynecology, Anthropology: human and nonhuman primate genetics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above at the Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, 940 E. 57th St., Chicago, IL 60637.


* Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy and neurobiology. The Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology offers a Ph.D. in anatomy and neurobiology. In addition, there is an active post-doctoral training program, with emphasis on neuroanatomy. While a variety of species is utilized in the research projects conducted within the department, a number of members of the faculty (Drs. Pandya, Rosene, Moss, Peters, and Feldman) have programs focused on the rhesus monkey.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: D. N. Pandya (the organization and thalamocortical relations of the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys); D. L. Rosene (organization of the limbic system in the rhesus monkey, particularly the connections and histochemistry of the hippocampus and amygdala); M. B. Moss (neuronal plasticity and neurobiology of memory); A. Peters (intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of the cerebral cortex, aging changes in monkey cerebral cortex); M. F. Feldman (aging in the brain stem auditory nuclei and cochlea of the rhesus monkey).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Alan Peters, Chairman, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston Univ. Sch. of Med., Boston, MA 02118.


* University of Mississippi Medical Center, Department of Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME AND/OR DESCRIPTION: Ph.D. in Anatomy. The program is intended to provide a broad background in biomedical science, to provide expertise in a selected area of research, and to develop the skills and insights necessary to become an effective teacher and independent investigator. The core curriculum consists of human gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and neuroanatomy. Faculty members conduct active research in a variety of areas, including sensory and motor systems neurobiology, and the role of cells and extracellular matrix in cell, developmental, and cardiovascular biology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: There are 21 faculty members associated with the department, including the following working with primates: Duane E. Haines (cerebellar interconnections with somatic and visceral relay centers); Dora Angelaki and W. Michael King (vestibular and oculomotor physiology); James C. Lynch (functional organization of association cortex); Terence P. Ma (neural control of primate eye movements); Paul J. May (neural control of extraocular and intraocular musculature); Gregory A. Mihailoff (role of the basilar pons in motor control); Susan Warren (neural basis of somatosensory information processing) [not in the Anatomy Dept: William Wooverton (drug dependency)].
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Anatomy Graduate Coordinator, Department of Anatomy, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216-4505 [Main Department office: 601-984-1662; FAX: 601-984-1655].


* University of New Mexico

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral study through admission to either the Biological or the Human Evolutionary Ecology Programs of the Department of Anthropology. Program foci are either primate systematics, biogeography, and paleobiology (Biological) or primate life history strategies and socioecology (Human Evolutionary Ecology). Master's level students (thesis option) with more applied focus are also admitted to the Biological Program.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jeffery W. Froehlich (primate paleontology, alpha systematics, and biogeography, North and Central America, Indonesia); Jane B. Lancaster (human evolutionary ecology, primate social behavior, evolution of human behavior, life history strategies, reproductive effort, mating and parental investment).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Secretary, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1986 [505-277-4524]. E-mail inquiries: Dr. Lancaster: [] or Dr. Froehlich [].


* Cornell University, Ecology and Systematics Section of the Division of Biological Sciences; Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Human Biology Program: Primate studies appear in Cornell University's Section of Ecology and Systematics of the Division of Biological Sciences, and in the Department of Anthropology. The primate studies are in both the Human Biology Program for undergraduates and in the graduate program. There are courses, laboratories, and seminars in comparative primate anatomy, primate evolution, primate ecology, and primate paleontology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (primate comparative anatomy, paleontology, and evolution). We are curators of collections of skeletal material, casts of fossil nonhuman and human primates, and some brains for teaching and research purposes. There are faculty members in the Department of Psychology at Cornell University who have research and teaching programs in primate studies. Persons to contact in Psychology are Drs. Robert Johnston and Barbara Finlay, Uris Hall, Cornell University. Comparative anatomy courses involving primates are offered by Dr. John Bertram in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University's Ithaca campus. Also near the campus, at the Research Park facility, Dr. Julian M. Humphries, Jr. is a curator of primate skeletal collections in his capacity as Research and Curatorial Associate.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Ecology and Systematics, Division of Biological Sciences, Corson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-6582]; and Meredith Small, Department of Anthropology, McGraw Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 [607-255-5137].

* Fordham University, Biological Sciences
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Ecology. Fordham University is part of the New York City Doctoral Consortium. Ph.D. students at Fordham may take classes at C.U.N.Y., N.Y.U., and Columbia. Collaborative arrangements permit Fordham students to do tutorials and conduct research at the Bronx Zoo and New York Botanical Garden adjacent to the University, and at other nearby institutions including the American Museum of Natural History.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Carey Yeager (Feeding ecology, social structure, conservation, Asian primates, particularly Nasalis larvatus, field station in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia); David Burney (human, hominid and primate paleoecology, lemur extinctions and biogeography, tropical conservation, reserve management, long-term projects in Madagascar and Africa); Craig Frank (mammalian physiology, behavioral ecology); Ellen Dierenfeld (Adjunct: zoo nutrition, wild primate diets, foraging theory).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Burney and departmental information: Dept of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458; Dr. Yeager or Dr. Frank: The Louis Calder Center of Fordham University, Box K, 53 Whippoorwill Rd, Armonk, NY 10504 [914-273-3078; FAX: 914-273-2167]; E. Dierenfeld: Wildlife Conservation Park (Bronx Zoo), 185th Street and Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY 10460.

* City University of New York, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

* Columbia University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

* New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: NYCEP is a graduate training program funded by NSF. It consists of 3 degree-granting institutions -- City University of New York (CUNY), Columbia University (CU), and New York University (NYU) -- in collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). Our focus is human as well as nonhuman primates from the perspectives of comparative morphology, paleontology and systematics, molecular and population genetics, behavior and ecology, and conservation biology. Students in this program will take courses in all these areas at the three universities, attend seminars that draw upon the staff of all five cooperating institutions, and have the opportunity to engage in original research in laboratories, museums, and in the field. NYCEP will offer up to six renewable fellowships yearly (to US citizens, nationals, and permanent residents), each with a stipend and full tuition waiver. Members of groups underrepresented in science are especially encouraged to apply. In addition, the graduate programs of the three collaborating universities offer full financial aid programs with regular fellowships as well as special opportunities for minority students and all highly qualified applicants regardless of nationality. NYCEP further offers lab and field internships, special funds for summer research and meeting participation, and additional funds for minority support. Appropriate undergraduate majors for NYCEP applicants include biological anthropology and other life sciences. Applicants not accepted by NYCEP will be considered for regular financial aid and may participate in many of the special programs. Students apply jointly to NYCEP and to one or more cooperating university.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Patricia S. Bridges, CUNY (skeletal biology and paleopathology of human populations); Tim Bromage, CUNY (paleo-anthropology and developmental morphology); Marina Cords, CU (primate behavior, especially African cercopithecids); Eric Delson, CUNY (paleoanthropology; catarrhine systematics and evolution, biochronology); Rob De Salle, AMNH (molecular systematics); Todd R. Disotell, NYU (molecular systematics and evolution, catarrhine primates); Terry Harrison, NYU (catarrhine systematics, comparative morphology and primate paleontology); Ralph L. Holloway, CU (paleoneurology, human evolution); Clifford J. Jolly, NYU (genetics, systematics, and comparative morphology of primates); Fred Koontz, WCS (conservation biology, translocation and reintroduction of primate populations); Jeffrey T. Laitman, CUNY (paleoanthropology, evolution of speech); Ross D. MacPhee, AMNH (development and systematics of primates and other mammals); Colleen McCann, WCS (conservation biology, behavior and ecology of cercopithecids, hormonal mediation of behavior); Don J. Melnick, CU (population genetics and molecular evolution of higher primates); Hilary Simons Morland, WCS (tropical conservation, primate behavior and ecology, especially Malagasy lemurs); Michael Novacek, AMNH (systematics of mammals and early primates); John F. Oates, CUNY (ecology and behavior of catarrhine primates, tropical forest conservation); John G. Robinson, WCS (conservation biology, neotropical primates); Frank Spencer, CUNY (history of biological anthropology); Sara Stinson, CUNY (pop-ulation biology of living humans); Karyl Swartz CUNY (comparative psychology, primate cognition); Frederick S. Szalay, CUNY (morphology, paleontology, and systematics of primates and other mammals); Ian Tattersall, AMNH (systematics and evolution of lemuriform primates and hominids); John A. Van Couvering, AMNH (geochronology and stratigraphy of the Old World Cenozoic); Amy Vedder, WCS (conservation biology, gorillas, African colobines); Ward Wheeler, AMNH (molecular systematics); Field adjuncts: Marcio Ayres, WCS-Brazil (conservation biology and ecology of neotropical primates); Elizabeth Bennett, WCS-Malaysia (conservation biology and leaf monkey ecology); Bill Bleisch, WCS-China (conservation biology and Chinese snub-nosed monkey ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Eric Delson, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 [212-769-5992; FAX: 212-769-5842].

* New York University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology


* Duke University, Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME: Graduate Study in Biological Anthropology and Anatomy.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Matt Cartmill (anthropoid and primate origins, history of ideas about animal consciousness); Kenneth E. Glander (ecology and social organization); William L. Hylander (func-tional and evolutionary morphology of the masticatory apparatus); Richard F. Kay (anthropoid phylogeny, based especially on cranial and dental anatomy, through paleontological field research); Mary Maas (mammalian evolution, dental functional morphology); Theresa R. Pope (interrelationship between social organization, behavioral ecology, and genetic structure of primate populations); Elwyn L. Simons (primate paleontology); Kathleen K. Smith (vertebrate evolutionary morphology); John W. Terborgh (tropical forest ecology); Carel P. van Schaik (socioecology); Frances J. White (behavioral ecology); Steven Churchill (functional morphology of upper limb bones in later stages of human evolution, Neanderthals); V. Louise Roth (Evolutionary modification of growth and development in mammals).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Biological Anthropology & Anatomy, Director of Graduate Studies, Box 3170 Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

* Wake Forest University, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Master's degree, with training in primatology. The program makes use of the 1300-monkey colony (mostly group-housed macaques) at the Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center (part of Bowman Gray School of Medicine), and has access to facilities in Indonesia.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jay Kaplan, Depts. of Comparative Med. and Anthropology, Bowman Gray School of Med., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040 [910-716-1522; e-mail: jkaplan@].


* Kent State University, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME: Experimental psychology
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: F. Robert Treichler (primate learning and retention mechanisms; retention of concurrently learned tasks; interference effects in complex retention).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Psychology, Kent State Univ., Kent, OH 44242.

* The Ohio State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Graduate work in primatology is part of the specialization of the Ph.D. program in physical anthropology. Students receive training in primate ethology, primate evolution and primate conservation. Field studies are strongly encouraged.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frank E. Poirier (primate ethology, particularly socialization; conservation of endangered species; primate evolution); Paul Sciulli (primate dentition, primate evolution, primate genetics). Additionally, students are advised to take courses in the departments of psychology and zoology and the School of Natural Resources, all of which have faculty interested in primatology.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Frank E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, Lord Hall, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210.


* Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train pre- and postdoctoral students in using primates for biomedical research. The ORPRC is one of seven federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health problems through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive biology and behavior, neuroscience, perinatal physiology, and infectious diseases. The Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland is the host institution of the Center. It provides an academic affiliation, and many ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the OHSU School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 55 scientists with Ph.D., M.D., or D.V.M. degrees, as well as 130 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathology, electron microscopy, radioimmunoassays, flow cytometry, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, and medical illustration.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Center employs four full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care of 2,024 nonhuman primates and small laboratory animals.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006 [503-690-5301].


* Bucknell University, Program in Animal Behavior, Departments of Biology and Psychology.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Bucknell offers the MA or MS in biology, psychology, or Animal Behavior, full-time only, starting in the fall semester. The program requires two years of full-time study, including coursework and thesis. Lab or field work is required. Long-standing colonies in outdoor enclosures of Papio hamadryas and Macaca fuscata. Saimiri sciureus and a new colony of Lemur catta are housed indoors. Other work with animals includes eusocial insects, free-living and laboratory rodents, pigeons, arachnoids, marine mammals, and crustacea.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Douglas K. Candland, chair, evolution of primate cognition and emotion; Michael E. Pereira, evolution of development; mammals.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Douglas K. Candland, chair, Program in Animal behavior, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837.

* University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Anthropology, Biology, and Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a Ph.D. with a specialization in Primatology in any of the three sponsoring departments; their graduate program will conform in structure and content to the requirements of each department. A group of core interdisciplinary courses is also offered for Primatology students, in addition to courses that pertain to their specialty (e.g., cognition, ecology, behavior). Other resources include the Veterinary School, the Medical School, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and the Philadelphia Zoo.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dorothy L. Cheney (Biology: behavior, communication, cognition); Robert S. O. Harding (Anthropology: ecology, behavior); Robert M. Seyfarth (Psychology: behavior, communication, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the appropriate person at the department of interest, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA 19104, or; rharding@pennsas; or

* University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME: Physical Anthropology Graduate Program
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Steven J. C. Gaulin (evolution of behavioral adaptations, particularly those that differ between the sexes; use of evolutionary theory, behavioral ecology, and comparative psychology to model the evolution of human behavior); Mark P. Mooney (craniofacial and development biology, comparative anatomy, experimental morphology, physiological adaptations to extreme environments, development of animal models for facial clefts); Jeffrey H. Schwartz (method, theory, and philosophy in evolutionary biology; origin and diversification of primates; human and faunal skeletal analysis; dentofacial growth and development); Michael I. Siegel (craniofacial biology, with a clinical speciality in cleft palate; functional anatomy; animal models; physiological adaptation).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Catherine S. Morrow, Graduate Admissions Coordinator, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.


* University of Memphis (formerly Memphis State University), Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.S. and Ph.D. in Psychology with specialty concentration in Biopsychology. Within Biopsychology, training is available in comparative studies of brain and behavior in primates with emphasis on sexual behavior and birth sex ratio biases, laterality, vision, cognition, and individual differences. A large breeding colony of small-eared bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii) are available for study. Research opportunities are principally in the study of behavior but there is a large archive of serial sections of brains of primates and other mammals available.
FACULTY: Jeannette P. Ward.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Jeannette P. Ward, Dept. of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 [901-678-2375; FAX: 901-678-2579; e-mail:].

* Vanderbilt University, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Psychology Department offers a Ph.D. program in which research activities concentrate on sensory and cognitive aspects of primate behavior and the anatomical and physiological substrates for such behavior. Special interests are in the development and evolution of complex sensory-cognitive systems in primates. Research involves Prosimians and several species of Old World and New World monkeys. Methods include computer-assisted studies of behavior, microelectrode recordings from behaving animals, and current anatomical and physiological procedures.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: V. A. Casagrande (development of the visual system, behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology); S. Florence (develop-ment of somatosensory system); J. H. Kaas (plasticity of sensory motor systems, normal organization and evolution of complex systems); J. Schall (neural activity during behavior, visuomotor systems).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jon H. Kaas, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Psychology Building, Nashville, TN 37240.


* University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.A. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, evolution, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud Bramblett [] (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); John Kappelman [] (physical anthropology, paleobiology, primate evolution, functional morphology); Deborah Overdorff [] (physical anthropology, ecology, primatolgy, Madagascar); Liza Shapiro [] (physical anthropology, primate evolution, functional morphology, locomotion).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 [e-mail:].


* Central Washington University, Chimpanzee & Human Communication Institute, Experimental Psychology, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.S. in Psychology includes opportunity for research in the following areas: chimpanzee language, cognition, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Roger S. Fouts (chimpanzee language).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Roger S. Fouts, Chimpanzee & Human Communication Institute, Central Washingon University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573 [e-mail: or].

* University of Washington, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Animal Behavior Program at the University of Washington is dedicated to providing the best possible graduate training including research techniques, theory, and investigative work with animals both in the laboratory and in natural habitats, preserves, or progressive zoos. The program leads to the Ph.D. in Psychology, with special training in animal behavior (including primate social behavior). It is administered by the core faculty in animal behavior, listed below. One of the great assets of the Animal Behavior Program is the interest and competence of faculty in departments other than Psychology. Cordial and cooperative relationships exist with behavior-oriented colleagues in Zoology, Wildlife Science (College of Fisheries and School of Forest Resources), the Conservation Biology Program, and the Regional Primate Research Center. Excellent rapport and research affiliations also exist with the Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, Pt. Defiance Zoo, the Seattle Aquarium, Northwest Trek, Friday Harbor and the greater Puget Sound.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan S. Lockard (primate social behavior, human ethology, zoo animal behavior, neurobehavior); Michael D. Beecher, (animal communication, avian sociobiology and ecology); Gene P. Sackett (primate development and behavior); David P. Barash (sociobiology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior and evolution); Eliot A. Brenowitz (avian behavior, neuroethology, neuroendocrinology, animal communication).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joan S. Lockard, Ph.D., Dept. of Psychology Box 351525, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95-1525 [e-mail: jsl@u].


* University of Wisconsin, Madison, Psychology, Anthropology and Zoology Departments
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Several Departments have programs related to primatology in addition to the Primate Center. Subjects for captive research include rhesus macaques, squirrel monkeys, cotton-top tamarins and pygmy marmosets. Active field research programs are current in Brazil, Ecuador, and Kenya. A masters program in Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development has a strong emphasis on primate conservation.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Walter Leutenegger [e-mail:] (Anthropology: evolutionary biology, morphological adaptations); Karen B. Strier [e-mail:] (Anthropology and Zoology: primate behavioral ecology and conservation); Christopher Coe (Psychology: Director, Harlow Laboratory of Biological Psychology, psychoimmunology); Charles T. Snowdon (Psychology and Zoology: communication, reproductive biology and behavior); Timothy Moermond (Zoology: Director, Conservation Biology and Sustainable Development, behavioral ecology, foraging behavior, community ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the faculty members listed for each program, or the Admissions Secretary of the appropriate department: University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

* University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, comparative anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. DNA analysis for paternity determination of nonhuman primates. Evolution, behavior, and functional morphology of non-human primates.More than 500 embalmed and skeletonized specimens of Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercocebus albigena, Papio cynocephalus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus albifrons, and Saguinus nigricollis. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Fred Anapol (primate functional morphology, muscle biology, skeletal analysis); Trudy R. Turner (DNA analysis, nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics); Neil C. Tappen, emeritus (primate anatomy, ecology, and evolution; structure and function of bone and muscle).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

* Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Graduate School
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Research at the Center is performed within the domain of 6 Research Groups: Aging and Metabolic Diseases, Immunology and Virology, Physiological Ethology, Psychobiology, Neurobiology, and Reproduction and Development. Students may conduct research at the Center by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and choosing a faculty advisor with Center affiliation. Appropriate departments for graduate students wishing to do research at the Center include Psychology, Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology, Pathology, Veterinary Science, and Meat and Animal Science, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program and the Neuroscience Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center has approximately 175 (midwest, national and international) Ph.D.-, M.D.-, and D.V.M.-level scientists. The Center Director and Research Group Chairs are listed here: John P. Hearn, Director, and Chair, Reproduction and Development, (608-263-3500); David H. Abbott, Chair, Physiological Ethology, (608-263-3583); Christopher Coe, Chair, Psychobiology, (608-263-3550); Richard Weindruch, Chair, Aging and Metabolic Disease, (608-262-0788]; David Pauza, Chair, Immunology and Virology, (608-262-9147); Ei Terasawa, Chair, Neurobiology, (608-263-3579).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: John P. Hearn, Director, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715.


* Australian National University, Canberra, Department of Archaeology & Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: M.A. (by coursework and thesis, or by thesis alone) and Ph.D. programs in Biological Anthropology, including Primatology. Graduates of this program have worked on colobine dentition; primate digestive strategies; Southeast Asian macaque variation; European Miocene hominoids; and gibbon social organization and ecology in central Borneo. The Physical Anthropology Laboratory of the Department of Archaeology & Anthropology has a collection of primate skulls and skeletons, Australian mammal skulls, and casts of fossil primates including hominids. Students from overseas wishing to study at Australian Universities are charged a Foreign Students' Fee, currently A$12,000; there are a few Overseas Student Scholarships which cover this fee. Further Scholarships are available to cover living expenses.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Colin P. Groves (primate taxonomy, evolution, functional morphology, behavior, ecology); Robert Attenborough (behavior, genetics, epidemiology). Collaboration is also possible with Simon Easteal (John Curtin School of Medical Research, same university), specializing in primate genetics, including DNA.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr C. P. Groves, Dept. of Archaeology & Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.


* University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology, Calgary
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Masters and Doctoral programs available in primatological studies, principally oriented towards behavioral and behavioral ecology approaches. Work in systematics and palaeoprimatology is also acceptable. Both programs require course-work, a formal research proposal defense, a candidacy examination for doctoral students, field research minimum of 4 and 12 months respectively, and preparation and defense of a thesis. The department has research relationships with the South Texas Primate Observatory (Arashiyama "A" troop), various primate research centers and zoos in the USA, the Budongo Forest Project in Uganda, and other field sites.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology, ethology); James Paterson (behavioral ecology, thermobiology, allometry and bioenergetics, postural studies, evolutionary and taxonomic theory, methodology and data acquisition); Mary McDonald Pavelka (behavior, social dynamics, Japanese macaques).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr U. Fleising, Head, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW., Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4, or e-mail to: or

* University of Alberta, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Anthropology with a specialization in primatology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dr. Pamela Asquith (anthropomorphism and animal behavior studies, history and development of primatology, comparative approaches to Japanese and Western primate studies, culture of science); Dr. Nancy Collinge (social cognition in nonhuman primates in general and the development of the cognitive domain in particular. The contextual and environmental factors affecting the development of social cognition in nonhuman primate infants); Dr. Linda Fedigan (Life histories, sex selection, and behavioral ecology of monkeys living in multi-male, multi-female societies. Field sites in Costa Rica, Japan, and the U.S. Research on gender and science); Dr. Lisa Gould (Social behavior and socioecology of primates, especially prosimians; effect of female dominance, sex differences; long-term demographic studies).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Linda Fedigan, Associate Chair, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H4.


* University of Liverpool Hominid Palaeontology Research Group (Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology) and School of Archaeology, Classics and Oriental Studies (Department of Archaeology)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: MSc in Early Hominid Studies. An intensive, interdisciplinary course over one year provides a broadly-based theoretical and practical understanding of our own origins and biology and that of our closest relatives within the larger context of climatic change and the evolution of life. It provides an excellent basis for further research in the field. Graduates with a first degree in a variety of arts and science subjects may enroll.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Robin Crompton (primate ecology, behavior, and evolution); Robin Dunbar (primate social behavior and evolution); Michael Günther (functional morphology and biomechanics); John Gowlett (paleolithic archaeology; early hominid sites; radiocarbon dating); Alf Latham (geochronology and geoarchaeology); Gabriele Macho (early hominid evolution; gnathic and dental evolution, function, and development); John Shaw (paleomagnetism); Anthony Sinclair (archaeological theory; late paleolithic); Bernard Wood (early hominid evolution and anatomy).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Gabriele Macho, Hominid Palaeontology Research Group, Dept of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England [].


* Universities of Edinburgh, St Andrews and Stirling
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Scottish Primate Research Group (SPRG). The SPRG is a joint enterprise between three Scottish Universities, each an hour's travel time from the others. Each institution provides funds for regular attendance at joint research and seminar meetings. At present the group includes 5 core members, together with over 30 postgraduate students, research assistants and associates. Field studies are carried out at several African sites, especially in Gabon, Kenya, and Rwanda; studies of captive primates rely on well-housed groups at Edinburgh and Belfast Zoos, as well as major primate centers in France and USA.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: James R. Anderson (Stirling, Psychology: Social behavior, learning and cognition; environmental enrichment); Hannah Buchanan-Smith (Psychology, Stirling: Polyspecific associations, environmenal enrichment); Elizabeth Rogers (Zoology, Edinburgh: Feeding ecology of African apes); Richard Byrne (Psychology, St Andrews: Cognition in primates, manual skill and laterality, foraging behavior); Andrew Whiten (Psychology, St Andrews: Developmental behavioral ecology, social learning, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Postgraduate Admissions, School of Psychology, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland, or Department of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland.

* * *

Grants Available

Small Grant Program for the NIDCD

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) announces their Small Grant Program for support of pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant or a First Independent Research Support and Transition (FIRST) award application. The research must be focused on one or more of the areas within the biomedical and behavioral scientific mission of the NIDCD: hearing, balance/vestibular, smell, taste, voice, speech, or language. The Small Grant Program is designed to support basic and clinical research of scientists who are in the early stages of pursuing an independent research career.

Current and previous recipients of NIH research grants such as Small Grant, Research Project Grants, or FIRST awards are ineligible for this Small Grant Program, as are principal investigators of research subprojects of Research Program Projects and Centers. Individuals who have received research support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) as Principal Investigators are ineligible.

Application Receipt Dates are April 19, August 16, and December 20. Direct inquiries to: Hearing: Dr. Kenneth Gruber [301-402-3458; e-mail: Kenneth_Gruber@ NIH.GOV]; Balance/Vestibular: Dr. Daniel Sklare [301-496-1804; e-mail: Daniel_Sklare@NIH.GOV]; Smell/ Taste: Dr. Jack Pearl [301-402-3464; e-mail: Jack_ Pearl@NIH.GOV]; or Dr. Rochelle Small [301-402-3464; e-mail: Rochelle_Small@NIH.GOV]; Voice/ Speech: Dr. Beth Ansel [301-402-3461; e-mail: Beth_Ansel@NIH .GOV]; Language: Dr. Judith Cooper [301-496-5061; e-mail: Judith_Cooper@NIH.GOV]. The address and FAX number for these persons are: Div. of Human Communication, NIDCD; Executive Plaza South, Rm 400-C, 6120 Executive Blvd, MSC-7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [FAX: 301-402-6251].

Minority Dissertation Grants in Aging

The National Institute on Aging offers small grants to support doctoral dissertation research to minority doctoral candidates intending to study problems in aging. Total direct costs are limited to $30,000 for two years. No more than $25,000 may be requested for any one year. For more information, contact Dr. Robin A. Barr, Office of Extramural Affairs, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C218, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, MSC-9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9322; FAX: 301-402-2945; e-mail:]. The application receipt date is January 23, 1996.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management. B. T. Bennett, C. R. Abee, & R. Henrickson (Eds.). New York: Academic Press, 1995 [Price: $125]

Audiovisual Material

* Three Posters. Foundation for Biomedical Research. [Price: $7.50 each; ten for $25.00. F. B. R., 818 Connecticut Ave, N.W., Washington, DC 20006]

* The Family of Chimps. B. Haanstra (Producer). 52 min. Video. [Sale: $295. Rental: $75. Filmmakers Library, 124 E. 40th Street, Suite 901, New York, NY 10016]
. . Documentation of Frans de Waal's study at the Arnhem Zoo.


* Three R Alternatives: An International Directory of Funding Sources. A. Tarzi & F. B. Orlans (Compilers). New York: ASPCA, 1995. 18 pp. [Price: $10 from ASPCA, 424 E. 92nd St, New York, NY 10128-6804]

* Directory of the Consortium of Aquariums, Universities, and Zoos, 1995-96. D. F. Hardy & T. Knight (Compilers). 159 pp. [Price: $20 from Donna Hardy, Dept of Psychology, Cal. State Univ., Northridge, CA 91330]
. . Listings of educators, researchers, students, and technical staffs who are interested in collaborating and communicating, and who are encouraged to join. The directory and indexes are also available, regularly updated, at

* Annual Resource Guide 1995: Special Edition of Continuing Listings. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1995. [PSIC, PIC, RPRC, Box 357330, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7330]

Magazines and Newsletters

* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, March 1995, 4[4]. [A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
. . Includes "Preliminary observations and status of the Pagai macaque," by A. Fuentes & M. Olson; "Distribution and conservation status of douc langurs in Vietnam," by L. K. Lippold; and "A new location for Trachypithecus francoisi hatinhensis," by L. K. Lippold & V. N. Thanh.

* Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Fall 1995, 13[1]. [111 Market Pl., Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709]

* Neotropical Primates, 1995, 3[3].
* Neotropical Primates, 1995, 3[Suppl.] [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . The Supplement is titled "Species and subspecies of neotropical primates: Conservation status according to the Mace-Lande System and distribution by country and region." Information on, and definitions for, the new threatened status categories adopted by the IUCN in 1994.

* The Newsletter, 1995, 7[2]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . Includes chimpanzee diets from the Knoxville (TN) Zoo and the Lincoln Park (IL) Zoo.

* OWM TAG Newsletter, 1995, 2[1] [H. Fitch-Snyder, Zool. Soc. of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551]
. . Includes "Primate conservation efforts in Vietnam: The endangered primate rescue center in Cuc Phuong National Park," by K. Killmar.

* Pan Africa News, 1995, 2[2]. [T. Nishida, Dept of Zoology, Kyoto Univ.]
. . Articles on epidemics in wild chimpanzee study groups; reports; and announcements. It is also available at

* Positively Primates, 1995, 1[2]. [DuMond Conservancy, c/o Monkey Jungle, 14805 SW 216 St, Miami, FL 33170]

* SCAW Newsletter, Summer 1995, 17[2]. [Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770]
. . Includes "Ethical considerations for conservation research: Zoo animal reproduction and overpopulation of wild animals," by J. F. Kirkpatrick, and an article on conditioning antelope to cooperate in blood drawing.

* Sulawesi Primate Newsletter, Fall 1995, 3[1]. [N. Bynum, 1126 John Jones Rd, Bahama, NC 27503]


* How Were These Critical Discoveries Possible? Enabling Discovery. Washington, DC: AAMC, 1995. [Free from the Association of American Medical Colleges, 2450 N St, NW, Washington, DC 20037]
. . Description of the wide array of research needs filled by the National Center for Research Resources.


* Current Issues and New Frontiers in Animal Research. K. A. L. Bayne, M. Greene, & E. D. Prentice (Eds.). [Price: $35, from SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770]
. . Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio in San Antonio, Texas on December 8-9, 1994. The chapters are titled: Updates on Regulations; Current IACUC Issues; Biocontainment, Biosafety & Biohazards; and New Frontiers.

* Wildlife Mammals as Research Models: In the Laboratory and Field. K. A. L. Bayne & M. Kreger (Eds.). [Price: $20 (6 or more copies: $15 each), from SCAW, address same as above]
. . Proceedings of a seminar held in July, 1994. Chapters include "Wildlife management in the laboratory: Nonhuman primates," by K. A. L. Bayne; "The control of fertility and monitoring ovarian function in free-roaming and captive wildlife: New approaches to old problems," by J. F. Kirkpatrick; and "Use of positive reinforcement techniques to enhance animal care, research, and well-being," by G. Laule & T. Desmond.

* 1994 Chimpanzoo Proceedings. V. Landau (Ed.). [Price: $20 plus $3 S&H from V. Landau, Jane Goodall Inst., Geronimo Bldg, Rm 308, 800 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721]

* In the Company of Animals. Special issue of Social Research, 6[3]. [Price: $7 from New School for Social Research, 66 W. 12th St, New York, NY 10011]


* Primate Report, June 1995, Number 43. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . The Annual Scientific Report 1994 of the German Primate Center.

* Essential Components of a Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program: Screening for Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Infection in High-Risk Populations: Recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports, 1995, 44, No. RR-11.

Animal Models

* Prevention of SIV Infection in Macaques by (R)-9-(2-Phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine. Tsai, C.-C. Follis, K. E., Sabo, A., Beck. T. W., Grant, R. F., Bischofberger, N., Benveniste, R. E., & Black, R. (Washington RPRC, Primate Field Station, Medical Lake, WA 99022). Science, 1995, 270, 1197-1199.
. . The efficacy of pre- and postexposure treatment with the antiviral compound (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypro-pyl)adenine (PMPA) was tested against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques as a model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMPA was administered subcutaneously once daily beginning either 48 hours before, 4 hours after, or 24 hours after virus inoculation. Treatment continued for 4 weeks and the virologic, immunologic, and clinical status of the macaques was monitored for up to 56 weeks. PMPA prevented SIV infection in all macaques without toxicity, whereas all control macaques became infected.

* Immunocytochemistry of Kaposi's sarcoma-like tumor cells from pigtailed macaques with simian AIDS. Tsai, C.-C., Wu, H., & Meng, F. (Address same as above). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 43-48.
. . Retroperitoneal fibromatosis tissues and cells were persistently infected with SRV-2, which may play an important role in viral etiology of AIDS-associated neoplasm in the pigtailed macaque model.

* An animal model for antilentiviral therapy: Effect of zidovudine on viral load during acute infection after exposure of macaques to simian immunodeficiency virus. Le Grand, R., Clayette, P., Noack, O., Vaslin, B., Theodoro, F., Michel, G., Roques, P., & Dormont, D. (Lab. de Neuropath. Exp. et Neurovir., Centre de Rech. du Serv. de Santé des Armées, DSV/DPTE, 60-68 Ave de la Div. Leclerc, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex 92265, France). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1994, 10, 1279-1287.
. . Analysis of the kinetics of the virological and immunological events occurring in four AZT-treated cynomolgus macaques during the acute infection following their exposure to SIVmac251 grown on monkey PBMCs in a cell-free stock solution.

* Immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus vaccines in chimpanzees following intranasal administration. Lubeck, M. D., Natuk, R. J., Chengalvala, M., Chanda, P. K., Murthy, K. K., Murthy, S., Mizutani, S., Lee, S.-G., Wade, M. S., Bhat, B. M., Bhat, R., Dheer, S. K., Eichberg, J. W., Davis, A. R., & Hung, P. P. (Wyeth-Ayerst Research, 145 King of Prussia Rd, Radner, PA 19087). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1994, 10, 1443-1449.
. . Although key questions remain, this study demonstrates the capacity of recombinant adenovirus to induce secretory responses and high serum neutralizing antibody responses in combination with a gp160 subunit vaccine. Although HIV antigens induced cellular proliferation responses, studies examining induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to HIV antigens are needed, as each of these responses may be critical for interruption of HIV transmission.

* The activated CD8 T-lymphocyte-derived immunodeficiency-virus-suppressing lymphokine in African green monkeys: Evidence for a role in control of infection? Ennen, J., Norley, S., & Kurth, R. (R. K., Paul-Ehrlich Inst., D-63225 Langen, Germany). Research in Immunology, 1994, 145, 647-653.
. . African green monkeys (AGM) possess a high proportion of CD8+ cells in circulation. CD8+ T cells from infected and uninfected AGMs suppress the replication of SIVAGM in vitro. This suppression is interspecies- and intervirus-specific, also inhibiting the replication of HIV1 in human CD4+ cells. The suppression appears to be mediated by a diffusible lymphokine, as replication was still suppressed when the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were separated by a porous membrane preventing cell-to-cell contact.

* Phylogenesis and genetic complexity of the nonhuman primate retroviridae. Franchini, G. & Reitz, M. S., Jr. (Lab. of Tumor Cell Biology, Bldg 37, Rm 6A09 NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1994, 10, 1047-1060.
. . The authors attempt to parallel the genetic features of the simian retroviruses with their human counterparts and argue for the possibility of horizontal transmission of these viruses from monkeys to humans.

* Isolation of simian immundeficiency viruses from two sooty mangabeys in Côte d'Ivoire: Virological and genetic characterization and relationship to other HIV type 2 and SIVsm/mac strains. Peeters, M., Janssens, W., Fransen, K., Brandful, J., Heyndrickx, L., Koffi, K., Delaporte, E., Piot, P., Gershy-Damet, G.-M., & van der Groen, G. (Inst. of Trop. Med., Nationalestr. 155, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium). AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1994, 10, 1289-1294.
. . One African green monkey and three sooty mangabeys, of a group of 43 captive monkeys, had antibodies that cross-reacted with HIV-2. Two new lentiviruses, which form a distinct subgroup equidistant to the HIV-2 strains and previously described SIVsm/SIVmac viruses, were isolated from two of the mangabeys.

* Induction of AIDS by simian immunodeficiency virus from an African green monkey: Species-specific variation in pathogenicity correlates with the extent of in vivo replication. Hirsch, V. M., Dapolito, G., Johnson, P. R., Elkins, W. R., London, W. T., Montali, R. J., Goldstein, S., & Brown, C. (Immunodef. Viruses Sect., Lab. of Infect. Diseases, NIAID, NIH, 12441 Parklawn Dr., Rockville, MD 20852). Journal of Virology, 1995, 69, 955-967.
. . This report describes the isolation and biologic and molecular characterization of a pathogenic SIVagm strain derived from a naturally infected African green monkey. This virus induced an AIDS-like syndrome and the death of five of eight pigtailed macaques within 1 year of infection. No disease was observed in experimentally infected rhesus macaques and African green monkeys.

* Presence of virion protein x (Vpx) of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 in target cells in vivo. Persidsky, Y., Liska, V., Huss, T., Gendrault, J.-L., Venet, A., Muchmore, E., Traincard, F., Kirn, A., & Aubertin, A.-M. (A.-M. A., Unité INSERM 7a4, Inst. Virol. Fac. Méd., Univ. L. Pasteur, 3 rue Koeberlé, 67000 Strasbourg, France). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 35-42.
. . Localization of viron-associated protein x(Vpx) of SIVmac251 was studied in lymph nodes and liver of six infected monkeys. Vpx may be necessary for viral replication in vivo.

* Nonclassical mucosal antibodies predominate in genital secretions of HIV-1 infected chimpanzees. Israel, Z. R. & Marx, P. A. (P. A. M., AIDS Animal Models Lab., Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, NYU Med. Ctr, LEMSIP, RR1, Long Meadow Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987-9801). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 53-60.
. . IgG, IgA, and IgM from plasma, saliva, rectal swabs, vaginal washes, semen, and urethral washes were tested from 4 male and 3 female HIV-1 infected chimpanzees. Nonclassical mucosal antibodies of the IgG isotype were the predominant antibody in the saliva, rectal swabs, vaginal washes, semen, and urethral washes of infected animals. HIV-1 specific IgG responses and not sIgA predominate at mucosal surfaces of these chimpanzees.

* Major histocompatibility complex class I-associated vaccine protection from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood cells. Heeney, J. L., van Els, C., de Vries, P., ten Haaft, P., Otting, N., Koornstra, W., Boes, J., Dubbes, R., Niphuis, H., Dings, M., Cranage, M., Norley, S., Jonker, M., Bontrop, R. E., & Osterhaus, A. (Lab. of Viral Pathogenesis, Biomed. Primate Research Ctr, TNO, Lange Kleiweg 157, P.O. Box 5815, 2280 HV Rijswijk, Netherlands). Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1994, 180, 769-774.
. . SIV-vaccinated rhesus monkeys which were protected against cell-associated virus challenge were those which shared a particular major histocompatibility complex class I allele with the donor of the challenging infected cells.

* Enhanced responsiveness to nuclear factor kappa-B contributes to the unique phenotype of simian immunodeficiency virus variant SIVsmmBPj14. Dollard, S. C., Gummuluru, S., Tsang, S., Fultz, P. N., & Dewhurst, S. (S. D., Dept of Microbiol. & Immunol., Univ. of Rochester Med. Ctr, Rochester, NY 14642). Journal of Virology, 1994, 68, 7800-7809.
. . Results are consistent with the hypothesis that long terminal repeat mutations assist SIVsmmBPj14 in responding efficiently to cellular stimulation and allow it to replicate to high titers during the acute phase of viral infection.

* Immediate zidovudine treatment protects simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn macaques against rapid onset of AIDS. van Rompay, K. K. A., Otsyula, M. G., Marthas, M. L., Miller, C. J., McChesney, M. B., & Pedersen, N. C. (California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1995, 39, 125-131.
. . Results with rhesus macaques indicate that early chronic AZT treatment of HIV-exposed newborns may have benefits that outweigh its potential side effects.

* Modulation of behavioral performance of prepubertal monkeys by moderate dietary zinc deprivation. Golub, M. S., Takeuchi, P. T., Keen, C. L., Gershwin, M. E., Hendrickx, A. G., & Lonnerdal, B. (Address same as above). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1994, 60, 238-243.
. . Rhesus monkeys 25-30 months of age were fed a zinc-deficient diet over 15 weeks. Spontaneous motor activity was lower and performance of a visual-attention task and short-term-memory task were poorer during that period than either before or after it.

* Ocular inoculation of monkeys with simian varicella virus: Clinical and histopathologic observations. Metcalf, J. F., Christianson, M. D., & Brady, A. G. (Ophthal. Res. Lab., Dept of Ophthalmology, Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 1995, 36, 41-51.
. . It is proposed that inoculation of the eyes of methylprednisolone-treated African green monkeys with simian varicella virus provides an appropriate animal model for studies of the virology and immunopathology of ocular varicella virus infection.

* Chronic Lyme disease in the rhesus monkey. Roberts, E. D., Bohm, R. P., Jr., Cogswell, F. B., Lanners, H. N., Lowrie, R. C., Jr., Povinelli, L., Piesman, J., & Philipp, M. T. (Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433). Laboratory Investigation, 1995, 72, 146-160.
. . Borrelia burgdorferi infection in rhesus macaques mirrors several aspects of both the early and chronic phases of the disease in humans.

* Animal models of Lyme disease: Pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis. Philipp, M. T. & Johnson, B. J. B. (Address same as above). Trends in Microbiology, 1994, 2, 431-437.
. . The rhesus monkey and the mouse are models for different aspects of Lyme disease.

* The aged monkey basal forebrain: Rescue and sprouting of axotomized basal forebrain neurons after grafts of encapsulated cells secreting human nerve growth factor. Kordower, J. H., Winn, S. R., Liu, Y.-T., Mufson, E. J., Sladek, J. R., Jr., Hammang, J. P., Baetge, E. E., & Emerich, D. F. (Dept of Neurol. Sci., Rush Presbyterian-St. Luke's Med. Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1994, 91, 10898-10902.
. . Human nerve growth factor (hNGF) can provide tro- phic and tropic influences to aged primate basal forebrain neurons undergoing lesion-induced degeneration, supporting the contention the hNGF may prevent the degeneration of basal forebrain neurons in Alzheimer's disease.

* Incidence of atresia or of luteinization without rupture of the dominant ovarian follicle in rhesus monkeys treated with estradiol-17-beta on day 8 of the menstrual cycle. Dierschke, D. J., Golos, T. G., Durning, M., & Hutz, R. J. (Dept of Meat & Animal Sci., Univ. of Wisconsin, 1675 Observatory Dr., Rm 256, Madison, WI 53706-1284). American Journal of Primatology, 1994, 34, 261-273.
. . Atresia of the dominant follicle was induced in many animals treated with E2 on day 8 of the menstrual cycle when the capsule was left in place only 12 h. However, the more prevalent outcome with treatment for 24 h was induction of a premature LH surge, and luteinization of the dominant follicle without ovulation.

* Mechanisms controlling corpus luteum function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): Inhibitory action of hCG on luteolysis induced by PGF2. Auletta, F. J. & Kelm, L. B. (Dept of Ob/Gyn, Univ. of Vermont College of Med., Burlington, VT 05405-0068). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1994, 102, 215-220.
. . Prostaglandin F2 was infused directly into the corpus luteum of rhesus monkeys. Results show that hCG can inhibit luteal regression induced by PGF2 in vivo, and are contrary to results obtained in vitro using minced or sliced luteal cells.

* Antifertility effects of porcine zona pellucida-3 immunization using permissible adjuvants in female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata): Reversibility, effect on follicular development and hormonal profiles. Bagavant, H., Thillai-Koothan, P., Sharma, M. G., Talwar, G. P., & Gupta, S. K. (Gamete Antigen Lab., National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi 110 067, India). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1994, 102, 17-25.
. . ZP3 immunization with adjuvants permissible for human use could be used for immunocontraception without obvious ovarian changes, based on results with two forms of antigen, in groups of four animals each.

* Anti-human gonadotropin antibodies generated during in vitro fertilization (IVF)-related cycles: Effect on fertility of rhesus macaques. Iliff, S. A., Molskness, T. A., & Stouffer, R. L. (Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 7-11.
. . The presence of anti-human gonadotropin antibodies did not interfere with conception or maintenance of pregnancy in 16 female rhesus macaques.

* The effects of immunosuppression on development and progression of endometriosis in baboons (Papio anubis). D'Hooghe, T. M., De Jonge, I., Bambra, C. S., Hill, J. A., Raeymaekers, B. M., & Koninckx, P. R. (Fearing Research Lab., Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Med. School, 250 Longwood Ave, SGMB 204, Boston, MA 02115). Fertility and Sterility, 1995, 64, 172-178.
. . Chemically immunosuppressed baboons with spontaneous endometriosis had a significantly higher number and larger surface area of endometriotic lesions than nontreated animals. Treated and nontreated baboons with induced endometriosis were comparable with respect to both number and surface area of implants, while immunosuppression did not cause development of endometriosis in baboons with previously normal pelvises.

* Antinociceptive and respiratory effects of nalbuphine in rhesus monkeys. Gerak, L. R., Butelman, E. R., Woods, J. H., & France, C. P. (C. P. F., Dept of Pharmacol., Lousiana State Univ. Med. Ctr, 1100 Florida Ave, New Orleans, LA 70119). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1994, 271, 993-999.
. . The purported low efficacy opioid agonist nalbuphine produces different effects depending on the behavioral conditions.

* Patch transplants of human fetal retinal pigment epithelium in rabbit and monkey retina. Sheng, Y., Gouras, P., Cao, H., Berglin, L., Kjeldbye, H., Lopez, R., & Rosskothen, H. (P. G., Dept of Ophthalmol., Columbia Univ., 630 W. 168th St, NY, NY 10032). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 1995, 36, 381-390.
. . Monolayer patches of cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelium can be transplanted to the subretinal space, where they survive in contiguity with healthy host outer segments. In primates, but not in rabbits, rejection does not occur for at least 2 to 3 months.

* Diet restriction in rhesus monkeys lowers fasting and glucose-stimulated glucoregulatory end points. Lane, M. A., Ball, S. S., Ingram, D. K., Cutler, R. G., Engel, J., Read, V., & Roth, G. S. (Molecular Physiol. & Genetics Sect., Gerontology Res. Ctr, NIA, NIH, 4940 Eastern Ave, Baltimore, MD 21224). American Journal of Physiology, 1995, 268, E941-E948.
. . It is apparent that diet restriction (DR) induced several changes in carbohydrate metabolism, which could reduce or delay the onset of adult-onset diabetes. Additional research is needed to establish what role altered carbohydrate metabolism plays in the antiaging action of DR.

* Aging and food restriction alter some indices of bone metabolism in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Lane, M. A., Reznick, A. Z., Tilmont, E. M., Lanir, A., Ball, S. S., Read, V., Ingram, D. K., Cutler, R. G., & Roth, G. S. (Address same as above). Journal of Nutrition, 1995, 125, 1600-1610.
. . Long-term food restriction appears to delay skeletal development in male rhesus monkeys while allowing the development of a reduced but otherwise normal skeleton.

* Gastric acid secretion in the cynomolgus monkey. Dethloff, L. A., Altrogge, D. M., & Gillhouse, K. A. (Dept of Pathol. & Exp. Toxicol., Parke-Davis Pharm. Research Div., Warner-Lambert Co., 2800 Plymouth Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48104). Laboratory Animal Science, 1994, 44, 468-471.
. . Gastric acid secretion was measured in male and female cynomolgus monkeys under basal conditions and in response to intravenous administration of pentagastrin. Results suggest that the cynomolgus monkey may be a useful model for gastric physiology studies.

* Colon diseases in the cotton-top tamarin: Evaluating a primate model for ulcerative colitis and colorectal carcinoma in humans. Adams, L. J., Clapp, N., Collmann, I. R., & Fuhr, J. (Univ. of Tennessee Med. Ctr, Suite 100, 1928 Alcoa Hwy, Knoxville, TN 37920). Agents Actions, 1994, 41[Special Conf. Issue], C243-C245.
. . A comprehensive review of the current literature from researchers associated with three of the largest biomedical research cotton-top colonies in the world, along with current observations in humans.

* An animal model of visual loss from orbital hemorrhage. Schabdach, D. G., Goldberg, S. H., Breton, M. E., Griffith, J. W., Lang, C. M., & Cunningham, D. (S. H. G., Dept. of Ophthalmol., Penn State Univ. College of Med., P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033]. Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1994, 10, 200-205.
. . A reversible state of unilateral visual loss secondary to acutely increased intraorbital volume was induced and maintained under general anesthesia.

* Humanized antibody directed to the IL-2 receptor beta-chain prolongs primate cardiac allograft survival. Tinubu, S. A., Hakimi, J., Kondas, J. A., Bailon, P., Familletti, P. C., Spence, C., Crittenden, M. D., Parenteau, G. L., Dirbas, F. M., Tsudo, M., Bacher, J. D., Kasten-Sportes, C., Martinucci, J. L., Goldman, C. K., Clark, R. E., & Waldmann, T. A. (T. A. W., Metabolism Br., NCI, NIH, Bldg 10, Rm 4N115, Bethesda, MD 20892). Journal of Immunology, 1994, 153, 4330-4338.
. . Humanized Mik-beta-1 prolonged cardiac allograft survival in primates without toxicity and may be effective as an adjunct to standard immunosuppressive therapy.

* Recombinant human dimeric tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR:Fc) as an immunosuppressive agent in renal allograft recipients. Eason, J. D., Wee, S. L., Kawai, T., Hong, H. Z., Powelson, J., Widmer, M., & Cosimi, A. B. (Wilford Hall Med. Ctr, 59th MW/PSSX, 2200 Bergquist Dr, Lackland AFB, TX 78236). Transplantation Proceedings, 1995, 27, 554.
. . TNFR:Fc can be safely administered and is effective in prolonging renal allograft survival alone or in combination with cyclosporine.

* Effects of recombinant human interleukin-6 administration on bone in rhesus monkeys. Binkley, N. C., Sun, W. H., Checovich, M. M., Roecker, E. B., Kimmel, D. B., & Ershler, W. B. (W. B. E., U.W. Inst. on Aging, 1300 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706). Lymphokine and Cytokine Research, 1994, 13, 221-226.
. . Data suggest that exogenous administration of recombinant human IL-6 to adult female rhesus monkeys in a dose of 15microg/kg/day for 4 weeks may cause decreased bone formation.

* Multiple effects on peripheral hematology following administration of recombinant human interleukin 12 to nonhuman primates. Bree, A. G., Schlerman, F. J., Kaviani, M. D., Hastings, R. C., Hitz, S. L., & Goldman, S. J. (Genetics Inst., Inc., 87 Cambridge Pk Dr., Cambridge, MA 0214x). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1994, 204, 1150-1157.
. . Treatment of cynomolgus monkeys with 1microg/kg/day of rhIL-12 caused a decrease in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells/microL on Days 2 and 4. Reversible thrombocytopenia and anemia were noted in treated groups.

* Polymorphonuclear leukocyte behavior in a nonhuman primate focal ischemia model. Ember, J. A., del Zoppo, G. J., Mori, E., Thomas, W. S., Copeland, B. R., & Hugli, T. E. (Dept of Immunol., Scripps Research Inst., 10666 N. Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037). Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 1994, 14, 1046-1054.
. . Preparation of a nonhuman model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion produces no substantial permanent alteration in circulating granulocyte function, making this model suitable for examining the effects of a single cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion on granulocyte behavior in the absence of general anesthesia.

* Effects of perfluorocarbon exchange transfusion on reducing myocardial infarct size in a primate model of ischemia-reperfusion injury: A prospective, randomized study. Premaratne, S., Harada, R. N., Chun, P., Suehiro, A., & McNamara, J. J. (Dept of Surgery, Univ. of Hawaii, 1356 Lusitana St, Honolulu, HI 96813). Surgery, 1995, 117, 670-676.
. . Results suggest that the beneficial effects of exchange transfusion with perfluorocarbons may be primarily due to hemodilution.

* Continuous administration decreases and pulsatile administration increases behavioral sensitivity to a novel dopamine D2 agonist (U-91356A) in MPTP-exposed monkeys. Blanchet, P. J., Calon, F., Martel, J. C., Bédard, P. J., Di Paolo, T., Walters, R. R., & Piercey, M. F. (P. J. Bédard, Neurobiol. Research Ctr, Hôp. de l'Enfant-Jésus, 1401, 18e Rue, Québec, PQ, Canada G1J 1Z4). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1995, 272, 854-859.
. . Mode of administration of dopaminergic agents may result in markedly different clinical outcome. Changes in dopamine receptors do not appear to be clearly linked to dyskinesia but may play a role in desensitization.

* A baboon (Papio hamadryas) model of insulin-depen-dent diabetes. Heffernan, S., Phippard, A., Sinclair, A., McLennan, S., Hennessy, A., Gillin, A., Horvath, J., Tiller, D., Yue, D., & Turtle, J. (D. K. Y., Dept of Endocrinol., Royal Prince Alfred Hosp., Camperdown, NSW, Australia 2050). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 29-34.
. . Streptozocin has been used to induce diabetes in 10 baboons over 4 years, with minimal hepatic or renal toxicity. Using a once daily injection of mixed short- and intermediate-acting insulins, it is possible to maintain reasonable metabolic control.

* Antihypertensive effects of captopril without adverse effects on glucose tolerance in hyperinsulinemic rhesus monkeys. Bodkin, N. L. & Hansen, B. C. (Obesity & Diabetes Research Ctr, MSTF Rm 6-00, 10 S. Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 1-6.
. . The effects of captopril on six spontaneously prediabetic monkeys were studied. Captopril significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels in all subjects.


* Causes of body rocking in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Spijkerman, R. P., Dienske, H., van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M., & Jens, W. (Azoren 1, 3524 ET, Utrecht, Netherlands). Animal Welfare, 1994, 3, 193-211.
. . The development of rocking may be prevented if the babies are left with the mother and in their social group. Rocking after (late) separation may be prevented when transfer takes place together with familiar peers.

* Interest in infants varies with reproductive condition in group-living female pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Maestripieri, D. & Wallen, K. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., 2409 Taylor Ln., Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Physiology & Behavior, 1995, 57, 353-358.
. . Infant-directed behavior increased in frequency during early and middle pregnancy, decreased around the time of parturition, and increased again during lactation. Frequency of infant-directed behavior also increased significantly in the 2 weeks after infant loss during lactation.

* Evolutionary roots of intuitive parenting: Maternal competence in chimpanzees. Bard, K. A. (Div. of Reproductive Biology, Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Early Development and Parenting, 1994, 3, 19-28.
. . Intuitive behaviors in chimpanzee mothers reflect sensitive responsivity during which the mother engages in contingent behavior and encourages development of infant capacities, paralleling those behaviors observed in human intuitive parenting.

* An investigation into the socioendocrinology of infant care and postpartum fertility in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii). Jurke, M. H., Pryce, C. R., Hug-Hodel, A., & Döbeli, M. (CRES, Zool. Soc. of San Diego, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551). International Journal of Primatology, 1995, 16, 453-474.
. . It is suggested that the timing of the onset of paternal care can be determined in at least two ways: with early postpartum ovulation or infant body weight as possible triggers, a mother becomes aggressive to her infant, which emits distress vocalizations, attracting the father; in other cases the male actively seeks close contact with his infant, which goes over to the father spontaneously.

* Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learn category matching in a nonidentical same-different task. Neiworth, J. J. & Wright, A. A. (Dept of Psychology, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1994, 20, 429-435.
. . Rhesus monkeys were able to learn matches when different views of the same object were presented, typically with differences in perspective, lighting, and background.

* Dominance competition through affiliation and support in Japanese macaques: An experimental study. Chapais, B., Gauthier, C., & Prud'homme, J. (Dept d'anthropol., Univ. de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centreville, Montréal, Canada H3C 3J7). International Journal of Primatology, 1995, 16, 521-536.
. . Experimentally inducing rank reversals in a captive group of Japanese macaques produced data compatible with one version of the affiliation-for-support hypothesis: Monkeys affiliate with dominants as a way to assert their own position in the hierarchy.

* Reproductive constraints on aggressive competition in female baboons. Packer, C., Collins, D. A., Sindimwo, A., & Goodall, J. (Dept EEB, Univ. of Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Cir., St. Paul, MN 55108). Nature, 1995, 373, 60-63.
. . Analysis of 584 pregnancies of 138 females in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, over 25 years shows that high rank for female baboons carries significant reproductive costs, as well as advantages.

* Geophagy amongst rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Mahaney, W. C., Stambolic, A., Knezevich, M., Hancock, R. G. V., Aufreiter, S., Sanmugadas, K., Kessler, M. J., & Grynpas, M. D. (York Univ., 4700 Keele St, North York, P.O. M3J 1P3 Canada). Primates, 1995, 36, 323-333.
. . Soil mining and eating behavior of M. mulatta is described and assessed with respect to the chemical, geochemical, and mineralogical composition of the ingested materials. The animals may ingest clay to obtain kaolinite/halloysite minerals which may alter the taste of their provided food and may act as pharmaceutical agents to alleviate intestinal ailments such as diarrhea.


* Nonhuman primate wounding prevalence: A retrospective analysis. Bayne, K., Haines, M., Dexter, S., Woodman, D., & Evans, C. (S. D., NIH, 14D/313, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892). Lab Animal, 1995, 28[4], 40-44.
. . Analysis of behavioral and medical records of Maca- ca mulatta and M. fascicularis from three facilities with, respectively, group, pair, and individual housing.

* Frequently asked questions about the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Potkay, S., Garnett, N. L., Miller, J. G., Pond, C. L., & Doyle, D. J. (Div. Animal Welfare, OPRR, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd, Suite 3B01, MSC 7507, Rockville, MD 20892-7507). Lab Animal, 1995, 28[9], 24-26.
. . Guidance to interpretation of PHS policy, by staff members.

* Using training to moderate chimpanzee aggression during feeding. Bloomsmith, M. A., Laule, G. E., Alford, P. L., & Thurston, R. H. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Ctr, Science Park, Dept. of Vet. Sci., Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602). Zoo Biology, 1994, 13, 557-566.
. . Positive reinforcement training techniques were applied to reduce a dominant male chimpanzee's aggression and chasing during meals.

* Effects of environmental enrichment on reproduction. Carlstead, K. & Shepherdson, D. (Nat. Zool. Park, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20008). Zoo Biology, 1994, 13, 477-458.
. . Discussion of the benefits that have been found to result from environmental enrichment.

* Feeding enrichment and body weight in captive chimpanzees. Brent, L. (Southwest Foundation for Biomed. Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228-0147). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 12-16.
. . The weight of female chimpanzees was significantly greater following a daily enrichment program, including food items offered 3 to 4 times/week, but male body weights did not differ.

* Personality assessment in the gorilla and its utility as a management tool. Gold, K. C. & Maple, T. L. (Lincoln Park Zool. Gardens, 2200 N. Cannon Dr., Chicago, IL 60614). Zoo Biology, 1994, 13, 509-522.
. . The Gorilla Behavior Index (GBI), a subjective assessment instrument consisting of behaviorally based adjectives, was completed for 298 of 303 captive gorillas over one year of age. Potential management uses for the GBI scores are discussed.

* ILAR Journal, Spring, 1995, 37[2]. [Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, NAS 347, Washington, DC 20418]
. . This issue examines and compares laboratory animal care policies and regulations from Canada, Japan, New Zealand, the U.K., and the U.S.


* Histopathological studies on senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in aged cynomolgus monkeys. Nakamura, S., Nakayama, H., Goto, N., Ono-Ochikubo, F., Sakakibara, I., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Dept of Vet. Pathology, Fac. of Agriculture, Univ. of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1995, 43, 711-718. [Japanese, with English abstract and tables]
. . Incidence and morphology of senile plaque and amyloid angiopathy in the cerebrum of six animals, 20 to 29 years old, were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Neither senile plaque nor amyloid angiopathy was detected in the cerebrum of 15 young controls, aged 9 to 11 years.

* Magnetic resonance imaging in vivo monitoring of T2 relaxation time: Quantitative assessment of primate brain maturation. Miot, E., Hoffschir, D., Poncy, J. L., Masse, R., Le Pape, A., & Akoka, S. (Lab. de Biophysique Cellulaire et RMN, Fac. de Méd., 2 bis, bd Tonnellé, 37032 Tours Cédex, France). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 87-93.
. . Quantitative MRI assessment of brain maturation in nine baboons from age of one to 30 months.


* Update: Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995, 44, 475-479.

* Fluconazole therapy in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) with epidural Trichosporon beigelii in a cephalic recording cylinder. Dannemiller, S. D., Watson, J. R., & Rozmiarek, H. (University Lab. Animal Resources, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6021). Laboratory Animal Science, 1995, 45, 31-35.
. . Possibly the first reported T. beigelii infection in a nonhuman primate. Fluconazole was effective in eliminating the infection and preventing its recurrence.

* Fulminant Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in a lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) without detected signs. Graczyk, T. K., Cranfield, M. R., Kempske, S. E., & Eckhaus, M. A. (Johns Hopkins Univ. Sch. of Hygiene & Public Health, Dept of Molecular Microbiol. & Immunol., 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 1995, 31, 75-78.
. . First report of S. pneumoniae in M. silenus. For prevention, the authors believe that lion-tailed macaques should be housed in enclosures with adequate space, ventilation, and strict hygiene. Nasal and pharyngeal cultures should be obtained on all newly acquired animals.

* Primary Herpesvirus simiae (B-virus) infection in infant macaques. Anderson, D. C., Swenson, R. B., Orkin, J. L., Kalter, S. S., & McClure, H. M. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Laboratory Animal Science, 1994, 44, 526-530.
. . Report of severe, primary herpesvirus-B infection in two infant macaques, one with dissemination to visceral organs and both with lesions involving the brain. All macaques including infants should be handled with appropriate precautions, and the possibility of herpesvirus B or other infective agents must be considered when they are used in scientific studies, particularly in those instances involving mucous membrane contact.

* Risk of venereal B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) transmission in rhesus monkeys using molecular epidemiology. Weigler, B. J., Scinicariello, F., & Hilliard, J. K. (Dept of Companion Animal & Special Species Med., College of Vet. Med., 4700 Hillsborough St, Raleigh, NC 27606). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1995, 171, 1139-1143.
. . Antibodies to B virus were demonstrated in 19 of 49 rhesus monkeys tested at necropsy, but no active viral shedding was detected in mucosal swabs collected at death. Statistical analysis of exposure variables indicate that sexual contact is a significant, but not predominant, mode of B virus transmission between monkeys.

* Comparison of regulatory features among primate lentiviruses. Jeang, K. T. & Gatignol, A. (Lab. of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 1994, 188, 123-144.
. . A review of the mechanisms used by HIV and SIV to regulate transcriptional and posttranscription expression.

* Melanotic ependymoma in a Goeldi's marmoset (Callimico goeldii). Nichols, D. K. & Dias, J. L. C. (J. L. C. D., Dept of Pathology, National Zool. Park, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20008-2598). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 49-51.
. . Special histochemical techniques demonstrated that a spontaneous mass in the brain of an adult marmoset was an ependymoma with a rare melanotic differentiation.

* Pathology and immunohistochemistry of callitrichid hepatitis, an emerging disease of captive New World primates caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Montali, R. J., Connolly, B. M., Armstrong, D. L., Scanga, C. A., & Holmes, K. V. (Address same as above). American Journal of Pathology, 1995, 148, 1441-1449.
. . The multi-organ tropism and histological pattern of LCMV infection in marmosets and tamarins are similar to those reported for the highly virulent arenavirus that causes Lassa fever in humans.

* Characterization of infectious type D retrovirus from baboons. Grant, R. F., Windsor, S. K., Malinak, C. J., Bartz, C. R., Sabo, A., Benveniste, R. E., & Tsai, C.-C. (C.-C. T., Primate Center Field Station, Univ. of Washington, Medical Lake, WA 99022-0536). Virology, 1995, 207, 292-296.
. . An infectious virus resembling type D simian retrovirus was isolated from Papio cynocephalus, likely the result of a cross-species infection in the recent past. Simian type D viruses pose a considerable health threat to captive macaques, but it is not yet known what effect this virus may have on baboons or other primates.

* Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1995, 74[4]. 16 p. [Document no. WHO/MAL/95.1072]
. . A rapid dipstick antigen capture assay for the diagnosis of Falciparum malaria.

* Insulin-like growth factor I levels decrease in the development of diabetes in Macaca nigra. Berguido, F., Kagey, M., Howard, C. F., Jr., & Stapleton, S. R. (Dept of Chemistry, Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI 49008). Primates, 1995, 36, 423-429.
. . Using serum samples collected from different animals in a colony in a variety of metabolic states, it was found that insulin-like growth factor I and insulin levels decrease in each defined metabolic state as the animals progress from nondiabetic to diabetic.

* Diagnosis of a case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkey colony by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rock, F. M., Landi, M. S., Meunier, L. D., Morris, T. H., Rolf, L. L., Warnick, C. L., McCreedy, B. J., & Hughes, H. C. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA 19107). Laboratory Animal Science, 1995, 45, 315-319.
. . An adult female, of feral origin, which had been singly housed for 4.5 years, had a "suspect" reaction to its 11th TB testing. An ELISA indicated the presence of antibodies against Mycobacterium spp. in this animal and two other, randomly selected, ones in the facility. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of necropsy samples from the index animal resulted in identification of M. tuberculosis.

Evolution and Genetics

* MHC expression of African green monkeys of Barbados is limited in heterogeneity. Lekutis, C. & Letvin, N. L. (Div. of Viral Pathogenesis, RE-113, Beth Israel Hospital, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 81-86.
. . Biochemical analysis of activated blood lymphocytes of captive African green monkeys from Barbados lends confirmation to the hypothesis, suggested by geohistorical evidence, that there is less genetic diversity in these animals than in the African cohort.

Instruments & Techniques

* Primates and parasites: A case for a multidisciplinary approach. Stuart, M. D. & Strier, K. B. (Dept of Biology, Univ. of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804). International Journal of Primatology, 1995, 16, 577-593.
. . Techniques for noninvasive collection and preservation of fecal samples from wild primates and salvaging parasitological information from primate hosts in the field.

* Correlation between urinary pregnanediol glucuronide and basal body temperature in female orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus. Asa, C. S., Fischer, F., Carrasco, E., & Puricelli, C. (St. Louis Zool. Park, Forest Park, St. Louis, MO 63110). American Journal of Primatology, 1994, 34, 275-281.
. . Radiotelemetry transmitters were implanted peritoneally to record core body temperatures in adult female orangutans. Although changes in basal body temperature (BBT) were not sufficiently distinct to predict or to precisely identify time of ovulation, the strong association between BBT and pregnanediol glucuronide suggests that radiotelemetry of BBT may be useful in monitoring ovarian cycles, especially the luteal phase, in this species.


* Behavioral effects of an antiandrogen in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Deputte, B. L., Johnson, J., Hempel, M., & Scheffler, G. (Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715). Hormones and Behavior, 1994, 28, 155-164.
. . Injections of testosterone propionate (TP) increased yawning frequency in castrated adult male rhesus, and cessation of TP injections produced a decrease in yawning frequency. A similar decrease was observed with simultaneous injections of TP and Hydroxyflutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen.

* Normal serum biochemical and hematological values of the Sulawesi macaques. Goodrich, J. A., Ward, G. S., & Swindle, M. M. (Comp. Med. Clinical Res. Ctr, Bowman Gray School of Med., Wake Forest Univ., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1995, 24, 17-28.
. . Normative data from 25 clinically healthy, outdoor-housed, ketamine-sedated Macaca tonkeana and M. maurus, taken over a 16-month period.

* Non-NMDA glutamate receptors are present throughout the primate hypothalamus. Ginsberg, S. D., Price, D. L., Blackstone, C. D., Huganir, R. L., & Martin, L. J. (Neuropathol. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Med., 558 Ross Research Bldg, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1995, 353, 539-552.
. . Highly specific antipeptide antibodies were used in six cynomolgus monkeys to visualize alpha-animo-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunits, kainate receptor subunits, and a metabotropic receptor. Results provide evidence for the glutamatergic regulation of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and limbic circuits.

* In healthy primates, circulating autoreactive T cells mediate autoimmune disease. Genain, C. P., Lee-Parritz, D., Nguyen, M.-H., Massacesi, L., Joshi, N., Ferrante, R., Hoffman, K., Moseley, M., Letvin, N. L., & Hauser, S. L. (Dept of Neurology, Box 0114, Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA 94143). Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1994, 94, 1339-1345.
. . Direct evidence, from Callithrix jacchus, that natural populations of circulating T cells directed against a CNS antigen can mediate an inflammatory autoimmune disease.


* Rhesus monkey oocyte maturation and fertilization in vitro: Roles of the menstrual cycle phase and of exogenous gonadotropins. Alak, B. M. & Wolf, D. P. (D. P. W., Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th, Beaverton, OR 97006). Biology of Reproduction, 1994, 51, 879-887.
. . Higher maturation levels are obtained with oocytes from early follicular phase ovaries, and gonadotropins influence oocyte performance in a cycle phase-dependent manner.

* Cycle synchrony and probability of conception in female hamadryas baboons Papio hamadryas. Zinner, D., Schwibbe, M. H., & Kaumanns, W. (DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1994, 35, 175-183.
. . Data on reproductive states of 16 females over 12 years. Females experiencing conceptive estrus showed less synchrony than those experiencing nonconceptive estrus, indicating that sperm may be a limited resource in the one-male reproductive units of hamadryas baboons.

* Seasonal changes in spermatogenic cell degeneration in the seminiferous epithelium of adult Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata). Enomoto, T., Matsubayashi, K., Nagato, Y., & Nakano, M. (Dept. of Morphology, Tokai Univ. School of Med., Bohseidai, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-11, Japan). Primates, 1995, 36, 411-422.
. . Results of light and electron microscopy imply that the seasonal change of sperm production is related, at least in part, to the process of degeneration of the spermatogenic cells in this species.

* New perspectives on estrogen, progesterone, and oxytocin action in primate parturition. Novy, M. J. & Haluska, G. J. (Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006-3499). In K. Chwalisz & R. E. Garfield (Eds.), Basic Mechanisms Controlling Term and Preterm Birth (pp. 163-195). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.
. . A review of evidence that estrogens play an important supportive role in regulating the prepartum trends in nocturnal uterine activity present in primates.


* Xenotransplant-associated zoonoses: Strategies for prevention. Michaels, M. G. & Simmons, R. L. (Children's Hosp. of Pittsburgh, Infectious Dis., 3705 Fifth Ave at DeSoto St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213). Transplantation, 1994, 57, 1-7.
. . A review of the possible infectious disease risks of xenotransplantation, with suggestions for potential strategies for investigation and prevention.

* Screening donors for xenotransplantation: The potential for xenozoonoses. Michaels, M. G., McMichael, J. P., Brasky, K., Kalter, S., Peters, R. L., Starzl, T. E., & Simmons, R. L. (Address same as above). Transplantation, 1994, 57, 1462-1465.
. . Anticipating an increasing number of baboon-to-human transplants, 31 adult male baboons were screened for the presence of antibodies to microbial agents that may pose a significant risk of infection. Discordant results were found when paired samples were examined by two primate laboratories.

* Oligosaccharides and discordant xenotransplantation. Cooper, D. K. C., Koren, E., & Oriol, R. (Oklahoma Transpl. Inst., 3300 N.W. Expressway, Oklahoma City, OK 73112). Immunological Reviews, 1994, 141, 31-58.
. . Experiments on baboons suggest that it should be possible to develop immunoaffinity columns of an alphaGal oligosaccharide capable of depleting anti-alphaGal antibodies from the host, during which period a pig organ could be transplanted into a human host.

* * *

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Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419
from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus sciureus) by Susan D. Meier
(see Natural and Artificial Minds, SUNY Press, 1993, with permission)

Copyright @ 1996 by Brown University

Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen