Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

What Makes Novel Objects Enriching? A Comparison of the Qualities of Control and Complexity, by T. D. Sambrook & H. M. Buchanan-Smith ...... 1

Ascorbic Acid Deficiency in Cebus apella, by J. T. Borda, E. M. Patiño, J. C. Ruiz & M. Sánchez-Negrette ...... 5

News, Information, and Announcements

Awards Granted...... 4
. . . Orville Smith Declared "Distinguished"; LPN Receives Service Award; Liza Gadsby Wins Whitley Award

Grants Available...... 7
. . . Current and Past Issues of the NIH Guide; Grants for U.S. and Former Soviet Union Scientists; Minority Dissertation Research Grants in Aging; Grants for Research in Aging

Travellers' Health Notes: Malaria and Insecticide-treated Bednets; Schistosomiasis...... 8

News Briefs...... 9
. . . Gorilla Cradles Injured Child; Copenhagen Zoo Puts H. sapiens on Display; Rwanda Gorilla Births; Moor-Jankowski Sues NYU and USDA; Gorilla Deaths in Zoos; Another Marmoset Found in Brazil; Medley Becomes APHIS Administrator; Chimpanzee Sanctuary Scientific Advisory Committee; Coulston Settles with USDA On Primate Deaths; Testing Oliver

Notes from the Editor...... 11

Research and Education Opportunities...... 12
. . . Statistical Genetic Analysis for Animal Colonies; Research Opportunities at the Buffalo Zoo; Laboratório Tropical de Primatologia; Makerere University Biological Field Station; Ethics of Animal Use

Volunteer Opportunities: Volunteer Positions in Thailand; Earthwatch Project in China...... 13

Information Requested or Available...... 14
. . . Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation; Cercocebus Studbook; More Interesting Web Sites; Other Electronic Resources; New ASP Officers; Annual AWA Report

Resources Available...... 15
. . . PIPAS; Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals; Free DNA Profile Testing Available

Patas "Home Video"...... 16

Meeting Anouncements...... 17
. . . American Anthropological Association; PSGB; Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology; ASP; XXV International Ethological Conference; Forum on Wildlife Telemetry; IPS; NY Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology Seminars; Wisconsin RPRC seminars


Position Available: Director for ILAR...... 16

Address Changes...... 16

Recent Books and Articles...... 18

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What Makes Novel Objects Enriching?
A Comparison of the Qualities of Control and Complexity

Thomas D. Sambrook and Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith
Scottish Primate Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Stirling


Introduction of novel objects is increasingly becoming a standard enrichment technique (e.g. Hamilton, 1991). Choice of object is often made on the basis of expense and ease of preparation, cleaning, and maintenance (e.g. Boinski et al., 1994). While these features, combined with safety considerations, are clearly important, another key factor that should be taken into account is the properties of the objects themselves, in terms of generating appropriate responses from the animals. Few experimental studies have examined what properties of objects provide enrichment. Such attempts as there have been tend to focus on providing two particular qualities. One of these is complexity, a quality that appears to promote activity (e.g. Tripp, 1985), and which macaques, at least, have been shown experimentally to prefer (Humphrey, 1972). A second quality that enrichment seeks to provide is control, which appears to promote well-being in animals in both psychological and physiological terms (e.g. Overmier et al., 1980; Mineka et al., 1986). It has been shown that an object which an animal can control, and which responds to the animal in some way, will be used by a larger proportion of animals and for longer periods of time than devices which do not respond in this way (Markowitz and Line, 1989).

While complexity and control may be good qualities for enrichment objects, and while in many cases controllable objects may be complex, the two qualities are in fact distinct. In this experiment we have dissociated the two properties in order to examine their relative effects. We have chosen objects which vary in their degree of visual complexity (in terms of colors and physical structure) and which vary in their degree of responsiveness. (Control can only be exerted over responsive entities. Thus while we are investigating the enrichment afforded by control, when discussing the properties of novel objects we refer instead to responsiveness). We have deliberately chosen objects with low ecological validity in order to explore reactions to the intrinsic properties of complexity and responsiveness rather than typical species responses to familiar objects. We set out to test the following two hypotheses: 1) complex objects will generate greater interest than simple objects; 2) responsive objects will generate greater interest than unresponsive objects.


Study animals: Four species of guenon were studied at Edinburgh Zoo, Scotland. Study species were: the Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana), 5 individuals; Hamlyn's owl-faced monkey (C. hamlyni), 4 individuals; de Brazza's monkey (C. neglectus), 2 individuals; and Allen's swamp monkey (Allenopithecus nigroviridus), 2 individuals. The sample included infants, juveniles and adults. Each species was housed in separate indoor/outdoor enclosures, ranging from 40 m2 to 180 m2. Testing was conducted in the indoor areas, which were generously furnished with branches and had straw both on the floor and hanging through the wire mesh roof. Although the monkeys had previous experience of enrichment programs, none of these had involved novel objects.

The novel objects: Objects were chosen that would represent high and low levels of both visual complexity and responsiveness. Four objects cover the range of possible combinations: simple/unresponsive; complex/unre-sponsive; simple/responsive; complex/responsive.

The simple objects were two yellow Early Learning Center maracas, 6" by 2.5", which produced a rattling sound on shaking. The complex objects were two white Early Learning Center melody phones, 8" by 2", which had a rotating disc and sliding toggle (both producing a clicking noise) and a pad that played a tune when pressed. Of these, one maraca was emptied of its contents and one melody phone had all features fused with glue, thus presenting the unresponsive states of simple and complex objects.

Procedure: The monkeys were sampled on four occasions, over a period of four weeks (samples were separated by a week, a fortnight, and another week). With four study groups, four objects, and four samples, all groups received each object once. Across the study group as a whole, the order of object presentation was counterbalanced.

Simultaneous focal animal sampling was used, with at least one observer watching each animal in each group. Twelve minutes of baseline data were collected before the object's introduction. The object was then placed in the enclosure by a familiar keeper and observers immediately began 48 minutes of experimental data collection. The sampling period was split into 30 sec intervals. At the beginning of each interval a point sample was taken (i.e, whether the behavior was occuring at the moment the interval began). During the interval one-zero samples were taken (i.e., whether the behavior occured at least once in the 30 sec) (Martin and Bateson, 1986). Rates of agonistic interaction (one-zero samples) and locomotor movement (point samples) were recorded in both baseline and experimental periods. In the experimental period, rates of the following were recorded: contact with object; proximity (< 1m) to object (both point samples); and visual orientation to object (one-zero samples). The monkeys were confined to their indoor enclosures for the duration of sampling.


Some qualitative statements: The initial appearance of the objects caused activity in all cases and clear interest in most. When there was contact, one animal tended to monopolize the object, sometimes threatening nearby animals. There were remarkably few cases of animals producing a response specifically from the responsive aspects of the objects: most of the time monkeys in contact with an object chewed parts of it in an apparent attempt to open it.

By far the most inventive responses were shown by the Diana monkeys on their first exposure to the emptied maraca. One juvenile was observed repeatedly throwing the maraca in the air and catching it. Another was seen to throw it against the Perspex enclosure window, leap after it to catch it on the rebound, and then bounce off the window himself.

Notes on analysis: In this and following analyses, data have been collapsed across all four study species. The experimental period of data collection has been separated into four 12-minute segments, allowing analysis of changes in behavior as the novelty of the object wore off and reducing the effect of these changes on the variance in the sample. Within these segments, the constituent 24 sample points have been collapsed into a mean. Parametric statistics have been used for analyzing overall activity since these data are normally distributed. Non-parametric statistics have been used for the analysis of object-oriented behaviors since the frequency of these was low and the large number of zeroes in the data created severe non-normality.

Effect of novel objects on activity levels and agonistic interactions: We compared data on the mean fraction of their time the monkeys spent in locomotion before introduction of the novel object and across the four 12-minute segments for which the object was present. As might be expected, activity increased immediately after an object's introduction, as measured by the mean fraction of point samples in which animals were moving (paired samples t-test: Xbaseline=0.15, Xsegment 1 = 0.29, N=52, df=51, t=4.53, p<0.001). However, by the fourth segment activity had returned to slightly (but nonsignificantly) below baseline levels (Xsegment 4 =0.12).

We found no significant changes in the frequency of agonistic interactions. Overall rates of agonism were low (mean proportion of 30-sec intervals containing agonistic interactions = 0.034) with high variability across animals.

Changes in interest over successive weeks of novel object exposure: We compared the monkeys' responses to the objects over the four weeks. On each behavioral measure (contact, proximity, and visual orientation), less interest was shown in the last week than in the first, and the trend was one of gradual decrease. However, a Friedman related-samples non-parametric analysis of variance showed a significant decrease in response over the four weeks only in visual orientation (X2=13.6, N=52, df=3, p=0.004); there was no significant effect on proximity to object or contact.

Figure 1: Mean interest in novel objects of varying properties per individual: interest measured by: a) contact, b) proximity, and c) visual orientation.

Effect of novel objects' properties on interest shown by monkeys: Figure 1 shows mean contact with object; mean time in proximity to object; and mean time looking towards object. The contact and visual orientation data suggest that responsiveness but not complexity affected the interest an object held for the monkeys. We tested this hypothesis for all three measures of interest by using related-samples comparisons of means. Thus, to examine the effect of complexity, for example, the replicates used were study animal/segment/responsiveness level. Thus we compared Subject One's mean contact time with a complex/responsive object in segment 4 with her mean contact time in the same segment (on a different week) with a simple/responsive object (and also made the same comparison between complex/unresponsive and simple/unresponsive). The effect of responsiveness was tested similarly by holding the complexity level constant in each matched pair. A one-tailed Wilcoxon test was used, the results of which are shown in Table I.

|Behavior  |Object properties under comparison | N | Z    |One-tailed p|
|mean con- | complex v simple                  |104|-0.80 |   0.213    |
|tact time |                                   |   |      |            |
|          | ----------------------------------|---|------|------------|
|          | responsive v  unresponsive        |104| 1.70*|   0.045    |
|mean      | complex v simple                  |104|-2.03*|   0.021    |
|proximity | ----------------------------------|---|------|------------|
|(<1m)     | responsive v unresponsive         |104| 2.02*|   0.021    |
|mean time | complex v simple                  |104| 0.62 |   0.533    |
|visually  | ----------------------------------|---|------|------------|
|orienting | responsive v unresponsive         |104| 3.31*|   0.0005   |

* = p<0.05

Table I: The effect of responsiveness and complexity on various measures of interest. Sample points are study animal/week/ segment.

Visual complexity had no effect on either contact or visual orientation towards objects. A significant effect was found in the proximity condition, however, where simple objects were apparently preferred. Since we have predicted the reverse effect we are duty-bound to disregard this result if we are to justify use of one-tailed tests. In fact, this is probably an artifact generated by the Hamlyn's monkeys who, on one particular week, showed high levels of proximity without contact with or visual orientation to the object. Since these animals were one of the largest groups and tended to be highly clustered we may suspect, given the little attention paid to the toy, that they gathered by the object on this week through chance.

Consistently higher levels of interest were shown towards responsive objects on all three measures. This heightened interest in responsive objects was neither a consequence of excessively high initial interest, nor more sustained interest over the full 48 minutes. At all points responsive objects generated more interest than unresponsive ones.

Social referencing: The possibility that monkeys were interested primarily in interactions between the object and other group members rather than the object itself was investigated. Using a segment-by-segment analysis we correlated the total percentage of the segment in which the object was in contact with any animal with the mean amount of visual orientation towards the object, calculated across animals that did not contact the object in that segment (because contact was usually accompanied by inspection, failure to make this final modification would have led to spurious correlations). Out of 64 segments of data, four were discarded because there were no animals in the group who did not contact the object in that segment. A significant positive correlation was found (r=0.26, N=60, p=0.041), showing that monkeys were more likely to orient themselves towards the object when other group members were handling it.


The overall picture from this experiment is that captive monkeys prefer responsive objects to unresponsive ones but have no preference for visual complexity over simplicity. Some qualifying statements must be made, however.

Individual differences in responses were high. For the contact and proximity behaviors this could be explained by the fact that many monkeys could not simultaneously access the objects, but this cannot explain differences in visual orientation. Since many animals showed very little interest overall, mean differences in responses across object conditions are rather unimpressive. Thus we should modify our conclusion to: monkeys that do respond to novel objects prefer those that are responsive.

Given that responsiveness ought to be most attractive for the animal handling the object, it was surprising that mean visual orientation was the variable that differed most strongly between responsive and unresponsive object conditions. In fact, much visual orientation was probably directed at the object-animal dyad (social referencing) as noted above.

Overall interest in the objects was low. Enrichment programs fall into the problematic domain of cognitive ethology: we are attempting to answer the question "What is it like to be a bored or enriched animal?" and there is clearly a danger that we will project our own values on to our study animals. Thus we may have been providing the wrong kind of responsiveness. The toys used were designed for the use of children and it was apparent (and perhaps not surprising) that the monkeys did not put them to the use for which they had been designed; rather, most manipulations were attempts to open them.

We have begun a more extensive study of control and complexity across the whole range of primate taxa using a new set of novel objects, and extending the duration of data collection to determine how long interest in objects is sustained. Preliminary findings support those presented here.


Boinski, S., Noon, C., Stans, S., Samudio, S. & Hayes, A. (1994). The behavioral profile and environmental enrichment of a squirrel monkey colony. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 33[4], 1-4.

Hamilton, P. (1991). Enrichment toys and tools in recent trials. Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 5, 272-277.

Humphrey, N. K. (1972). Interest and pleasure: Two determinants of a monkey's visual preferences. Perception, 1, 395-416.

Markowitz, H. and Line, S. (1989). Primate research models and environmental enrichment. In: E. Segal (Ed.). Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 203-212). New Jersey: Noyes Publications.

Martin, P. & Bateson, P. (1986). Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mineka, S., Gunnar, M., & Champoux, M. (1986). Control and early socioemotional development: Infant rhesus monkeys reared in controllable versus uncontrollable environments. Child Development, 57, 1241-1256.

Overmier, J. P., Patterson, J., & Wielkiewicz, R. M. (1980). Environmental contingencies as sources of stress in animals. In S. Levine & H. Ursin (Eds.), Coping and Health (pp. 1-38). New York: Plenum Press.

Tripp, J. K. (1985). Increasing activity in captive orangutans. Zoo Biology, 4, 225-234.


First author's address: Dept of Anthropology, University of Durham, 43 Old Elvet, Durham, DH1 3HN, U.K.

We would like to thank Graham Catlow and Cliff Henty for assistance with all practical aspects of this study and also the students in the Animal Behavior course (1995) at Stirling University for their careful collection of data. Duncan Castles made useful comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript.


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Awards Granted

Orville Smith Declared "Distinguished"

The American Society of Primatologists (ASP), at their joint meeting with the International Primatological Society in Madison this August, gave their "Distinguished Primatologist" Award to Orville Smith, former Director of the Washington Regional Primate Research Center and an all-around good person. The award honors "a primatologist who has had an outstanding career and made significant contributions to the field."

LPN Receives Service Award

The Editors of the Laboratory Primate Newsletter were honored and delighted to receive a Service Award from ASP. We would like to thank the members of the Society as well as all the authors who have entrusted us with publishing their material. We are also grateful to our friends and relatives who have given us support, both moral and material, over all the years of publication, and especially during the nine years since the death of the Founding Editor. We also want to thank Larry Jacobsen and Jackie Pritchard, without whose work on behalf of all primatologists our own work would be much more difficult.

Liza Gadsby Wins Whitley Award

Liza Gadsby has been named winner of the prestigious 15,000 pound sterling Whitley Award. Ms Gadsby, a 37 year old American, combs the wilderness of Nigeria's Afi Mountain, searching for snares laid by poachers to trap drill baboons. At the foot of the mountain lies her rehabilitation and breeding center for drills orphaned when their parents are slaughtered for their much-prized "meat." Ms Gadsby's tireless work to protect drills from the poacher's gun has won her admiration and respect from local tribespeople and international conservation groups alike.

Ms Gadsby, who lives on 75 pounds a month and has been doing her work for eight years, will use the award money to employ former hunters as rangers.

Sir David Attenborough, who led the panel of judges for the award, said, "To give your life to a project, not only to protect the animals in the reserve, but also to attract so many local people to see the work being done with these animals and convince them that they are worth saving, is truly magnificent." -- From the March 26, 1996 London Evening Standard

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Ascorbic Acid Deficiency in Cebus apella

J. T. Borda, E. M. Patiño, J. C. Ruiz, and M. Sánchez-Negrette
Centro Argentino de Primates and Universidad Nacional del Nordeste


Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid it must be administered in the diet and/or in vitamin supplements. In nonhuman primates, ascorbic acid defic-iency has been described in Macaca mulatta (Day, 1944; Eisele et al., 1992; Line et al., 1992; Morgan & Eisele, 1992) and in Saimiri sciureus (Demaray et al., 1978; Leh-ner et al., 1968). These animals showed marked signs of scurvy (anorexia, muscular weakness, anemia, gingival hemorrhage, subperiostial hematomas, etc.), similar to those described in humans.

Here we report ascorbic acid deficiency in young and subadult male brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) whose diet had been supplemented with a commercial vitamin complex deficient in vitamin C.


The Argentinean Primate Center (CAPRIM) is located in the subtropical region of Argentina. Brown capuchins (Cebus apella) are housed in 15 m3 cages in harems of one male and two or three adult females, or in groups of three to four juveniles or subadults. Their diet consists of 9% of each animal's body weight per day in balanced food (at least 24% proteins, 3% fat, 5.5% fiber, 0.7% calcium, 0.6% phosphorus, providing 2700 Kcal/kg maximum energy) as well as seasonal fruit, especially oranges. Water is supplied ad libitum. The balanced food is sprinkled with a vitamin complex which provides vitamins A, D3, E, K3, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folic acid, niacin, choline, and a variety of mineral salts.

Because of a manufacturing error (later recognized by the company), vitamin C was absent from a batch of the polyvitamin supplement we were using. At the same time, we had stopped providing the animals with fresh fruit because of the season. This combination of events led to vitamin C deficiency in some animals, as described below.


After 64 days without fresh fruit, one monkey became sick. The symptoms were compatible with scurvy: mus-cular weakness, bulging of the left eye, ecchymotic hemorrhage in the axillae and groin, and an enlargement of the head caused by cephalohematoma. An apparently subcutaneous liquid mass was detected by palpation of the parietal, frontal and temporal areas. An incision showed that it was a subperiostial hematoma; 30 cc of bloody fluid were obtained by aspiration.

Three days later, five other monkeys showed similar symptoms to the first monkey, including cephalohema-toma. Gingival hemorrhage was detected in only one case. A total of 110 cc of bloody liquid was aspirated from cranial soft tissues during three consecutive days and two animals had to be parenterally rehydrated. One of the affected monkeys had developed hard masses caused by calcification of soft tissues in the frontal areas.

Hemograms were performed in the six animals with a hematological counter (Coulter). All were anemic (Hb mean 7.57, range 4.8-10 g/dl; hematocrit mean 23.6, range 16-32%). Total white blood cell counts ranged from 4.2 to 29.5 (103/mm3). The percentage of neutrophils was elevated in five animals (mean 65.67%, range 86-28%) and lymphocytes were decreased in five animals (mean 33.67%, range 13-72%). Urine vitamin C concentrations were measured using the Bohring Laboratories' "Rapig-nost®" for quick determinations.

Dietary ascorbic acid concentration was not measured, but the diagnosis of scurvy was established when several monkeys displayed the same clinical symptoms. The concentrations of vitamin C in the urine of affected animals were lower than those in similar animals who were fed with seasonal fruits. The latter showed normal values of more than 20 mg/dl. The diagnosis was confirmed by remission of the symptoms after treatment with vitamin C.

The sick animals were each given 0.5 cc of oxytetracycline IM and 500 mg of vitamin C "Redoxón®" syrup, 0.5 cc of "Ferranin®", and 0.5 cc of "Opovital®" orally. One of the animals had died the day before the disease had been diagnosed; the rest were discharged 15 days after the signs were first noted because these signs quickly remitted.

At necropsy, using conventional methods, the femoral, cranial, and rib bones were fixed in 10% formolized saline, decalcified with 20% E.T.D.A. for 15 days, and embedded in paraffin. Five-um tissue sections were prepared and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin, Schiff P.A.S., and Masson Trichromic modified by Goldner. Blood smears were stained with May Grundwal-Giemsa.

Necropsy findings included mobility and loss of some teeth. A subperiostial hematoma was present on the frontal, parietal, and temporal bones, which involved the orbital cavity and caused the exophthalmia. Thirty cc of bloody liquid was aspirated from the hematoma.

Microscopic examination found the architecture of the epiphysis of the femoral bone to be disorganized. The epiphyseal cartilage was thickened and projected towards the medullary canal. There were calcified cartilaginous masses present. There was intense mineralization and abundant fibrosis, characterized by disorganized growth of fibroblasts. Collagenous fibers were not observed in the osteochondral joint. There was a remarkable abundance of osteoclasts and numerous osteoblasts around the spicules forming the osteoid tissue.

Macrophages with hemosiderin were observed in the subperiostial hematoma (a blood clot composed of masses of red blood cells in different grades of lysis). Adjoining the hematoma was a delicate loose tissue stroma that was partially hyalinized.

Granulation tissue was characterized by abundant fibroblasts and new vessel growth. The nearby cranial muscles had developed cicatrization by fibrosis.


Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient for the brown capuchin monkey. Its necessity was shown by the development of scurvy two months after the supply of as-corbic acid had inadverdently been completely suspended.

This dependency on an extrinsic vitamin C supply is similar to that in other primates previously studied and also in guinea pigs. The disorder in brown capuchin monkeys appears to develop more slowly than in guinea pigs (20 days), but more rapidly than in humans or Saimiri sciureus (3 months) (Hodges et al., 1969, 1971; Lehner et al., 1968; Sauberlich, 1975).

As has been described in Saimiri sciureus, the principal clinical sign was the subperiostial hemorrhage in the parietal areas, causing cephalomegaly (Demaray et al., 1978; Lehner et al., 1968).

The exophthalmus was a consequence of the hemorrhage extending beneath the periosteum of the ocular cavity. This subperiostial hemorrhage is caused by inadequate periostial adhesion and capillary fragility. The appearance of exostosis in the frontal bone is caused by calcification.

In view of the dependence of these animals on adequate dietary vitamin C and because disruption of the supply may lead to onset of deficiency disease about 60 days later, we consider it essential to carefully monitor diets and to give extra vitamin C supplements occasionally.


Day, P. L. (1944). The nutrient requirements of primates other than man. Vitamins and Hormones: Advances in Research and Applications, 2, 71-105.

Demaray, S. Y., Altman, N. H., & Ferrell, T. L. (1978). Suspected ascorbic acid deficiency in a colony of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Laboratory Animal Science, 28, 457-460.

Eisele, P. H., Morgan, J. P., Line, A. S., & Anderson, J. H. (1992). Skeletal lesions and anemia associated with ascorbic acid deficiency in juvenile rhesus macaques. Laboratory Animal Science, 42, 245-249.

Hodges, R. E., Baker, E. M., Hood, J., Sauberlich, H. E., & March, S. C. (1969). Experimental scurvy in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 22, 535-548.

Hodges R. E., Hood, J., Canham, J. E., Sauberlich, H. E., & Baker, E. M. (1971). Clinical manifestation of ascorbic acid deficiency in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 24, 432-443.

Lehner, N. D. M., Bullock, B. C., & Clarkson, T. B. (1968). Ascorbic acid deficiency in the squirrel monkey. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 128, 512-514.

Line, A. S. et al. (1992). Eruption gingivitis associated with scorbutism in macaques. Laboratory Animal Science, 42[1], 96-97.

Morgan, J. P. & Eisele, P. H. (1992). Radiographic changes in rhesus macaques affected by scurvy. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 33, 334-349.

Sauberlich, H. E. (1975). Human requirements and needs. Vitamin C status: Methods and findings. Annals of the N.Y. Academy of Sciences, 258, 438-450.


First author's address: Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias -UNNE- Cátedra de Patología General y Sistemática, Sargento Cabral 2139, Corrientes, Argentina.

This work was conducted at the Centro Argentino de Primates, Corrientes, Argentina. The authors wish to thank Dr. Juan D. Boviez, technician; Mr. Eduardo A. Arsuaga; Mr. Ramón Romero; and Professor Alicia Canevaro de Di Giuseppe. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Grants Available

Current and Past Issues of the NIH Guide

The NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, which contains notices regarding NIH policy and the availability of Program Announcements, Requests for Applications, and Requests for Proposals, is published in one printed and several electronic editions. One copy of the printed edition is provided to the Office of Sponsored Research (or equivalent) of any interested organization. On the World Wide Web, it can be found at the URL Select "Grants and Contracts" and then "Funding Opportunities" to find the NIH Guide. To receive e-mailed copies, send e-mail to with the message "subscribe NIHGDE-L First_name Last_name".

Grants for U.S. and Former Soviet Union Scientists

Through a program made possible by an award from the NIH, the U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) for the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has announced a new competition for grants to support research projects between U.S. scientists and their counterparts in the FSU. Current NIH grantees and intramural scientists are invited to apply jointly with their counterparts in the FSU. Two-year cooperative grants of up to $80,000 will be awarded. All proposals will be evaluated through competitive peer review. The deadline for receipt of applications is February 15, 1997. For information, contact Ms. Karen Peterson, Program Officer for Russia and the NIS, Fogarty International Center, Bldg 31, Rm B2C11, 31 Center Dr., MSC 2220, Bethesda, MD 20892-2220 [301-496-4784; fax: 301-480-3414; e-mail:] or on the World Wide Web at

Minority Dissertation Research Grants in Aging

Small grants to support doctoral dissertation research will be available for minority doctoral candidates. Grant support is designed to aid the research of new minority investigators and to encourage minority individuals from a variety of academic disciplines and programs to study problems in aging. For this purpose, underrepresented minority students and investigators are defined as individuals belonging to a particular ethnic or racial group that has been determined by the grantee institution to be underrepresented in biomedical or behavioral research. The applicant organization must be a domestic institution supporting doctoral level training, such as a university or college. The performance site may be foreign or domestic. Research topics must be on aging-related issues and fit within one or more of these areas:

Biology of Aging: studies that focus on diseases associated with increasing age and the basic mechanisms involved in aging processes. The program interests are in molecular and cellular biology, genetics, immunology, basic nutrition, and endocrinology.

Behavioral and Social Research: research on social and psychological aging processes and the place of older people in society and its social institutions.

Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging: research on the structure and function of the aging nervous system and the behavioral manifestations of the aging brain. Areas of special interest include age-related changes in the nervous system, especially as these affect sensory processes, learning, cognition, memory and sleep.

Geriatrics: research on clinical issues and problems. Areas of interest include cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, infectious diseases, osteoporosis, digestive diseases, rehabilitation, menopause and physical function and performance in older persons.

The application receipt date is December 10, 1996. For more information, contact Dr. Robin A. Barr, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Inst. of Aging, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C218, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9322; fax: 301-402-2945; e-mail:].

Grants for Research in Aging

The American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR) is accepting applications, until December 16, 1996, for the 1997 AFAR Research Grant Program. This program funds pilot research projects in the basic mechanisms of aging, the role of aging processes in the pathogenesis of disease, and the nature of age-related deficits such as arthritis and visual and hearing impairments.

For a brochure describing the program in detail, and application forms, contact AFAR, 1414 Avenue of the Americas, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10019 [212-752-2327; fax: 212-832-2298; e-mail:].

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Travelers' Health Notes

Malaria and Insecticide-treated Bednets

Is bednet use better than other methods? No single method has been found to eradicate malaria or stop its spread in tropical countries. Many countries including the United States, the former Soviet Union and several Caribbean Islands have eliminated malaria through intensive and costly control programs using a variety of environmental management approaches and spraying with insecticide. However, in 1967, WHO realized that global eradication of malaria was impossible and focus shifted to control. Bednets may eventually prove to be the single most effective malaria intervention for Africa.

Is bednet use more cost effective than others methods? Nets cost about $5, plus $0.50-1.00 per year thereafter to re-treat with the insecticide. Polyester nets can last up to five years and have to be re-dipped every 6-12 months depending on the malaria transmision patterns. At present, families who can afford it are paying for antimalarial drugs, insecticide sprays, coils, or traditional control methods. In the long term, treated nets are expected to be more cost effective as they are durable and can be re-dipped in insecticide in the communities.

Is there a danger of insecticide poisoning for children sleeping under these nets? WHO gave approval to pyrethroids in general, and permethrin in particular, for use on bednets. This household insecticide is commonly used in medicated lice shampoo. It also has no tendency for bioaccumulation and is rapidly broken down in both soil and sunlight. The treated nets are deadly to mosquitoes but do not affect people. Earlier research also helped determine the minimal amount of insecticide needed to be effective and appropriate hole size of netting to ensure protection from mosquitos with sufficient ventilation.

Is there a danger of mosquitoes becoming resistant to the insecticides used? Yes. The development of resistance to any particular insecticide can occur. Acceptable solutions will have to be determined in conjunction with the people involved and could include finding alternative insecticides in anticipation of this happening, or promoting regular shifts in the insecticides used. -- From WHO's Tropical Disease Research Newsletter, 50, June 1996


Among human parasitic diseases, schistosomiasis (sometimes called bilharziasis) ranks second behind malaria in terms of socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is endemic in 74 developing countries, infecting more than 200 million people in rural agricultural and peri-urban areas.

The major forms of human schistosomiasis are caused by five species of water-borne flatworm, or blood flukes, called schistosomes: intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni occurs in 53 countries in Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Caribbean and South America; Oriental or Asiatic intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by the S. japonicum group of parasites (including S. mekongi in the Mekong river basin), is endemic in seven countries in South-East Asia and in the Western Pacific region; another form of intestinal schistosomiasis caused by S. intercalatum has been reported from 10 central African countries; and urinary schistosomiasis, caused by S. haematobium, is endemic in 54 countries in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Schistosomes enter the body through contact with infested surface water, mainly among people engaged in agriculture and fishing. But rural-urban migration is introducing the disease into peri-urban areas in northeast Brazil and Africa, and refugee movements are spreading it in Somalia and Cambodia. More tourists are contracting schistosomiasis with the rise in "off-track" tourism, at times with severe acute infection and unusual sequelae including paralysis of the legs.

For diagnosing urinary schistosomiasis, a simple sedimentation test can be used efficiently. The eggs of intestinal schistosomiasis can be detected in fecal specimens by sedimentation or a technique using cellophane soaked in glycerine, or between glass slides.

Three safe, effective drugs -- praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate -- are now available for schistosomiasis and are included in the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Praziquantel is effective against all forms of schistosomiasis with few, and only transient, side effects. Oxamniquine is used exclusively in Africa and South America to treat intestinal schistosomiasis. Metrifonate has proved to be safe and effective for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. Even though reinfection may occur after treatment, the risk of developing severely diseased organs is diminished and even reversed in young children.

For further information, contact Health Communications and Public Relations, WHO Geneva, [4122 791 3221; fax: 4122 791 4858]. -- WHO Fact Sheet No. 115

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News Briefs

Gorilla Cradles Injured Child

When young Levan Merritt fell into the gorilla yard at Jersey's zoo in 1986, Jambo, an adult silverback gorilla, came over to the boy, stroked his back, and kept the other curious gorillas at a safe distance while humans managed the child's retrieval.

On Friday, August 16, 1996, at Chicago's Brookfield Zoo, Binti Jua, an 8-year-old female gorilla who had been raised by humans and taught "how to be a mother," again proved to the world how gentle and intelligent her species can be. When a 3-year-old boy fell approximately 18 feet onto concrete into the gorilla pit where seven gorillas were spending their day, Binti -- like Jambo before her -- seemed to understand that the child was not a threat. Binti gently carried the unconscious boy to one of the keeper doors, sometimes cradling and rocking him, while her own 18-month-old daughter, Koola, watched from her back.

In both cases the young boys survived their ordeal. Their injuries were not caused by gorillas, but apparently by the lack of proper supervision and/or exhibit design which enabled them to scramble over protective barriers in the first place. -- From our correspondent in Chicago

Copenhagen Zoo Puts H. sapiens on Display

Denmark's Copenhagen Zoo has added two new primates to its collection of baboons, orang-utans, chimps, and lemurs -- a local couple representing Homo sapiens. Living out their daily lives in a Perspex-walled mini-apartment between the baboons and a pair of ruffed lemurs, acrobat Henrik Lehmann and newspaper employee Malene Botoft say they hope to make visiting humans think about themselves and their origins.

The enclosure, complete with a standard zoo label giving details of Homo sapiens' habitat, diet and other key statistics, has a combined kitchen-living room, an adjoining bedroom and a small workshop where Lehmann works at his passion -- restoring classic British motorcycles. It also boasts a sofa, chairs, bookshelves and other typical features of the human habitat: fax, computer, television, stereo and telephone. Toilet and washing facilities are in a nearby zoo building.

Zoo information official Peter Vestergaard said the Homo sapiens display was partly for fun but he hoped it would also encourage people to confront their origins. -- (c)1996, Reuters Ltd.

Rwanda Gorilla Births

Seven mountain gorillas were born in recent months at Rwanda's Volcano National Park, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature, representing a hope of survival for the endangered species. The newborns came from two groups of gorillas monitored by conservationists who have worked for years to protect the large primates. The International Gorilla Conservation Program said the births are in contrast to the 1995 slaughter of eight mountain gorillas during the country's civil war. This followed a 10-year period in which none of the animals were killed. -- From the Miami, FL New Times, August 20, 1996

Moor-Jankowski Sues NYU and USDA

New York, NY (August 13, 1996) -- Jan Moor-Jankowski, M.D., founder and former director of NYU's Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP), and Louis Dinetz, former Assistant Director of LEMSIP, who were were abruptly fired by NYU last year, have filed suit in U.S. District Court in New York against the university for "covering up scientific misconduct and fraud" and retaliating against them in violation of federal whistleblower protection laws. The suit against the University also names the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for abuse of process and failure to uphold federal law.

Moor-Jankowski and Dinetz were abruptly fired by NYU without cause or notice last year. The suit charges that the two men are "whistleblowers who, having protested various matters at New York University Medical Center (`NYUMC') involving scientific wrongdoing and federal law mandated protections of animal care in scientific experimentation, suffered discriminatory and retaliatory actions at the hands of...New York University." The suit also alleges that Moor-Jankowski and Dinetz "suffered denial of due process at the hands of...the USDA."

Gorilla Deaths in Zoos

Molly, a 28-year old gorilla known for her bright red hair and tree-climbing skills, died in July from complications of an intestinal virus. Molly was born in the African nation of Cameroon about 1968, was captured in 1970 and taken to the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, which loaned her to other zoos. She was at Miami Metrozoo before coming to Zoo Atlanta in 1991, said zoo spokeswoman Carol Flammer. Five other gorillas also became ill from the intestinal virus, but they have recovered. Molly had been diagnosed in 1992 with chronic auto immune disease, which added complications and prevented her recovery. She had been under intensive care and had been treated with fluids and antibiotics since May 4, when her symptoms first appeared. "She just didn't have the immune system to fight" the virus, Flammer said. -- From a Zoo Atlanta news release

Jimmy, a 30-year-old western lowland gorilla, was euthanized August 16 due to complications of advanced congestive heart disease. Jimmy lapsed into a coma and required respiratory life support following a procedure that was performed to evaluate his rapidly failing condition. He remained in that coma until a decision was made by the staff to humanely end his suffering. Jimmy was diagnosed with severe chronic hypertension in early 1994. During the last several days, Jimmy was observed to display labored, open-mouth breathing, which can be indicative of severely advanced heart disease and impending failure. Cardiologist Dr. Alan Schwartz, who has helped staff veterinarian Dr. Chriss Miller treat Jimmy since 1994, performed an echocardiogram. It confirmed their worst fears. A painful death from total heart failure was most probably only days away. For the preceeding two years the 350-pound gorilla was on a special diet and the drug Enalapril. -- From a Miami Metrozoo news release

Another Marmoset Found in Brazil

A squirrel-size marmoset from the Amazon rain forest is the sixth new monkey species to be discovered in Brazil since 1990. The newly discovered species, the Satere marmoset (Callithrix saterei), is named for a group of Indians indigenous to the central Amazon area between the Madeira and Tapajos rivers where the first animals were collected. Russell Mittermeier, president of Conservation International in Washington, said the species had a distinctive face and ears, unpigmented facial skin, mahogany-colored fur and fleshy appendages on the genitalia of both sexes whose purpose has biologists puzzled. "There's no other marmoset like it," he said. The species is described in the current issue of the Brazilian scientific journal Goeldiana Zoologia.

The Satere marmoset does not appear to be threatened, Mittermeier said. While researchers have not defined the species' range, he said that most Amazon marmosets are adaptable and tend to be found in greater numbers at the edge of clearings, in abandoned slash-and-burn plots and in secondary growth rather than in primary rain forest. It is apparently not hunted for food.

The marmoset's discovery raises the count of primate species in Brazil to 75 of some 250 species worldwide. Mittermeier added that the number of primates in Amazonia should continue to grow as biologists make their way into large unexplored areas. "I wouldn't be surprised if we found another five monkeys by the year 2000,'' he said. -- From the New York Times "Science News" section, June 19, 1996

Medley Becomes APHIS Administrator

Secretary of Agriculture Dan Glickman announced on June 21 that Terry L. Medley, J.D., previously APHIS associate administrator, would become administrator of USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. On July 6, Lonnie King, the previous administrator, became Dean of the School of Veterinary Medicine at Michigan State University.

APHIS is charged with protecting U.S. agriculture from foreign animal and plant pests and diseases; controlling and eradicating certain domestic pests and diseases; administering laws pertaining to the humane care of animals; regulating the products of agriculture biotechnology; and carrying out animal damage control activities.

Chimpanzee Sanctuary Scientific Advisory Committee

Thirteen primate experts have agreed to serve on a scientific advisory committee that will help design and develop a national sanctuary for chimpanzees retired from U.S. medical and scientific research. The committee, which will advise the National Chimpanzee Sanctuary Task Force, will be co-chaired by Dr. Roger Fouts and his wife and colleague, Deborah Fouts, directors of the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute at Central Washington University.

The National Chimpanzee Sanctuary Task Force was created to plan and implement a sanctuary for research-retired chimpanzees. The task force recently presented its plan to a panel of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), which has been grappling with the national problem of surplus chimpanzees. Surplus chimpanzees -- those ready for research-retirement -- are currently housed in expensive laboratories. The NAS panel will advise NIH on a solution for chimpanzees ready for research-retirement. Chimpanzees have a lifespan similar to humans', but their use in laboratories may last only a few years. As a consequence, these close relatives to humans are forced to live in cages, sometimes for decades, after their usefulness to science has ended.

In testimony before the NAS panel which met August 14 in Madison, WI, the National Chimpanzee Sanctuary Task Force requested that the government expand efforts to identify chimpanzees ready for research-retirement. In addition, the government will be asked to centralize its current fragmented and inefficient funding of chimpanzee research-retirement efforts.

Besides the Fouts, the members are: Mark Bodamer (professor of psychology at John Carrol University in Cleveland, OH), Stephen Easley (previously Director of the Behavioral Biology Division at the New Mexico Primate Research Laboratory at Holloman Air Force Base), Jane Goodall (recognized for her research on the chimpanzees at Gombe Stream Reserve), Mary Lee Jensvold (Ph.D. candidate in psychology at the University of Nevada), Linda Koebner (consultant, author, and conservationist), Preston Marx (senior scientist at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Professor of Microbiology at New York University School of Medicine), William McGrew (professor of zoology at the University of Miami, OH), Carole Noon, (biological anthropologist), Viktor Reinhardt (veterinarian with a doctorate in ethology), Wallace Swett (President and founder of Primarily Primates), Richard Wrangham (professor of biological anthropology at Harvard and Director of the Kibale Chimpanzee Project in Uganda). -- From a July 23, 1996 press release

Coulston Settles with USDA On Primate Deaths

The Coulston Foundation announced that it has reached a settlement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture concerning the deaths of nonhuman primates at its Primate Biomedical Research Center Laboratory located on Holloman Air Force Base. The foundation is a not-for-profit biomedical research group based in Alamogordo, NM.

The chimpanzees died in 1993, when a defective thermostat on a portable heater malfunctioned. At the time, the Coulston Foundation said that it had received the defective equipment from New Mexico State University, from which it assumed operation of the facility a short time prior to the deaths.

Under the terms of the agreement, the Coulston Foundation will make $20,000 worth of nonspecific improvements to its facilities. The foundation must also pay the U.S.D.A. $20,000 in administrative fees to cover the costs of the investigation.

The Coulston Foundation assumes no guilt in the incident, says Dr. Frederick Coulston, its chief executive officer and founder. The Coulston Foundation is heavily involved in vaccine research.

The foundation has more than 500 chimpanzees in its domestic colony and about 600 monkeys. -- From the Alamogordo Daily News, June 20, 1996

Testing Oliver

This fall genetic testing and diagnostic tools will help solve the decades-old mystery surrounding Oliver. Oliver is an apelike former show business oddity once promoted as the "Missing Link - A Freak of Nature." Over the past 30 years, former owners cited his unusual characteristics, such as his high-set pointed ears, his small bald head, and his ability to walk upright, and claimed that genetic testing showed that he had an extra chromosome.

Oliver's mystery drew the attention of a diverse collection of professionals and others, all asking, "What is Oliver?" Suggestions offered were based on visual assumptions and guesswork. Is he the result of cross-breeding experiments? A "throw-back"? A new species of chimpanzee? But Oliver disappeared from public view in 1989, leaving the question unanswered. This year, however, he and 11 other chimps left a research lab and came to Primarily Primates, a retirement facility.

During an upcoming routine physical exam, samples of Oliver's blood, hair, and tissues will be taken, in the hope of solving the mystery through genetic testing. -- From a Primarily Primates, Inc. press release

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Notes from the Editor

The Newsletter's World Wide Web page now has all past issues back to 1988 available, with all the photos, graphs, cartoons, and cover art. Visit us at

Because of this resource, we have decided that we don't need to keep as many paper back issues on hand. Before we throw out a lot of them (to make room in our office!), we are holding a one-time special sale. From now until the end of 1996, we will send back issues for the cost of postage: In the U.S., that will be one to three issues for $3, plus $1 for every additional three issues. Outside the U.S., the cost will be $2 for one issue, plus $1 for every additional issue.

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Research and Educational Opportunities

Statistical Genetic Analysis for Animal Colonies

The influence of genetic factors on phenotypes of captive animals used in biomedical research is of increasing interest as investigators turn to animal models to test hypotheses about genetic effects on human traits and to test diagnostic and therapeutic methods in a setting in which genetic and environmental variability can be measured. For more than a decade, scientists in the Department of Genetics at the Southwest Foundation have developed and used methods of statistical genetic analysis to detect and characterize genetic effects on complex traits in captive animal colonies. Because we feel that the methods are now sufficiently well-developed to warrant broader use, we have initiated a Visiting Scientist Program that will make it possible for visitors to learn these methods. A grant from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, is funding the program.

For details, see the Southwest Foundation's Web Page at http://www/ in the "Software, Resources, Seminars" section, or contact Bennett Dyke, Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245-0549 [210-674-1410, Ext. 281; fax: 210-670-3317; e-mail:].

Research Opportunities at the Buffalo Zoo

The Zoological Society of Buffalo wishes to promote research at the Buffalo (NY) Zoo and extends an invitation to interested parties to initiate projects. The Zoological Society encourages research activity at all professional levels and expresses an invitation to all individuals, including academic researchers, students, and individuals aligned with other zoological institutions.

Resources which may prove useful to potential researchers include: our living zoological collection (1073 specimens representing 182 species) existing tissue samples and necropsy specimens our various in-house and outreach educational efforts the efficacy of our diverse efforts to communicate conservation themes to Zoo visitors.

The Zoological Society is especially interested in promoting projects which dovetail with one or more of our own primary goals, which include the development and testing of effective enrichment strategies for captive animals, and the development and testing of effective strategies for breeding endangered species.

The Buffalo Zoo is committed to the highest possible standards of animal care, and all prospective projects will be scrutinized for concerns relating to the welfare of our animals before they will be allowed to commence.

The Zoological Society is committed to provide monetary support for selected research activities in an amount not to exceed $500. Expenses eligible for support may include equipment costs, supply costs, and expenses related to travel. The allocation of awards will be selective and competitive.

For further information, contact Frederick L. Paine, Vice President, Operations, Buffalo Zoological Gardens, Buffalo, New York 14214 [716-837-3900 ext 151; fax: 716-837-0738].

Laboratório Tropical de Primatologia

The Laboratório Tropical de Primatologia (LTP) is a laboratory dedicated to the study of the behavior and reproduction of Brazilian primates. It is located in the interior of a remnant of Atlantic Forest, an ecological Reserve within the campus of the Federal University of Paraíba in João Pessoa (6[[ordmasculine]] latitude south). Primatology work started in 1981. Today there is a stock of 120 animals of the following species: Aotus trivirgatus, Alouatta belzebul, Callithrix jacchus, C. penicillata, C. kuhli, C. geoffroyi, Cebus apella, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Saguinus midas midas, and S. midas niger. The animals are kept in wire mesh cages, up to 8 m high and 6 x 6 m in area, under natural climatic conditions.

Research workers from the University staff and graduate and undergraduate students from UFPB and other Brazilian universities use the LTP research facilities. Research workers of other institutions are welcome to do research work with LTP animals. Hospitality, but no financial support, is offered. The laboratory offers such facilities as a research room, a kitchen for animal food preparation, and a nursery.

For information, contact the LTP, Dept. da Sistem. e Ecol., Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Univ. Fed. da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil [083-216-7471; fax: 083-216-7464; e-mail: sagui@brufpb.bitnet].

Makerere University Biological Field Station

The Makerere University Biological Field Station (MUBFS), located in southwestern Uganda's Kibale National Park, offers opportunities for interdisciplinary field-based research and training in East Africa. The regional setting has many nautral and cultural resources, and is home to seven national parks. MUBFS encourages research and training in the physical, biological, and social sciences. The Station can comfortably accomodate up to 65 researchers year-round, and offers a wide range of facilities and services, including lodging, meals, transportation, laundry, phone, fax, e-mail, and library and computer access. Eleven species of primates includes chimpanzees and colobus monkeys.

The Station welcomes proposals for research and training activities. For further information, contact Robert J. Lilieholm, Dept of Forest Resources, Utah State Univ., Logan, UT 84322-5215 [801-797-2575; fax: 801-797-4040; e-mail:] or John Kasenene, Director, MUBFS, P.O. Box 409, Fort Portal, Uganda [256-483-22881; fax: 256-483-22883].

Ethics of Animal Use

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University announces that its spring course and conference entitled "Applied Ethics in Animal Research: From Theory to Decision-Making" will be hosted by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, NM from May 31 to June 3, 1997. The program will focus on decision-making in a variety of animal-use contexts. The conference is intended for biological, biomedical, behavioral, and social scientists; clinicians, students, scholars of the humanities and philosophy; and members of the concerned public. The course is particularly important to those individuals concerned with the education of researchers and those involved in making decisions that directly affect the welfare of animals (e.g., researchers, veterinarians, members of animal care committees). Poster presentations involving original research broadly related to the intersection of ethics and animals are invited and need to be submitted by April 1, 1997. For additional information contact John P. Gluck, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 [515-277-3420; fax: 505-277-1394; e-mail:] or F. Barbara Orlans, Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC 20057 [202-687-6774; fax: 202-687-6770; e-mail:].

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Volunteer Opportunities

Volunteer Positions in Thailand

Julie Anderson, volunteer manager of the Gibbon Rehabilitation Project in Phuket, Thailand, is looking for two volunteers, one for administrative work and the other for "hands-on" work with the gibbons.

One position is for an animal keeper. Preferred qualifications are: animal management skills, experience in primate care, knowledge of diet/behavior, driving license, ability to work with Thai staff and willingness to learn a little Thai, good health, practical skills, self-reliance and enthusiasm. Volunteers are provided with simple housing.

An administrative assistant is required to work in the office on weekdays. Computer skills, preferably Windows, are required; also typing, accounting, communication skills, good inter-personal skills, self-reliance and enthusiasm.

To receive a package of documents including a project description, the latest volunteer newsletter (in English), their standard operating procedures, etc., send your street address to Shirley McGreal, P.O. Drawer 766, Summerville, SC 29484 [e-mail:].

Earthwatch Project in China

The white-headed langur, a highly endangered leaf-eating monkey, is endemic to the karst hills in southwest Guangxi, China. The langur population was estimated to be about 1,400 or less in 1992, and its habitat area has been reduced to only 200 sq. km. Its range has been isolated by human settlement and cultivation. Scientists are collecting data on the distribution of habitat fragments and langur groups in order to help protect this rare species. Volunteers are needed this fall through next spring.

Earthwatch, a non-profit organization, recruits members of the public to join expeditions led by the world's leading researchers. The expedition to study white-headed langurs is led by Li Zhaoyuan of the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica. Volunteers will spend the larger parts of their days locating langur troops on maps and filling out survey forms to document the size and age/sex composition of each troop they encounter. Teams will stay either in villages where rooms will be provided with simple bed and bathing facilities or in tents at the research site where hot water and showers are available. A cook will prepare delicious Chinese cuisine, which includes rice, meat, fish, eggs, and vegetables.

Earthwatch volunteers share the costs of the research and help conduct the research. For more information con-act Earthwatch, PO Box 9104, Watertown, MA 02272 [800-776-0188, ext 185; e-mail:; Web site:].

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Information Requested or Available

Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation

The Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation has convened its first conference in Honduras. Information about the Society, its objectives, and membership can be obtained from Clara B. Jones (Rutgers-Newark Institute of Animal Behavior, l0l Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07l02) or the President, Gerardo A. Borjas Machado, M.Sc., (Dept. de Biología, Univ. Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Carretera a Suyapa, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, C.A.). Membership fees for US citizens are $20.00 and include a Bulletin.

Cercocebus Studbook

Conrad Ensenyat i Canela has been appointed European Studbook Keeper for Cercocebus torquatus (cherry-crowned/white-collared/red-capped mangabey), C. atys atys (sooty mangabey), and C. atys lunulatus (white-crowned mangabey). He would appreciate any information about institutions keeping these animals in Europe. He is also interested in the world population of C. atys lunulatus, which seems to be poorly represented in captivity. If you know of any institution housing these animals, please contact Conrad Ensenyat, Mammals Curator, Barcelona Zoo, Parc de la Ciutadella s/n, 08003 Barcelona, Spain [fax: +34-3-2213853; e-mail:].

More Interesting Web Sites

All of the following URLs (WWW locations) begin with "http://" which has been omitted to save space.

Stephen Easley's computer help and fun pages:

The Animal Research Database:

National Zoo photo library:

for Budongo Forest Project:

The Animal Welfare Institute:
USDA news releases, program announcements, and media advisories:

Mammal Species of the World:

Lab Animal (U.S. journal):

Other Electronic Resources

A weekly e-mail digest has begun for conversation, stories, job opportunities, issues, thoughts, and general postings concerning wildlife ecology: send e-mail to: kingfshr@ with the subject: "Subscribe to WED."

Nora Bynum is creating an e-mail discussion list for people interested in Sulawesi primates. Contact her at if you would like to be included.

New ASP Officers

The new Executive Secretary of the American Society of Primatologists is Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Ave, Providence RI 02907 [401-785-3510 ext. 335; fax: 401-941-3988; e-mail:]. Please direct all correspondence, items for the Bulletin, and liaison information directly to her. For membership information, change of address, dues payment, or anything else involving membership or money, contact the new Treasurer of ASP, Steve Schapiro, UT-MDACC, Dept Vet. Research, Route 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop TX 78602 [512-321-3991; fax: 512-322-5208; e-mail: an83000@].

Annual AWA Report

Jerry Depoyster, of APHIS, has announced that the Animal Welfare Enforcement Report for Fiscal Year 1995 is available. Send your request to: Dr. Jerry DePoyster, USDA REAC APHIS, 4700 River Rd, Unit 84, Riverdale, MD 20737-1228 [301-734-7586; fax: 301-734-4978; e-mail:] or look for the report at:

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Resources Available


The Sulawesi Natural Resources Conservation Information Center (PIPAS) is a nonprofit organization founded to address environmental problems and supply natural resource information to environmentalists, researchers, and agencies concerned with conservation in Sulawesi. The center seeks to promote scientific and educational uses of the natural environment by providing informative and educational materials, as well as logistical assistance to both Indonesian and foreign scientists and students. It encourages integration of economic development and ecosystem conservation through wise and sustainable use of natural resources.

PIPAS aims to make available communication services (telephone, fax, photocopier, word-processing, and translation) and help with logistical arrangements (transportation and lodging). For further information, contact Nenny Babo, Jalan Sultan Alauddin No. 26, P.O. Box 1521, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia [062-411-854985; fax: 062-411-862721]; Joe Erwin, c/o Diagnon Corp., 9600 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850-3300 [fax: 301-251-1260]; or Billyl Secord, Secord's Zool. Breeding & Research, 4428 Gilford Dr., Edina, MN 55435 [612-920-1987; fax: 612-926-7169].

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) of the National Academy of Sciences has published the 1996 revision of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide). This is the sixth revision of the Guide since the original was first published in 1963. The purpose of this publication is to assist institutions in caring for and using animals in ways judged to be scientifically, technically, and humanely appropriate, and to assist investigators in fulfilling their obligation to plan and conduct animal experiments in accord with the highest scientific, humane, and ethical principles. The recommendations of the Guide are based on published data, scientific principles, expert opinion, and experience with methods and practices that have proven to be consistent with high-quality, humane animal care and use. The 1996 edition includes extensive references and differs from previous editions by an increased emphasis on performance goals as opposed to engineering standards. This edition of the Guide was financially supported by NIH, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is published by the National Academy Press.

The Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals requires that institutions receiving PHS support for activities involving animals base their programs of animal care and use on the Guide and comply, as applicable, with the Animal Welfare Act and other federal statutes and regulations relating to animals. PHS-assured institutions are encouraged to begin implementing the 1996 revision of the Guide as soon as possible. By July 31, 1997, all PHS-assured institutions are expected to have conducted at least one semiannual program and facility evaluation, complete with reasonable and specific plans and schedules for corrections of deficiencies where appropriate, using the 1996 Guide as the basis for evaluation.

Copies of the Guide are available from the Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) at 301-496-7163, ext. 226; ILAR: 202-334-2590; and the National Center for Research Resources, NIH: 301-435-0744. Or on the World Wide Web at For additional information contact: Sue Machado, Division of Animal Welfare, OPRR, 6100 Executive Blvd, Suite 3B01, MSC 7507, Rockville, MD 20892-7507 [301-496-7163, ext. 234; fax: 301-402-2803].

Free DNA Profile Testing Available

The Therion Corporation has received an NIH grant to fund the collection and development of genetic databases for 11 species of primates used in biomedical research. DNA profile data can be used for paternity verification and to estimate genetic relatedness within and among colonies. The species are Macaca fascicularis (cyno-molgus), M. nemestrina (pigtail), M. mulatta (rhesus), and M. arctoides (stumptail macaques), Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin), Samairi boliviensis and S. sciureus (squirrel monkeys), Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset), Aotus trivirgatus (owl monkey), Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey), and Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee). For more information about this study, and details on how to collect, store, and ship blood samples, contact Will Gergits, Therion Corp., Rensselaer Technology Park, 185 Jordan Rd, Troy, NY 12180 [518-286-0016; fax: 518-286-0018].

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Position Available: Director for ILAR

The National Research Council (NRC) is seeking a director for the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) to manage its day-to-day operation, handle its program development and administration, and provide advice to the Executive Director of the Commission on Life Sciences and the NRC Chairman on matters related to laboratory animal science and related issues. Responsibilities include working closely with the Chairman and members of ILAR Council to develop pertinent and appropriate program activities and to establish priorities for its program work. This person will also be responsible for the initiation, development, planning, management and coordination of ILAR's program activities, including fund raising, financial and contract management, program budgets, identifying and maintaining liaisons with potential and current sponsors, and supervising ILAR staff and related personnel matters.

The NRC is seeking a scientist/administrator with a Ph.D., D.V.M., or equivalent in a biomedical field and four or more years of experience in laboratory animal science and issues, including knowledge of government policies and programs, animal welfare regulations, and animal rights issues. This person must have fiscal management, program development, and personnel management experience, as well as excellent organizational and communication skills and a record of achievement in his or her scientific area with successively higher levels of responsibility. We offer a competitive salary and benefits package. Send resume in confidence to Paul Gilman, ILAR, NAS 343, 2101 Constitution Ave, N.W. Washington, DC 20418. We are an equal opportunity employer.

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Address Changes

Elihu Bond, 181 Dubois Rd, New Paltz, NY 12561.

Margaret R. Clarke, Dept. of Anthropology, 1021 Audubon St, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA 70118.

C. Nicholas Guise, Genetics Institute, One Burtt Rd, Andover, MA 01810-1810.

James V. Hawkins, Dept of Bioresources, 4002 Education & Research Bldg, 2799 W. Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202-2689.

Jack R. Hessler, Chief Vet. Med. Officer, Dept of Veterans' Affairs, 12V, 810 Vermont Ave NW, Washington DC 20420-0001.

Robert M. Letscher, Univ. of Washington Primate Field Station, Medical Lake, WA 99022.

Angela M. Mason, 304 Northwood Rd, Washington, NC 27889.

Mark Murchison, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433.

Stephanie W. Parrish, USAMC-AFRIMS, APO AP 96546-5000.

Sarah A. Rogers, 604 E. Elizabeth St., Delmar, MD 21875.

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Patas "Home Video"

Until a few years ago, Professor James Loy at the University of Rhode Island operated a patas (Erythrocebus patas) colony. During those approximately ten years, three young females gave birth. In all three cases, the infant was not accepted by the mother and Dr. Loy felt compelled to intervene. He took the infants into his home and, with his wife, hand-reared them. Every week they videotaped the infant. Last year a student compiled the footage into a documentary film illustrating the early behavioral development of Elmo, one of the infants. The film discusses early cognitive and physical development via video, dialogue, and graphs. Dr. Loy has been using it in his Primate Behavior course.

The film runs about 22 min. It is available, in a case, for $10, including shipping and handling, from Jason Goffe, 46 Grandview Rd, Pawtucket, RI 02860-4647.

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Meeting Announcements

The American Anthropological Association will meet 20-24 November, 1996 in San Francisco, CA. The theme will be Anthropology: A Critical Retrospective. Contact AAA, Meetings Dept, 4350 Fairfax Dr., Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203 [703-528-1902 Ext. 2].

The Primate Society of Great Britain will hold its Winter Meeting 29-30 November, 1996 at the Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London. It will be hosted jointly by PSGB, the Zoological Society, and the Mammal Society. The program will include the Osman Hill lecture to be given by Thelma Rowell and an address by the first recipent of the new PSGB Conservation award, Jane Goodall. Contact Hilary Box, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights Rd, Reading, RG6 2AL [01734 316668; fax: 01734 316604; e-mail:]

The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (of the American Society of Zoologists) will meet 26-30 December, 1996 in Albuquerque, NM. Contact the AMZ, 401 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611 [800-955-1236; fax: 312-245-1085; e-mail:].

The American Society of Primatologists 1997 meeting will be June 27-July 1 at the Bahia Hotel, Mission Bay, San Diego, CA. For local arrangements, contact Nancy Caine, Psychology Program, California State University, San Marcos, CA 92096-0001 [619-752-4145; fax: 619-752-4111; e-mail:]. Abstracts are due January 15, 1997; symposia proposals and participant abstracts are due November 21, 1996. For information about these and anything else about the program, contact: Evan Zucker, Dept of Psychology, Loyola Univ., New Orleans, LA 70118 [504-865-3255; fax: 504-834-4085; e-mail:

The XXV International Ethological Conference will be held August 20-27, 1997, in Vienna, Austria. This meeting of the IEC will highlight new synthetic approaches to problems in animal behavior, and links between behavior and other disciplines, including neurobiology, sensory physiology, population ecology, conservation biology, and evolution. For additional information about the meeting, contact Dr. Michael Taborsky, Konrad Lorenz Institut für Vergleichende Verhalternsforshung, A-1160 Wien, Savoyenstrasse 1A, Austria.

The U.S. Ethological Conference Committee has applied for a grant from NSF for partial support of travel for younger scientists to attend the XXV IEC meeting. If this grant is funded, the U.S. Ethological Conference Committee (USECC) will provide travel funds to younger U.S. scientists -- defined as those who received their Ph.D. between 1992 and 1996, or who will complete their Ph.D. during the 1996/97 academic year. For more information or to apply for a travel award, contact Dr. Judy Stamps, Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (e-mail: Applications must be received by 15 December 1996.

A Forum on Wildlife Telemetry: Innovations, Evaluations, and Research Needs will be held 21-23 September, 1997 in Snowmass, CO, in conjunction with the 1997 Annual Conference of the Wildlife Society. Contact Jane Austin, National Biological Service, Northern Prairie Science Center, Jamestown, ND 58401[701 252-5363; fax: 701-252-4217; e-mail:].

A first announcement was circulated at the Madison joint ASP/IPS meeting, stating that the 1998 International Primatological Society meeting would be held September 18-October 2 in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. The meeting will be housed at the University of Antananarivo. For registration forms and other documents, write to the Secretary of the XVIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Faculty of Sciences, Building P, Door 207, B.P. 906, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology Seminars continue at the CUNY Graduate Center, 33 W. 42nd Street (between 5th and 6th Avenues). Parking is legal on 42nd Street after 7 p.m. Contact Prof. Eric Delson, Dept of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 [e-mail:] or Prof. Clifford Jolly, NYU Anthropology Dept., New York, NY 10003 [e-mail:].

Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center seminars will be held at the Wisconsin RPRC, Madison, on Friday noons in the Conference Room during the Spring and Fall terms. For a list of speakers, contact Leslie Knapp [e-mail:] or Wendy Saltzman [e-mail: For both, 608-265-3381; fax: 608-263-4031].

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Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. L. Alterman, G. A. Doyle, & M. K. Izard (Eds.). New York: Plenum Press, 1995. 586 pp. [Price: $125]

The Neglected Ape. R. D. Nadler, B. F. M. Galdikas, L. K. Sherran, & N. Rosen (Eds.). New York: Plenum Press, 1995. 312 pp. [Price: $85]

Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication. E. Zimmerman, J. D. Newman, & U. Jürgens (Eds.). New York: Plenum Press, 1995. 296 pp. [Price: $89.50]

Ecology and Sociobiology of Indian Primates. M. D. Parthasarathy. Bangalore: Dynaram Publications, 1996. [Price: $10 plus postage, from Dr. Parthasarathy at 1355 Wynnstone Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48105]


I Married Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Vignettes. L. B. Povar. Pittsburgh: Dorrance, 1995. 20 pp. [Price: $7, from Dorrance Publishing Co., 643 Smithfield St, Pittsburgh, PA 15222]
. . . Anecdotes from Mrs. Povar's years as the wife of the long-time Consulting Editor of this Newsletter.

Current Standards in Europe for the Care of Non-human Primates in Laboratories. B. Jones. West Sussex: Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 1996. 25 pp. [Free from the RSPCA, Causeway, Horsham, West Sussex RH12 1HG, England]

Magazines and Newsletters

aaalac Communiqué. Summer 1996. [Amer. Assn for Accreditation of Lab. Animal Care, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]

African Primates: The Newsletter of the Africa Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 1995, 1[2]. [T. M. Butynski, Zoo Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Prog., P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya]
. . . Articles and announcements in English and French.

Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, Spring, 1996, 7[1]. [NAL, AWIC, Beltsville, MD 20705]
. . . Includes "The IACUC process: Facilitating science in a well-managed animal care and use program," by G. D. Ledney, C. L. Hadick, & R. H. Weichbrod; "Comparing cage space requirements for nonhuman primates in the United States and in Europe," by V. Reinhardt, C. Liss, & C. Stevens; and "Frequently asked questions about safe pair-housing of macaques," by V. Reinhardt.

Annual Resource Guide 1996: Special Edition of Continuing Listings. Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1996. [PSIC, PIC, RPRC, Box 357330, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7330]

Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1995, 5[1,2]. [164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
. . . Articles and announcements, plus a cumulative index of volumes 1-4.

Chinese Primate Research and Conservation News, 1995, 4[2]. [Quan Guoqiang, 19 Zhongguancun Lu, Inst. of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080, China]
. . . Articles printed in both Chinese and English.

Gorilla Conservation News, May 1996, No. 10. [K. J. Stewart, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616]

IPPL News, August 1996, 23[2]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes articles on Jakarta's Pramuka "bird" market and a chimpanzee sanctuary in Uganda.

The Jane Goodall Institute World Report, Summer, 1996, 2. [P.O. Box 599, Ridgefield, CT 06877]

Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1996, 4[1]. Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1996, 4[2]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Articles, news reports, announcements, and reviews, in English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

The Newsletter, 1996, 8[1]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . . Includes the chimpanzee diet used at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

Noldus News, 1996, 3[1]. [Costerweg 5, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, Netherlands]

Positively Primates, 1996, 2[1]. [DuMond Conservancy, 14805 S.W. 216 St, Miami, FL 33170]
. . . Includes an article on observing woolly monkeys in Brazil, by S. Ferrari.

PrimeApes, Spring, 1996, 2[1]. [Center for Orangutan & Chimpanzee Conservation, 11000 SW 57th Ave, Miami, FL 33156]

Sulawesi Primate Newsletter, Spring/Summer 1996, 3[2]. [N. Bynum, University of the South, 735 University Avenue, Sewanee, TN 37375]


The Human/Research Animal Relationship: A Compliation of Presentations from Three Workshops Held on This Subject During 1992-1994. L. Krulisch, S. J. Mayer, & R. C. Simmonds (Eds.). Greenbelt, MD: SCAW, 1996. 104 pp. [Price: $35. Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770]
. . . Contents: Keynote speech: The well-being of animal researchers, by A. Arluke; History of the human/animal relationship, by R. C. Simmonds; The human/animal relationship in the research setting, by L. A. Hart; Human/research animal relationships: Research staff perspectives, by J. S. Spinelli; Human/research animal relationships: Research staff perspectives, by U. K. Stephens; How human/animal bonding affects the animals, by H. Davis. How different experimental factors affect the relationship, by C. J. Mahoney; How different species affect the relationships, by T. Wolfle; Coping with burnout in the human/research animal relationship, by B. S. Mader; Personnel considerations: Hiring, training, attitudes, by T. D. Mandrell.

100 years of Pithecanthropus: The Homo erectus problem. J. L. Franzen (Ed.). Courier Forschungeninstitut Senckenberg, 1994, 171. [Price: DM 80]
. . . Papers from the 4th International Senckenberg Conference, Frankfurt am Main, December 2-6, 1991. Contents include an Introduction; and papers on Homo erectus in Asia; Homo erectus in Africa; Homo erectus in Europe; Varia; and Conclusions.

Special Journal Issues

An emerging new ethic: Coping with complex issues in the lab. Lab Animal, June, 1996, 25[6].

Designs we can live with: Facing animal facility design challenges. Lab Animal, July/August, 1996, 25[7].
. . . Includes "Ethological considerations for designing behavioral enrichment," by L. E. Williams.

Laboratory animal welfare around the world. Lab Animal, September, 1996, 25[8].
. . . Discussions of political, cultural, and economic influences on animal welfare, from Australia, India, the Baltic states, Japan, and Europe.

Animal Models

Neuroborreliosis in the nonhuman primate: Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the central nervous system. Pachner, A. R., Delaney, E., & O'Neill, T. (Dept of Neurol., Georgetown Univ. Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Rd, Washington, DC 20007). Annals of Neurology, 1995, 38, 667-669.
. . . Polymerase chain reaction/hybridization of CNS tissues from 5 infected rhesus monkeys resulted in data supporting the hypothesis that in Lyme neuroborreliosis, in a nonhuman primate model, B. burgdorferi is disseminated widely in the CNS at a relatively low density, a condition tolerated without obvious clinical sequelae.

Mycobacterium avium complex in macaques with AIDS is associated with a specific strain of simian immunodeficiency virus and prolonged survival after primary infection. Mansfield, K. G., Pauley, D., Young, H. L., & Lackner, A. A. (New England RPRC, P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9012). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1995, 172, 1149-1152.
. . . The first example in which the risk of infection with a specific opportunistic organism was affected by the infecting strain of immunodeficiency virus.

Genotypic selection of simian immunodeficiency virus in macaque infants infected transplacentally. Amedee, A. M., Lacour, N., Gierman, J. L., Martin, L. N., Clements, J. E., Bohm, R., Jr., Harrison, R. M., & Murphey-Corb, M. (M. M.-C., Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433). Journal of Virology, 1995, 69, 7982-7990.
. . . The viral genetic diversity in five infected female macaques and their in utero-infected infants was analyzed: all the mothers harbored a genetically diverse virus population at parturition, whereas a single genotype from the maternal quasispecies was identified in the infants at birth.

Cellular immune response of rhesus monkeys infected with a partly attenuated nef deletion mutant of the simian immunodeficiency virus. Dittmer, U., Nisslein, T., Bodemer, W., Petry, H., Sauermann, U., Stahl-Hennig, C., & Hunsmann, G. (DPZ, Dept for Virol. & Immunol., Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany). Virology, 1995, 212, 392-397.
. . . Infection with nef deletion mutants induces a specific cellular immune response. However, such viruses can revert to virulence in vivo, leading to immunological and hematological alterations. Moreover, the SIV-specific immune response could neither prevent reversion of the mutation nor the onset of an immunodeficiency. These findings raise safety concerns on the use of attenuated viruses as AIDS vaccine candidates.

Effects of viral virulence on intrauterine growth in SIV-infected fetal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Tarantal, A. F., Marthas, M. L., Gargosky, S. E., Otysula, M., McChesney, M. B., Miller, C. J., & Hendrickx, A. G. (California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616-8542). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1995, 10, 129-138.
. . . Studies show that infection of fetuses during the early second trimester with an uncloned pathogenic strain of SIV results in severe intrauterine growth restriction and a disruption in the molar ratio of insulin-like growth factor to IGF binding protein-3, and that outcome of fetal SIV infection is determined by the timing of infection and the virulence of the viral inoculum.

Hematologic and growth-related effects of frequent prenatal ultrasound exposure in the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Tarantal, A. F., Gargosky, S. E., Ellis, D. S., O'Brien, W. D., Jr., & Hendrickx, A. G. (Address same as above). Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 1995, 21, 1073-1081.
. . . Data from 16 exposed animals and 10 controls suggest that frequent (five days/week from gestational days (GD) 21 to 35; three d/w from GD 36 to 60; weekly from GD 61 to 153) prenatal ultrasound exposure can transiently alter the neutrophil lineage, although these findings may be the result of enhanced margination and organ sequestration. Data also suggest that transient, altered growth patterns may be due to perturbations of the insulin-like growth factor axis.

Maternal and fetal effects of laparoscopic insufflation in the gravid baboon. Reedy, M. B., Galan, H. L., Bean-Lijewski, J. D., Carnes, A., Knight, A. B., & Kuehl, T. J. (Scott & White Clinic, Dept of Ob/Gyn, 1600 Univ. Dr., College Station, TX 76508). Journal of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists, 1995, 2, 399-406.
. . . Four pregnant baboons at about 120 days gestation underwent general anesthesia, Swan-Ganz and arterial catheter placement, and abdominal insufflation, with no adverse effects to mothers or fetuses at an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) of 10 mm Hg. However there were significant cardiovascular and respiratory alterations associated with IAP of 20 mm Hg.

Comparison of the thrombogenicity of stainless steel and tantalum coronary stents. Scott, N. A., Robinson, K. A., Nunes, G. L., Thomas, C. N., Viel, K., King, S. B., III, Harker, L. A., Rowland, S. M., Juman, I., Cipolla, G. D., & Hanson, S. R. (A. Gruentzig Cardiovascular Ctr, Emory Univ. Hospital, Suite F-606, 1364 Clifton RD, Atlanta, GA 30322). American Heart Journal, 1995, 129, 866-872.
. . . From experiments on five pigs and seven baboons, the authors conclude there is no significant difference in thrombogenecity of stainless steel and tantalum wire coil stents.

Oral efficacy of a leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist in colitic cotton-top tamarins. Fretland, D., Sanderson, T., Smith, P., Adams, L., Carson, R., Fuhr, J., Tanner, J., Clapp, N. (Inflammatory Diseases Research, Searle R & D, 4901 Searle Pky, Skokie, IL 60077). Gut, 1995, 37, 702-707.
. . . Five of six cotton-top tamarins with confirmed active colitis, treated with a second generation leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, SC-53228, gained weight, while all six showed dramatic improvement histologically, with no or only minimally active colitis after treatment. In three of the six, there was no active colitis seven months after treatment ceased.

Acute behavioral effects of phencyclidine on rhesus monkey performance in an operant test battery. Frederick, D. L., Gillam, M. P., Allen, R. R., & Paule, M. G. (Div. of Neurotoxicol., HFT-132, NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd, Jefferson, AR 72079-9502). Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 1995, 52, 789-797.
. . . Phencyclidine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, produced a relatively nonspecific, dose-dependent disruption across operant test battery tasks.

Development of osteopenia in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Jerome, C. P., Lees, C. J., & Weaver, D. S. (Dept of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., Med. Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Bone, 1995, 17[4-Suppl), 403S-408S.
. . . Data suggest that absolute osteopenia develops after ovariectomy in monkeys with stable pre-ovariectomy bone mass which are fed a level of calcium comparable to that consumed by American women.

Surface markers and growth factor receptors of immature hemopoietic stem cell subsets. Wagemaker, G., Neelis, K. J., & Wognum, A. W. (Inst. of Hematol., Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands). Stem Cells, 1995, 13(suppl. 1), 165-171.
. . . Report of studies in rhesus monkeys, directed at identification of immature stem cells and the design of optimal hemopoietic growth factor combination therapy to be used in case of accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation.

Long-term in vivo expression of the human glucocerebrosidase gene in nonhuman primates after CD34+ hematopoietic cell transduction with cell-free retroviral vector preparations. Xu, L. C., Karlsson, S., Byrne, E. R., Kluepfel-Stahl, S., Kessler, S. W., Agricola, B. A., Sellers, S., Kirby, M., Dunbar, C. E., Brady, R. O., Nienhuis, A. W., & Donahue, R. E. (R. E. D., Hematology Br., NHLBI, NIH, 5 Research Ct, Rockville, MD 20850). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A., 1995, 92, 4372-4376.
. . . Genetically modified cells were present at levels ranging from 0.1% (granulocytes) to 14% (B lymphocytes) more than 1 year following reconstitution of myeloablated rhesus monkeys with CD34+ immunoselected cells transduced in suspension culture with cytokines for 4 days with a retrovirus containing the glucocerebrosidase gene.

Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to normal and atherosclerotic arteries: A novel approach. Ríos, C. D., Ooboshi, H., Piegors, D., Davidson, B. L., & Heistad, D. D. (D. D. H., Dept of Internal Med., Univ. of Iowa College of Med., Iowa City, IA 52242). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 1995, 15, 2241-2245.
. . . Topical delivery of adenoviral vector by injection into the periarterial sheath results in gene transfer to the adventitial cells of both normal and atherosclerotic vessels and provides an alternative method for gene transfer to blood vessels in vivo. This approach, which does not require interruption of blood flow and does not disrupt the endothelium, may be useful for studies of vascular biology and perhaps for gene therapy in both normal and atherosclerotic vessels.

Induction of liver microsomal cytochrome P450 in cynomolgus monkeys. Bullock, P., Pearce, R., Draper, A., Podval, J., Bracken, W., Veltman, J., Thomas, P., & Parkinson, A. (A. P., Dept of Pharmacol., Toxicol., & Therapeutics, Univ. of Kansas Med. Center, Kansas City, KS 66160-7417). Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 1995, 23, 736-748.
. . . A report of similarities and differences in reactions to phenobarbital, -naphthoflavone, and dexamethasone in rats and cynomolgus monkeys, in terms of liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.

Characterization of the dopamine transporter in nonhuman primate brain: Homogenate binding, whole body imaging, and ex vivo autoradiography using [125I] and [123I]IPCIT. Al-Tikriti, M. S., Zea-Ponce, Y., Baldwin, R. M., Zoghbi, S. S., Laruelle, M., Seibyl, J. P., Giddings, S. S., Scanley, B. E., Charney, D. S., Hoffer, P. B., Sparks, R., Stubbs, J., Wang, S., Neumeyer, J. L., & Innis, R. B. (Dept of Psychiatry & Diagnostic Radiology, Yale Univ., West Haven, CT 06516). Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 1995, 22, 649-658.
. . . The purpose of this study was to assess the relative advantages of two related compounds as receptor binders to dopamine in a baboon model.

Scar tissue orientation in unsutured and sutured corneal wound healing. Melles, G. R. J., Binder, P. S., Beekhuis, W. H., Wijdh, R. H. J., Moore, M. N., Anderson, J. A., & SundarRaj, N. (Dept of Ophthalmol., Univ. of Nijmegen, Philips van Leydenlaan 15, PB 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands). British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1995, 79, 760-765.
. . . Within the same cornea, sutured and unsutured wounds showed opposite patterns of healing. Unsutured wounds healed more quickly, but lamellar repair was followed by ineffective reorganization of the scar.

Early determinants of adult metabolic regulation: Effects of infant nutrition on adult lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. McGill, H. C., Jr., Mott, G. E., Lewis, D. S., McMahan, C. A., & Jackson, E. M. (Dept of Physiol. & Med., Southwest Fnd for Biomed. Res., P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228). Nutrition Reviews, 1996, 54, S31-S40.
. . . Review of a series of experiments over 20 years, demonstrating long-term deferred effects of infant nutrition, particularly breast- as compared with formula-feeding and overfeeding as compared with normal or underfeeding, on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations, adiposity, and atherosclerosis in the baboon. Occurrence of other deferred effects suggests that infant nutrition may program other metabolic systems for life.

Real-time monitoring of renal function during ischemic injury in the rhesus monkey. Haug, C. E., Lopez, I. A., Moore, R. H., Rubin, R. H., Tolkoff-Rubin, N., Palacios de Caretta, N., Colvin, R. B., Cosimi, A. B., & Rabito, C. A. (C. A. R., Nuclear Med. Div., Dept of Radiol., Mass. General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114). Renal Failure, 1995, 17, 489-502.
. . . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a new clearance technique could be used to measure renal function minute to minute and under conditions similar to those observed in humans in the immediate post-transplantation period. The ambulatory renal monitor is a simple method which provides an accurate, near real-time glomerular filtration rate readout.

Animal Welfare

The ethics of animal research. Matfield, M. (Research Defence Soc., U.K.). Experimental Animals, 1996, 45, 209-215.

The author takes the view that causing animals to suffer because of research is a moral wrong, but that not doing research which may alleviate human pain and suffering would be a moral evil.
. . .


Sleeping habits of tamarins, Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis (Mammalia; Primates; Callitrichidae), in north-eastern Peru. Heymann, E. W. (DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany). Journal of the Zoological Society of London, 1995, 237, 211-226.
. . . Differences between the sympatric moustached and saddle-back tamarins were found in the type and height of sleeping sites and in the patterns of use and reuse.

Maternal behavior of primaparous rhesus monkeys: Effects of limited social restriction and inanimate environmental enrichment. Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Suarez, S. A., & Porter, L. M. (Dept of Vet. Sci., U.T. MDACC, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 1995, 45, 139-149.
. . . Rearing competent mothers was a crucial goal for establishing a cost-effective, self-sustaining specific-pathogen-free breeding colony of rhesus monkeys. Two factors were likely to have contributed to the high levels of maternal competence measured: 1) infants remained in their natal groups for their first year; 2) subjects had visual access to social groups containing mothers and infants during the years they were singly and pair housed.

The behavior of singly-caged, yearling rhesus monkeys is affected by the environment outside of the cage. Schapiro, S. J., Porter, L. M., Suarez, S. A., & Bloom-smith, M. A. (Address same as above). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 1995, 45, 151-163.
. . . Both positive and negative effects were found when animals were housed outdoors with considerable social and environmental stimulation, compared to indoor housing with limited stimulation.


Use of foraging racks and shavings as enrichment tools for groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Lutz, C. K. & Novak, M. A. (Univ. of Washington, Dept of Psychology, Guthrie Hall, Box 351525, Seattle, WA 98195-1525). Zoo Biology, 1995, 14, 463-474.
. . . This study suggests that foraging racks and shavings are useful devices for environmental enrichment.

An activity cage for baboons, Part I. Kessel, A. L. & Brent, L. (Dept of Lab. Animal Med., Southwest Fnd for Biomed. Res., P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78228). Contemporary Topics, 1995, 34, 74-79.
. . . Singly caged baboons were placed in an "activity cage," four times the size of a home cage and furnished with toys, moveable perches, and a food puzzle, for two days of each month. The animals displayed "dramatic changes in behavior typically considered to represent positive psychological well-being" while in the activity cage.

An activity cage for baboons, Part II: Long-term effects and management issues. Kessel, A. L. & Brent, L. (Address same as above). Contemporary Topics, 1995, 34, 80-83.
. . . After 4 months of access to the activity cage, significant positive behavioral changes were still evident. The activity cage was a practical, useful, and effective enrichment option for singly housed baboons.

Short-term evaluation of a foraging device for non-human primates. Holmes, S. N., Riley, J. M., Juneau, P., Pyne, D., & Hofing, G. L. (G. L. H., 2800 Plymouth Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105). Laboratory Animals, 1995, 29, 364-369.
. . . Eight cynomolgus monkeys were offered a foraging device in addition to their regular feeder. The device was accepted in preference to the standard hopper-style feeder, and self-directed behaviors were significantly reduced compared to baseline observations. Changing to a novel food re-kindled interest in the device after two weeks.


Determinants of postnatal weight in infant rhesus monkeys: Implications for the study of interindividual differences in neonatal growth. Johnson, R. L. & Kapsalis, E. (P.O. Box 420375, Summerland Key, FL 33042-0375). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1995, 98, 343-353.
. . . Cross-sectional data on 38 rhesus monkey infants aged 29-165 days strongly suggest that early postnatal growth in free-ranging rhesus is dependent on both maternal fatness and age. They also suggest that, although male infants are generally heavier than like-aged female infants, they do not grow any faster during the early postnatal period.

The development of range of action in infant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) reared by restrained mothers. Vochteloo, J. D., Timmermans, P. J. A., Duijghuisen, J. A. H., & Vossen, J. M. H. (Dept of Comp. & Physiol. Psych., Univ. of Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, Netherlands). Primates, 1996, 37, 167-173.
. . . Mother cynomolgus monkeys were restrained in their range of action by penning them in a separation cage within the large cage of their harem group, as they might be if prolonged medical care were needed, while their infants could come and go at will. The infants appeared to be initially retarded in the development of their range of action, compared to control infants, but by the end of the first year there was no difference.

Executive system dysfunction in the aged monkey: Spatial and object reversal learning. Lai, Z. C., Moss, M. B., Killiany, R. J., Rosene, D. L., & Herndon, J. G. (M. B. M., Dept of Anatomy & Neurobiol., Boston Univ. School of Med., 80 E. Concord St, W701, Boston, MA 02118). Neurobiology of Aging, 1995, 16, 947-954.
. . . No differences in performance were found between groups of aged (20-28 yr) and young adult (6-11 yr) rhesus monkeys in initial learning or object reversals in a Wisconsin General Test Apparatus. On spatial reversals, aged monkeys were impaired relative to young adults.


Gestational diabetes mellitus in a white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia). Lloyd, M. L., Susa, J. B., Pelto, J. A., & Savage, A. (Roger Williams Park Zoo, 1000 Elmwood Ave, Providence, RI 02905). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1995, 26, 76-81.
. . . Diabetes mellitus was suspected in a pregnant white-faced saki with glycosuria, and confirmed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary manipulation was initiated to meet nutritional requirements with protein, fats, complex carbohydrates, and minimal simple sugars. Parturition was uneventful; throughout this and a subsequent pregnancy, the animal was free of glycosuria and no overt signs of diabetes were observed.

Maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis with orbital and intra-cranial extension in an infant orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Cambre, R. C., Edwards, J. E., Wilson, H. L., Todd, J. K., Strain, J. D., Hendee, R. W., Jaskunas, J. M., Knox, R. F., & Chang, J. H. T. (Denver Zool. Gardens, City Park, Denver CO 80205). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1995, 26, 144-151.
. . . Aggressive medical and surgical therapies were employed in a 9-mo-old, parent-raised male hybrid orangutan that developed bilateral proptosis and pronounced periorbital swellings. Recovery of numerous enteric bacterial species at culture suggests that inoculation of respiratory passages by fecal flora was the inciting factor of this infection.

In vivo diagnosis of coronary artery disease in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Scott, N. A., McManamon, R., Strobert, E., Cipolla, G. D., Tarazona, N., & Swenson, R. B. (A. R. Gruentzig Cardiovascular Ctr, Emory Univ. Hospital, F-606 1364 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 1995, 26, 139-143.
. . . This report summarizes the techniques used to diagnose coronary artery disease in vivo in an adult gorilla.

Epizootic of Mycobacterium bovis in a zoologic park. Stetter, M. D., Mikota, S. K., Gutter, A. F., Monterroso, E. R., Dalovisio, J. R., Degraw, C., & Farley, T. (Wildlife Conservation Soc., Wildlife Health Sci., 2300 Southern Blvd, Bronx, NY 10460). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1995, 207, 1618-1621.
. . . Tuberculosis in a rhinoceros, which apparently developed 15 years after exposure in the wild, spread to colobus monkeys housed nearby. Six keepers who had been responsible for daily feeding and cleaning of the rhinos showed positive skin tests, but did not develop TB. Inadequate ventilation combined with high-pressure washing of floors and walls of the rhino barn may have caused infectious biomaterial to aerosolize during cleaning.

Paralytic illness resembling inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy in a chimpanzee. Alford, P. L. & Satterfield, W. C. (Dept of Vet. Sci., U.T. MDACC, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1995, 207, 83-85.
. . . The subacute, ascending, symmetrical, monophasic, flaccid paralytic illness described in this report, with albuminocytologic dissociation in cerebrospinal fluid, and recovery following supportive treatment, was characteristic of inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (known as Guillan-Barré syndrome in humans).

Progressive neurological deterioration in a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata). Blankenship-Paris, T. L. & Schenkman, D. I. (Div. of Lab. Animal Resources, Duke Univ. Med. Center, P.O. Box 3180, Durham, NC 27710). Lab Animal, 1996, 25[8], 17-18, 20.
. . . Report of a case of myelomeningoencephalitis that appeared in a quarantine animal with rapid progression. There was no definitive etiological diagnosis.

Instruments & Techniques

Methylmethacrylate-associated thermal injury during cranioplasty in a nonhuman primate. Hamlen, H. J. & Olson, E. (Animal Sci. Dept, California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA 93407). Contemporary Topics, 1995, 34, 73-75.
. . . A rhesus monkey developed neurologic deficits and right-sided hemiparesis following experimental cranioplasty. Clinical and necropsy results are presented. This case illustrates an important, yet rare, complication resulting from cranial application of self-curing methylmethacrylate.


Actions of placental and fetal adrenal steroid hormones in primate pregnancy. Pepe, G. J. & Albrecht, E. D. (E. D. A., Dept of Ob/Gyn, Univ. of Maryland School of Med., Bressler Research Labs, 11-017, 655 W. Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201). Endocrine Reviews, 1995, 16, 608-648.
. . . A major goal of this review is to illustrate the critically close functional communication existing between the developing placenta and the fetus in the biosynthesis and actions of steroid hormones during primate pregnancy. Estrogen, acting via its receptors within the placenta and other reproductive tissues, orchestrates the dynamic interchange between the placenta and fetus. This interchange is responsible for regulation of the biosynthesis of various steroid and peptide hormones and their receptors which are necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy and development of a live infant.

Manipulation of sex ratio at birth by urinary cues in a prosimian primate. Perret, M. (CNRS URA 1183, Lab. d'Ecol. Gén. MNHN, 4 ave. du Petit Château, F-91800 Brunoy, France). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1996, 38, 259-266.
. . . Female mouse lemurs overproduce sons when grouped prior to mating. This study demonstrates that a similar sex ratio bias towards male offspring can be obtained in isolated females by exposing them to urinary cues from other sexually active females.

Sexual responses to urinary chemosignals depend on photoperiod in a male primate. Perret, M. & Schilling, A. (Address same as above). Physiology & Behavior, 1995, 58, 633-639.
. . . Urinary chemosignals from female mouse lemurs were always stimulatory, producing significant increases in testosterone levels in male mouse lemurs regardless of day length. In contrast, urinary cues from dominant males depressed sexual function only at the beginning of the breeding season. Otherwise they were stimulatory.


Future costs of chimpanzees in U.S. research institutions. Dyke, B., Williams-Blangero, S., Mamelka, P. M., & Goodwin, W. J. (Southwest Fnd. for Biomed. Research, P.O. Box 28147, San Antonio, TX 78288-0147). ILAR Journal, 1995, 37, 193-198.
. . . An assessment of future financial requirements for supporting the U.S. chimpanzee research population under a variety of assumptions about operating costs and management strategies. Dollar amounts to maintain national chimpanzee research resources are likely to be sizeable, whether the population is maintained as a viable productive entity or allowed to die out. Other, less costly, strategies than those modeled should be explored, including formation of retirement facilities for chimpanzees no longer needed in biomedical research.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest.


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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus sciureus) by Susan D. Meier (see Natural and Artificial Minds, SUNY Press, 1993, with permission)

Copyright (c) 1996 by Brown University

Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen