Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Behavioral Enrichment for Captive Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) Through Novel Presentation of Diet, by M. Glick-Bauer ...... 1

Novelty Influences Play Structure Use in a Group of Socially Housed Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata), by W. J. Taylor, D. A. Brown, W. L. Davis & M. L. Laudenslager ...... 4

Olfactory Enrichment for Captive Chimpanzees: Response to Different Odors, by S. Ostrower & L. Brent ...... 8

Studies of Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) Translocated to a Neotropical Rainforest Fragment, by J. C. Serio-Silva ...... 11
. . . I. Social Distance in Translocated Howler Monkeys
. . . II. Activity Patterns and Feeding Habits of Translocated Howler Monkeys

Hand-rearing Cebus apella, by E. M. Patiño, C. C. R. de Oliveira, C. C. D. Zetterman, J. T. Borda, & J. C. Ruiz ...... 15

Are There Just "Races" (Subspecies) of Cynomolgus Monkeys or Should the Name of Macaca irus Be Revived? by L. Butterfield ...... 19

Baboon Nomenclature, by C. J. Jolly ...... 20

News, Information, and Announcements

Films on Macaques ...... 3

Research and Educational Opportunities ...... 6
. . . Master of Science in Animals and Public Policy; Summer Apprenticeship Program; AFAR Scholarships in the Biology of Aging; Animal Behavior Summer Course in Kenya; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Fellowships; Short Courses in Uganda

Information Requested or Available ...... 17
. . . Hematological Data; ILAR Guide (Mac Version); P-T Directory Rearranged; Neuroscience Web Search; NSF Enhancing Electronic Information Dissemination; Natural History and Wildlife in the U.K. News; NHPs in the Movies; Wildlife Ecology Digest; 1996-1998 International Directory of Primatology; More Interesting Web Sites

Grants Available ...... 21
. . . Extramural Research Facilities Construction Projects; Novel Pharmacotherapies for Cocaine Dependence; Predoctoral Training Program in the Neurosciences; NSF Initiative on Learning and Intelligent Systems; Immunobiological Consequences of Aging; NIDCD Small Grant Program

Announcements from Publications ...... 23
. . . The Primate Network; Electronic Magazine Seeking Authors; Evolution of Communication

Awards Granted ...... 24
. . . West African Wildlife Head Honored by ASP; CAAT Recognition Awards

Award Nominations...... 24
. . . ASP Student Competition; ASP Conservation Awards and Grants

Editors' Notes...... 25
. . . Gramma Editor! New, Improved Enrichment Index; Thanks

Meeting Anouncements ...... 26
. . . Human Dimensions of Natural Resource Management in the Americas; Third Gorilla Workshop; International Wildlife Law Conference; C. L. Davis DVM Foundation Continuing Education Symposium; ASP; International Society for Applied Ethology; Global Meeting on Parasitic Diseases

News Briefs: Richey Rules Against USDA Welfare Regulations; New Ebola Outbreaks ...... 28

Meeting Report: IPS/ASP Madison 1996 ...... 29

Resources Wanted and Available: Primate DNA Profiles ...... 336


Address Changes ...... 7

Positions Available ...... 27
. . . Director, Wisconsin RPRC; Behavioral/Research Tech.; Psychobiologist/Behavioral Primatologist

Recent Books and Articles ...... 30

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Behavioral Enrichment for Captive Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) Through Novel Presentation of Diet

Marian Glick-Bauer
Wildlife Conservation Society


Primates housed in zoos are particularly good candidates for environmental enrichment, given their sensitivity to being on public view. Primates may be less affiliative, more excited and more aggressive in the presence of zoo visitors, and may display an increase in stereotypical behavior (Chamove, Hosey & Schaetzel, 1988). Some cotton-top tamarins on exhibit in zoos have shown a tendency toward inactivity and a decrease in social behaviors such as contact, mounting, and play when compared to conspecifics housed off-exhibit (Glatston et al., 1984).

We anticipated that the subjects of this study, "RD" (studbook #1007) and "TY" (studbook #1335), could benefit from a program of behavioral enrichment even though both animals displayed normal patterns of behavior. Novel presentation of diet was selected as a possible means of increasing TY's level of activity. Similarly, we hoped that RD's use of exhibit space would increase, as he was spending a substantial amount of time watching and threatening viewers through the exhibit glass. Since cotton-top tamarins are widely held in zoos and laboratories, it is important to find inexpensive and easy-to-implement strategies for improving their captive husbandry and psychological well-being.


Subjects and Husbandry: A father/son pair of cotton-top tamarins, ages 10 and 7, housed at the Prospect Park Wildlife Center (Wildlife Conservation Society), were the subjects. The exhibit (approximately 2.7 x 2.4 x 3.3 m) included a skylight, artificial rock structures, an extensive network of branches and vines, and planters containing live vegetation. At night the subjects were shifted to an off-exhibit enclosure (0.9 x 0.6 x 0.9 m), which contained a nest box. The diet, provided on-exhibit in the morning and off-exhibit in late afternoon, consisted of high-fiber primate biscuit, canned marmoset diet, and a salad of kale, frozen mixed vegetables, apples, blueberries, grapes, and vitamin and mineral supplements. Additional treat items included bananas, oranges, wax grubs, and mealworms.

Procedure: Data were recorded on a checksheet from in front of the exhibit's public viewing window. Fourteen hours of baseline data were collected for each subject over a period of ten days. Half of the data were collected in the morning between 1000 h and 1100 h when the animals were first fed, and 7 hours of afternoon data were collected from 1430 h to 1530 h. Instantaneous (point) sampling was used to simultaneously record each subject's location and behavior (Table 1) at 30-second sample intervals (Martin & Bateson, 1989).

Behavior        Description       
rest            inactive, looking around      
locomote        walking, running, climbing, jumping                       
forage          eating, or attempting to procure food     
aggressive      directing a steady gaze toward a human viewer, often 
stare           accompanied by vocalizations, piloerection, tongue
other           self grooming, manipulating exhibit, social behaviors     
                (rare - omitted from analysis)                     
Location        Subject is            
in front        on perches directly in front of and adjacent to 
of window       viewing window
above window    on perches in a corner directly above viewing window                        
middle perches  among perches and trees in the center of the exhibit     
rear perches    among high perches along back wall of exhibit, or on   
                perches leading back toward the night holding area        
ground          on the ground of the exhibit  
high planter    in the elevated planter extending along one wall of   
                the exhibit                   

Table 1: Descriptions of Behavioral and Locational Categories

Enrichment trials commenced after the completion of baseline data collection. Each of the enrichment methods was tested on separate days, in random order, over a period of two months. Each trial condition was tested twice, for a total of two hours of data per subject, per trial condition. The average percent of time spent at each location and on each behavior was calculated for each subject in each trial condition and compared to the corresponding (morning or afternoon) baseline averages.

Morning Enrichment Trials: The subjects' morning diet was presented under two experimental conditions: 1) The diet was separated equally into three food dishes, two hidden in the high planter and a third mounted on the wall over the planter. 2) The morning diet was presented in a "puzzle feeder", a clear Plexiglas box (20 x 13 x 11 cm) with a hinged lid. The lid contained six holes of 4 cm diameter through which the subjects had to reach for food. This feeder was placed in the high planter.

Afternoon Enrichment Trials: Insects were presented in the afternoon under two experimental conditions: 1) Grubs were hidden in an open wooden box (20 x 13 x 11 cm) filled with wood shavings. The box was placed on the ground, in a planter. 2) A mealworm dispenser, made of a PVC tube with holes along its length and caps at both ends, was wired to the low rear branches of the exhibit. Large mealworms in a paper towel were placed inside the tube.

Two experimental conditions were designed to stimulate exudate-feeding behaviors. 1) Peanut butter was smeared on the rear branches. 2) A branch with holes drilled along its length was propped in the exhibit among the rear branches. The holes were filled with a puree of banana and grapes.


Data from the two subjects were analyzed separately as there was a significant difference in the baseline behavior patterns of RD and TY (Chi-sq = 16.35, df = 2, p < 0.0005). Although both subjects spent the majority of their time resting, a maximum of 54.5% for RD and 84.5% for TY, RD was more active overall, locomoting up to 26.3% of his time as opposed to 8.8% for TY. Foraging occupied a maximum of 15% of RD's time and 4.9% of TY's time. RD also spent up to 13.5 % of his time threatening viewers (aggressively staring) and 40% of his time located in front of the viewing window. RD used more exhibit space overall than did TY, who spent up to 49.7% of his time in a corner above the window, out of public view. TY later showed an increase in locomoting and a decrease in resting for almost all enrichment trials, a pattern not shared by the already active RD.

During morning enrichment trials both subjects significantly increased the amount of time they spent foraging for the standard diet, with TY devoting as much as 41.7% of his time to procuring food from the "puzzle feeder", and RD 32.9%. There was a corresponding decrease in the amount of time TY spent resting and RD spent monitoring viewers (RD: Chi-sq = 18.7, df = 6, p < 0.005; TY: Chi-sq = 45.8, df = 4, p = 0.0001). Locational data indicated that both morning enrichment methods successfully reduced the number of intervals TY spent above the window, out of view (Chi-sq = 77.3, df = 8, p < 0. 0001). RD similarly deviated from his typical use of exhibit space (Chi-sq = 23.4, df = 8, p < 0.005).

Afternoon enrichment trials also increased foraging time and use of exhibit space. Both the mealworm dispenser and the grub foraging box influenced the amount of time spent in the rear of the exhibit and on the ground (RD: Chi-sq = 49.6, df = 8, p < 0.0001; TY: Chi-sq = 169.6, df = 8, p < 0.0001). Time spent on the ground increased for both subjects from a baseline of zero to 10.8% for TY and 11.7% for RD, when the grub box was tested. Time spent among the rear perches increased to 62.1% for TY when the mealworm tube was employed. TY showed a corresponding increase in locomoting and eating, while resting behavior decreased (Chi-sq = 48.4, df = 4, p < 0.0001). RD showed a favorable decrease in the amount of time spent threatening viewers, dropping to zero percent during the grub box trials (Chi-sq = 19.6, df = 6, p < 0.005).

Both subjects increased their eating and foraging behaviors when the "exudates" were present, with RD increasing from a 4.2% baseline figure to 10.8% for peanut butter and 15.8% for the fruit puree. TY likewise increased from 3.6% baseline to 6.3% for the peanut butter, and 10.5% for the puree.


Baseline data indicated an overall activity budget unlike that of wild tamarins. Whereas wild cotton-tops spend only 0-37% of their time resting (Price, 1992), our subjects spent between 53.5% and 84.5% of their time resting. Similarly RD and TY spent considerably less time eating and foraging than do wild tamarins, who reportedly spend 22-31% of their time in this way (Price, 1992). TY spent less than 5% of his time foraging, a figure identical to that found by Chamove and Anderson (1989) for captive callitrichids. While it is not uncommon for captive tamarins to spend very little time in food procurement (Kawata, 1972) and most of their time resting (Box & Morris, 1980), the baseline budget of the subjects in this study was less than ideal.

Most of the enrichment methods tested in this study served to increase the subjects' use of exhibit space and vary their activity patterns in a desirable way. When the standard morning diet was offered in a novel or challenging format, both subjects deviated from their standard behavioral patterns to invest time in exploring and obtaining their food. Other researchers have noted a similar willingness among callitrichids to "work" for their food and a corresponding increase in the range of behaviors displayed (Chamove & Anderson, 1989; Scott, 1991).

The mealworm dispenser and grub foraging box evoked great interest and excitement in both subjects, enticing them to spend more time in the less utilized areas of the exhibit, specifically the rear perches and the ground. However, both subjects appeared agitated and easily alarmed when on the ground, an observation previously made for both captive tamarins and those newly released into the wild (Kawara, 1972; Price, 1992).

Although tamarins have been shown to eat plant exudates in the wild and in captivity (McGrew et al., 1986; LeBlanc, 1993), the subjects of this study have shown an uncharacteristic dislike for gum arabic. Neither of the "exudates" we offered was a favorite food item for these subjects, but these stimuli nonetheless served to increase the tamarins' overall interest in foraging and eating, and altered their use of exhibit space. For example, neither subject showed great interest in eating the peanut butter offered, yet the smell or novelty of this stimulus piqued their interest in consuming their standard diet. The behavior "manipulate exhibit" increased for almost every trial involving "exudates", indicating that these forms of enrichment were somewhat successful in varying the subjects' behavioral repertoire even when the animals were not interested in the food items per se.


The cotton-top tamarins of this study showed an increase in time spent foraging when their diet was offered in a novel or challenging form.

This case study suggests that novel presentation of diet could be a strategy of behavioral enrichment for tamarins in general, potentially modifying their behavioral patterns and use of enclosure space.

Trials designed to encourage exudate-feeding behaviors indicated that even when the subjects did not prefer the food offered, the smell or novelty of it nevertheless increased their interest in eating, foraging, and exploring their environment.

The subjects of this study displayed individual variation both in their baseline activity patterns and use of exhibit space, and also in their reactions to and preferences for the various enrichment items offered.


Box, H. O., & Morris, J. M. (1980). Behavioral observations on captive pairs of wild caught tamarins (Saguinus mystax). Primates, 21, 53-65.

Chamove, A. S., Hosey, G. R., & Schaetzel, P. (1988). Visitors excite primates in zoos. Zoo Biology, 7, 359-369.

Glatston, A. R., Geilvoet-Soeteman, E., Hora-Pecek, E., & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1984). The influence of the zoo environment on social behavior of groups of cotton topped tamarins, Saguinus oedipus oedipus. Zoo Biology, 3, 241-253.

Kawata, K. (1972). Observations on Cotton-headed tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) at Topeka Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 12, 45-47.

LeBlanc, D. (1993). Tamarins also feed on exudates. The Shape of Enrichment, 2, 5.

Martin, P., & Bateson, P. (1986). Measuring Behaviour. An Introductory Guide. New York: Cambridge University Press.

McGrew, W. C., Brennan, J. A., & Russell, J. (1986). An artificial "gum-tree" for marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Zoo Biology, 5, 45-50.

Price, E. C. (1992). Adaptations of captive-bred cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) to a natural environment. Zoo Biology, 11, 107-120.

Scott, L. (1991). Environmental enrichment for single housed common marmosets. In H. O. Box (Ed.), Primate Responses to Environmental Change (pp. 265-274). New York: Chapman and Hall.


Author's address: Wildlife Conservation Society, Prospect Park Wildlife Center, 450 Flatbush Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11225.

I am grateful to Joy Gonzalez for her moral and technical support, and to Donna Fernandes, Fred Koontz, Colleen McCann, AnnaMarie Lyles, and Lewis Greene for their editing and input. I am also grateful to Alan Alder for inspiring some of the enrichment ideas used in this study.


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Films on Macaques

A session devoted to edited films (videos) on the behavior and/or ecology of any species in the genus Macaca is being organized for the meeting of the American Society of Primatologists in San Diego, June 27-30, 1997. The intention is to focus on this one genus for intensive film comparison. The films will be selected to fill this program based on the following considerations: (1) quality, (2) to maximize the number of species represented in the genus, and (3) to include a variety of demonstrated phenomena.

Those wishing to have a video considered for this session should submit a copy of it on 1/2 inch VHS tape (NTSC), along with an abstract that includes the title of the film, a summary of the content, time duration, and credits. This material and/or inquiries about this session should be directed to: Charles Weisbard, Box 165, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, N.Y. 10021-6399 [718-274-2365; fax: 212-327-8634; e-mail:].

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Novelty Influences Use of Play Structures by a Group of Socially Housed Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)

Whitney J. Taylor, David A. Brown, Wendy L. Davis & Mark L. Laudenslager
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

Providing effective environmental enrichment is a major concern for any facility housing non-human primates. Over the past ten years much effort has been put into determining the best methods for improving the quality of life for singly housed primates (Fajzi et al., 1989; Brinkman, 1996). Social interaction is widely considered the best form of enrichment for naturally social primates (Novak & Suomi, 1991), but attention to improving the environment of group-housed animals is often overlooked.

Although group-housed animals do benefit from social interaction, there are additional ways to provide an enriched environment. For example, sunflower seeds, peanuts, corn, and other food items can elicit activity and reduce undesirable behaviors in group-housed animals (Boccia 1989; Beirise & Reinhardt, 1992). Another option to increase activity and exploration is to provide the group with various structures, either for play or for resting. In a recent study on socially housed mangabeys (Neveu & Deputte, 1996) it was determined that the availability of several perches had a positive effect on the primates. However, it has been hypothesized that the novelty of a play structure and not the structure itself is responsible for the amount of use it receives (Taff & Dolhinow, 1989). With this in mind, we set out to answer three specific questions: Does the use of play structures decrease significantly over a six week period? How does the absence of new structures affect the use of existing structures? Are certain types of structures more consistently used than others?


Subjects and Housing: A group of nine socially housed bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) were observed in this study. This was a peer group consisting of seven females and two males ranging in age from 37 to 50 months. The group was housed in a pen measuring 15 x 18 ft. All enrichment structures were removed from the pen two weeks prior to the beginning of the study.

Procedure: At 1200 hours on six consecutive Sundays, the group was removed from its home pen while one large play structure was added. The macaques were allowed to return after each addition. Over the six weeks, the following novel structures were added:
Week 1: Two milk crate swings
Week 2: 14-foot fire hose suspended from two points
Week 3: PVC tube, .68 m long, .33 m in diameter, suspended from two points
Week 4: 6 x 5 foot orange plastic fence, dangling by one end
Week 5: 10-foot nylon rope, dangling by one end
Week 6: Two connected plastic rings
The rope was tied to the ceiling while all other structures were suspended with chain. During weeks 7 through 12 no new structures were added.

Data Collection: The testing period lasted 12 weeks -- six weeks of structure additions and six weeks of no additions. Four 30-minute one/zero observations (Martin & Bateson, 1986) were taken each week for a total of 24 hours of observation over the course of the study. On structure-addition days, observations were taken shortly before and one to two hours after the structure was added, and again at approximately the same times on the following day. The macaques were observed through a one-way window, and were therefore unable to see the observer.


The one/zero scores were used to calculate means representing the use items received during their first week in the pen, second week in the pen, etc. A chi-square test for goodness of fit was run, with results indicating that use of an item decreased over time as the item remained in the pen [Chi-sq(5, N = 6) = 34.24, p < .01]. The macaques used the structures for a significantly larger proportion of time when they were first introduced (M = 76% of observed time) than they did five weeks later (M = 16% of observed time); see Figure 1.

A chi-square test for goodness of fit was run, comparing frequency of use of all six play structures between weeks 6 and 12 of the study, to determine if there was a difference between a week when a new structure was added and one when no new structure was added. The final structure was added during week 6 of the study. Therefore, during week 6, one new structure had been added each week for six weeks, and during week 12, no new structures had been added for six weeks. The chi-square test showed a significant difference in frequency of use between weeks 6 and 12 of the study [Chi-sq(1, N = 9) = 21.92, p < .01]. Frequency of use of the play structures was lower during week 12 (36.0% of observation time) than during week 6 (49.2% of observation time).

Figure 1: Differences in the use of existing play structures over a six week period.

An independent measures analysis of variance was run to evaluate the frequency of use of each individual play structure. The data evaluated consisted of the total frequency of use of each structure from the time the last structure was added to the end of the study. A significant main effect was found for play structure [F(5, 156) = 7.31, p < .01]. A Tukey's post hoc test showed that the fire hose was used significantly more than either the rope or the plastic fence, but that there were no significant differences in use between any other individual structures. The frequency of use for each play structure can be seen in Table 1.

Play structure  Time used      
Fire hose          40%            
PVC tube           33%            
Rings              33%            
Milk crates        30%            
Rope               18%            
Plastic fence      14%            

Table 1: Use of individual play structures measured as a percentage of total observation time. Note: The percentage of time that each structure was used was calculated by dividing the recorded frequency of use by the maximum possible frequency that the structure could have been used.

Aside from using one specific structure more frequently than others, the macaques appeared to prefer using play structures that they could sit upon to those that they could not. Another chi-square test for goodness of fit was run to determine if this was the case. The total fre-quency of use of the play structures from the time the last structure was added until the end of the study was calcu- lated, and then the frequency of use of the structures that could be sat upon (milk crates, fire hose, PVC tube, and rings) was compared to the frequency of use of the structures that could not be sat upon (plastic fence and rope). The "sitting" structures were used for 35.6% of observation time while the "non-sitting" structures were used only 16.0% of observation time. The chi-square test showed that it was in fact a significant difference [chi-sq(1, N = 9) = 284.6, p < .01].


Clear patterns in the use of these play structures emerged. The use of each structure declined significantly over the six-week period, which implies a habituation to the structures' presence. Also, when no new structures were added to the pen, overall use of the existing structures declined. It is unclear, however, if this decline was because no new structures were being added or because the environment was not being modified weekly. We are currently conducting a study that assesses the effects of moving existing play structures within the pen to determine if this causes an increase in structure use.

The overall use of individual structures showed variation. Two structures in particular, the fire hose and the PVC tube, were used more than other structures, such as the rope and plastic fence (the fire hose significantly more). There could be several different explanations for this variation in use. One possibility is that the macaques preferred structures they could sit or stand on. The two least used structures were the only structures that could not be used in this way. Another possible explanation is that the macaques had a preference for items they could use in conjunction with other items. For example, the fire hose, the most used structure, could be sat on while exploring the milk crates and the rings. It is important to note, however, that all structures showed a decline in use over the testing period. Preferred structures were not exempt from this decrease in exploration.

In this study we determined that novelty did play a significant role in the use of play structures by the macaques. This has lead us to the conclusion that having several structures available to a group of primates does not guarantee their use. A better tactic might be to rotate the structures frequently, thus providing the group with opportunities for novel exploration. This is an inexpensive and effective method for providing an enriched environment for socially housed non-human primates.


Beirise, J. & Reinhardt, V. (1992). Three inexpensive enrichment options for group-housed Macaca mulatta. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 31[1], 7-8.

Boccia, M. L. (1989). Long-term effect of a natural foraging task on aggression and stereotypies in socially housed pigtail macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[2], 18-19.

Brinkman, C. (1996). Toys for the boys: Environmental enrichment for signly housed adult male macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 35[2], 5-9.

Fajzi, K., Reinhardt, V., & Smith, M. D. (1989). A review of environmental enrichment strategies for singly caged nonhuman primates. Lab Animal, 18[2], 23-35.

Martin, P. & Bateson, P. (1986). Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Neveu, H., & Deputte, B. L. (1996). Influence of availability of perches on the behavioral well-being of captive, group-living mangabeys. American Journal of Primatology, 38, 175-185.

Novak, M. A. & Suomi, S. J. (1991). Social interaction in nonhuman primates: An underlying theme for primate research. Laboratory Animal Science, 41, 308-314.

Taff, M. A. & Dolhinow, P. (1989). Langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus) in captivity. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 291-304). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.


Authors' address: University of Colorado Primate Laboratory, 4200 E. Ninth Ave, Denver, CO 80262 (e-mail:

We would like to thank Barbara DeVinney, Dr. Ron Banks and Dr. James Stevens. The Primate Lab is supported in part by NIH Research Grant MH37373.


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Research and Educational Opportunities

Master of Science in Animals and Public Policy

The Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy is offering a one-year graduate degree dealing with animals and public policy. It is a full-time program that is expected to take nine months (but no more than twelve) to complete. Although relatively little time will be spent in lectures, a substantial amount of reading, writing and independent study will be required. The program consists of three core courses, four tutorial (or independent study) courses, and a thesis project.

Tutorial offerings are currently loosely grouped into four tracks - an Issues track, a Companion Animal/Shelter track, a Wild Animals/Environment track, and an Animals as Co-therapists track. The thesis may consist of hypothesis-driven research, the development of a detailed public policy case study, or a descriptive or analytical project and should have the potential to be accepted for publication in an academic journal.

Applicants for admission should have either a graduate degree or a bachelor's degree combined with a work history that indicates experience in the gathering and/or analysis of data or argument. Applicants should have completed at least two semesters in either animal or human biology. The tuition for the 1996/97 class is just over $18,000. Because it is a full-time program, US citizens are eligible to apply for student loans.

For more information, or to request an application package, please contact Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536 [508-839-7991; fax: 508-839-2953; e-mail: or]. Please be sure to include a regular mail address to which the materials should be sent.

Summer Apprenticeship Program

The Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute is taking applications for its 10-week Summer Apprenticeship Program, which runs from June 16 - August 22, 1997. Students from various academic backgrounds (e.g., anthropology, biology, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, etc.), both graduate and undergraduate, are encouraged to apply.

The research involves a group of five chimpanzees who use the signs of American Sign Language (ASL). Four of the five, Washoe, Moja, Tatu and Dar, were part of the cross-fostering research that began at the University of Nevada, Reno in 1966 with Drs. R. A. and B. T. Gardner. Each chimpanzee was raised in an enriched environment in which human family members used only ASL, much like the environment in which a deaf child grows up. The fifth chimpanzee, Loulis, was adopted by Washoe in 1978 and learned his signs from the chimpanzees as a focus of research done by the Co-directors of CHCI, Dr. Roger and Deborah Fouts.

The chimpanzees have been here at Central Washington University since 1980. In May, 1993 we moved into a large facility which offers the chimpanzees an outdoor area and a significant increase in living space. The current facility is very enriching for the chimpanzees, whose well-being is our first concern. The facility also allows us to offer many educational and research programs.

ASL is mandatory for Apprentices wishing to participate in sign language interactions with the chimpanzees. Those who do not have sign language will certainly be an active part of the program and will have many chances to observe the chimpanzees during observational research projects.

For applications or more information, contact CHCI, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573, Attn: Summer Apprentice Program [509-963-2215; e-mail:]. The application deadline is March 21, 1997. There is a $1500.00 program fee. A limited number of scholarships are available that will cover 80% of the program fee. Information on scholarship application procedures will be provided along with the program application forms.

AFAR Scholarships in the Biology of Aging

The American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR) and the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research announce the Glenn/AFAR Scholarships for research in the biology of aging. This program, for both M.D. and Ph.D. students, provides up to 25 grants for three-month projects related to the basic sciences and aging. The deadline for receipt of applications is February 26, 1997. For applications and more information, contact AFAR, 1414 Ave of the Americas, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10019 [212-752-2327; fax: 212-832-2298;].

Animal Behavior Summer Course in Kenya

A four-week comparative psychology class will be offered this summer through the Psychology Department at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The scope of the course will include three major themes: behavior, conservation, and ecology. Students will receive an introduction to the course during a four-day session at Zoo Atlanta. Departing Atlanta, students will travel to South Africa to visit the Johannesburg Zoo and a cheetah-breeding facil-ity. From South Africa we will continue to Kenya where trips to national parks, such as Masai Mara, Amboseli, Samburu, Lake Nakuru and Nairobi, and private farms will provide students with opportunities for observations and data collection. Lectures by field scientists will supplement observations taken in the field. Course dates: 17th June to 13th July (6 quarter credits). Course leader: Terry L. Maple, Ph.D. For information, contact: Tara Stoinski, Research Department, Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30315 [404-624-5826; e-mail:].

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Fellowships

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), a division of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in the Republic of Panama, offers fellowships for research based at its facilities. Disciplines include behavior, ecology, anthropology, paleontology, conservation biology, evolution, systematics, and physiology of tropical plants and animals. Predoctoral, postdoctoral, senior postdoctoral and 10-week fellowships are available. For information contact the Office of Fellowships & Grants, 955 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7000, Washington DC 20560 [e-mail: or]. The deadline is January 15.

Three-month fellowships (deadlines: Feb. 15, May 15, Aug. 15 and Nov. 15) and an annual 3-year postdoctoral fellowship (deadline: Jan. 15) are also available directly through STRI. For information write to: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Unit 0948, APO AA 34002-0948 [e-mail: or].

Short Courses in Uganda

The Makere University Biological Field Station is requesting proposals for short courses to be given in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This solicitation is part of an effort to increase the Station's visibility, enhance its funding base, and provide collaborative opportunities for Ugandan scientists and resource managers.

The Park offers a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from tropical mid-altitude forests and grasslands to papyrus swamps and crater lakes. It is "an ideal facility for field courses on subjects ranging from tropical and aquatic biology to protected-area management and conservation."

For more information, and to submit proposals, contact Dr. R. J. Lilieholm, Dept of Forest Resources, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5215 [801-797-2575; fax: 801-797-4040; e-mail:].

* * *

Address Changes

Thomas L. Ferrell, Pharmakon USA, P.O. Box 609, Waverly, PA 18471-0609.

Joseph D. Thulin, Director, Animal Care Unit, U. Wisconsin Med. School, Madison, WI 53792.

Kim Linsenbardt, 3820 Donnybrook, Tyler, TX 75701.

Sue Woods, 3331 W. 10th Ave Pl., Broomfield, CO 80020-6751.

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Olfactory Enrichment for Captive Chimpanzees: Response to Different Odors

S. Ostrower and L. Brent

Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research


In most mammal species the sense of smell is necessary to locate food, mates and predators. Carnivores have a highly developed olfactory system, and often scent-mark their home range or territory (Gorman, 1980; Henry, 1977; Mertl-Millhollen, et al., 1986). In diurnal primates, smell appears to be less important than other senses, such as vision (Fleagle, 1988). However, primates make extensive use of olfactory signals to determine sex, age, reproductive condition, social status, emotional state, individual identity, and species identity (Epple & Moulton, 1978). For example, tamarins can distinguish between predatory and non-predatory animals based on fecal scents (Caine & Weldon, 1989); lemur scent-marking can communicate agonism and social status (Gaspari & Crockett, 1984); and capuchins can distinguish the odor of urine from different New World species but not among Old World macaques (Ueno, 1994a).

In addition, primates can distinguish different food odors, and preferences for certain food items are greatly influenced by odor (Lang, 1970). Operant conditioning tests revealed that capuchins could discriminate between fishy and fruity odors, but that fruity odors were more salient (Ueno, 1994b). Several monkey species were found to prefer fruity smells but were not averse to indole or skunk odors (Masserman & Pechtel, 1956).

The importance of olfactory stimulation in the captive animal's environment is often overlooked. Although environmental enrichment has been incorporated into standard operating procedures in most zoos and laboratories, enrichment research has focused mainly on issues of housing design, social environment, and the effect of manipulable objects and foraging devices (e.g., Novak & Petto, 1991). Less attention has been given to the effects of sensory enrichment, particularly olfactory enrichment. Powell (1995) found that introducing deer hunting lure (a musky smell) to a group of captive lions as olfactory enrichment elicited behaviors rarely seen in captivity such as social play and chasing. Although scented items have been provided for primates (Bond, 1994), the only quantitative analysis of the use of olfactory enrichment in primates is a recent study by Struthers and Campbell (1996), which reported increased activity in chimpanzees when peppermint was added to a vaporizer in the room.

The purpose of this experiment was to study the response of captive chimpanzees to cloth scented with various odors in an effort to determine the effectiveness of the odors in eliciting interactions with the cloth, and whether different odors produced different effects.


Subjects: The subjects for this experiment were 21 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed in five groups and ranging in age from 4 to 41 years. Each group contained one adult male and two to five females and juveniles. The subjects were housed in indoor/outdoor enclosures containing benches and perches, and were given access to large outdoor playgrounds approximately one week per month. The chimpanzees received daily enrichment items such as frozen treats, snacks in pipe feeders, and browse in addition to their regular diet of monkey chow and fruits and vegetables.

Materials: Various odors were chosen, including those judged to be pleasant or unpleasant by several human subjects: vanilla and orange extracts, peach, garlic, and smoked oyster juice, limburger cheese, moth balls, and cigar smoke. The odors were put onto pieces of beige cloth fleece which measured 2 in x 18 in (5 cm x 46 cm). The liquid smells were sprayed onto the fleece and left to dry in the sun. The solid smells (moth balls and limburger cheese) were placed in air-tight containers with the fleece for several days to ensure odor absorption. A cigar was burned in a semi-airtight container with the fleece on the days of smoke-odor trials.

Fleeces were provided for 30 minutes to each group, four times at approximately one-week intervals. Four pieces of fleece were tied tightly to the chain link on the front wall of the outside portion of the enclosure for each trial. The first and fourth week consisted of baseline trials (baseline I & II) in which the fleece had no odors. The trials during the second week (Odor I) consisted of four of the eight odors chosen at random. During the third week of trials the remaining four smells were introduced (Odor II). However, five subjects received orange odor during both odor conditions and never received moth ball odor.

Data collection and analysis: One observer (blind to the odor conditions, and too far away to distinguish individual odors) recorded the fleece-directed behavior for each subject in the group for the entire 30-minute session. The frequency of individual behaviors was recorded, using pen and paper, for the fleece in each position, and the total duration of fleece-directed behaviors was also noted. The behaviors included sniff, touch/hold, bite/chew, pull, pick/groom, play, nest, beg, hit, and other (which included pushing the fleece through wire, brushing cage with fleece, and other idiosyncratic fleece-directed behaviors). On several occasions the subjects tore pieces of fleece from the cage, interactions which were recorded as "fragment-directed behaviors".

Frequencies for each individual were calculated for total fleece-directed interactions and for the most commonly occurring behaviors (sniff, touch/hold, bite/chew, pull, pick/groom, and play). The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with the Systat for Windows statistical program (SPSS, Chicago), and missing cases were deleted from analysis. The initial analysis included a comparison of all baseline conditions to all odor conditions for the frequency and duration of total interactions, which included behaviors directed at fragments. Subsequent analyses included a comparison of the most common behaviors to baseline, a contrast of the first baseline with the second baseline, and contrasts between the baseline conditions and each individual odor. Age of the subject was also used as a factor in the analysis. To test for possible confounding with the location of each fleece, a comparison of the frequency of fleece-directed behaviors for all baseline trials across each location was performed. We defined significance as p < 0.05.


Figure 1: The mean duration of the total fleece-directed behaviors for each 30 minute trial.

The subjects interacted with the fleece for 26.45% of the observation time in baseline trials and 17.75% for the odor conditions, although the duration of fleece-directed behavior did not vary significantly among any of the baseline and smell conditions (see Figure 1). The frequency of fleece-directed behavior in the baseline I session was significantly higher than that in the baseline II session (F = 18.60, p < 0.001).

Analysis by behavior category indicated that only the level of the behavior "sniff" was significantly higher in the odor condition than in the baseline condition (F = 27.03, p < 0.001) (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: The mean frequency of the most common fleece-directed behaviors for baseline and smell conditions per 30 minute trial. Significance at p < 0.05 is indicated by an asterisk.

Comparisons of individual odors indicated that the frequency of interactions with the fleece scented with peach (F = 19.12, p < 0.001), garlic (F = 20.81, p < 0.001) and oyster (F = 5.46, p < 0.034) was significantly lower than the baseline condition (see Figure 3).

Figure 3: The mean frequency of the total fleece-directed behaviors for baseline and the eight odors per 30 minute trial.

Age was not a significant factor in the time spent interacting with the fleece. The location of the fleece on the cage during baseline conditions was not related to the amount of fleece-directed behavior.


The application of odors to the fleece did not elicit more interest from the chimpanzees than when no odors were present. Olfactory stimulation may not be as salient to the chimpanzee as it is to other mammals and nonhuman primate species which rely more heavily on the sense of smell. Since the level of fleece-directed behavior was actually lower during the odor conditions, this may indicate that the chimpanzees had an aversion to the odors. However, the subjects did sniff the cloths more when odors were applied. As an enrichment option for chimpanzees, the provision of odor-impregnated items may increase olfactory behavior to species-typical levels, which are probably higher in the wild than in a relatively constant captive environment. However, the use of odors like the ones chosen for this study are unlikely to increase overall interest in the items.

The chimpanzees interacted most with the fleeces that smelled like smoke, moth balls, and orange extract and least with those that smelled like peach, garlic, and oyster. The interest in the orange smell may be related to a preference for fruity smells, as was found in monkeys (Masserman & Pechtel, 1956), but this would not explain the disinterest in the peach smell. Subjectively, the preferred smells were stronger than the non-preferred and a more likely explanation is that strong odors, whether pleasant or unpleasant to humans, are of interest to nonhuman primates (Masserman & Pechtel, 1956). This finding may be useful when planning environmental enrichment schemes using olfactory stimulation. Further studies on odor preference and the effectiveness of olfactory enrichment in a variety of nonhuman primates are needed.


Bond, M. (1994). Scratch and sniff for apes. The Shape of Enrichment, 3, 9.

Caine, N. & Weldon, P. (1989). Responses by red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) to fecal scents of predatory and non-predatory neotropical animals. Biotropica, 21, 186-189.

Epple, G. & Moulton, D. (1978). Structural organization and communicatory functions of olfaction in nonhuman primates. In C. R. Noback (Ed.), Sensory Systems of Primates (pp. 1-22). New York: Plenum Press.

Fleagle, J. (1988). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. San Diego: Academic Press.

Gaspari, M. & Crockett, C. (1984). The role of scent marking in Lemur catta agonistic behavior. Zoo Biology, 3, 23-132.

Gorman, M. (1980). Sweaty mongooses and other smelly carnivores. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, 45, 87-105.

Henry, J. (1977). The use of urine marking in the scavenging behavior of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Behaviour, 61, 82-105.

Lang, C. (1970). Organoleptic and other characteristics of diet which influence acceptance by nonhuman primates. In R.S. Harris (Ed.), Feeding and Nutrition of Nonhuman Primates (pp. 263-275). New York: Academic Press.

Masserman, J. & Pechtel, C. (1956). Normal and neurotic olfactory behavior in monkeys. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 124, 518-519.

Mertl-Millhollen, A., Goodman, P. & Klinghammer, E. (1986). Wolf scent marking with raised-leg urination. Zoo Biology, 5, 7-20.

Novak, M. & Petto, A. (1991). Perspectives on psychological well-being in captive primates: Through the looking glass. In M. A. Novak & A. J. Petto (Eds.), Through the Looking Glass (pp. 1-7). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Powell, D. (1995). Preliminary evaluation of environmental techniques for African lions (Panthera leo). Animal Welfare, 4, 361-370.

Struthers, E. J., & Campbell, J. (1996). Scent-specific behavioral response to olfactory enrichment in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Presented at the XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society and the XIXth Conference of the American Society of Primatology, Madison, WI.

Ueno, Y. (1994a). Olfactory discrimination of urine odors from five species by tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Primates, 35, 311-323.

Ueno, Y. (1994b). Olfactory discrimination of eight food flavors in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella): Comparison between fruity and fishy odors. Primates, 35, 301-310. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Second author's address: Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245 [210-674-1410; fax: 210-670-3330; e-mail:].

S. Ostrower was supported by a grant from the Founder's Council of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. We thank Humberto Barrera, Amy Davenport, Ann Kitchen, and Roel Villegas for their time and effort assisting in data collection. Animals were maintained in facilities approved by AAALAC, and in accordance with current USDA, DHHS, and NIH regulations and standards.


* * *

Studies of Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) Translocated to a Neotropical Rainforest Fragment

Juan Carlos Serio-Silva

Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana


In 1988-89 two groups of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) were moved from Soteapan and San Juan Evangelista municipalities in the state of Veracruz, where they were under pressure from hunters and wildlife traffickers, to Agaltepec Island (Rodríguez-Luna, et al, 1993). In October, 1988, one male and four female adults were released on the island. The male died shortly after release, and an infant was born soon after. A second group, also one male and four female adults, was released in April, 1989. The two groups merged, forming a troop of one adult male, eight adult females and the infant. This translocation offered the opportunity to study a troop of monkeys during their initial colonization of a closed and relatively small area.

Individuals were easily recognized, most by physical characteristics, but four females were marked with plastic collars of different colors. The infant was identified by its closeness to its mother. Eight other infants were born during the study, but were not included in the research.

Isla Agaltepec (18 deg 27' - 18 deg 28' N and 95 deg 02' - 95 deg 03' W; altitude 360-390 m) is the largest of four volcanic islands in Lake Catemaco, in the southeast of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. It covers 83,719 sq-m. The weather is warm and humid: total annual rainfall is 4500 mm, and mean annual temperature is 24 deg C (max. 36.5 deg C, min. deg 11 C) (Acosta, et al, 1987; Serio-Silva, 1992). There is a wet season, cooler, with more rain, from July to January. The dry season, February to June, is also warmer. The vegetation of Agaltepec is composed of patches of semi-evergreen tropical forest, gallery forest, secondary growth, and pastures (Rzedowski, 1978; Acosta et al., 1987). All trees with stem diameter 30 cm were numbered (N= 1605), identified to the species level (63 species, 32 families), and plotted on a topographic map of the island (López-Galindo, et al., 1995). Previous research (Rodríguez-Luna, et al.,1993) had indicated that the island could easily maintain a troop of howler monkeys.


Our procedure was based on the "Focal Animal Method" (Altmann, 1974), in which one individual (focal animal) is observed for one day and is not observed again until all the others have had a turn. Field work was done from November, 1989 to August, 1990, covering a full seasonal cycle (dry and wet seasons). Daily activities of the monkeys were observed over a 10-hr observation period (06:00-16:00h). In 10 months of work, 1,500 focal animal hours were accumulated.

I. Social Distance in Translocated Howler Monkeys


In the study of social structure and behavior, social distance between individuals is a fundamental variable. Aggression and some of its expressions (social dominance, defense of inter-individual distances) are considered among the main factors which govern social distance (Lorenz, 1966; Brown, 1975). In macaques (e.g., Imanishi, 1960), and baboons (e.g., Hall & DeVore, 1965), sex, age, social dominance, and familiarity are factors which may influence aggressive and affiliative behavior.

This research explores whether family nexus, dry and wet seasons, and sexual activity affect social distances in the Alouatta palliata translocated to Agaltepec Island.


We recorded the individual nearest to the focal animal every hour throughout the 10-hr daily sampling period. For a quicker and more precise method of data collection, this was done using an index of possible distances between individuals (0 = in contact, 1 = 0.1-5 m, 2 = 6-10 m, 3 = 11-15 m, 4 = 16-20 m, 5 > 20 m).


Social distance: In general, our monkeys preferred to remain within 10 m of the nearest individual. In nine of the ten animals, 45% of the observed distances were in the 1 range. The 2 and "in contact" distances were the second and third choices, respectively. Two females ("Pinta" and "Azul") were found in the 1 range 58-60% of the time, suggesting some hierarchy in the social organization of the troop. The juvenile "Cristobalito" was a special case. During the first months after his birth, Cristobalito spent most of his time in contact with or within the 1 range of his mother ("Pinta"). However, from February 1990, possibly because he was the offspring of a deceased male, he was severely harassed by the new dominant male and was finally expelled from the troop. Thereafter he lived on the periphery and was never less than 20 m from another individual.

Effect of seasonality on social distance: Inter-individual distances during the wet and dry season were not significantly different. Differences in weather or food dispersion may cause the small differences.

Social distance in females after giving birth: During the sampling period, eight births were recorded. After delivery, the mothers were "assisted" by other females in the troop. Inter-individual distance diminished during the course of pregnancy. Two days after "Chabela" gave birth, another female remained for more than seven hours within the distance 0. On the day "Santa Maria" gave birth, the distances 0 and 1 were observed for at least five hours. During focal observations on "Green Collar", distances increased after she lost her offspring two days post-partum: the distance 2 was found for 60% of the observations.

Male-female distance during the reproductive cycle: We did not find a significant difference between the distances the male was observed from females in reproductive stages (courtship and mating) and distances within the group in general. Both of these were almost 70% in the 0 and 1 ranges.


The inter-individual distances recorded in the troop suggest that this group's pattern is similar to that reported for howler monkeys in other places (Altmann, 1959; Carpenter, 1965). The expulsion of "Cristobalito" is similar to cases reported by Froehlich et al. (1981), who report migration of Alouatta palliata subadult males from their maternal groups as a result of aggression by dominant adult males. In A. fusca, Rudran (1979) reported that males who had been harassed were forced to the periphery of their troops where they temporarily lived alone, formed unstable associations with other males or females, formed stable bisexual groups, or entered other groups.

Our results suggest that changes in social distance are likely to be related to the birth of offspring. A new member in the troop is a significant attraction, and most individuals tend to approach and contact the mother, who is both examined and attended to, as is the newborn. Mendes (1989) suggested that for Alouatta fusca the most important association between troop members is the mother-infant relationship; however, little else is stated about other troop members' behavior. Interestingly, in the case of the female who had lost her infant, the subsequent lack of support from other females was reflected by significantly increased inter-individual distances.

Finally, we did not observe an association between males and females depending on the female's reproductive stage, such as Mendes (1989) had observed with A. fusca.

One of the major reasons for this study was the introduction of the troop into the area where they now live. Our data are affected by the fact that these animals are still adapting to the environment. In time they may begin to explore a wider area. Eventually we may obtain a better understanding of the area where they live, their social hierarchy, and the feeding necessities which motivate them.


* In agreement with several other reports, we observed a high cohesion between the troop members of Alouatta palliata, suggesting a strong organization in their activities.

* Alouatta palliata are in general found within no more than 10 m, and most commonly within 0.1 - 5 m, of each other.

* Significant differences were not found between inter-individual distances during the wet and dry seasons, but there are factors such as dispersion of feeding resources and associations in distinct social contexts which could have an influence on the troop's behavior.

* A reduction in social distance between females with young infants and the other members in the group, particularly females, was observed. The inter-individual distance increases with the increasing age of the infants.

II. Activity Patterns and Feeding Habits of Translocated Howler Monkeys


In this paper we describe the feeding habits and daily activity patterns of the translocated troop. In particular, the following questions were addressed: How do howlers divide their time among activities? Is there a seasonal variation in their activities? How much time do they allocate to feeding? Which and how many tree species are used as food resources? Which parts of trees are used the most? What other foods compose the diet of howlers?


Daily activities, time allocated, and seasonal variation: The troop of howlers had established recognizable foraging routes throughout the island. Daily activities had a tendency to depend on time of day. Resting was less frequent early in the day when animals moved to feed, and had a peak at midday. The howlers at Agaltepec tend to rest in the mid and high strata of trees, probably because it facilitates surveillance of the group and the large branches allow the whole group to rest together. Feeding is highest in the early morning, then decreases, and increases again during the afternoon. Locomotion is high in the early morning (06:00-07:00) when animals move along their foraging routes to feed, decreases through the morning, and increases in the afternoon (ca. 14:00).

Activity       Wet       Dry         Total -    
             season      season       (%)        
Resting     400.3 hr    579.5 hr    979.8 hr    
             (57.6%)     (71.1%)     (65.0%)    
Feeding     188.4 hr    158.0 hr    346.4 hr 
             (27.1%)     (19.4%)     (23.0%)   
Locomotion  105.6 hr    77.2 hr     182.8 hr    
             (15.3%)      (9.5%)     (12.0%)    

Table 1: Time dedicated by the howlers to each activity on Isla Agaltepec.

It appears that foraging is a much more important activity during the wet season than the dry season. One reason could be a relative scarcity of feeding resources, causing an increase in locomotion.

Feeding habits: Along their established foraging routes, howlers spent 61.0% of the time feeding in the highest part of trees. The middle was used 27.0% of the time, and the lower part 12.0% of the time. Howlers most frequently found their favorite plant parts, including mature fruits and young leaves, in the mid and high parts. Feeding time of howlers was distributed among 128 different individual trees (8% of trees on the island). Those trees belong to 28 species, 44.4% of the species on the island, with the Moraceae being most sought-after. The 10 species most used by howlers for feeding (73.42% of their foraging time) have a low relative density in the forest. There are 70 individual trees of the genus Ficus (Moraceae) on the island, and the monkeys used only 29 (41.4%) of them. Six Ficus species are a significant element in the diet of the howlers; they allocated 56.7% of foraging time to them. On the other hand, there are other fleshy-fruited trees on Agaltepec that are never touched by howlers.

During the 10 months of sampling, Agaltepec's monkeys showed a clear preference for fruits. Overall, they ate fruits for 181.7 hr (55.4%), leaves for 96.5 hr (29.4%), and other vegetation (e.g., petioles, flowers, stems, bark, meristems and vines) found on the trees only 49.6 hr (15.1%). The monkeys spent more time eating fruits in the wet season (60.1%) than in the dry season (49.3%). They ate more leaves during the dry season (35.3%) than the wet season (24.8%). Finally, during the dry season they ate a slightly higher percentage (15.3%) of other vegetation than during the wet season (15.0%).

Different species of preferred fruits ripen throughout the year. For this reason the consumption of fruit does not differ significantly between the seasons. The same applies to the "other vegetation," because various foods within this category are accessible for consumption throughout the year. The most significant difference was found for the consumption of leaves in each season. New leaves tend to appear during the dry season; as the leaves mature, they are less preferred. Finally, insects were accidentally eaten by howlers. Fly (Diptera) larvae in Ficus pertusa fruits were ingested along with the fruits, but no direct insect foraging was observed.


Time allocated by howlers on Agaltepec Island to the three basic activities (rest, feeding, locomotion), is similar to that observed by other authors in well preserved habitats (e.g., Milton, 1980). The troop had recently been released on the island and their behavior quickly adjusted to the new environment. They spent different amounts of time in each activity during the wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, when their preferred foods are more dispersed, the howlers have a greater motivation to search for those resources and so spend more time in locomotion. Howlers on Agaltepec tend to have a regular daily activity pattern, similar to those reported elsewhere (e.g., Altmann, 1959). Few studies have analysed stratum preferences by howlers (Mendel, 1976), but a strong preference for the highest stratum seems to be the norm.

The howlers used 28 of the 63 species present in the study area, more species than howlers in a larger near-by site (Estrada, 1984), but fewer than howlers in similar-sized areas in Costa Rica (Glander, 1975) and Panama (Milton, 1977). The marked preference for Ficus species is commonly exhibited by howlers in different sites. Another feature of Agaltepec common to other sites studied is the intensive use by howlers of relatively low-density species in their home range. Howlers on Agaltepec are markedly frugivorous. Howlers have been reported as mainly folivorous and eating fruits only sometimes (Altmann, 1974), strongly folivorous (Milton, 1980; Glander, 1981), and with a balance between frugivory and folivory (Estrada, 1984). Milton (1980) suggested that insect-parasitized fruits, when accidentally eaten by monkeys, may contribute to their nutritional intake. Howlers on Agaltepec rarely ate Diptera-parasitized Ficus pertusa fruits, so the nutritional contribution of insect protein to the diet of the howlers was minimal. Although some authors have observed howlers drinking water directly from small deposits (e.g., Glander, 1975), this activity was not observed on Agaltepec. Our howlers, as suggested by Milton (1980), obtained fluid from young leaves and mature fruits.


* Even though the howlers on Agaltepec Island were recently released on the island and confined to a relatively small and restricted area, their daily activity patterns, food choice, and use of low density tree species is similar to those exhibited by howlers in other sites.

* As in other sites, over half the time allocated to feeding was spent feeding on species of the genus Ficus.

* Howler monkeys on Agaltepec were markedly frugivorous all year round; leaves were their second food choice.

* Howlers on Agaltepec rarely ate insect-parasitized fruits, and did not use water sources other than juicy young leaves and mature fruits.


Acosta, P. R., Hernández, C. P., García-Orduña, F., Villa-Cañedo, J. T., & Canales, E. D. (1987). Estudio Pre-liminar de la Vegetación de la Isla de Agaltepec, MPIO de Catemaco, Veracruz. Xalapa: Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana.

Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior; Sampling methods. Behaviour 49, 227-267.

Altmann, S. A. (1959). Field observations on howling monkey society. Journal of Mammalogy, 40, 371- 330.

Brown, J. L. (1975). The Evolution of Behavior. New York, Norton.

Carpenter, C. R. (1965). The howlers of Barro Colorado Island. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate Behavior (pp. 250-291). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Estrada, A. (1984). Resource use by howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. International Journal of Primatology, 5, 105-131.

Froehlich, J. W., Thorington, R. W., Jr., & Otis, J. S. (1981). The demography of howlers (Alouatta palliata) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. International Journal of Primatology, 2, 207-236.

Glander, K. (1975). Habitat and resource utilization: An ecological view of social organization in mantled howler monkeys. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.

Glander, K. (1981). Feeding patterns in mantled howler monkeys. In A. C. Kamil & T. D. Sargent (Eds.), Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches. New York: Gartland STPM Press.

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Imanishi, K. (1960). Social organization of subhuman primates in their natural habitat. Current Anthropology, 1, 393-407.

López-Galindo, A., Rodríguez-Rivera, J. A., Ortíz-Baltazar, E., Acosta-Pérez, R., Hernández-Cortés, C. P., García-Orduña, F., Villa-Cañedo, J. T. (1995). Inventario Floristico de la Isla de Agaltepec, Catemaco, Veracruz, México. Xalapa: Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana.

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Mendel, F. C. (1976). Postural and locomotor behavior of Alouatta palliata on various substrates. Folia Primatologica, 26, 36-53.

Mendes, S. L. (1989). Uso do espaço, padroes de atividades diárias e organizaçao social de Alouatta fusca (Primates, Cebidae) em Caritinga - MG. Unpublished master's thesis, Universidade de Brasilia.

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Rudran, R. (1979). The demography and social mobility of a red howler (Alouatta seniculus) population in Venezuela. In J. F. Eisemberg (Ed.), Vertebrate Ecology in the Northern Neotropics (pp. 107-126). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

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Serio-Silva, J. C. (1992). Patrón diario de actividades y hábitos alimenticios de Alouatta palliata en semiliber-tad. Unpublished bachelor's thesis. Universidad Veracruzana, Córdoba.


Author's address: Parque de la Flora y Fauna Silvestre Tropical, Universidad Veracruzana, Apdo. Postal 57 Catemaco, cp 95870 Catemaco, Veracruz, México [e-mail:].

I would like to acknowledge Biol. Ernesto Rodríguez-Luna for collaboration during this study and for his support as Director of the Parque; and to thank Zoe Lyall, Laura Teresa Hernández Salazar, and T. Elva Mathiesen for help with the translation; Victor Rico-Gray for his final translation and suggestions for the structure of this research; and the Patronato Pro. Univ. Veracruzana A.C. for collaboration in the financing of this field work.


* * *

Hand-rearing Cebus apella

Exequiel M. Patiño(1), Claudia C. R. de Oliveira(2), Claudia C. D. Zetterman(3), Juan T. Borda(1), and Julio C. Ruiz(4)

Universidad Nacional del Nordeste(1), Universidad Estadual de Londrina (Brasil)(2), Universidad Federal de Santa Maria (Brasil)(3), & Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM)(4)


In many species of nonhuman primates the percentage of neonatal deaths in captivity is often high, but with appropriate methods of hand rearing and with careful management practices, mortality can be reduced (Loudon, 1985).

Deaths of infant nonhuman primates can be attributed to pathologies of behavior, for example, the mother's rejection of her young (Gensh, 1965; Sodaro, V., 1993); as well as to physiological factors, such as insufficient lactation (Bemment, 1989), the birth of triplets (Ziegler, 1981), or the peri- or postnatal death of the mother.

Various methods of hand-rearing non-human primates have been developed for both catarrhine (e.g. Sackett & Ruppenthal, 1992; Holktotte & Scharpf, 1992) and platyrrhine (e.g. Malaga, 1994; Patiño et al., 1995) monkeys. In all of the hand-rearing methods, two factors have been shown to be crucial: the temperature of the artificial mother (Lubach et al., 1992), since infant primates do not thermoregulate well (ILAR, 1980); and the choice of feeding formula (Stathatos & Kirkwood, 1988).

In the present study we compare an adaptation of known hand-rearing techniques with mother-rearing in Cebus apella.

Subjects, Materials, and Methods

The subjects were 15 infant Cebus apella born live at the Centro Argentino de Primates (CAPRIM). Of these, five were hand-reared. Four of these (two males and two females) were separated from their mothers during their first day of life. An additional male infant was included in the experimental group because he couldn't be raised by his mother, due to insufficient lactation. The remaining 10 infants were fed and raised naturally by their mothers in outdoor cages.

All of the infants were weighed at birth and once a month thereafter, in order to record their physical growth and development. The Student t-statistic was used to test for significant differences between the weights of the infants reared by the two different methods.

The hand-reared infants were housed in a nursery. Each was put into an individual box of clear glass (26 x 26 x 30 cm) with an artificial mother heated to 30-35deg. C by means of a 5 watt/12 volt lamp adapted for alternating current. The voltage was stepped down by transformer. The artificial mothers were made with fuzzy cloth to facilitate clinging by the infants. The cloth covers were changed and washed once a week.

During their first 16 weeks the infants were fed Milk [Formula] S26reg. fortified with iron (Wyeth Laboratory) (Table 1). This formula contains 80 kcal when used in a dilution of 15:1, that is, 2 g of powder dissolved in 60 ml of boiled water has 80 kcal and a ratio of 40/60 of casein to other proteins in the fluid.

Components          S-26 reg.    Nido reg. 
(100 g of powder)                           
Protein              12.0 g       26.4 g  
Fat                  28.0 g       26.0 g  
Carbohydrate *       56.0 g       38.6 g  
Water                 2.0 g        3.0 g  
Ash                   2.0 g        5.8 g   
(*) Lactose

Table 1: Composition of S26 reg. Iron Fortified Infant Formula (Wyeth) and Milk Nido reg. (Nestlé).

At first the milk was given to the infants a drop at a time, until the sucking reflex was observed. Once the sucking reflex was established, the milk was given from a plastic syringe with a rubber nipple (to prevent sores in the mouth) for as long as the infant wished to suck. After each feeding the micturition and defecation reflexes were stimulated by massaging the anus, vulva, and penis with a cotton ball dipped in liquid petrolatum.

Until 12 weeks of age the infants were fed every two hours between 6:00 and 22:00 h; after that they were fed three times a day at 6:00, 11:00, and 15:00 h. The amount of milk the infants consumed was recorded every day.

Starting at 12 weeks old, the infants had available "ad libitum" the usual food at CAPRIM, consisting of pellets (25% protein) moistened with water and fruit. Also at 12 weeks of age they were housed as a group in a wire cage (70 x 62 x 75 cm) containing small branches to permit them to develop arboreal behavior.

When they were 16 weeks old their milk formula was changed to "NIDO" Enterareg. (Nestlé) (Table 1) which contains 100 kcal when 18 g of powder are diluted in 120 ml of boiled water, and which provides a casein/protein ratio of 82/18.


All five (100%) of the hand-reared infants survived to age 20 weeks.

One of the females had difficulty digesting the formula (gastro-intestinal upsets). She was stabilized by stopping the milk feedings, rehydrating her with Roux-Ocefa Laboratory's Rehydration Salts (NaCl, 3.5 g; KCl, 1.5 g; NaHCO3, 2.5 g; anhydrous glucose, 20 g); and injecting IM 6 mg/kg Gentamicina (Sulfate of Gentamycin 20 mg, Schering-Plough Laboratories) every 12 hours for three days. For the next five days we diluted her milk formula to 7.5 g of powder in 50 ml of water. Subsequently she received the normal dilution.

We found no statistically significant differences in body weights between the two groups of infants (mother-reared and hand-reared) during the 20 weeks of the study (Table 2).

 Age    Mother-rearing Hand-rearing    t     df     p          
Birth    197 +/-20 g    210 +/-12 g  -1.14    7   0.2924                    
4 weeks  355 +/-35 g    317 +/-44 g   1.72   11   0.1135  
8 weeks  460 +/-110 g   472 +/-82 g  -0.19    9   0.8563                    
12 weeks 537 +/-97 g    597 +/-94 g  -1.06   10   0.3133                    
16 weeks 647 +/-110 g   678 +/-108 g  0.48   10   0.639  
20 weeks 772 +/-166 g   779 +/-131 g -0.08   13   0.9360                    

Table 2: Weight growth in Cebus apella: mother rearing vs. hand- rearing.

Both the hand-reared and mother-reared infants doubled their birth weights when they were between 4 and 8 weeks old.

After the digestive disturbance that occurred in one infant when milk was administered until the infants stopped sucking, the hand-reared infants' daily consumption of milk was restricted to the equivalent of 12% of their body weights.

When they were nine weeks old the hand-reared infants began ingesting solid foods.


The success of the hand-rearing method developed for Cebus apella at CAPRIM is confirmed by the 100% survival rate of the hand-reared infants, and by the fact that there was no significant difference in body weights during the first five months between the infants raised naturally by their mothers and those raised by hand.

Doubtless the most critical factors for success with the artificial rearing of these primates are maintaining the temperature between 30 and 35deg. C. in the "artificial mothers", because of the inability of the infants to thermoregulate well (ILAR, 1980); and the choice of milk formula, which, during the first weeks, should have the proper ratio (40/60) of casein to other proteins, in order to permit proper digestion (Oftedal, 1980).


The method of hand-rearing we describe here can be used by zoos, in wildlife parks, and by breeders to prevent the deaths of infant nonhuman primates which, for various reasons, cannot be raised by their mothers. It is also appropriate for use in human neonatal and infant research using infant Cebus apella as a biological model.


Bemment, N. (1989). The hand-rearing and comparative development of an Old World and New World monkey. In R. Colley (Ed.). The Hand-rearing of Wild Animals: Proceedings of 13th Symposium of the Association of British Wild Animal Keepers (pp. 55-60). Association of British Wild Animal Keepers. England.

Gensch, W. (1965). Birth and rearing of a black-faced spider monkey (Ateles paniscus chamek, Humboldt) at Dresden Zoo. The International Zoo Year Book, 5, 110.

Holtkotter, M. & Scharpf, G. (1992). Twenty years of experience with hand-reared lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) at Stuttgart's Wilhelma-Zoo. In: R. Kirchshofer, (Ed.), International Studbook of the Gorilla (pp. 218-233). Zoological Garden Frankfurt.

ILAR Committee on Nonhuman Primates (1980). Artificial rearing. In Laboratory Animal Management: Nonhuman Primates (pp. 37-38). Washington DC: Academy Press.

Lubach, G. R., Kittrell, E. M. W., & Coe., C. L (1992). Maternal influences on body temperature in the infant primate. Physiology and Behavior, 51, 987-994.

Malaga, C. A. (1994). Hand-rearing the owl monkey. In J. F. Baer, R. E. Weher, & I. Kakoma. (Eds.). Aotus: The Owl Monkey (pp. 165-176). San Diego: Academic Press.

Oftedal, O. T. (1980). Milk composition and formula selection for hand-rearing young mammals. In E. R. Maschgan, M. E. Allen & L. E. Fisher (Eds.). Dr. Scholl Nutrition Conference. A Conference on Nutrition of Captive Wild Animals (pp. 67-83). Chicago: Lincoln Park Zool. Gardens.

Patiño, E. M.; Ruiz, J. C. & Borda, J. T. (1995). Hand- rearing of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) in CAPRIM. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 34 [3], 1-3.

Sackett, G. P. & Ruppenthal, G. C. (1992). Growth of nursery-raised Macaca nemestrina infants: Effects of feeding schedules, sex and birth weight. American Journal of Primatology, 27, 189-204.

Stathatos, K. & Kirkwood, J. Milk replacers for hand-rearing mammals. In R. Colley (Ed.). The Hand-rearing of Wild Animals: Proceedings of the 13th Symposium of the Association of British Wild Animal Keepers (pp. 27-46).

Sodaro, V. (1993). Hand-rearing and reintroduction of a black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) at Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. International Zoo Yearbook, 32, 224-228.

Ziegler, T. E., Stein, F. J., Sis, R. F., Coleman, M. S., & Green, J. H. (1981). Supplemental feeding of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) triplets. Laboratory Animal Science, 31, 194-195.


First author's address: Grupo de Investigaciones Primatológicas (Primatology Research Group), Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE), Sargento Cabral 2139, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina.

This study was supported by the Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica, (SECYT), Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE). Proyecto P.I. 184.

We thank Rosario Fernández for her valuable collaboration in carrying out this research.


* * *

Information Requested or Available

Hematological Data

Frode Skarstein has been collecting data on white blood cell composition in primates. She is especially interested in sex differences. The species she has sufficient data on are listed below. If anyone has unpublished data or references to papers with sex-split total WBC and/or differential WBC counts for any other species than the ones below, please contact her at the Dept of Ecology/Zoology, University of Tromsoe, Norway []. She thinks she has most of the published data, so is mainly interested in unpublished data. The compiled data sheet and references will be available for interested people. Those helping out will, of course, be mentioned in the acknowledgements. Also, any references to the same sort of data from wild ranging populations would be interesting, even if the species is on the below list.

Species for which she has sufficient data: Alouatta villosa, Aotus trivirgatus, Callicebus moloch, Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, C. capucinus, Daubentonia madagascariensis, Erythrocebus patas, Galago crassicaudatus, G. garnettii, G. senegalensis, Gorilla gorilla, Loris tardigradus, Macaca arctoides, M. fascicularis, M. fuscata, M. mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. radiata, M. tonkeana, Microcebus murinus, Pan troglodytes, Papio hamadryas, Pongo pygmaeus, Presbytis entellus, Saguinus geoffroyi, S. labiatus, Saimiri sciureus.

ILAR Guide (Mac Version)

Stephen Dubin announced on Comp-Med that he has prepared, for his Lab Animal Science Class, a hypertext stand-alone Macintosh application that contains the text of the "new improved" ILAR Guide. He received permission to copy the text for noncommercial educational purposes at no cost. If anyone wants a copy for noncommercial educational purposes, send him a Mac-formatted, virus-checked diskette and a self-addressed stamped disk mailer. This program requires System 7.1 or higher. He is also offering the 1990 text of "Essentials" in similar format if you would like it. Contact Stephen at Biomedical Engineering & Science Inst., Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA 19104 [215-895-2219; fax: 215-895-4983; e-mail:].

P-T Directory Rearranged

Larry Jacobson and Paul DuBois have rearranged the way the Web-accessible Primate-Talk directory entries are presented. "You can bounce around in the list of entries more easily, and you should be able to search by types of information other than just name. Give it a try and see if you can `break' it:"

Neuroscience Web Search

Fred Lenherr ( has created a "new Web Search Engine devoted entirely to neuroscience. Unlike the large search sites, everything here is relevant by pre-selection. This is a full-text database and contains more than 55,000 web pages. The location is:"

NSF Enhancing Electronic Information Dissemination

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is currently enhancing its electronic information dissemination infrastructure, including the Science and Technology Information System (STIS). The Foundation's goal in this effort is to expand and improve electronic dissemination of NSF information and publications. The new system will be completely web-based and will include several new features which will dramatically improve user access to NSF information and publications on line:
* NSF Publications on the Web: all NSF documents will be accessible from one location.
* New Home Page/New Search Capability: by the end of the year NSF will have a re-designed home page and a new search capability which will make the NSF website much easier to navigate. Users will be able to conduct full-text searches across the entire NSF site.
* User Profile System: Through this free service, which is expected to be available early next year, users will select the types of NSF information they want to see (e.g., program announcements in a particular field, vacancy announcements, the NSF Bulletin, etc.). Subscribers to this system will come to the NSF site to view their items of interest or, if they prefer, the system will send them the relevant titles and Web locations via e-mail.

NSF plans to increase its reliance on electronic means to disseminate information and publications. In doing so, however, we want to be sure that everyone who needs or wants NSF information or publications can obtain them in a timely way. From pilot projects we expect to learn how best to reach the users of our information electronically and ensure a smooth transition from print-and-mail distribution to electronic dissemination.

NSF is very interested in hearing from users of NSF information and publications. If you have a comment, question, or suggestion about our plans for electronic dissemination, please contact Joe Burt at the National Science Foundation [].

Natural History and Wildlife in the U.K. News

Victoria Simpson, a researcher for "The Natural History Programme" and for Euan McIlwraith's "Wildlife News", which broadcast in the U.K., is preparing for their 1997 series of specials, which will include several on primate issues. Both programs are weekly, running all year round, covering a variety of topics from environmental issues to breaking research in animal behavior. Stories are covered on location and by studios/telephone links.

She is interested in hearing from scientists who are working on interesting projects, however longstanding, with a view to including the latest research into these programs. In the past, programs have covered primate behavior, feeding and dispersal, sex/mating systems, and, most recently, primate feeding, looking at changes in scratching patterns on fossil teeth with the evolution of bipedalism. "These are all topics on which we would like to keep up-to-date."

If you're about to embark on a new research project, or are involved in an interesting line of study, contact her at The Natural History Programme, BBC Bristol, England BS8 2LR [00 44 (117) 9746632; fax: 00 44 (117) 923 8174; e-mail:].

NHPs in the Movies

Ray Hamel, of the Wisconsin RPRC Library, has posted an abstracted list of major motion pictures featuring non-human primates on the Primate Information Network:

Wildlife Ecology Digest

Wildlife Ecology Digest is a weekly e-mail digest for research, conversation, job opportunities, issues, thoughts, and general postings concerning wildlife ecology. To receive this digest, send e-mail to with the subject: "Subscribe to WED," followed by your own e-mail address. Their website at has more information on this service as well as over 200 links to other wildlife and ecological websites.

1996-1998 International Directory of Primatology

The third edition of the International Directory of Primatology (400 pp., spiral bound) is now available. It is intended to enhance communications among organizations and individuals involved in primate research, conservation and education. It can be used by primatologists as a desktop working tool or by educators, librarians, students and the general public as a guide to primate programs and information resources.

The Directory is divided into five organizational sections and four indexes. The sections cover (1) geographically arranged entries for major primate centers, laboratories, educational programs, foundations, conservation agencies and sanctuaries, (2) field studies, (3) groups involved with nonhuman primate population management, (4) professional primate societies, including the membership roster of the International Primatological Society, and (5) major information resources in the field. There are organizational, species, subject and name indexes.

The price is $25 each in the US or, from other countries, $35 (US) each via book rate, $40 (US) for air mail to Canada and Mexico, or $50 (US) for air mail outside of North America. Prices include postage and handling. Foreign orders should enclose payment with order. Send orders to: Larry Jacobsen, IDP Coordinator, Wisconsin RPRC Library, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; fax: 608-265-4729; e-mail:]. Make checks payable to: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. Credit card orders cannot be accepted.

More Interesting Web Sites

Measuring Behavior `96 Workshop Proceedings:

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR):

American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners:

Univ. of California Center for Animal Alternatives:

University of Iowa Animal Care Unit:

Great Ape Project Internat. "Frequently Asked Questions":

Zoological E-Mail Directory:

Federal guidelines for xenotransplantation:

Archived files of the Applied-ethology network:

Emerging Infectious Diseases:

Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever information:

People Against Chimpanzee Experiments:

* * *

Are There Just "Races" (Subspecies) of Cynomolgus Monkeys or Should the Name of Macaca irus Be Revived?

Larry Butterfield, D.V.M.

Schering-Plough Research Institute

We recently acquired a group of Chinese-bred cynomolgus (M. fasicularis) monkeys for a drug safety study. Blood was drawn for week-3 and week-1 baselines. Surprisingly, results for red blood cell count (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were found to be outside the ranges which our laboratory had established for cynomolgus monkeys from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Mauritius.

     China-bred     U.S.-bred     Rhesus(from 
         n=18       (Indonesian    Huser, 1970)
                    blood lines)
 Age    4 years        3 years          --          
 Sex  male  female  male   female       --          
 RBC   4.8   4.9    6.35    6.19    5.6 +/- .6     
 MCV   72    77     58.3    58.6    76  +/- 6.5     

Table 1: Mean values.

We contacted other laboratories in Germany and the United States which have a long history of using cynomolgus monkeys from China. Their values for MCV and RBC resemble those which we found in our Chinese cynomolgus monkeys.

It is interesting to note that the physical appearance of the cynomolgus monkey from China seems to vary somewhat from their Indonesian and Philippine cousins. They appear to have more prognathic, less pigmented facial features and a lighter-colored pelage, resembling somewhat the rhesus monkey.

I suspect that cynomolgus monkeys originating from areas contiguous with the continent of Asia (China, Burma, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and the Malaysian peninsula) may have significant genetic differences from those originating in the island archipelagoes of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia and the transplanted (in the 16th century, probably from Indonesia) monkeys found in Mauritius. Further, it appears that this genetic difference is reflected in the erythrocyte portion of their hemograms.

I believe the geographic distribution of the rhesus macaque is presently limited by its susceptibility to symptomatic malaria, but at some time in the distant past the geographic distribution of the two species overlapped one another and "continental" cynomolgus may have a rhesus hemogram! The Assamese macaque (M. assamensis), rather than the rhesus, may be involved here, but I have no knowledge of the blood values for this species. What other differences the "races" of cynomolgus monkeys have, particularly in the area of pharmacokinetics, will be central to our understanding of this issue. If my suspicions are proven to be factual, it would not be wise to mix Chinese animals, or those of other "continental" origin, with those originating from the island archipelagoes in any study. Further, the pharmacokinetic data generated from "continental" animals may not be consistent with that from a second study which uses animals from an island source.

The preceding assumptions and theories I am using to explain a single observation may seem to be quite a stretch, but an alternative explanation has not yet been forthcoming. I believe the subject is of significant importance to drug safety and metabolism studies, and I find no reference to it in the current literature.

I would like to hear from readers about whether they know of pharmacokinetic or other differences between "continental" and island cynomolgus monkeys which may have implications for interpreting data from drug safety and other studies.


Huser, H.-J. (1970) Atlas of Comparative Primate Hematology, New York: Academic Press.


Author's address: Schering-Plough Res. Inst., P.O. Box 32, Rte 94 South, Lafayette, NJ 07848-0032.


* * *

Baboon Nomenclature

Clifford J. Jolly

New York University

On Primate-Talk, someone recently posted: "A colleague of mine is looking for the current correct way to designate baboons (Papio cynocephalus and Papio anubis) in the scientific literature. Years ago, information was given that the correct designation was `Papio cynocephalus, of cynocephalus and anubis subtypes' (depend-ing on how they looked), because the cynos and anubis subspecies interbreed. Some scientific journal reviewers, however, have questioned this phrasing. Does someone know what the correct names for the different species of baboons are these days, and whether possible interbreeding needs to be considered or mentioned?" The following answer came from Cliff Jolly:

This apparently simple query opens many worm-cans, not least the definition of "species". The short answer is that there is no "right" answer, but there are at least three current usages:

* A usage that is gaining ground (e.g. at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, the world's largest scientific baboonery) is to call all living baboons (excluding geladas and mandrills, of course) subspecies of one species (Jolly, 1993; Williams-Blangero et al., 1990). This follows the Biological Species Concept of Mayr, which accords greatest weight to interpopulational gene-flow in the wild. This would make "olives" and "yellows" Papio hamadryas anubis, and Papio hamadryas cynocephalus, respectively.

* The old (but still respectable) usage that recognizes five full species: P. hamadryas, P. papio, P, cynocephalus, P. anubis, and P. ursinus (vernacular names: hamadryas, Guinea, yellow, olive, and chacma baboons, respectively; Hill, 1970). This also accords (more or less) with the currently fashionable "phylogenetic species concept", which emphasizes whether you can consistently tell members of the populations apart, not whether they interbreed. The trouble is that there are at least two others that you can easily and consist>

Transfer interrupted!

no one recently has raised them to full species status.

* The usage beloved of socio-ecologists (e.g., Smuts et al., 1986), which divides Papio into two species: P. hamadryas (for the hamadryas baboon) and P. cynocephalus for the rest (which are often called subspecies). The two species are sometimes vernacularized as "desert baboons" and "savanna baboons", respectively. According to this, yellows are P. cynocephalus cynocephalus, olives are P. c. anubis. This system is widely used, but is my least favorite, because: (a) it doesn't fit any accepted definition of "species" very well; (b) P. cynocephalus as thus defined is almost certainly paraphyletic (i.e., hamadryas are probably related to olives more closely than olives are to chacmas, for example) (c) many "savanna" baboons don't live in "savannas".

"Papio cynocephalus, of cynocephalus and anubis subtypes" sounds scientific, perhaps, but it's not "Scientific Nomenclature" in any neo-Linnaean sense. It would be better simply to say: "yellow and olive baboons, Papio hamadryas (s.l)", or, if you prefer, "yellow and olive baboons, Papio cynocephalus (s.l.)". Adding "s.l." just shows that you are using these terms in their broad, inclusive sense. Alternatively, you could say "yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and olive baboons (P. anubis)." Guinea, hamadryas, and chacma baboons can be named in analogous ways.

All this is irritating, I'm sure, to biomedical researchers because the choice between these three usages depends entirely upon the definition of "a species," which tends not to be a major concern on their part! It is important, however, to indicate what "kind" of baboon is used in an experiment, and for this the vernacular terms are the least ambiguous. It is also a good idea to indicate the geographical origin of the stock from which the animals came, if it is known. Finally, hybrid ancestry is always a possibility for animals bred in captivity, and even for some wild-caught individuals.


Hill, W. C. O. (1970). The Primates. VIII: Cynopithecinae. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Jolly, C. J. (1993). Species, subspecies, and baboon systematics. In W. H. Kimbel & L. B. Martin (Eds.). Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution (pp. 67-107). New York: Plenum.

Smuts, B. B., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., & Strusaker, T. T. (Eds.) (1986). Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Williams-Blangero, S., Vanderberg, J. L., Blangero, J., Konigsberg, L., & Dyke, B. (1990). Genetic differentiation between baboon subspecies: Relevance for biomedical research. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 67-81.


Author's address: Dept of Anthropology, New York University, Washington Square, New York, NY 10003 [e-mail:].


* * *

Grants Available

Extramural Research Facilities Construction Projects

The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) is issuing a Request for Applications (RFA) for support of construction and renovation of facilities for biomedical and behavioral research and research training. It is anticipated that 15 new awards at different levels will be made.

For more information contact Dr. Charles L. Coulter, Research Facilities Improvement Program, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6142, MSC 7965, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0766; fax: 301-480-3770; e-mail:].

Novel Pharmacotherapies for Cocaine Dependence

The National Institute on Drug Abuse encourages applications combining medicinal chemistry and preclinical pharmacology to design, synthesize and test compounds leading to the identification of candidate drugs for advanced preclinical and clinical evaluation as potential pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. Pharmacological testing may be conducted using in vitro and/or nonhuman in vivo procedures.

For more information, contact Jamie Biswas, Ph.D., Medications Development Div., NIDA, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm 11A-55, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-5280; e-mail:].

Predoctoral Training Program in the Neurosciences

The National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) are jointly sponsoring a new neuroscience predoctoral research training program. The aim of the program is to encourage and support broad training in the neurosciences by offering institutions a single comprehensive training grant. Support through the program is focused on the early years of training before full-time thesis research is started. Trainees are expected to be participants in a formal predoctoral curriculum offering broad and fundamental training in the neurosciences.

As part of the program all trainees will be encouraged to visit NIH once during their appointment for a two-day special orientation and training session sponsored by the participating NIH Institutes. At these sessions each NIH Institute will have an opportunity to describe its mission and research interests, a series of research lectures will be given by leading investigators in the NIH Institutes, and an introduction to the NIH grant system will be presented. It is expected that the new training programs will act as a source of trainees and activities that will enhance basic and disease-related neuroscience research that is relevant to the participating NIH Institutes.

Only domestic, non-profit, private or public institutions engaged in health-related education or research are eligible to apply. For more information, contact Andrew A. Monjan, Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Rm 3C-307, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9350; fax: 301-496-1494; e-mail:]; Danuta Krotoski, National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, NICHHD, Bldg 61E, Rm 2A-03, MSC 7510, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 [301-402-2242; fax: 301-402-0832; e-mail:]; Daniel A. Sklare, Div. of Human Communication, NIDOCD, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 400-C, MSC 7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [301-496-1804; fax: 301-402-6251; e-mail:]; James A. Lipton, Div. of Extramural Research, NIDR, 45 Center Dr., Rm 4AN-18J, MSC 6402, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2618; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail:]; Alison Cole, Div. of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry, NIGMS, 45 Center Dr., Rm 2As-49K, MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-1826; fax: 301-480-2802; e-mail:]; Henry Khachaturian, Div. of Neuroscience and Behavioral Science, NIMH, 5600 Fishers Ln., Rm 11-103, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-8033; fax: 301-443-1731; e-mail:]; Robert W. Baughman, Div. of Fundamental Neurosciences and Developmental Disorders, NINDS, 7550 Wisconsin Ave, Rm 916, Bethesda, MD 20892-9170 [301-496-5745; fax: (301-402-1501; e-mail:]; or Mary D. Leveck, Scientific Program Administrator, NINR, Bldg 45, Rm 3AN-12, MSC 6300, Bethesda, MD 20892-6300 [301-594-5963; fax: 301-480-8260; e-mail:]. The letter of intent receipt date is March 1 and the application receipt date is May 10.

NSF Initiative on Learning and Intelligent Systems

A new NSF initiative, Learning and Intelligent Systems (LIS), is seeking proposals that build on approaches drawn from a wide variety of currently separate but related scientific disciplines and technological advances. LIS is interested in * high-risk multi-year research by interdisciplinary teams designed to develop fundamental knowledge that will integrate concepts related to LIS; * experimental prototype systems and technology testbeds that embody theory, test its consequences, and point out factors relating to its eventual efficient application; * projects that contribute to the creative integration of research in education with research in information technology, and that use education at any level as an application domain; * one or more (real or virtual) Centers for Collaborative Research on Learning Technologies (CRLT) to undertake larger collaborative projects, act as a technology transfer mechanism, train new researchers, and serve as an evaluation center for learning technology research.

Pre-proposals are required and will be reviewed by internal and external multidisciplinary panels. Target date for preliminary proposals is February 7, 1997. Award recommendations will be made in August and September, 1997. The initiative is expected to continue through FY 1998. The LIS solicitation (NSF 97-18) and additional information will be found in NSF's Web server, in or send a message to

Immunobiological Consequences of Aging

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Institute on Aging (NIA), and the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) invite applications for basic immunological research that will clarify the effects of senescence on immune function.

It has been well established that overall immune function declines with advancing age. However, because the immune system is highly complex, it is essential to understand the multifaceted nature of the age-related loss of immune function and to identify the primary changes in immune mechanisms that lead to the decline in immune competence. Although some important changes that occur as the immune system ages have been identified, much more work will be required to address adequately the gaps in knowledge. Therefore, the purpose of this Program Announcement (PA) is to stimulate research that will provide fundamental, conceptual insight into the rational design of prophylactic and therapeutic measures for improving the immunobiological health of aging humans. The status of existing knowledge and fruitful directions for research in the immunobiology of aging are summarized in the Report of the Task Force on Immunology and Aging, co-sponsored by NIA and NIAID. HIV infection and sequelae are not within the scope of this PA. It is the intent of this PA to promote basic and preclinical research.

Direct inquiries and requests for the PA to: Helen Quill, Div. of Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 4A22, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-7551; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail:]; Dr. Anna M. McCormick, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301- 496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail:]; or Dennis F. Mangan, Div. of Extramural Research, NIDR, Bldg 45, Rm 4AN-32F, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2421; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail:].

NIDCD Small Grant Program

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) announces their Small Grant (R03) Program for support of pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant (R01) or a First Independent Research Support and Transition (FIRST) (R29) award application. The research must be focused on one or more of the areas within the biomedical and behavioral scientific mission of the NIDCD: hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, or language.

The Small Grant Program is designed to support basic and clinical research of scientists who are in the early stages of pursuing an independent research career. Applicants may request up to $35,000 (direct costs) per year through the R03 mechanism. The grant may not exceed three years and is not renewable. The small grant funds may not be used to supplement projects currently supported by Federal or non-Federal funds, or to support thesis or dissertation research. Investigators who have questions about eligibility should contact one of the program officials listed below.

Application receipt dates are April 22, 1997, and August 22, 1997.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to: Hearing: Dr. Chyren Hunter, [301-402-3461; e-mail:]; Balance/Vestibular: Dr. Daniel Sklare [301-496-1804; e-mail: Daniel_Sklare@]; Taste: Dr. Jack Pearl [301-402-3464; e-mail: Jack_Pearl@]; Smell: Dr. Rochelle Small, [301-402-3464; e-mail: Rochelle_Small@]; Voice/Speech: Dr. Beth Ansel [301-402-3461; e-mail: Beth_Ansel@]; Language: Dr. Judith Cooper [301-496-5061; e-mail: Judith_Cooper@]. The address and FAX number for all of these persons are: Div. of Human Communication, NIDCD, Executive Plaza South, Rm 400-C, 6120 Executive Boulevard MSC-7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [fax: 301-402-6251].

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Announcements from Publications

The Primate Network

The Primate Network ( is searching for individuals who would like to publish small articles for our original E-Zine (e-mail magazine). We are interested in all aspects of primate care, well-being, etc. One thing that has been lacking on the web is a place for "primate-folks" to discuss their work; a place for discussion on all facets of primates; a place for publication of your work. We are currently accepting editorials as well as "interest" pieces.

We encourage everyone to submit something; however we do have some guidelines:
* Please remember that this E-Zine is for primates. Any articles regarding the care, habitat, well-being, diet, behavior, conservation, research into or study of primates are germane. Any other subject, however, is not. In other words, please keep on the topic.
* No articles that include "flames" of any kind will be accepted.
* All factual articles must supply accurate references in the article. Since one of the main goals of these pages is accuracy, copies of references may be requested by the web master. Please keep this in mind when submitting.
* Editorials, being personal opinion, do not require references unless quoted within the text. However, a current e-mail address for rebuttal is suggested.
* All submissions are the sole property of this web page. No reprints of any kind are allowed without prior permission of both the web master and the author.

Please contact with any questions. Submission guidelines are under development. If you have suggestions, we would love to hear them!

We hope that this `Zine will become a sounding board of sorts, as well as a place that we can all share thoughts, opinions, research, and our commitment to primates.

Electronic Magazine Seeking Authors

The behavior site "Ark Animals" will be changing to E-Zine format and is seeking authors to participate in the monthly forum. The format change is scheduled for January, 1997. No unsolicited material will be accepted, so query first. Interested parties may e-mail Work may be new, previously published, or extracts from a work in press. The site will be extensively marketed and all contributing authors published on the site will receive an author's page for a short bio, announcements of seminars, conferences, and product information. Links to established sites may be provided.

Material must be relevent to animal behavior with a focus on conservation or habitat introduction strategies, behavior modification, or other topics that tie in with the current theme of the site (captive behavior). Readership includes animal professionals and general hobbyists. is the current address.

Evolution of Communication

A new journal, entitled Evolution of Communication (EOC), is to be published by John Benjamins Publishers, Amsterdam, under the general editorship of Sherman Wilcox, Department of Linguistics, University of New Mexico. It will be published twice in 1997 (to become quarterly) and will contain articles, review articles, book reviews, short notes, and discussions.

Evolution of Communication is a broadly-conceived journal covering not only the origins of human language but also the evolutionary continuum of communication in general. The journal therefore accommodates studies on various species as well as comparative, theoretical, and experimental studies. This multidisciplinary approach will integrate research from a variety of disciplines, such as: linguistics, evolutionary biology, artificial life, primatology, ethology, neuroscience, cognitive science, biological and developmental psychology, social and biological anthropology, philosophy, and palaeontology. See our home page at

Manuscripts should be submitted in four copies to Sherman Wilcox, Department of Linguistics, University of New Mexico, 87131 [505-277-6353; fax: 505-277-6355; e-mail:]. Scholars wishing to write book reviews should contact David Armstrong (EOC Book Review Editor), Gallaudet University, Office of Budget & Auditing, 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington DC 20002. For subscription information, contact John Benjamins Publishing Company, P.O. Box 75577, 1070 AN Amsterdam, The Netherlands [+31.20.6762325; fax: +31.20.6739773; e-mail:].

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Awards Granted

West African Wildlife Head Honored by ASP

Alexander Peal, head of the Division of Wildlife and National Parks in Liberia, West Africa, has been named as the recipient of the Senior Biology and Conservation Award of the American Society of Primatologists. This award is one of ASP's highest honors and recognizes an individual's contributions over many years to promote primate conservation through direct action or the advancement of biological knowledge or well-being of primates.

The ASP points to Mr. Peal's leadership since 1977 in wildlife management and conservation, international collaboration with conservation nongovernmental organizationss and field researchers, and his role in the establishment of the 505 sq mi Sapo National Park, an area of wilderness rainforest which is home to chimpanzees and numerous African primate species.

In conferring the award, ASP officers commended Peal for persevering through difficult times in war-torn Liberia and single-handedly building both the infrastructure and ethic for the preservation of Liberian wildlife. Nominators pointed out Peal as "the individual in West Africa above whom no one could be placed with respect to the overall advancement of primate conservation."

CAAT Recognition Awards

The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT)'s Recognition Award was presented at the Second World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, in Utrecht in October 1996, to Dr. Michael F. W. Festing of the Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit in Leicester, UK. Dr. Festing was recognized by CAAT for his work analyzing the design of animal experiments and developing statistical techniques which reduce laboratory animal use. For many years, Dr. Festing has consistently called attention to the need to use high quality, disease-free and genetically defined laboratory animals, and good experimental design with correct statistical analysis in order to improve the quality of scientific research, use of scientific resources, and to minimize animal use.

Previous winners of CAAT Recognition Awards have included Andrew Rowan, director of the Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy; Gerhard Zbinden, M.D. (now deceased), the former director of the Swiss Institute for Toxicology; Per Seglen, Ph.D., professor, Institute for Cancer Research in Oslo, Norway; and Avon Products, Inc., The Procter & Gamble Company, and Zeneca for contributions to the development of in vitro toxicology and the search for alternatives.

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Award Nominations

ASP Student Competition

Papers and posters presented by graduate or undergraduate students at the 1997 ASP meeting in San Diego will be eligible for prizes, including a top prize of $100. The deadline for submitting papers is May 23. For more information, including new guidelines for submission, write to Gabriele R. Lubach, Chair, ASP Education Committee, WRPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715 [e-mail:].

ASP Conservation Awards and Grants

Nominations for Conservation Awards and Grants are now being sought by the American Society of Primatologists (ASP). These awards and grants, funded from the ASP Conservation Fund, are a mechanism to recognize deserving colleagues and students, including those from primate habitat countries -- countries with native primate fauna -- for whom the prestige of an ASP award or grant can be a valuable aid to the recipient's conservation efforts. An award nomination is basically a letter of recommendation. A grant proposal should consist of a concise narrative (a few pages) plus a budget page.

The Subscription Award provides the American Journal of Primatology to worthy individuals in habitat countries who otherwise would have little access to the scientific literature on nonhuman primates. The Society expects to support several such continuing awards. Preference is given to those who will make the journal available in a central place for colleagues to use, and to those who can briefly justify reapplication every two years to build up their library of the journal. A nominating letter should describe the nominee's credentials and his/her primate-related activities, and explain why the nominee deserves to receive high priority.

The Conservation Award ($500) provides recognition and financial support for students and young investigators from habitat countries who demonstrate potential for making significant and continuing contributions to primate conservation. Those eligible include students, researchers, and educators from primate habitat countries for whom no more than five years have elapsed since receipt of their terminal degree. Nominators should provide the nominee's name, title and full mailing address, and a statement about the nominee's qualifications for the award, focusing on past and potential contributions to primate conservation. A copy of the nominee's vita is encouraged. Supporting letters from other individuals acquainted with the work of the nominee may be submitted. Past awards have been presented by U.S. Ambassadors or other senior officials, thereby obtaining favorable publicity for the award, its recipient, and primate conservation in the recipient's country.

Senior Biology and Conservation Award ($500 Honorarium) is one of ASP's highest honors. It is given to recognize an individual without an advanced degree who has made substantial contributions over many years to promote primate conservation either through direct action or via enhancement of biological knowledge or well-being of primates. Such contributions could arise from work done in field, laboratory or zoo settings. Nominees might work directly with primates or be engaged in activities supporting those who work with primates. Examples include park rangers, census takers, animal caretakers, research technicians, assistants or facilitators, and individuals involved in private enterprise benefitting primate conservation. Nominating letters should detail the nominee's qualifications, contributions to primate conservation, period of service, and full mailing address. A copy of the nominee's vita is encouraged. Supporting letters from other individuals acquainted with the work of the nominee may be submitted. This award typically is presented at public ceremonies by senior officials.

Conservation Small Grants (up to $1,500 but usually $500) are given for conservation research or other projects, including conservation education. ASP and International Primate Society members working in habitat countries are especially urged to apply or to help someone from a habitat country submit a meaningful project, which can be a portion of a larger effort. Grant proposals must be typed in English, should not exceed 2000 words, and should include a brief budget page. Recipients of grants must agree that a brief progress report, in a form suitable for publication in the ASP Bulletin, will be made within 12 months of the award.

Evaluation and Application Procedure: With the exception of requests for emergency support, which can be considered at any time for immediate action, the Conservation Committee will make its recommendations for awards and grants to the ASP Executive Committee at its annual meeting. Successful nominees and applicants will be informed following the meeting and their names published in the ASP Bulletin. The 1997 deadline for submission of nominations and grant proposals is May 23. They should be sent to Randall C. Kyes, Chair, ASP Conservation Committee, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195.

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Editors' Notes

Gramma Editor!

We are pleased beyond measure to announce that our son, Evan, and his wife, Allyson, have a son, Aidan Valentine Schrier, born October 8, 1996.

New Improved Enrichment Index

David Seelig, a student at Yale University, wrote to us recently to say that our listing (on the World Wide Web) of articles on environmental enrichment and psychological well-being in recent LPN issues was very useful, but would be more useful if it were arranged by categories, and if it included all the issues that are now available on the Web (volumes 26 through 35).

We were busy adoring our grandson at that time, so we suggested that David might want to take on the project.

He did so, and has done an excellent job! Check it out at

The list is indexed by subject (e.g., food enrichment), and each title has a "hot spot" that leads directly to the article. David has promised to continue to update the list whenever we manage to add more back issues to the Web (which we expect to do from time to time). David and the Editors hope that the primatology community will find this resource very useful.


We would like to thank David Taub, of Laboratory Animal Breeders & Services, for his generous donation, which will help us send the LPN to schools, laboratories, and libraries that cannot afford to send U.S. dollars for postage charges.

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Meeting Announcements

A Symposium on Human Dimensions of Natural Resource Management in the Americas will be held 5 February to 1 March, 1997, in Belize City, Belize. The focus will be on the importance of a global perspective and the human element in natural resource management. Contact Jennifer Pate, Symposium Coordinator [e-mail:].

The Third Gorilla Workshop will be held 2-6 April, 1997, at Sheraton Station Square, Pittsburgh, PA, sponsored by the Pittsburgh Zoo. The focus will be on conservation, behavior, husbandry, reproduction, and field work. Contact Debbie McGuire or Roseann Gianbro, Pittsburgh Zoo, One Hill Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15206-1178 [412-665-3794; fax: 412-665-3661].

The Second Annual International Wildlife Law Conference will take place on April 8, 1997 in Washington, DC. The conference, sponsored by the American Society of International Law's wildlife section, the GreenLife Society - North America, the Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, the Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy, and the Detroit College of Law at Michigan State University, will utilize the same three-panel format as at last year's conference. The panels for the conference are: * The Precautionary Principle and International Wildlife Treaty Regimes; * The International Whaling Commission and the Aboriginal Whaling Exception; * The Impact of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Present and Future. For more information, contact the GreenLife Society - North America, 700 Cragmont Ave., Berkeley, CA 94708 [510-558-0620; e-mail:]

The 21st Annual C. L. Davis DVM Foundation Continuing Education Symposium will be an "inter-active symposium" at (and co-sponsored by the Dept. of Pathology and College of Veterinary Med. of) Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. The dates will be June 15-19, 1997, the subject will be veterinary pathology, and topics will include dermatopathology, a histologic basis of ocular disease, interpretation of bone lesions, emerging veterinary diseases, dental pathology, challenges in reproductive pathology, comparative neuropathology, solving problems of hematologic disorders and cytologic findings, new bleeding disorders, diseases of zoo animals and wildlife, enterohepatic diseases, and medical photography. For further information, contact Dr. Jim Render, Course Director, College of Veterinary Med., MSU, A47 Veterinary Med. Center, East Lansing, MI 48824 [517-432-1033; fax: 517-432-4008; e-mail:].

The official Announcement and Call for Abstracts for the 1997 Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists has been mailed to members. The meeting will be held at the Bahia Hotel, San Diego, CA, from June 27 through the evening of June 30, 1997. Nonmembers wishing to receive the packet of information should contact the Chair of the Program Committee at the address below. Other inquiries about the program also are welcomed. Evan Zucker, Chair, ASP Program Committee, Dept of Psychology, Loyola Univ., Box 194, New Orleans, LA 70118 [e-mail:].

The 31st International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology will be held in Prague, Czech Republic, 13-16 August 1997. The date of the congress was chosen to give the delegates the opportunity to also visit the International Ethological Congress in Vienna (18-25 August 1997) or the Congress of the Society for Animal Hygiene in Helsinki (17-21 August 1997). Session topics will include * Behavior of Zoo Animals, including management, housing, man-animal relationship, behavioral problems and their solution. Invited speaker: Frans de Waal, Yerkes Regional Primate Centre, Atlanta, USA. * Behavioral Aspects of Domestication and Feralization, including semi- and newly domesticated species, feral animals, and any behavioral aspect of transfers of wild animals into captivity or captive animals to the wild. Invited speaker: Edward Price, University of California, Davis, USA.* Free Papers, including behavioral studies on farm, companion, and laboratory animals. Please address all correspondence to ISAE97, c/o Marek Spinka, Research Inst. of Animal Production (VUZ V), CZ-104 00 Praha 10 - Uhrineves, Czech Republic [+42 2 6771 0713; fax: +42 2 6771 0779 or 6771 1448; e-mail:].

On 20th August, 1897, Sir Ronald Ross first revealed the complex development of the malarial parasite in the mosquito in Secunderabad, India. On the centennial of this discovery, the Indian Society for Parasitology will sponsor the Second Global Meeting on Parasitic Diseases, 18-22 August, 1997 in Hyderabad, India. The conference is co-sponsored by a number of national and international agencies. The conference will focus on malaria through plenary lectures and various symposia on specialized subjects. On 20th August a special program and a visit to the laboratory in Secunderabad where Sir Ronald Ross made the discovery of oocysts on the stomach wall of mosquitoes is being arranged. The conference will also focus on recent developments in parasitology as well as new strategies in the control of parasitic diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Different aspects of both basic and applied parasitology will be covered during the conference. For further details, contact Dr. V. P. Sharma, President, Indian Society for Parasitology, Director, Malaria Research Centre (ICMR), 20, Madhuban, Vikas Marg, Delhi - 110 092 [91-11-2247983; 2243006; fax: 91-11-2215086; 7234234; e-mail:].

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Positions Available

Director, Wisconsin Regional Primate Center

The University of Wisconsin-Madison announces a search for Director of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Center. The Director will be expected to lead development of strong research programs involving University faculty and staff and outstanding visiting researchers in important biomedical areas in which the nonhuman primate offers unique opportunities for research relevant to the health of humans and other primates. The Director will also hold a tenured professorship in an appropriate academic department and will have the opportunity to continue his/her research and graduate student/post-doctoral training. Applicants should supply a full curriculum vitae, a statement of research interests, and names of three references no later than January 31, 1997. Address correspondence to Primate Director Search Committee, 333 Bascom Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706. Unless confidentiality is requested in writing, information regarding the applicants must be released upon request. Finalists cannot be guaranteed confidentiality. The University of Wisconsin-Madison is an equal opportunity employer.

Behavioral/Research Technician

Bionetics Corporation, a nationwide scientific service company, anticipates an opening for a behavioral/research technician to provide research and technical support of studies being conducted on the biology of aging in primates at the National Institutes of Health Animal Center in Poolesville, MD. The successful candidate will work with rhesus monkeys conducting cognitive/behavioral assessments. He or she will be responsible for daily behavioral testing as well as data analysis and other assigned duties, such as assisting in a variety of biological assessments in our nonhuman primate aging colony. A B.Sc. or B.A. in psychology or biology or a related field is preferred, and previous experience working with nonhuman primates is recommended. Experience with PC- or Macintosh-based computers and software, and familiarity with operant psychology and behavioral testing, will be helpful but are not required. The successful candidate must be willing to function as part of an eclectic team of professionals. The ability to work in the U.S. and successful completion of a pre-employment drug screen are required. Please forward a cover letter and resume to: Lauren Johnson, Project Supervisor, Bionetics Corporation. 16701 Elmer School Rd, Poolesville, MD 20837 [fax: 301-480-0504; e-mail:]. Bionetics Corporation is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.

Psychobiologist/Behavioral Primatologist

The psychology department at the University of California, Davis, invites applications for a tenure-track appointment at any level to begin in July of 1997 or during the 1997-1998 academic year. Requirements for the position include: a Ph.D., postdoctoral experience, a strong commitment to quality teaching at both graduate and undergraduate levels, a demonstrated ability to attract extramural funds, and a well-defined research program in some area related to behavioral development, personality, and/or social behavior of primates. The applicant's research program should be compatible with ongoing biomedical research at the California Regional Primate Research Center, where the applicant's laboratory will be located. Interested applicants should submit curriculum vitae, statement of research and teaching interests, representative reprints or preprints, and three letters of reference. Review of applications will commence on February 15, 1997, and continue until the position is filled. Send applications to: Behavioral Primatology Search Committee, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8686. For information, contact the Search Committee Chair, Donald Owings, at the above address or by e-mail at The University of California, Davis, is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer with a strong institutional commitment to the achievement of diversity among its faculty and staff.

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News Briefs

Richey Rules Against USDA Welfare Regulations

In a case originally filed by the Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) and four individuals in April, 1996, U.S. District Judge Charles R. Richey declared October 31 that Section 3.81 of USDA's current animal welfare regulations is invalid. This section applies to research facilities as well as to dealers and exhibitors. It requires the development, documentation and adherence to an appropriate plan for enhancement of nonhuman primate environments. Richey ordered USDA to publish "new regulations that establish standards including minimum requirements for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates, in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and the Administrative Procedures Act (APA), subject to notice and comment, without delay and in accordance with the Opinion of the Court."

Stating ALDF's organizational interests and describing injuries, such as impaired "esthetic enjoyment" and "extreme personal distress," said to have been suffered by individual plaintiffs as a result of specific incidents involving four USDA-licensed exhibitors (two small zoos, an exotic animal refuge and a game farm), plaintiffs claimed that USDA has failed to: promulgate standards for primate psychological well-being, violating the AWA by delegating authority to regulated entities instead of establishing standards with "minimum" requirements; satisfy APA statutory requirements not to withhold or unreasonably delay regulatory action; promote social grouping of nonhuman primates, an abuse of discretion that is arbitrary and capricious under the APA; and follow the notice and comment provisions of the APA in the decision to have nonhuman primate enrichment plans kept at regulated facilities making such plans unavailable through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

In the past, Judge Richey has ruled in favor of ALDF on several issues raised in at least three other cases brought before him by ALDF's lead attorney, Valerie Stanley. In the last five years, Richey has compelled a final publication schedule for animal welfare standards; attempted to have rats, mice and birds covered under the AWA regulations; and tried to strike down existing USDA standards applicable not only to nonhuman primates but also dogs. In the latter two cases, Richey's decisions were overturned by the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals based upon lack of plaintiff standing to bring suit.

Not surprisingly, legal standing was a major issue addressed by the ALDF and the court in the current case. By alleging past and ongoing injuries suffered by the plaintiffs as a result of animal treatment and conditions at USDA-licensed exhibitors only, ALDF built a fact pattern not previously described and found wanting. There may be some features related to exhibitors that are different from the situation of research facilities, i.e., exhibitor animals may be on public view and these licensees are not required to have institutional animal care and use committees. Still, it remains to be seen whether a court other than Judge Richey's would recognize any such differences in the consideration of standing. In addition, other tests, including the traceability of alleged injuries to actions or omissions of the government and whether those injuries will be redressed by the relief sought from the court, must be satisfied. -- From the NABR Update, 17(17), November 6, 1996

New Ebola Outbreaks

An outbreak of Ebola virus killed seventeen people in Gabon in October, the World Health Organization's regional headquarters in the Congo Republic said. Fourteen died in hospital in the town of Boue, in Ogoue Province east of Libreville, said Dr. Andre Ndikauyeze, WHO's epidemiologist in charge of surveillance in the area.

In November, the Gauteng (South Africa) Provincial Health Department said a Johannesburg nurse had been transferred to the intensive care unit of the Johannesburg Hospital and her family put on 24-hour watch for symptoms of the disease. A doctor from Gabon was identified as the source of the virus and was kept in isolation, where he eventually recovered. The nurse was the first South African to contract the deadly virus. She died on November 24.

Authorities said the unidentified doctor may have contracted the virus during the October outbreak of Ebola in Gabon. The doctor had been flown to South Africa to be treated for a raging fever.

At least 13 people died in Gabon last February in an outbreak of Ebola, which is marked by fever, vomiting, diarrhea and massive bleeding, and which kills most of its victims. Health officials said at that time that the virus broke out among families who ate or handled dead chimpanzees in the remote area. The virus had also struck in Kikwit, Zaire in May 1995, killing 245 people -- a 77% fatality rate. -- From Reuters and UPI reports

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Meeting Report: IPS/ASP Madison 1996

The staff of the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and the members of the local IPS/ASP Congress organizing committee wish to thank all of those who attended the IPS/ASP Conference in Madison, Wisconsin in August. This was the largest meeting of primatologists (more than 1300) ever held and the diversity of the plenary lectures, symposia, talks, posters and video presentations, amounting to well over 800 contributions, made for a very lively meeting.

The Primates in Art and Illustration exhibit was quite successful; twenty-three works were sold. Ten percent (approximately $1100) of proceeds will go to support the conservation efforts of IPS/ASP. We have video-docu-mented the exhibit for the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive. A list of the eighty artists who submitted works for the exhibit will be mounted on the Primate Info Net (PIN). This will include contact information, preferred media, and species. Where we have permission, slides of many of the works will be copied for the Audiovisual Archive.

The commemorative poster for the exhibit and the meetings, based on a painting by Mary Sims and titled Folie á Deux is still available. You can see this poster on the PIN at The price is $10 (plus $2.50 S&H). The poster is of high quality and many people are having it framed. Orders should be sent to Larry Jacobsen, WRPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; e-mail:]. We can send and bill if you prefer. Check should be made payable to IPS/ASP Conference.

Copies of the Congress Program and Abstract booklets are available for $5.00 each (plus $2.50 S&H). Note that there are no plans to publish the Conference Proceedings, but it is anticipated that several publications will be forthcoming from the symposia and workshops. These publications are being coordinated independently by symposium and workshop organizers.

Some Congress T-shirts (size XL only) are available for $12 each (plus $3 S&H). Orders and checks (payable to the IPS/ASP Congress) for the Program and Abstract Booklets and for T-shirts should be sent to Edi Chan, Conference Coordinator, Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [e-mail:]. Please include your complete mailing address.

The plenary lectures given at the Conference were videotaped and will be available on loan from the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive. These lectures were given by Robert Sapolsky (Stress, stress-related disease and personality: Studies of wild baboons); Toshisada Nishida (Mahale chimpanzee studies: Past, present and future); Patricia Goldman-Rakic (The neurobiology of cognition: Facts and concepts from the study of the prefrontal cortex in non-human primates); Peter Parham (Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and the immune system); and Anthony Rylands (Towards a new understanding of the ecology and phylogeny of the Callitrichidae). Depending on demand, we may be able to work out an arrangement for purchase of copies of individual plenary lectures.

Many excellent videotapes were presented at the Congress. We encourage the authors of these tapes to be in contact with the WRPRC so that quality copies can be added to the Audiovisual Archive. For questions about the plenary lectures or contributing video materials to the Archive, please contact Ray Hamel [608-263-3512; e-mail:].

Six primatologists were interviewed at the meetings for the upcoming Careers in Primatology series. Those interviewed included Anne Savage (careers in zoo settings); Sue Boinski (field work); Chris Abee (veterinary medicine); Richard Stouffer (biomedical research); Jim Moore (education); Linda Fedigan (education and field work) and H. Dieter Steklis (conservation). These tapes need editing and formatting before they become available (completion date not set). -- Posted to Primate-Talk on 4 Oct, 1996, by Larry Jacobsen, WRPRC Library and Information Service, and John Hearn, IPS/ASP Conference Chair, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Noel Rowe. East Hampton, NY: Pogonias Press, 1996. 274 pp. [Price: $79.95 (hard cover), $59.95 (soft cover)]
. . . This Guide contains over 500 color photographs, as well as maps and other illustrations, covering all living species of nonhuman primates known at press time. It includes a glossary, an index, and over 1000 references. For most species (and some sub-species) there is at least one photograph and a good deal of information, including taxonomy, diet, social structure, behavior, "life history" (e.g., development, gestation, estrus), and locomotion.

* Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies. J. E. Fa & D. G. Lindburg (Eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 597 pp. [Price: $125]

* Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques. D. G. Kleiman, M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, & S. Lumpkin (Eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. [Price: US $70; UK [[sterling]]55.95]

* Reaching into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes. A. E. Russon, K. A. Bard, & S. T. Parker (Eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. [Price: $69.95]

Magazines and Newsletters

* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, 1996, 7[2]. [NAL, AWIC, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351]
. . . Includes a review of the USDA Animal Welfare Enforcement Report data from 1973 through 1995, by R. L. Crawford.

* Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, 1996, 14[1]. [111 Market Pl., Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709]
. . . Includes an editorial, "Chimpanzees and change," by J. Goodall.

* MRBFS News. [Makerere Univ. Biological Field Station, Kibale National Park, P.O. Box 409, Fort Portal, Uganda]

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1996, 4[3]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Articles, news reports, announcements, and reviews, in English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

* The Newsletter, 1996, 8[2]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . . Includes an article, "A study of bonobo feeding ecology in a forest habitat," by J. Thompson.

* Noldus News, 1996, 3[3]. [Costerweg 5, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, Netherlands, or 6 Pidgeon Hill Dr., Suite 180, Sterling, VA 20165]
. . . Includes a report on the workshop, "Measuring Behavior `96," held in Utrecht October 16-18.

* Our Animal WARDS, Fall, 1996. [WARDS, Inc., 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714]
. . . Includes an article, "The right thing to do: Enrichment programs must transcend law," by C. Guppy.

* Pongo Quest: Newsletter of the Orangutan Foundation International, 1996, 7[2]. [O.F.I., 822 S. Wellesley Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90049]
. . . News and announcements.

* Science and Animal Care, 1996, 7[4]. [WARDS, Inc., 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714]

* Wildlife Waystation Magazine, 1996, 21[3]. [Price: $1 + S&H from 14831 Little Tujunga Canyon Rd, Angeles National Forest, CA 91342-5999]
. . . Includes reports on recently arrived chimpanzees.


* Checklist of CITES Species. [Price: Sfr35 plus Sfr10.50 shipping, from CITES Secretariat, 15 Ch. des Anémones, Case Postale 456, CH 1219 Châtelaine, Geneva, Switzerland]
. . . Alphabetical lists of all animal species listed in the CITES appendices, along with common names as available and the Convention text in English, French, and Spanish.

* Live Animals Regulations. International Air Transport Association (IATA), 1996. [Price: $67 from IATA, 2000 Peel St, Montreal, P.Q. H3A 2R4 Canada]

* Primate Report, June, 1996, 46. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
The Annual Scientific Report 1995 of the German Primate Center.

* Primate Report, January, 1997, 47.
. . . Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the Gesellschaft für Primatologie e.V. Of special interest is the article "Crab-eating monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) can be trained to cooperate in non-invasive oral medication without stress," by A. Klaiber-Schuh & C. Welker.

Special Journal Issues

* Navigating the internet: Lab animal resources on the information superhighway. Lab Animal, 1996, 25[10].
. . . Includes articles by K. Boschert and N. Myslinski & C. Hisley.

* Nonhuman primate models for AIDS VIII. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25[3]. Guest Editor: P. A. Marx.
. . . Contents: Introduction, by J. W. Eichberg; The history of simian AIDS, by M. B. Gardner; Do cytotoxic T lymphocytes clear some HIV/SIV infections? by G. Ada; The value of primate models for studying human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis, by J. A. Levy; Initial characterization of viral sequences from a SHIV-inoculated pig-tailed macaque that developed AIDS, by E. B. Stephens, S. V. Joag, D. Sheffer, Z. Q. Liu, L. Zhao, S. Mukherjee, L. Foresman, I. Adany, Z. Li, D. Pinson, & O. Narayan; The immunopathogenesis of retroviral diseases: No immunophenotypic alterations in T, B, and NK cell subsets in SIVmac239-challenged rhesus macaques protected by SIV nef vaccination, by J. V. Giorgi, L. E. Hultin, & R. C. Desrosiers; In vitro T lymphopoiesis: A model system for stem cell gene therapy for AIDS, by M. Rosenzweig, D. F. Marks, D. Hempel, & R. P. Johnson; Immunodeficiency virus cDNA synthesis in resting T lymphocytes is regulated by T cell activation signals and dendritic cells, by P. S. Polacino, L. M. Pinchuk, S. P. Sidorenko, & E. A. Clark; Detection of intracellular signal transduction molecules in PBMC from rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, by G. T. Brice, F. Villinger, A. Mayne, J. B. Sundstrom, & A. A. Ansari; Development of a chronically catheterized maternal-fetal macaque model to study in utero mother-to-fetus HIV transmission: A preliminary report, by R. J. Y. Ho, M. B. Agy, W. R. Morton, M. Scheibel, J. McClure, A. Watson, S.-L. Hu, C. Nosbisch, N. Dorofeeva, & J. D. Unadkat; Genotypic analysis of infant macaques infected transplacentally and orally, by A. M. Amedee, N. Lacour, L. N. Martin, J. E. Clements, R. B. Bohm, Jr., B. Davison, R. Harrison, & M. Murphey-Corb; Induction of immunodeficiency virus-specific immune responses in rhesus monkeys following gene gun-mediated DNA vaccination, by D. H. Fuller, M. Murphey-Corb, J. Clements, S. Barnett, & J. R. Haynes; In vivo protective anti-HIV immune responses in non-human primates through DNA immunization, by J. D. Boyer, B. Wang, K. E. Ugen, M. Agadjanyan, A. Javadian, P. Frost, K. Dang, R. A. Carrano, R. Ciccarelli, L. Coney, W. V. Williams, & D. B. Weiner.

Animal Models

* High-efficiency retroviral-mediated gene transfer into human and nonhuman primate peripheral blood lymphocytes. Bunnell, B. A., Muul, L. M., Donahue, R. E., Blaese, R. M., & Morgan, R. A. (R. A. M., Clinical Gene Therapy Br., NCHGR, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 1995, 92, 7739-7743.
. . . An optimized transduction protocol combining centrifugation of the lymphocytes at the inception of transduction with phosphate depletion, low-temperature incubation, and the use of the packaging cell line PG13 yielded transduction efficiency of over 50% of the total lymphocyte population. The procedure does not alter phenotype, viability, or expansion of the transduced cells.

* Preclinical efficacy of a prototype DNA vaccine: Enhanced protection against antigenic drift in influenza virus. Donnelly, J. J., Friedman, A., Martinez, D., Montgomery, D. L., Shiver, J. W., Motzel, S. L., Ulmer, J. B., & Liu, M. A. (M. A. L., Dept of Virus & Cell Biology, Merck Res. Labs, West Point, PA 19486). Nature Medicine, 1995, 1, 583-587.
. . . Experimental evidence, in nonhuman primates and ferrets, that DNA vaccines may be more effective, particularly against different strains of virus, than inactivated virus or subvirion vaccines.

* Comparison of the distinct effects of epidermal growth factor and betamethasone on the morphogenesis of the gas exchange region and differentiation of alveolar type II cells in lungs of fetal rhesus monkeys. Edwards, L. A., Read, L. C., Nishio, S. J., Weir, A. J., Hull, W., Barry, S., Styne, D., Whitsett, J. A., Tarantal, A. F., George-Nascimento, C., & Plopper, C. G. (C. G. P., Dept of Anatomy, Physiology, & Cell Biology, School of Vet. Med., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1995, 274, 1025-1032.
. . . Epidermal growth factor greatly accelerates the maturation of alveolar type II cells, whereas betamethasone does not, but neither agent significantly altered the structure of the gas exchange region.

* Age-related changes in potassium-evoked overflow of dopamine in the striatum of the rhesus monkey. Gerhardt, G. A., Cass, W. A., Henson, M., Zhang, Z., Ovadia, A., Hoffer, B. J., & Gash, D. M. (Depts of Psychiatry & Pharmacology, Univ. of Colorado Health Sci. Center, 4200 E. Ninth Ave, Box C268-71, Denver, CO 80262). Neurobiology of Aging, 1995, 16, 939-946.
. . . Data from young (5 to 10 yr) and middle-aged (19 to 23 yr) rhesus monkeys support age-related changes in the output of dopamine (DA) from DA fibers in the striatum with age.

* Carboxyl end-specific monoclonal antibodies to amyloid protein (A) subtypes (A40 and A42(43)) differentiate A in senile plaques and amyloid angiopathy in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys. Nakamura, S., Tamoka, A., Sawamura, N., Shoji, S., Nakayama, H., Ono, F., Sakakibara, I., Yoshikawa, Y., Mori, H., Goto, N., & Doi, K. (A. T., Dept of Neurology, Inst. of Clinical Med., Univ. of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Neuroscience Letters, 1995, 201, 151-154.
. . . The staining profiles of senile plaques in cynomolgus monkeys correspond well to those in humans, suggesting that, although there are two unique features, these aged monkeys can be used as models.

* Dietary induction of cholesterol gallstones in the owl monkey: Preliminary findings in a new animal model. Pekow, C. A., Weller, R. E., Schulte, S. J., & Lee, S. P. (R&D Service, V.A. Med. Center, Seattle, WA 98108). Laboratory Animal Science, 1995, 45, 657-662.
. . . Six owl monkeys, three of each sex, were fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% cholesterol for 5 weeks. Weekly ultrasound imaging showed development of gallbladder sludge in all animals, with eventual stone formation in five, all of which were confirmed at necropsy.

* Pyridoxine effect on synthesis rate of serotonin in the monkey brain measured with positron emission tomography. Hartvig, P., Lindner, K. J., Bjurling, P., Långström, B., & Tedroff, J. (Uppsala Univ. PET Centre, Univ. Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden). Journal of Neural Transmission, 1995, 102, 91-97.
. . . The effect of pyridoxine on aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity in six rhesus monkeys supported a regulatory role of pyridoxine on the synthesis of neurotransmitter in vivo, which may be of importance in diseases with deficiencies in neurotransmitter function.

* Haematopoietic growth factors in the treatment of therapeutic and accidental irradiation-induced bone marrow aplasia. Thierry, D., Gourmelon, P., Parmentier, C., & Nénot, J. C. (J. C. N., Inst. Protection Sûreté Nucl., Dépt Protection santé de l'Homme Dosim., B.P. 6-92265 Fontenay aux Roses, Cédex, France). International Journal of Radiation Biology, 1995, 67, 103-117.
. . . A review of experiments and clinical trials.

* Dominant social status and contraceptive hormone treatment inhibit atherogenesis in premenopausal monkeys. Kaplan, J. R., Adams, M. R., Anthony, M. S., Morgan, T. M., Manuck, S. B., & Clarkson, T. B. (Dept of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., Wake Forest Univ., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 1995, 15, 2094-2100.
. . . A study of 193 adult female cynomolgus macaques fed an atherogenic diet while in social groups showed that treatment with an oral contraceptive eliminated the difference in atherosclerosis that occurred between dominant and subordinant animals in untreated groups. "Taken together, these results suggest that social subordination worsens, whereas contraceptive treatment inhibits, atherosclerosis."

* Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: Implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Coplan, J. D., Andrews, M. W., Rosenblum, L. A., Owens, M. J., Friedman, S., Gorman, J. M., & Nemeroff, C. B. (451 Clarkson Ave, Dept of Psychiatry, SUNY-HSCAB, Brooklyn, NY 11203). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 1996, 93, 1619-1623.
. . . Infant monkeys raised by mothers foraging under unpredictable conditions exhibited persistently elevated cer-ebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology of certain human affective and anxiety disorders.

* Antibody responses to two encephalomyocarditis virus vaccines in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Emerson, C. L. & Wagner, J. L. (RPRC, Box 357330, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 42-45.
. . . A vaccine made from an inactivated field isolate of virus cultured during an outbreak at a zoo produced fourfold increases in the titers of 62% of the animals injected, while a vaccine made from an inactivated porcine field strain of the virus did not produce titers in any vaccinees.

* Cell surface marker evaluation of infant Macaca monkey leukocytes in peripheral whole blood using simultaneous dual-color immunophenotypic analysis. Tryphonas, H., Lacroix, F., Hayward, S., Izaguirre, C., Parenteau, M., & Fournier, J. (Toxicology Res. Div., Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Bureau of Chem. Safety, Postal Locator 2202D1, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 89-105.
. . . Statistically significant differences were observed between male and female monkeys for mean percentage levels of CD4 and for the CD4/CD8 ratio. Such gender differences need to be taken into consideration when infant cynomolgus monkeys are used as models for immunotoxicity studies. Measuring interleukin-2 and transferrin proved to be useful in monitoring in vitro cellular activation in infant macaques.


* Conflict and reconciliation in two groups of crab-eating monkeys differing in social status by birth. Butovskaya, M., Kozintsev, A., & Welker, C. (Inst. of Ethnology & Anthropology, Leninsky Prospekt 32A, Korp B 117334, Moscow, Russia). Primates, 1996, 37, 261-270.
. . . One group of captive macaques whose mothers were high-ranking formed a despotic community in which conflicts were severe and reconciliation was weak. A second group, whose mothers were low-ranking, was an egalitarian community split into two mutually hostile coalitions; the conflicts were less severe and there was more reconciliation.

* Male dominance rank and offspring-initiated affiliative behaviors were not predictors of paternity in a captive group of pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Gust, D. A., Gordon, T. P., Gergits, W. F., Casna, N. J., Gould, K. G., & McClure, H. M. (Yerkes RPRC, Atlanta, GA 30322). Primates, 1996, 37, 271-278.
. . . Paternity of 16 offspring was determined using a DNA profile analysis for a group of 59 pigtail macaques. The fourth-ranking male had sired half of the offspring. Behavioral data showed there was no preferential attraction for one's own offspring by males or one's own sire by offspring.

* Carrying behaviour in captive and wild marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): A comparison between two colonies and a field site. Yamamoto, M. E., Box, H. O., Albuquerque, F. S., & Arruda, M. de F. (Dept. Fisiologia, Univ. Fed. do Rio Grande do Norte, P.O. Box 1511, 59.072 Natal RN, Brasil). Primates, 1996, 37, 297-304.
. . . C. jacchus at a field site in northeastern Brazil, and in two colonies in the UK and Brazil, were studied. Fathers and mothers carried infants for equivalent amounts of time in the three conditions, but helpers from natural groups carried infants more than their captive counterparts. Mothers' behavior was stable, but fathers' behavior, although comparable, was more conspicuous in captivity than in the field, which may be attributed to paternity certainty.

* Maternal condition and the quality of maternal care in vervet monkeys. Fairbanks, L. A. & McGuire, M. T. (Dept of Psychiatry & Biobehav. Sci., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024). Behaviour, 1995, 132, 733-754.
. . . Mothers in average reproductive condition were significantly less rejecting and played a larger role in maintaining contact with their infants than those in prime or "marginal" condition. Mothers in marginal condition may have limited maternal care to restore their own health, whereas mothers in prime condition used rejection to shorten the interval to the next conception, without suffering higher rates of infant mortality than average mothers.


* Engineering a rational approach to primate space requirements. Crockett, C. M., Yamashiro, J., DeMers, S., & Emerson, C. (RPRC, Box 357330, I-421, Health Sci. Ctr, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7330). Lab Animal, 1996, 25[9], 44-47.
. . . A study of the relative importance of cage size, shape, and placement in the room on the well-being of macaques and baboons. Use of the perch was greater when it provided a view of the door into the room. The authors hope that the publication of such reports will help support requests for appropriate variances from "engineering standard" regulations.

* Behavioral responses of longtailed macaques to different cage sizes and common laboratory experiences. Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L. Shimoji, M., Leu, M., Bowden, D. M., & Sackett, G. P. (Address same as above). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1995, 109, 368-383.
. . . The behavior of 20 M. fascicularis was observed for two weeks in each of 5 cage sizes, ranging from about 20% to 148% of regulation size. Locomotion was significantly less in the two smallest cage sizes, but abnormal behavior did not increase as cage size decreased, and did not change significantly over nearly 3 years. Moving to a new room and, to a lesser extent, moving into a new, clean cage, regardless of size, was associated with disrupted sleep the first night and suppressed activity, especially self-grooming, the next day.

* A cost-effective split level baboon condo. Doyle, R. E., Davis, S. D., & Thomas, W. C. (Dept of Comp. Med., St. Louis Univ. School of Med., 1402 S. Grand Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63104). Lab Animal, 1996, 25[9], 49-50.
. . . Description of a cage unit, built from existing cages, that includes two chambers, one with a squeeze mechanism, the other with space for large enrichment objects, connected by a "bridge".

* Subcutaneous rabies vaccination of pigtail macaques. Nieves, P., Rodriguez, J. F., Kessler, M. J., & Bercovitch, F. (Caribbean PRC, UPR Med. Sci. Campus, Sabana Seca Field Stn, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00952). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 14-16.
. . . Vaccination with an inactivated rabies vaccine for domestic animals induced levels of neutralizing antibodies against rabies in pigtail macaques without causing adverse reactions.

* The enrichment challenge: A new primate rain forest at Auckland Zoo. Butler, B. H. (34 Galloway Crescent, Bucklands Beach, Auckland, New Zealand). The Shape of Enrichment, 1996, 5[1], 9-10.
. . . General description of an exhibit that features five primate species, along with other animals and birds.


* Comparative analysis of weight gain, hand/wrist maturation, and dental emergence rates in chimpanzees aged 0-24 months from varying captive environments. Marzke, M. W., Young, D. L., Hawkey, D. E., Su, S. M., Fritz, J., & Alford, P. L. (Dept of Anthropology, Arizona State Univ., Box 872402, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1996, 99, 175-190.
. . . Results of a mixed longitudinal study of 175 animals from three different colonies suggest significant sex and environmental effects on the variables monitored, justifying further analysis and a continuation of the study.


* Weight-loss in a bonnet macaque. Scharf, B. A., Rookard, A., & Noland, S. (SUNY-HSC, 450 Clarkson Ave, Box 47, Brooklyn, NY 11203). Lab Animal, 1996, 25[10], 17-18.
. . . Foreign body cecal impaction was discovered on necropsy. The animal had been housed over an asphalt drain that had deteriorated; this may have been the source of gravel found in the cecum.

* Surgical correction of severe vaginal introital stenosis in female baboons (Papio sp.) infected with simian agent 8. Singleton, W. L., Smikle, C. B., Hankins, G. D. V., Hubbard, G. B., Ehler, W. J., & Brasky, K. B. (Rhone-Poulenc Rorer R&D, 500 Arcola Rd, P.O. Box 1200, Collegeville, PA 19426-0107). Laboratory Animal Science, 1995, 45, 628-630.
. . . A procedure is described which may allow female baboons previously infertile and at risk of urinary tract infections as a result of simian agent 8 infection to be returned to a healthy reproductive state.

* Detection of Ebola-Reston (Filoviridae) virus antibody by dot-immunobinding assay. Kalter, S. S., Heberling, R. L., Barry, J. D., & Tian, P. Y. (Virus Reference Lab., 7540 Louis Pasteur, San Antonio, TX 78229). Laboratory Animal Science, 1995, 45, 523-525.
. . . A comparison of dot-immunobinding assay results with those from immunofluorescent antibody assay, enzyme immunoassay, and Western blotting methods.

* Localized retroperitoneal fibromatosis causing intestinal obstruction in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Fikes, J. D. & O'Sullivan, M. G. (M. G. O., Dept of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Veterinary Pathology, 1995, 32, 713-716.
. . . An unusual case in which localized retroperitoneal fibromatosis produced intestinal obstruction and death.

* Isolation and characterization of a new simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 from naturally infected Celebes macaques (Macaca tonkeana): Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationship with the Australo-Melanesian human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Ibrahim, F., de Thé, G., & Gessain, A. (A. G., Unité d'Epidémiol. des Virus Oncogènes, Inst. Pasteur, 28, rue du Dr Roux, 75728 Paris Cedex 15, France). Journal of Virology, 1995, 69, 6980-6993.
. . . Data raise new hypotheses on possible interspecies viral transmission between monkeys carrying STLV-1 and early Australoid settlers, ancestors of the present day Australo-Melanesian inhabitants, during their migrations from the Southeast Asian land mass to the greater Australian continent.

* Glioblastoma multiforme arising in the irradiated spinal cord of a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Price, R. E., Tinkey, P. T., Leeds, N. E., Hazle, J. D., Langford, L. A., Stephens, L. C., & Ang, K. K. (Dept of Vet. Med. & Surgery, Box 63, UTMDA Cancer Ctr, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 140-145.
. . . An adult female rhesus that had received 44.0 Gy of cobalt 60 radiation developed, about 2.8 years later, a sudden onset of self-mutilation and loss of function of the right arm followed progressively by loss of function of the left arm and terminally bilateral paresis of the legs. Histo-pathologic examination revealed a glioblastoma multiforme extending from the cervical medullary junction to the sixth cervical vertebra.

* Baylisascaris larva migrans in a spider monkey (Ateles sp.). Garlick, D. S., Marcus, L. C., Pokras, M., & Schelling, S. H. (96 Coolidge Circle, Northborough, MA 01532). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 133-136.
. . . The first report of spontaneous visceral larval migration of Baylisascaris procyonis in a nonhuman primate.

* Is there an epidemic/epizootic of spondyloarthropathy in baboons? Rothschild, B. M. & Rothschild, C. (Arthritis Ctr of NE Ohio, Youngstown, OH 44512). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 69-70 (Letter).
. . . Museum collections of baboon skeletons were studied for evidence of arthritis, and analyzed by date. There was an increase from 3.8% in the 1920s and 1930s to 10% by the 1960s, and 30% in the past decade.

* SIVagm incidence over two decades in a natural population of Ethiopian grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops). Jolly, C. J., Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Turner, T. R., Broussard, S., & Allan, J. S. (Dept of Anthropology, NYU, New York, NY 10003). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 78-83.
. . . Plasma samples collected in 1973 were similar to those collected from the same population in 1990-91, supporting an earlier conclusion that endemic SIVagm has little or no impact on the survival of wild grivet monkeys.

* Cell tropism of the simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1). Mergia, A., Leung, N. J., & Blackwell, J. (Dept of Pathobiology, College of Vet. Med., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 2-7.
. . . SFV-1 has a broad host range with respect to species and cell types. It appears to establish a low level persistent infection in lymphoid and macrophage cell lines.


* Functional immaturity in neonatal polymorphonuclear leukocytes of rhesus monkeys. Cheung, A. T. W., Ayin, S. A., & Kessell, P. R. (Leukocyte Biol. Lab., Dept of Med. Pathology, Clinical Lab. Bldg (Rm 1205B), UC Davis Med. Center, 4825 Second Ave, Sacramento, CA 95817). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 84-88.
. . . A study confirming and characterizing the functional compromises in neonatal polymorphonuclear leukocytes of rhesus monkeys, including deficiencies in chemotaxis, membrane deformability, phagocytosis, and killing.

Evaluation of anti-human antibodies for immunohistochemistry on archival nonhuman primate tissues. Wykrzykowska, J. J., Pauley, D. R., Lackner, A. A., & Simon, M. A. (M. A. S., New England RPRC, One Pine Hill Dr., P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 71-77.
. . . A panel of commercially available antibodies which recognize specific antigens on human tissues was developed for use in immunohistochemistry on tissues from eight species of nonhuman primates.

Instruments & Techniques

* A comparison of two fecal collection methods to monitor parasitism in socially-housed rhesus monkeys. Clarke, M. R. & Cogswell, F. B. (Dept of Anthropology, 1021 Audubon St, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA 70118). Contemporary Topics, 1995, 34, 82-83.
. . . Samples taken from group members as they were produced (direct method) produced consistent results with fresh samples taken from the bottom of the housing area (indirect method) for 11 of 12 parasite species surveyed.

* Tracking of dye-labeled lymphocytes in rhesus macaques. Salvato, M. S., Rater, M., & Pauza, C. D. (Dept of Pathol. & Lab. Med., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 112-121.
. . . Dye-labeled lymphocytes could be detected in the circulation for at least 100 days by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Activated lymphocytes were removed from circulation more rapidly than those that had not been activated.

* Assessment of early placental development in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) using colour and pulsed wave Doppler sonography. Nimrod, C., Simpson, N., Hafner, T., de Vermette, R., Fournier, J., Coady, L., & Baccanale, C. (Div. of Perinatology, Ottawa Gen. Hospital, 501 Smyth, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 106-111.
. . . Fetal and maternal vessels were reliably visualized and insonated with this combined technique, which enables accurate longitudinal noninvasive assessment of placentation.

* Influences of blood sampling procedures on basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormone levels and leukocyte values in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Capitanio, J. P., Mendoza, S. P., & McChesney, M. (California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 26-33.
. . . Differences in housing location and the amount of room disturbance associated with blood sampling have a significant impact on cell counts, but not on ACTH or cortisol levels.


* Leukocyte trafficking in free-flowing cerebrospinal fluid of normal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Hou, F.-Y., Coe, C. L., & Erickson, C. (Harlow Primate Lab., Univ. of Wisconsin, 22 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53715). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 8-13.
. . . Cellular components in free-flowing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal rhesus macaques were characterized, establishing reliable techniques for evaluating cellular components in CSF from rhesus macaques and documenting the difference in the CD4/CD8 ratio between peripheral blood and CSF compartments under normal conditions.

* Lipoprotein profiles and glucose tolerance in lean and obese chimpanzees. Steinetz, B. G., Randolph, C., Cohn, D., & Mahoney, C. J. (LEMSIP, RR 1, Long Meadow Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 17-25.
. . . Seven of 14 obese and 6 of 17 lean chimpanzees were hypercholesterolemic, 3 obese and 3 lean animals had total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios of 5.9-10.7, and 2 obese and one lean chimpanzee had abnormal glucose tolerance.

* Serum and urine biochemical diversity among adult wild-caught Aotus nancymae and Saimiri peruviensis. Weller, R., Buschbom, R. L., Málaga, C. A., Kimsey, B. B., & Ragan, H. A. (Battelle, Pacific Northwest Labs, P7-52, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 46-52.
. . . Significant differences were noted in many serum and urine analytes between groups of wild-caught owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys, suggesting that reference data for one species should not be applied to the other. These findings illuminate the diversity among species of neotropical primates.


* 1995 International Studbook Golden Lion Tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia. J. D. Ballou & A. Sherr, Keepers (Dept of Zool. Research, Natl Zool. Park, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20008). 86 pp.

* The influence of repeated motherhood on periparturitional behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Timmermans, P. J. A. & Vossen, J. M. H. (Dept of Comp. & Physiol. Psychology, Univ. of Nij-megen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, Netherlands). International Journal of Primatology, 1996, 17, 277-296.
. . . In a study of 10 primiparous and 11 multiparous females, a considerable number of significant differences were found, both pre- and postpartum. The authors stress that the mechanism behind the so-called parity effect cannot be revealed without paying more attention, next to learning, to age, experience with pregnancy, and experience with parturition.

* Infradian alteration of circadian rhythms in owl monkeys (Aotus lemurinus griseimembra): An effect of estrous? Rauth-Widmann, B., Fuchs, E., & Erkert, H. G. (H. G. E., Zool. Inst/Tierphysiologie, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany). Physiology & Behavior, 1996, 59, 11-18.
. . . Under constant dim lighting conditions or exposure to a 24-h light/dark cycle with very short light time (0.5 h), as well as to 24-h skeleton photoperiods consisting of two 30-min light pulses applied at intervals, regularly recurring rises in level of activity were found in five of seven female Aotus but in none of seven males.

* Patterns of prenatal survival in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Jaquish, C. E., Tardif, S. D., Toal, R. L., & Carson, R. L. (Southwest Fnd. for Biomed. Res., Dept of Genetics, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1996, 25, 57-63.
. . . Ultrasound monitoring was used in fifty pregnancies to determine that mortality was unrelated to litter size and occurred fairly late in gestation. All singletons born in this study began gestation as twins. Marmosets may be able to adjust litter size late in pregnancy in response to proximate environmental factors.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by The Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest.


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Resources Wanted and Available: Primate DNA Profiles

Free DNA Profile Testing is available now. Therion Corporation has received a NIH grant to fund the collection and development of genetic databases for eleven species of primates used in biomedical research. DNA profile data can be used for paternity verification and lineage and to estimate genetic relatedness within/among colonies. The species are owl monkey, common marmoset, African green monkey, pig tail, stumptail and rhesus macaques, cynomolgus monkey, cotton top tamarin, squirrel monkey (both S. boliviensis and S. sciureus), and chimpanzee. Samples will be accepted through March 1, 1997 only. For more information about this study and how to collect, store, and ship blood samples, please contact Will Gergits [518-286-0016; e-mail:].

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]

Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the World Wide Web at


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) father carrying twin infants, by Anne M.Richardson

Copyright (c) 1997 by Brown University

Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen