Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Response to Temporally Distributed Feeding Schedules in a Group of Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata), by W. J. Taylor, D. A. Brown, J. Lucas-Awad, & M. L. Laudenslager...... 1

Getting Cynomolgus (and Others) to Take Their Medicine...... 4

Telemetrically Recorded Second Degree Heart Block in a Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), by J. Kerl...... 6

News, Information, and Announcements

Information Requested or Available ...... 3
. . . E-mail Lists of Interest; More Interesting Web Sites; Web Documents by E-mail

Resource Report: Germ-Free Monkeys Advance the War Against Aids ...... 7

Resources Wanted and Available...... 9
. . . Compounding Pharmacist; Latin American Data Base; WRPRC Audiovisual Archive

Travelers' Health Notes...... 10
. . . IAMAT; Lariam® (Mefloquine) Antimalarial Warning; Artesunate Rectocaps: A Life-saving Intervention

Monkeypox...... 11

Meeting Announcements...... 12

Workshop Announcements...... 13
. . . Sedation, Immobilization, and Anesthesia; New Technologies

Announcements from Publications...... 14
. . . ILAR Journal; Animal Behaviour

Editors' Notes...... 14
. . . Saving Trees; Updating our Reference

Grants Available...... 15
. . . ACLAM Foundation Research Grants; High Risk/High Impact Research; DHEA and Aging; Enteric and Hepatic Infectious Diseases; Academic Research Enhancement Awards; Tissue Engineering, Biomimetics, Medical Implants; AIDS Vaccine Development; Minority Faculty, Institutions, and Students; Support of Scientific Meetings by NIH; Cancer Drug Discovery; Diabetic Retinopathy; Alcohol-induced Hormonal Changes

News Briefs...... 19
. . . Mary Leakey, 1913-1996; James Foster, DVM, Died in Rwanda; Death of P. H. Napier; Full Access to Scientific Information; APHIS Consolidation; Man Accused of Animal Smuggling; NASA Concurs with Review of Bion 11 Mission; U.S. Air Force to Stand Down Space-age Chimps

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 21
. . . The NCI Scholars Program; Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine; Institutional Research Training Grants; Post-Doctoral Fellowship, NIAAA; Fulbright Grants for U.S. Faculty and Professionals

Awards Granted...... 23
. . . Russell and Burch Award to Andrew Rowan; Coimbra-Filho: Lifetime Achievement; AIDS Research Awards; Ammann Receives Genesis Award; Edward Taub Honored by APS; Sue Rumbaugh Honored

New Book Series: Special Topics in Primatology ...... 25

Volunteer Opportunities: Field Assistant - Central African Republic...... 32


Address Changes...... 7

Positions Wanted or Available...... 25
. . . Post-Doctoral Position, NC; Summer Jobs; Veterinary Assistant; Postdoctoral Fellow, Primate Behavior; Research Scientist/Technologist, Seattle

Recent Books and Articles ...... 26

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Response to Temporally Distributed Feeding Schedules in a Group of Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)

Whitney J. Taylor, David A. Brown, Jennifer Lucas-Awad & Mark L. Laudenslager
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center


One goal of an environmental enrichment program is to encourage captive primates to engage in behaviors exhibited by their counterparts living in wild populations (Segal, 1989). Commonly used methods to accomplish this include providing novel items for exploration (Brent & Stone, 1996; Watson et al., 1989) and increasing or rotating perches, swings, and other play structures (Kopecky & Reinhardt, 1994; Taylor et al., 1997). Both of these methods have proven to be extremely effective in eliciting species-typical behaviors, and they are commonly utilized as standard procedures in caring for laboratory macaques. However, while novelty and cage enhancement are important parts of an environmental enrichment program, more can be done to promote psychological well-being in laboratory primates by modifying some common daily practices.

In the wild, many primate species spend a large portion of time foraging for food. Therefore modifying the feeding regime of captive primates to increase time spent acquiring food would be extremely desirable. Several studies have investigated various methods to accomplish this, including providing foraging devices for singly and pair-housed macaques (Brent & Eichberg, 1991; Reinhardt, 1993), using a dispersed method of feeding (Boccia, M.L. et al., 1988), and providing substrate (Byrne & Suomi, 1991).

Like other species, wild macaques spend a large amount of time foraging for food (Lindburg, 1991). To encourage this species-typical behavior in our colony of socially housed bonnet and pigtail macaques (Macaca radiata and M. nemestrina), we regularly scatter food in a wood-shaving substrate. In this study, we hoped to determine if smaller, more frequent feedings would encourage our macaques to spend more time engaging in foraging and other desirable behaviors.


Subjects and Housing: A social group of laboratory-born bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) (one adult male, five adult females, two sub-adults and two infants) was observed for this study. The group was housed in an 18 x 7.5 ft pen, which contained several bars and perches and a substrate of wood shavings. The lighting cycle was 13:11, with lights on at 0700 hr. The group had been fed by the baseline method described below for more than three years prior to this study.

Weeks 1-5      0900 hr:  150 monkey          
(Baseline)               biscuits and 4      
                         cups of apples,     
                         oranges or bananas  
               1300 hr:  1 cup of            
                         sunflower seeds     
(Weeks 6-10)   0900 hr:  75 monkey           
(Test)                   biscuits and 4      
                         cups of apples,     
                         oranges or bananas  
               1100 hr:  1/2 cup of          
Weeks 6-10               sunflower seeds     
(Test)         1300 hr:  75 monkey biscuits  
               1500 hr:  1/2 cup of          
                         sunflower seeds     
Table 1: Feeding schedules.

Procedure: The feeding schedule for the 10 weeks of the study is shown in Table 1. A single feeding of 200 monkey biscuits and 1 cup of sunflower seeds was given between 1000 and 1200 on weekends throughout the ten-week study. At all feedings the food was dispersed among the wood chips on the pen floor.

Forage      Actively search for food, or eat   
            while sitting on pen floor         
Eat/Drink   Eat food taken to perches or       
            bars, or drink from water spout    
Locomote    walk or run                        
Explore     Actively explore either a novel    
            object or part of the pen          
Groom       Social grooming with one or more   
            other animals                      
Self        Groom his/her own body             
Stereotypy  Repetitive head flipping,          
            pacing, or wall licking            
Passive     Complete inactivity, "100 yard     
Sleep       Rest with eyes closed              
Other       Any behavior other than those      
            described above (not analyzed)     
Table 2: Behaviors recorded.

Data Collection: Focal observations were made on five subjects: the adult male, three adult females without infants, and one adult female with a 6-month-old infant. Observations were made, using the Observer 3.0 computer system (Noldus, 1991), at either 1000, 1200, or 1400 hrs. Observations were distributed equally over baseline and test periods. An average of five 10-minute observations were made each week on each animal, for a total of over 40 hours of observation. Table 2 shows behaviors scored for duration. Frequency of threatening, contact aggression, and submission were collected as well. Observations started at least 1 hour after the previous feeding. The macaques were observed through a one-way window.


Figure 1: The mean duration of recorded behaviors occurring during the baseline and test periods. * = p < .05.

Analysis of behaviors showed varying amounts of change between the baseline and test periods (Figure 1). There were significant increases in the amount of time spent foraging (F = (1,4), p < 0.043) and eating/drinking (F = (1,4), p < 0.010), while the amount of time spent sleeping declined drastically (F = (1,4), p < 0.001). Insignificant changes were observed in time spent in locomotion, grooming, and passivity, while there were no changes in the already low occurrences of self-grooming and stereotypic behavior. Frequencies of threats, contact aggression, and submission remained consistently low as well.


As we predicted, the species-typical behaviors of foraging and eating increased substantially. In addition, there were smaller increases in time spent in locomotion and grooming. Subjects also slept significantly less during the test period. We believe that the increased wakefulness may have been related to the increase in locomotion and grooming. There were no changes in time spent self-grooming or engaging in stereotypic behavior, and incidents of aggression remained constant as well. Thus, the temporally expanded feeding schedule had a positive effect on this group of macaques.

In the quest to afford captive primates with the best possible living conditions, there are many strategies a care provider can adopt. In addition to other standard techniques, modifying feeding schedules can assist in furnishing an enriched environment for captive primates.


Boccia, M. L., Laudenslager, M. L., & Reite, M. (1988). Food distribution, dominance, and aggressive behaviors in bonnet macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 16, 123-130.

Brent, L. & Eichberg, J. W. (1991). Primate puzzleboard: A simple environmental enrichment device for captive chimpanzees. Zoo Biology, 10, 353-360.

Brent, L. & Stone, A. M. (1996). Long-term use of televisions, balls and mirrors as enrichment for paired and singly caged chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 39, 139-145.

Byrne, G. D. & Suomi, S. J. (1991). Effects of woodchips and buried food on behavior patterns and psychological well-being of captive rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 23, 141-151.

Glick-Bauer, M. (1997). Behavioral enrichment for captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) through novel presentation of diet. Laboratory Primate News-letter, 36[1], 1-3.

Kopecky, J. & Reinhardt, V. Comparing the effectiveness of PVC swings and PVC perches as environmental enrichment for caged female rhesus macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30[2], 5-6.

Lindburg, D. (1991). Ecological requirements of macaques. Laboratory Animal Science, 41, 315-321.

Noldus, L. P. J. J. (1991). The Observer: A software system for collection and analysis of observational data. Behavior Research Methods, 23, 415-429.

Reinhardt, V. (1993). Enticing nonhuman primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology, 12, 307-312.

Segal, E. F. (Ed.) (1989). Housing, Care, and Psychological Well-Being of Captive and Laboratory Nonhuman Primates. Park Ridge: Noyes Publications.

Taylor, W. J., Brown, D. A., David, W. L., & Laudenslager, M. L. (1997). Novelty influences use of play structures by a group of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 36[1], 4-6.

Watson, D. S. B., Houston, B. J. & Macallum, G. E. (1989). The use of toys for primate environmental enrichment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28[2], 20-21.


Authors' address: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center , Campus Box C268-68, 4200 East 9th Ave, Denver, CO 80262.

We would like to thank Dr. Ron Banks and Dr. James Stevens for their continued support of the University of Colorado Primate Environmental Enrichment Program.


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Information Requested or Available

E-mail Lists of Interest

* There is a new mailing list devoted to Paleoanthropology, Physical Anthropology, Prehistoric Archaeology, and Human and Nonhuman Primate Evolution. To subscribe, send e-mail to with the message in the body: subscribe paleoanthro or subscribe paleoanthro-digest.

* Noldus Information Technology announces that a mailing list, called Noldus Forum, has been set up to provide all (potential) users of Noldus products (The Observer, EthoVision, Signal, UltraVox, etc.) with an easy way of communicating with each other world-wide. "We hope that this list will make it easier to find out about tips, tricks, and solutions to problems others may have discovered, and to learn about what other people are accomplishing. We also hope that the list will provide an interactive forum for the exchange of information and ideas among people interested in the methodological and technical aspects of behavioral research." To subscribe, send e-mail to with the message in the body: subscribe Noldus-Forum <your real name> If you have any questions, write to

More Interesting Web Sites

* USDA Virtual Conference:

* Registry of Comparative Pathology:

* First International Symposium on Emerging Diseases:

* Lab Animal Magazine:

* ABSnet, electronic newsletter of the Animal Behavior Society:

* Nature reserve in Vietnam:

* Gorilla Haven:

* APHIS Press Releases:

* Frontiers in Laboratory Animal Science:

* Wildlife Health Information Partnership:

* Journal of NIH Research:

* Primate Enrichment Forum:

* "Cercopan" sanctuary in Nigeria:

* Wisconsin RPRC's quarterly newsletter:

* World Health Organization policy documents:

* NIH Office of Financial Management:

* National Academy Press catalog:

* Animal Protection Laws in various countries:

* Databases on the Three R's:

* Ark Animal Tracks, including Unusual Animal Careers:

* Amazon Books (out-of-print books):

Web Documents by E-mail

Persons with e-mail connections only can receive documents from the World Wide Web by sending the message
get <URL>
where <URL> [Uniform Resource Locator] should be replaced by the desired World Wide Web address. Leave the subject line blank. You will receive a plain text copy of that page by e-mail.

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Getting Cynomolgus (and Others) to Take Their Medicine

Simon Young, of Schering-Plough in NJ, asked the CompMed mailing list for suggestions on how best to get cynomologus monkeys to take oral medication. We have edited the answers he received, with permission from Simon, CompMed, and the respondents:

* If drugs can be dissolved or suspended in water: Jack L. Orkin of Emory uses a grape-flavored syrup, Syrpalta (Emerson Labs, P.O. Box 1872, Texarkana, TX 75504 [800-662-3435]). "We just use the syrup straight as the diluent for the ground-up tablets, put it in a syringe, and squirt it in the monk's mouth. After one or two squeezings, they usually come up and take it voluntarily."

At Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Charlotte Hotchkiss reports that more than 100 cynos have been trained to take 4-5 ml of Crystal Light daily from a syringe with a rat gavage needle attached while in a catch box or single cage. "Granted, the training takes a while, but for a 2-year study it works better than daily gavage. The advantage over a feeding tube is that the length of the delivery device is much shorter, so there is less loss of material." Tom Moskal, of Bioqual, Inc., also uses Crystal Light and, more often, Tang, which "works great with antiprotozoals, such as Humatin, where I mix up a workable dilution, and instruct techs to shake well and dose accordingly. Some chimp facilities deliver a fruity beverage daily, or on a regular basis. Drugs and vitamins can be added to the drink as needed. I believe, however, that this behavior is quickly extinguished if the chimps' sensitive taste buds discover any unpleasant change in their `treat'. I am not aware of anyone doing this with monkeys."

Richard W. Foltin, of the New York State Psychiatric Institute, uses Cherry Koolaid made at 4 times the recommended concentration. "Cherry hides many flavors well. Baboons drink out of a spout, but with rhesus we use a piece of pump tubing (1/4" inner-diameter) long enough to hold about 10 ml at a time, and they come to the front of the cage to suck the fluid out of the tube. We have also used syringes (no needles, of course), which some monkeys prefer. You can squirt into the mouth. Cherry Koolaid is loved by all the monkeys I've tried it with." Cathy Johnson-Delaney, of the Washington RPRC, has some animals trained to take orals directly from a syringe. They may use a cherry syrup (the kind used as concentrate for soda-fountains) as the vehicle. An anonymous person suggested an ice popsicle.

Cathy Johnson-Delaney uses several different "formulas," depending on delivery method and how much nutrition must be included with the medication. "Ensure works quite well as a base. Diluted Marmoset Jelly®(Purina Mills), with about 50% more water than for a jell, will pass through most stomach tubes. Pedialyte, Gatorade, Polycose work for many drugs. If the animal needs a 'bland' food (Ensure may cause diarrhea in some), I have had success using Harrison's Bird Diets baby bird formula (powder) made to pass through feeding needles with medications mixed in. This formula has no preservatives, is all grain/vegetable-based, does not seem to cause diarrhea, and is very digestible. It has vitamin D3, but no appreciable vitamin C, which can be added. It works as a gavage formula for callitrichids and infant or juvenile macaques that need a very easy-to-digest yet good protein, good carbo, low fat food. I've used it as an adjunct to the diet or as emergency therapy, rather than as a diet."

* Mixing nonwater-soluble drugs into a tasty paste and spreading it on bread: Robert E. Shade, at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, uses mashed banana and honey successfully for dosing baboons with as much as 100 mg/kg ("which is a lot with 30-kg subjects"). "Most consume the piece of bread within 60 seconds. We have done pharmacokinetic studies showing that peak drug levels are attained within 1-2 hours, which is comparable to humans taking the same drug as a pill. Since the vehicle (banana/honey/bread) is almost all carbohydrates, the amount of time required to pass through the stomach is minimal compared to a fat (e.g., vegetable oil) that could dissolve the drug." Thomas Moskal uses plain banana in the same way. He also suggests using "peanut butter, apple butter, apple sauce, yoghurt, etc. Forcing diced banana through a 35 or 60 cc syringe effectively purees the banana." An anonymous source mixes drugs with Karo syrup ("they prefer the clear stuff") and peanut butter to make a slurry. "Handles even bitter compounds like metronidazole."

* Semi-Solids: Larry L. Foresman, of the University of Kansas Medical Center, trained 3-year-old rhesus macaques to tolerate a chair and take applesauce (the very fine baby food kind) out of a syringe. "It took about 7-10 days to train the monks, and two weeks to train me! After dosing for several weeks the monks would come to the front of their cages to get the sauce. The prerequisite is having someone experienced at chair-training monks with the pole/collar system." Cathy Johnson-Delaney says that "applesauce or some baby food fruit works well for most animals if we allow them to eat it from a bowl - they lick the bowls clean." Tom Moskal also reports that Dr. Marisa St. Claire has habituated many chimps to hand feedings of raw, commercial cookie dough balls, which many of the animals love. When crushed antibiotic tablets are combined with the dough, they have been received with variable success.

* Javier Guillén of the University of Navarra: "putting a compound into a sweet green grape sometimes works."

* Gelatin: Wesley Thompson of Emory University suggests mixing the dose with gelatin (Jell-O) in the more concentrated form of "jigglers". Let the gelatin cool some before adding the drug so as not to lose efficacy.

* Commercial Solutions: "Steve" suggests, "If your compound is not taste aversive, you could have Bio-Serv put it in their Prima-Treats. They can mix drugs into the powdered form of Prima-Treats prior to compressing them into wafers or tablets. This can be done in varying concentrations, colors, and flavors. All of their inert ingredients are certified. You can contact Dr. Alan Bonner (Frenchtown, NJ [800-473-2155])." Thomas Moskal also uses these, even "with foul tasting stuff, like metronidazole." Richard W. Foltin reports that Bio-Serve makes Suspending Agent K, which works well for suspending non-soluble drugs. "I used to use it with Tang." Tom Moskal's commercial pharmacist will prepare various suspensions to meet the needs of veterinary patients. The pharmacist uses Knorr brand flavorings, which include beef, chicken, pork, etc. "I'm not sure what works best with primates, but my impression is that sweet things are not most preferred (though most monkeys will devour marshmallows). Several antibiotics come in pediatric oral preparations (like Eryped) and we have used these with great success."

* Capsules: Kirk M. Boehm of the Wisconsin RPRC gives them to awake, restrained animals. "It involves some training of the animals and techs and what we call a bite bar. You place the bite bar in the animal's mouth so as to avoid bites and then place a small capsule far back in the mouth with a suture holder (or something similar) and remove the bite bar. If the capsule is small and and placed far enough back in the mouth the procedure is quite successful." Steve Dempsey, of Glaxo Wellcome, Inc., suggests: "Place the capsule in the syringe/pump attachment (wider end) of a soft rubber stomach tube. Snip the end off the other end of the tube and attach a large (20-50 ml) empty syringe with plunger already pulled back (i.e. air-filled). Gavage the cyno (we used plexiglass dosing boxes which contained all appendages, but allowed the head to protrude) by using a bite bar or some other form of speculum. When the capsule end of the tube is in the stomach, press the plunger to force the capsule out. We found that it was easier with some capsules to coat them with a bit of corn oil before placing them in the tube. The cynos tolerate the procedure well, and with practice a team of two people can safely gavage about 20-24 cynos per hour."

* Gavaging: Tom Moskal: "If the compound tastes bad, the situation may be hopeless, and you may need to use orogastric or nasogastric intubation." Steve Dempsey: "Another technique is to make a suspension of the compound in carboxymethylcellulose and gavage the cynos by stomach tube or nasogastric tube. We've successfully trained cynos to accept the passage of the NG tube without a problem." Wesley Thompson: "It is possible to chair and dose cynos awake with little or no anesthesia via a small gauge NG tube. The animals are not exactly thrilled with this procedure but after a time or two, they tolerate the procedure fairly well. The whole thing (aspirate, dose, and flush) takes less than a minute once you get the hang of it."

* Tom Moskal: "Obviously you are governed by the physical properties of your test compound. For fat-soluble compounds we have used olive or sesame oil and orogastric intubation. Needless to say, when medicating with some of these methods, dose errors may occur due to partial consumption, leakage, settling or separation from the vehicle, errors in preparation, etc." Charlotte Hotch-kiss notes that some compounds will go into water with HPCD or carboxymethylcellulose, while others will dissolve in water if put into a small volume of alcohol first.

* Finally, Simon Young's group picked up on Thompson's idea of "Jell-O jigglers." "The good news is that the jigglers are readily accepted by the monkeys. Ours are used to being given other types of treat and liked the gelatin, even straight out of the fridge. The bad news is that we were unable to completely mask the taste of a drug that we wanted to give. However, they are quick and cheap and worth trying.

"The recipe we ended up with is this: Make up one 8-serving packet of cherry flavor sugar-free Jell-O in 150 ml water. Pour it into a 12.0 x 8.5 cm polythene box (empty pipette tip boxes are ideal) and put in the fridge for an hour or so - it sets quite quickly. Turn it out onto a paper towel and cut into 24 pieces. For people who don't have access to Jell-O, one `serving' is 1/2 cup (125 ml), so an 8-serving packet is one that makes 1000 ml of normal strength. Making it up as 150 ml is therefore 6 times normal strength. Out of the fridge it's pretty stiff but you need that so it doesn't melt in the monkeys' hands. We used sugar-free Jell-O for the sake of the monkeys' teeth. Cherry is the flavor recommended by many people as being the most palatable, although we didn't experiment with this. Replacing some of the water with Polaner's raspberry `Pourable All Fruit' syrup makes the flavor even more intense.

"To end on a non-scientific note, making this stuff up is a very social activity. The smell fills the whole lab and everyone will want to know what the dark red liquid in your beaker is!"

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Telemetrically Recorded Second Degree Heart Block in a Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

Jens Kerl
Institute of Anthropology, University of Göttingen


In a study on the influence of the inanimate environment on the heart rate and behavior of common marmosets (see Kerl & Rothe, 1996, for results of a pilot study), 14 adult animals were fitted with implanted ECG transmitters. The calculation of the heart rate was done by measuring the interbeat intervals with a quartz-stabilized clock. Since the R-wave (the largest deflection) of the ECG was used as the time mark for each beat, the signal was carefully observed and the amplification adjusted for optimum automatic amplitude discrimination of the R-wave. During this daily control of the ECG signal an arrhythmia was detected in one male marmoset.


The transmitters (details in Kerl & Rothe, 1996) were implanted in the peritoneal cavity. The ECG signal was picked up by a bipolar setting: one electrode was placed subcutaneously near the right rib bow and the other subcutaneously near the left caudal abdomen. The transmitted ECG signal was received by commercially available radios. The ECG-modulated audio signal was fed into a signal processor that demodulated the ECG signal from the subcarrier frequency. The ECG obtained could be displayed on a oscilloscope or on a chart recorder (for details on signal processing, see Stoehr, 1988).


Figure 1: A single heartbeat, labeled

Figure 2: An ECG record of Male No. 865, showing one in four beats missing. The numbers at the top are the P-R intervals.

Figure 1 shows an ECG record of one heartbeat. Figure 2 shows an ECG record of Male No. 865, in which a 4:1 heart block (one of four beats is missing) can be seen. The ECG shows that this is due to a conduction problem in the atrioventricular (AV) node or the bundle of His[1]. Excitations fail to pass the AV node or the bundle of His and a second degree heart block occurs. In a Mobitz type I (Wenkebach) second degree heart block, the P-R intervals become prolonged just prior to the omission of a QRS complex, whereas that interval is not prolonged in a Mobitz type II second degree block (Hampton, 1993; Schmidt & Thews, 1985). In this case a "Wenkebach type" block was observed (see the numbers at the top of Figure 2). The R-R interval in the "skipped" beats was from 1.41 to 1.63 times longer than those in the conducted beats. This implies that there was a delay rather than an actual omission, in which case the ratio would be nearer to 2. The number of conducted beats between two "missing" ones varied between 1 and 15. The arrhythmia was observed over a period of four weeks. After five weeks during which the animals' ECGs were not monitored, the heart block had completely disappeared.


Because this phenomenon was observed in only one of 14 animals, we concluded that second degree heart block is unusual in common marmosets. Schnell (personal communication) reported no case in twenty common marmosets from which he analyzed ECGs. In human medicine this type of arrhythmia is seen as a sign of coronary artery disease, acute rheumatic carditis, digitalis toxicity, or electrolyte disturbance, and it is also reported in patients who suffer from heart attacks. In this case the behavior of the animal showed no sign of abnormalities, neither in quality nor in quantity, but it was noted that his heart rate (calculated from the remaining R-waves) seemed to be elevated in comparison to those of the other marmosets. In the evening, when the marmosets were in their sleeping boxes, high quality ECG recordings usually could be obtained. At this time of the day most animals showed a heart rate of between 130 and 150 beats per minute (bpm), while Male No. 865 usually had 160 bpm. This may be interpreted as a compensation for the missed ventricular contractions. In another male marmoset a similar change in ECG was observed during the first two days of oral treatment with the tetracycline-derivative Doxyhexal® against an infection with Campylobacter jejunii. The evening heart rate was raised to between 250 and 300 bpm from 140-150 bpm before onset of treatment and a block was observed in every 10th to 15th beat. This could be interpreted as an electrolyte disturbance caused by the drug or even by the stress of the infection. In the case described earlier no interpretation has been found to date. Similar observations from other institutions would be appreciated.


Hampton, J. R. (1993). The ECG Made Easy. 4th Ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1993.

Kerl, J. & Rothe, H. (1996), Influence of cage size and cage equipment on physiology and behavior of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 35[3], 10-13.

Schmidt, R. F. & Thews, G. (1985). Physiologie des Menschen. 22nd Ed., Berlin: Springer.

Stoehr, W. (1988). Longterm heartrate telemetry in small mammals: A comprehensive approach as a prerequisite for valid results. Physiology and Behavior, 43, 567-576.

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Ethologische Station Sennickerode, Institute of Anthropology, University of Göttingen, Sennickerode 11, 37130 Gleichen, Germany [e-mail:].

[ 1 ]The bundle of His is a small band of cardiac muscle fibers that propagates the atrial contraction rhythm to the ventricles.


Address Changes

Erica Bammel, 540 Buckingham Rd, Apt 623, Richardson, TX 70581.

Jane Dewar, Gorilla Haven, 2031 Lowery (Old Loving) Rd, Morganton, GA 30560.

Scott Line, Dept of Small Animal Clinical Sci., College of Vet. Med., D339 VTH, 1352 Boyd Ave, St Paul, MN 55108.

Pamela S. Weser, PET Dept, 2800 Plymouth Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.

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Resource Report: Germ-Free Monkeys Advance the War Against Aids

Fundamental animal research helps to lay the foundation for advances in treatment of AIDS. Scientists and workers, many of them veterinarians, devise methods for breeding and raising nonhuman primates free of particular infectious agents that might interfere with interpretation of research results - or even cause destruction of entire animal colonies. NCRR supports six resource centers that specialize in producing these specific-pathogen-free (SPF) macaques for AIDS research. SPF monkeys have proved critical in recent studies that showed the safety and effectiveness of live-attenuated AIDS vaccines in newborn and adult monkeys.

Because of the close relationship between humans and nonhuman primates, studies of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have led to important insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of human AIDS, caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Unfortunately, SIV and other natural monkey pathogens are so contagious that they can quickly decimate monkey colonies. In addition, unrecognized infections with type D retroviruses and other pathogens can render disease studies invalid, wasting time, money, and animal lives.

"A couple of our projects have been botched as a results of these infections," says Dr. Ronald C. Desrosiers, Chairman of the Division of Microbiology at the New England RPRC and Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School. "For example, one investigator administered an SIV vaccine to a monkey that had an active, but undiagnosed, type D retrovirus infection. The animal got sick and died, and the infection ruined the entire study."

In 1988, NCRR recognized the critical need for SPF animals for AIDS research and launched a nationwide effort to develop a self-propagating population of SPF monkeys. NCRR has funded SPF macaque breeding colonies in Texas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. Four additional NCRR-supported resources provide diagnostic, genetic, and behavioral management services for SPF colonies.

"There is increasing interest in using the monkey model for AIDS research because it enables investigators to address questions regarding viral dynamics and early replication rates and to ask such questions as: Can early treatment with multiple drugs contain the disease? AIDS researchers are learning that timing can be a critical factor," says Dr. Desrosiers. SPF animals make it easier for researchers to identify the stage of disease progression.

Dr. Robinson, who also directs NCRR's Regional Primate Research Centers Program, notes that studies in monkeys will be crucial for developing an effective AIDS vaccine. "Vaccine development needs to be promoted, and primate models are a key to this effort." The AIDS virus mutates readily, so vaccines must be tested thoroughly in different macaque species to ensure that they provide broad protection. Both rhesus and pigtail macaques are bred in the NCRR-supported SPF colonies.

The SPF macaques are not entirely disease-free, but may be infected with parasites or viruses that bear little similarity to SIV and other retroviruses. Monkeys infected with retroviruses that are closely related to SIV might produce antibodies that mask a vaccine's effect, Dr. Robinson explains. "That's why animals that are free of certain pathogens are essential." The SPF monkeys are screened for four types of viral agents that are known to interfere with AIDS experiments: SIV, simian retroviruses 1-5, simian T lymphotropic virus, and herpesvirus B.

SPF macaques are not only important for data integrity, they are also safer to work with. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and monkeys - a likeness that makes monkeys a useful model for human studies - humans may be susceptible to some of the infectious diseases of monkeys, a serious health hazard for caretakers and researchers. For example, herpesvirus B, which thrives in most large colonies of rhesus monkeys without affecting the health of the animals, causes a fatal infection in humans. Within the last decade, herpesvirus B has caused the deaths of a veterinarian working at a primate facility in Texas and of two monkey handlers in Florida.

Establishing self-propagating SPF colonies has proved to be an expensive and difficult task that requires great vigilance. "At first most newborn animals were delivered by cesarean section and hand-reared in isolation," explains Dr. Desrosiers. But for the past 3 years the animals have been breeding on their own. "We screen for infections several times a year and limit our breeding groups to 10 to 12 members. That way, if an infection occurs, the rest of the colony is not compromised. No infections have occurred yet." Dr. Desrosiers credits the healthy state of the New England colony to its careful management by veterinarian Dr. David Lee-Parritz.

Dr. Michale E. Keeling, principal investigator of the NCRR-supported SPF macaque resource at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center at Science Park in Bastrop, used a slightly different approach for establishing a breeding colony. He and his colleagues spent several years screening the monkeys for viral agents and excluding animals that were positive for the targeted retroviruses. "We separated the offspring from their mothers at 6 months to ensure they would become good breeders and parents, and then we paired clean animals and progressively derived an SPF colony," says Dr. Keeling, Chairman of the Department of Veterinary Science and Professor of Comparative Medicine at the Anderson Cancer Center in Houston.

Avoiding cross-contamination between virus-negative and virus-positive animals and an indeterminate population housed at the same facility requires the use of separate equipment or stringent disinfection protocols, as well as restriction of staff traffic patterns. "We work very hard not to reintroduce infectious agents," says Dr. Keeling, who continues to investigate new methods for reducing the occurrence of other pathogens.

Because of the added screening and housing requirements, the cost of raising an SPF monkey is more than $500 above that of a non-SPF monkey. Although these monkeys require a substantial financial investment, NCRR currently absorbs much of the additional cost and sells the animals below cost to researchers.

Dr. Robinson expects that NCRR will continue to fund three or four of the current six SPF facilities over the next 3 years or more. Before the turn of the century, he says, NCRR anticipates that at least three of the federally supported facilities will become self-sufficient and commercially viable.


From a report by Barbara Nasto in the NCRR Reporter, May/June 1997, pp.12-13.


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Resources Wanted and Available

Compounding Pharmacist

Buster Phillips, of Congaree Pharmacy, Inc., 3901-D Edmund Rd, West Columbia, SC 29170 [800-742-4203; 803-359-6851; e-mail:], is a compounding pharmacist. He has been making medicines for animals, working with several zoos and laboratory animal breeding facilities as well as private veterinarians. He would appreciate the opportunity to work with primatologists in formulating medicines for their animals and would be glad to give references if requested.

He writes: "I am working on a wafer into which medication can be incorporated. It started off being for children. I think it could have some applications for any hard-to-medicate animal. One of my clients must dart the dominant rhesus monkey before removing a member of the colony. I have been asked to prepare a dose of oral ketamine to ease this process. The mold I have made is 3/4 inch in diameter and 3/8 inch thick. Do you have any flavor or color suggestions?"

Latin American Data Base

In collaboration with Conservation International do Brasil, the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group has set up a referenced data base for the occurrence of primates in protected areas in Latin America in order to bring together widely scattered (but abundant) information on the primate communities they contain. Information to be catalogued includes: a) the protected area systems for each of the 21 countries containing primates; b) a listing of all protected areas in each country and basic data such as size, date of creation, status, principal vegetation types, etc.; c) A referenced listing of the research on, for example, vegetation types and mammalian (especially primate) communities carried out in each protected area; d) A referenced listing of the primate species which have been documented to occur in the protected areas or which supposedly (according the species' distributions) occur in them.

The information will be obtained from the current literature, including unpublished reports, as well as by correspondence and personal contacts, and will permit an evaluation of the existence and extent of protected areas for each primate taxon, as well as the current status of our knowledge of the occurrence of primates in each of them. This project will be carried out in collaboration with the Protected Areas Data Unit (PADU) of the World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), Cambridge. It will be vital for the formulation of action plans for the Neotropical primates.

Many parks and reserves are well documented, but information is extremely limited for the majority - even with regard to the status of the protected area. We are making a special appeal to readers to help in providing information they may have on the occurrence of primate species and subspecies in protected areas in South America, Central America and Mexico, most especially regarding their own observations or by informing us of pertinent projects, or publications and reports, notably those which are obscure or limited in circulation. Your help in making this data base as complete and accurate as possible will be greatly appreciated. Please contact Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil [Tel/fax: +55 (0)31 441-1795; e-mail:].

WRPRC Audiovisual Archive

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Audiovisual Archive, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [e-mail:], has a superb and growing collection of slides, videotapes, and printed material. "If you have videotape materials or slides related to nonhuman primates and would consider contributing copies to the archive, please contact the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive staff. Please do not prejudge your material as inappropriate for the archive. Image clarity is the minimum criterion. Finished pieces as well as data tapes should be preserved. We would like to have 50 or more slides for EACH species to have good taxonomic, behavioral, and other descriptive documentation. Please keep in mind that people who have been a part of the growing history of the discipline should also be photodocumented. We gratefully acknowledge the more than 475 contributions received to date. A sample of the 6,000 slides in the Archive is available on Primate Info Net at

"A catalog of videotapes available from the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive is available at: To borrow items from the Archive, contact Special Collections Librarian Ray Hamel. WRPRC Archival materials are loaned internationally for educational and research purposes. Any requests to republish photographic materials from the Archive must be approved by the photographer. If you have materials available or are planning laboratory or field work which involves videotaping or photography, please send us a note."

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Travelers' Health Notes


The International Association for Medical Assistance to Travellers (IAMAT), a division of the Foundation for the Support of International Medical Training, Inc., offers its members several interesting publications. This year members received a directory of English-speaking physicians in 125 countries, all of whom have agreed to a set payment schedule for IAMAT members, and who assure qualified medical assistance. Also included were pamphlets on malaria and a world immunization chart. Risk charts for Chagas' disease and schistosomiasis, world climate charts, and a "traveller clinical record" are also available. IAMAT offers for sale, at their own cost of $110 plus postage, a 5-pound, easy-to-assemble bed net, consisting of a self-standing aluminum frame and netting. Membership in IAMAT is free, but donations are welcomed. For information, contact IAMAT, 417 Center St, Lewiston, NY 14092 [716-754-4883]; 40 Regal Rd, Guelph, Ont., N1K 1B5 [519-836-0102]; 1287 St Clair Ave W., Toronto, Ont., M6E 1B8 [416-652-0137]; P.O. Box 5049, Christchurch 5 New Zealand; 57 Voirets, 1212 Grand-Lancy, Geneva, Switzerland [e-mail:; on the Web:].

Lariam® (Mefloquine) Antimalarial Information

M. K. Holder (Affiliated Scientist, Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior, Indiana University) posted to Primate-Talk that she has "inadvertantly become an international clearing house for those afflicted with serious side-effects from the antimalarial Lariam." Apparently as many as one in 40 persons (British Medical Journal, August 31 and September 14, 1996) is severely allergic to the drug.

"I strongly advise against taking Lariam, either as a prophylactic or as a curative dose. Most US physicians know very little about tropical medicine, and are still happily prescribing Lariam (mefloquine), despite the growing documentation of its danger. You should be aware that taking Lariam frequently results in serious (daily activity debilitating) side-effects, both physical and psychological. Far worse than this: many people experience untreatable debilitating side-effects months and years after discontinuation.

"Long-term problems include: panic attacks; epileptic-type `fits'; hallucinations (visual and auditory); tinnitus; permanent hearing loss; convulsions; insomnia; numbness in extremities; perceptual problems. These are so serious that these folks are unable to continue working or function socially in a normal way. The medical community does not know the underlying mechanisms, and so these problems are frequently misdiagnosed and pretty much untreatable. Short term effects can include all of the above, plus: high fever, nausea, headache, rash, nightmares, elevated heart rate, and anxiety.

"As an alternative, I have used the cloriquine/paludrine combination comfortably." is a Web site with a great deal of information on Lariam and its possible side-effects. Another Web source is A contact e-mail for the newly-formed Lariam Action USA is:

Artesunate Rectocaps: A Life-saving Intervention

Death from severe falciparum malaria varies from 10-40% depending upon the time of starting treatment and the facilities for management of its complications. The disease can progress so rapidly that, for a patient who can no longer take oral drugs, survival depends upon the speed of reaching facilities where parenteral drugs can be given. When such facilities are distant, death may occur within the first 96 hours after admission to hospital.

Artesunate, a water-soluble semi-synthetic hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin, has a clinical performance which is arguably one of the best documented in areas of multi-drug resistance. In theory, Rectocaps, a suppository formulation of artesunate manufactured by a Swiss company, Mepha, is promising, as it offers the prospect of providing safe and effective treatment for severe malaria in rural areas of the tropics where parenteral drugs cannot be given. No other antimalarial drug has been registered for use at an early point in the evolution to severe disease. It does not cure the disease (i.e. eliminate parasitemia), but it can save lives by providing therapeutic cover en route to hospital. Within hours the drug can reduce parasitemia, and the patient rapidly returns to per os status. The onset of complications and the associated hospital admissions are thereby prevented, and mortality caused by acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria is significantly reduced. The formulation is unlikely to be abused and can be given by minimally trained personnel.

During the past year, TDR's Task Force on Artesunate Suppositories has initiated rigorously controlled clinical trials to examine the potential of the product for a strictly limited indication: for patients unable to take oral drugs en route to hospital where normal parenteral treatment can be instituted. Phase II trials have been implemented in patients with moderately severe malaria in Asia and Africa. The purpose of these trials is to examine the pharmacokinetic parameters and the safety, tolerance and clinical efficacy of the product in comparison with parenteral administration and to establish the acute bioavailability of artesunate in patients. The results, although not yet fully analysed, provide an optimistic view of the drug. Phase IIb trials are now in progress and TDR will soon initiate large-scale field studies on three continents.

For further information please contact Dr. M. Gomes or Dr. P. Olliaro, WHO/TDR. 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland [fax: 41 22 791 4854]. - From TDR Newsletter 53, June 1997

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Monkeypox is a viral disease with a clinical presentation in humans similar to that seen in the past in smallpox patients. Smallpox no longer occurs, following its worldwide eradication in 1980, whereas monkeypox is still seen as a sporadic disease in parts of Africa.

The virus responsible for monkeypox is related to the virus that used to cause smallpox. Vaccination against smallpox (no longer done) protected against monkeypox. Before the eradication of smallpox, vaccination was widely practised and protected against both diseases. However, children born after 1980 have not been vaccinated against smallpox and are likely to be more susceptible to monkeypox than older members of the population. The death rate from monkeypox is highest in young children, reaching about 10%.

Most cases occur in remote villages of Central and West Africa close to tropical rainforests where there is frequent contact with infected animals. Monkeypox is usually transmitted to humans from squirrels and primates through contact with the animal's blood or through a bite.

Following reports of ongoing cases of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire) representing a new pattern of the disease, the Ministry of Health in the DRC and the World Health Organization (WHO) organized an investigation in February 1997.

In the past in the DRC, an outbreak of monkeypox would not go very far in the village or last long because it did not spread extensively after the first patients recovered. However, the present study indicates that monkeypox disease is changing its pattern of infection in humans. The outbreak had a much higher rate of person-to-person transmission than seen before, and spread through many generations of transmission, thus maintaining the outbreak for more than a year.

Previous studies over a twenty-year period had shown that the rate of transmission of monkeypox within households was low, suggesting that the disease had a low potential for transmission from person to person. Outbreaks were generally self-limiting after one or two sequential transmissions. However, the recent study has shown that:

The outbreak in the DRC presents the largest cluster of monkeypox cases ever reported;

The proportion of patients who were 15 years of age or older (27%) was higher than previously reported (8%) (young children had been the most affected in previous outbreaks);

The rate of transmission from person to person (73%) was higher than previously reported (30%). This was associated with the clustering of cases in household compounds and prolonged chains of transmission from person to person;

The proportion of deaths (3%) was lower than previously reported (10%); all were aged under three years and died within three weeks of disease onset.

The ending of vaccination programs against smallpox in the late 1970's has probably led to an increase in susceptibility to monkeypox and could explain the larger size of the most recent outbreak, the higher proportion of patients aged 15 and over, and the spread through many generations of transmission.

WHO is concerned that monkeypox could pose a public health problem in this region of the DRC and therefore vigilance must be maintained by strengthening detection systems for monkeypox and completely investigating future outbreaks.

Further WHO studies are planned in the region to determine the need for additional risk-reduction measures.

In May 1996 the 49th World Health Assembly decided that the last remaining stock of smallpox virus held in two research centers in the Russian Federation and the United States of America should be destroyed as the last step in the complete and final global elimination of smallpox. It also decided that WHO would keep 500,000 doses of smallpox vaccine (which is also effective against monkeypox). The smallpox vaccine seed virus (vaccinia virus strain Lister Eistrea) will be maintained in the WHO Collaborating Centre on Smallpox Vaccine at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection in Bilthoven, Netherlands, so that new stocks of vaccine can be produced if needed.

For further information, please contact Health Communications and Public Relations, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland [(41 22) 7914458; fax: (41 22) 791 4858; on the Web: www.who-ch/]. - WHO Fact Sheet NO 161

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Meeting Announcements

The Regional Primate Research Center at the University of Washington will host the 15th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS, September 3-6, 1997, at Seattle's new Bell Harbor Conference Center. There will be a keynote address by Dr. Robin Weiss of Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, England. The five half-day sessions will focus on nonhuman primate research utilizing SIV, HIV, and SHIV: Molecular biology, Nonhuman primate models, Pathogenesis, Vaccines/therapeutics, and Virus-host cell interactions. The banquet speaker will be Laurie Garrett of Newsday, New York City, author of The Coming Plague. All abstracts (including both oral and poster presentations) will be published in a Special AIDS Issue of The Journal of Medical Primatology. The registration fee of $275 ($325 after July 23) will include attendance at the general sessions, poster session, coffee breaks, two lunches, receptions and banquet;. For information and conference registration, contact Pamela Silimperi, Washington RPRC, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-0909; e-mail:; on the web:]

A Linnean Society Conference on "The Evolution and Behaviour of Monkeys, Apes and Man" will be held on 4-5 September, 1997 at The North of England Zoological Society, Chester Zoo, Upton by Chester, Cheshire CH2 1LH. The keynote speech will be "Characteristics of primate species prone to extinction", by Sandy Harcourt. For information and registration, contact Robin H. Crompton, Dept of Human Anatomy, Univ. of Liverpool, P.O. Box 146, Liverpool L69 3BX England [e-mail:].

The Baltic Laboratory Animal Science Association will meet in Vilnius, Lithuania, 25-26 September, 1997, for their 7th Conference, "Animal Models." For further information, contact Mrs. Guna Jacobson, Balt-LASA, 53 Krustpils St, Riga LV 1057 Latvia [371 7139461; fax: 371 7820148; e-mail:].

A Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Human Evolution will be held October 4-8, 1997, on Long Island, NY. The symposium title is "Human Evolution," organized by Drs. Luigi Cavalli-Sforza and James Watson (President of CSHL). Five sessions in the symposium will cover human molecular evolution. Other sessions include paleoanthropology, genetic variation and multifactorial disease, and primate behavior. The latter session, which will be entitled "Primate Behavior and the Reconstruction of Human Social Evolution," will include Robin Dunbar, Richard Wrangham, Karen Strier, Anne Pusey and Bill McGrew as invited speakers. Contact Frans B. M. de Waal, Yerkes RPRC, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 [e-mail:; web-site:].

The Society for Psychological Anthropology will have its Biennial Meeting 9-12 October, 1997, in San Diego, CA. Contact Robert Munroe, Anthropology Dept., Pitzer College, Claremont, CA 91711 [909-624-1205; fax: 909-621-8481].

The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science's Annual Meeting will be held 1 November, 1997, in Anaheim, CA. Contact Sarah J. Dunlap [901-754-8620; fax: 901-754-8620].

The American Anthropological Association's 96th Annual Meeting will be 19-23 November, 1997, in Washington, DC, focusing on "Futures of Anthropology: Practice, Imagination and Theory in the 21st Century." Contact AAA, Meetings Department, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr. Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203 [703-528-1902, Ext. 2].

The Primate Society of Great Britain's Winter Meeting, 3 December, 1997, at the meeting rooms of the Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London, will feature "New Perspectives on Nocturnal Primates". For information or to submit abstracts (approximately 200 words), contact Dr. Paul Honess, Anthropology Unit, School of Social Sciences and Law, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 OBP, U.K. [fax: +44 (0) 1865 483937; e-mail:].

The Australasian Primate Society's XVIth Annual Meeting will be held December 5-7, 1997, in Launceston, Tasmania, supported by the Launceston City Council. The theme will be "Macaques - Biology and Behavior". Abstracts deadline is October 17. Send papers and abstracts to The Editor, Australasian Primate Society, P.O. Box 500, One Tree Hill, South Australia 5114, Australia [08 8280 7670; e-mail:].

A conference on Population and Habitat Viability Analysis for the Mountain Gorilla will be held 8-12 December, 1997, in Kampala, Uganda, organized by the Uganda Wildlife Authority, the Uganda Forest Department, the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, and the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. Biologists and wildlife managers from Zaire, Rwanda, and Uganda will work together to develop coherent management plans for this highly threatened species. Contact Norm Rosen, Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of So. California, 27 16th St, Hermosa Beach, CA 90254 [310-318-3778; fax: 310-798-0576; e-mail:].

The German Primate Center (DPZ) will host a conference on Primate Socioecology: Causes and Consequences of Variation in the Number of Males in Göttingen, Germany, December 9-12, 1997. This meeting aims to integrate various aspects of primate socioecology related to variation in the number of adult males across groups and taxa, but birds and other mammals will also be discussed. Invited presentations on the first three days will cover all primate taxa and address topics such as infanticide, reproductive skew, sex-specific reproductive strategies, sexual conflict, ecological influences on behavior, intra-specific variation, dispersal, competition, and cooperation. Confirmed speakers include J. Altmann, T. Clutton-Brock, M. Cords, N. Davies, R. Dunbar, E. Heymann, C. Janson, P. Jarman, P. Kappeler, J. Mitani, C. Nunn, T. Pope, T. Rowell, B. Smuts, V. Sommer, L. Sterck, K. Strier, T. Struhsaker, J. van Hooff, C. van Schaik, D. Watts and R. Wrangham. For the last day, we invite submissions for 15-min. oral papers. We also welcome posters, which will be displayed throughout the conference. The deadline for submission of abstracts to be considered for spoken papers or posters is August 1, 1997. Additional details are available from Peter Kappeler, DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, 3400 Göttingen, Germany [e-mail:] and the conference web site:

An International Congress of Ecology (VII) - "New Tasks for Ecologists after Rio 92" - will be held 19-25 July, 1998, at the Centro Affari & Palazzo Internazionale dei Congressi, Florence, Italy. Contact Almo Farina, Vice-President INTERCOL, Secretariat VII International Congress of Ecology, Lunigliana Museum of Natural History, Fortezza della Brunella, 54011 Aulla, Italy [39-187-400252; fax: 39-187-420727; e-mail:;].

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Workshop Announcements

Sedation, Immobilization, and Anesthesia

Safe-Capture International, Inc. announces a seminar on "Sedation, Immobilization, and Anesthesia of Nonhuman Primates," August 23-24, 1997, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, College of Veterinary Medicine. Guest speakers will include Drs. Jan Ramer and Joanne Paul-Murphy of the Wisconsin RPRC.

Topics will include (for captive and free-ranging conditions): Humane capture: How to minimize stress. Taming and training: What's possible without drugs. Oral medications Remote drug delivery methods: The latest in equipment and technology Pharmacology for immobilization The use of analgesics in nonhuman primates Species-specific immobilization dosage regimens and protocols Anesthetic monitoring for captive and field procedures Capture-related medical emergencies: Recognizing, treating, and preventing problems Personnel safety protocols The effects of immobilizing agents on hematology, blood chemistry, and hormonal studies Zoonotic disease implications with chemical immobilization of nonhuman primates Developing ethical Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocols.

Each participant will receive a 110-page training manual, including immobilization protocols for over 100 species of nonhuman primates. Certificates will be awarded upon satisfactory completion of the program.

For registration and other information, contact Dr. Keith Beheler-Amass, Safe-Capture International, Inc., P.O. Box 206, Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin, 53572 [608-767-3071; fax: 608-437-5287].

New Technologies

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), Washington University in St. Louis, and the Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) at NIH will co-sponsor a conference on September 25-26, 1997, at the Eric P. Newman Conference Center, Washington University in St. Louis. The conference will focus on new technologies: electronic media and application for animal research and IACUCs, designing and remodeling facilities with computers, special IACUC use of computer tracking and record keeping, electronic grants administration, animal facility management, and searching for alternatives.

Members of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, animal care staff, researchers, regulatory personnel, attending veterinarians, administrators, and others interested in these issues are encouraged to attend. For more information contact: SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20770 [301-345-3500; fax: 301-345-3503; e-mail:].

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Announcements from Publications

ILAR Journal

The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) has announced with regret that they will no longer distribute the ILAR Journal free to the international animal research community, as they have since it was first published in 1957. As part of the National Research Council, ILAR is a nongovernmental organization that must compete for funding like any other nonprofit organization.

"As we explored how to [find additional sources of funds], we realized that this actually provided an opportunity to give our readers better access to ILAR's information and resources. The result is the ILAR Associates program."

ILAR Associates will continue to receive ILAR Journal, as well as a 20% discount on all publications of the National Academy Press, including, e.g., the newly revised Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and other benefits. There are several types of Associates, individual and institutional, at different costs. For more information on this program, contact ILAR, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418 [202-334-2590; fax: 202-334-1687; e-mail:; on the Web:].

Animal Behaviour

As of 1 August 1997, correspondence and manuscript submissions to the American office of Animal Behaviour should be sent to Animal Behaviour Editorial Office, 2611 East 10th St., Indiana University, Bloomington In 47408-2603 [e-mail:].

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Editors' Notes

Saving Trees

We would like to remind readers again of the two paperless ways to read the LPN: The most complete is our Web page (URL: The most recent 54 issues, volumes 25 to 36, from 1985 to the present, are there, with all their graphics (including our infamous cartoons!) as well as text. We also have complete indexes for all the issues, from 1962 to the present. The indexes for volumes 25-36 have "hot spots" which connect the index to the articles for immediate reading or printing out. We also have the Index of Articles on Environmental Enrichment, kept up-to-date by David Seelig, who is working this summer on including references for all thirty-six volumes of the LPN!

For those who have e-mail but are unable to access the Web, we send out LPN-L, which consists of the text files and tables of each issue. Archives go back to 1991. Subscribe by sending the message "Subscribe LPN-L My Name" to

We have all paper back issues, any or all of which we will mail you at the low price of $2 each, prepaid.

Updating our Reference

In the July 1966 issue of the LPN (5[3], ii-iii), Allan Schrier printed the following Editor's Notes: "It is about time that we spelled out the Newsletter policy on nomenclature on nonhuman most readers have already discovered, there are marked differences among primate taxonomists in their systems of classification and nomenclature...To avoid such inconsistencies within the Newsletter, the scientific names used are those given by Fiedler (1956)." In the January 1969 issue (8[1], ii), the Policy Statement was quietly changed to read, "In general, to avoid inconsistencies within the Newsletter, beginning with the April, 1969 issue, the scientific names used will be those of Napier and Napier [A Handbook of Living Primates]. And in the January, 1983 issue (22[1], ii), Napier and Napier were replaced by Honacki, Kinman, & Koeppl, the editors of Mammal Species of The World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (1982).

We have been very conservative in changing any of Allan's policies, or anything in his Policy Statement, but we have been alerted that Honacki et al. was updated in 1993 by D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder. With hesitation (especially since some of our favorite names have disappeared) we announce the following: "In general, to avoid inconsistencies within the Newsletter, the scientific names used will be those in Mammal Species of The World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, (2nd Ed.), D. E. Wilson & D. M. Reeder (Eds.). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993."

This change will be effective as of the January, 1998 issue (Volume 37, number 1). In the meanwhile, we will consider any comments, commendations, and complaints on the subject from our readers.

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Grants Available

ACLAM Foundation Research Grants

The American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) Foundation was formed to identify and support research in laboratory animal science and medicine. Two to four research grant awards will be made early in 1998, in one or more of the the following areas: analgesia/anesthesia; animal behavior/well-being; diagnostics/diseases of lab animals; husbandry; toxicology. For more information, send your mailing address or fax number to Martin Morin, ACLAM Foundation, P.O. Box 103, Chestertown, MD 21620 [410-810-1870; fax: 410-810-1869; e-mail:] or <>.

High Risk/High Impact Research

The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) announces a new initiative to broaden the base of inquiry in fundamental biomedical research by encouraging applications for research projects that involve an especially high degree of innovation and novelty and, therefore, require a preliminary test of feasibility. The research projects proposed under this program announcement may involve substantial experimental risks such that their potential for highly significant outcomes may be difficult to judge by the standard criteria used in evaluating R01 applications. The amount awarded for each of these pilot projects would be lower than that awarded for the average R01 grant. New applications will be accepted under this program announcement on the regular application receipt deadlines: February 1, June 1 and October 1.

The NIGMS seeks to encourage fundamental research projects that fall into the following classes: projects to test novel and significant hypotheses for which there is scant precedent or preliminary data and which, if confirmed, would have a substantial impact on current thinking; projects to explore a new experimental organism or system in order to address particularly difficult basic biomedical questions for which the new system would be particularly advantageous; and projects to develop innovative techniques or methodologies with wide applicability to the study of basic biomedical problems.

The projects must support the NIGMS mission as detailed in the publication, "Divisions and Grant Award Mechanisms," available from the NIGMS Public Information Office (301/496-7301); additional information can be found on the NIGMS home page at In brief, NIGMS supports research in (a) cell biology and molecular biophysics, including basic studies of the structure and function of cells, cellular components, and the biological macromolecules that make up these components; (b) fundamental mechanisms of inheritance and development that typically utilize nonhuman model systems; (c) basic studies in pharmacology, physiology, biochemistry, biorelated chemistry and anesthesiology; (d) basic studies in biotechnology, including biocatalysis and metabolic engineering; (e) bioengineering, including instrumentation development and refinement and development of bioanalytical methods and biomaterials; and (f) trauma and burn injury.

The Program Announcement, which describes the research objectives, application procedures, review considerations, and award criteria for this program, may be obtained electronically through the NIH Grant Line (data line 301/402-2221), the NIH Gopher (, and the NIH Website (, and by mail and e-mail from Dr. James C. Cassatt, Div. of Cell Biology and Biophysics, NIGMS, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-0828; fax: 301-480-2004; e-mail:].

DHEA and Aging

The National Institutes on Aging (NIA) and of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD) are interested in receiving research project grant applications addressing gaps in our knowledge of the physiologic roles and effects of administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or its sulfated derivative, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA(S)), in middle-aged and older people, and of the mechanism of action of DHEA(S) at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. DHEA is a metabolite on the steroidogenic pathway between cholesterol and the sex steroids. In humans and other primates, the adrenal gland is the most prolific source of DHEA, with DHEA(S) synthesized primarily in hepatic and adrenal tissues. In primates, DHEA is present in levels considerably higher than the other steroid metabolites of cholesterol.

Clinical and epidemiologic studies on the relationship of DHEA levels to diseases and other health outcomes have not had consistent results. Animal studies, generally performed in species in which endogenous DHEA levels are normally relatively low and may not change substantially with age, and involving dietary DHEA at very high levels for most studies, show delayed tumor formation, prevention of atherosclerosis, weight loss in obese animals and, in general, retardation of the development of many chronic age-related pathologic changes.

Direct inquiries to Frank Bellino, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail:].

Enteric and Hepatic Infectious Diseases

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD) invite investigator-initiated applications in research emphasis areas focused on infection and disease caused by enteric and hepatic pathogens. Of special interest are: the protective immune response and strategies to invoke it; mechanisms determining the outcome of infection, as well as mechanisms of pathogenesis and persistence; variability and genomic organization and component structure/function; modes of transmission, reservoirs of infection, and molecular epidemiology; and application of new technologies and scientific advances to vaccine and therapy development. Multi-disciplinary research is encouraged.

Inquiries may be directed to Dr. Leslye D. Johnson [e-mail:] or Dr. Dennis R. Lang, Div. of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 3A21, MSC 7630, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-7051; fax: 301-402-1456; e-mail:]; Dr. Frank Hamilton, Digestive Diseases Program Branch, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8877; fax: 301-480-8300; e-mail:]; or Dr. Thomas F. Kresina, Liver Diseases Program, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8871; fax: 301-480-8300; e-mail:].

Academic Research Enhancement Awards (AREA)

NIH is continuing to make a special effort to stimulate research in educational institutions that provide baccalaureate training for a significant number of the nation's research scientists but that have not been major recipients of NIH support. AREA funds are intended to support small-scale, new or ongoing, health-related research projects proposed by faculty members of eligible institutions.

All health professional schools and other academic components of domestic institutions offering baccalaureate or advanced degrees in the sciences related to health are eligible, except those that have received research grants and/or cooperative agreements from the NIH totaling more than $2 million per year (in both direct and indirect costs) in each of four or more years during the period from FY 1990 through FY 1996.

The research objectives of the AREA program are those of the individual NIH Institutes and Centers. Potential applicants should contact the Program Contact person for one or more of the Institutes whose scientific interests are closest to those of the proposed research. Natl Inst. on Aging: Dr. Miriam Kelty, Associate Dir., Office of Extramural Affairs, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Rm 2C218, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9322; fax: 301-402-2945; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism: Dr. Laurie Foudin, Div. of Basic Research, 6000 Executive Boulevard, Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20892-7003 [301-443-0912; fax: 301-594-0673; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. on Allergy & Infectious Diseases: Mr. Al Czarra, Dir., Office of Program Coordination & Operations, Div. of Extramural Activities, Solar Bldg, Rm 3C28, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-7291; fax: 301-402-0369; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of Arthritis & Musculoskeletal & Skin Diseases: Dr. Steven J. Hausman, Deputy Dir., Bldg 31, Rm 4C32, Bethesda, MD 20892-2350 [301-402-1691; fax: 301-480-6069] e-mail:]; Natl Cancer Inst.: Dr. Vincent T. Oliverio, Associate Dir. for Program Coordination, Div. of Extramural Activities, Executive Plaza North, Suite 600, Bethesda, MD 20892-7405 [301-496-9138; fax: 301-402-0956; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of Child Health & Human Development: Dr. Yvonne Maddox, Deputy Dir., Bldg 31, Rm 2A-03, Bethesda, MD 20892-2425 [301-496-0104; fax: 301-402-1104; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. on Deafness & Other Communication Disorders, Dr. Jack Pearl, Div. of Human Communication, Executive Plaza South, Suite 400-C, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [301-402-3464; fax: 301-402-6251; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of Dental Research: Dr. Norman S. Braveman, Assistant Dir. for Program Development, Bldg 45, Rm 4AN-24, Bethesda, MD 20892-6401 [301-594-2089; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases: Dr. Walter S. Stolz, Dir., Div. of Extramural Activities, Bldg 45, Rm 6AS-25C, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8834; fax: 301-480-3504; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. on Drug Abuse: Dr. Teresa Levitin, Dir., Office of Extramural Program Review, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 10-42, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-2755; fax: 301-443-0538; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences: Dr. Jerrold Heindel, P.O. Box 12233, North Campus MD 3-03, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 [919-541-0781; fax: 919-541-2843; e-mail:]; Natl Eye Inst.: Dr. Ralph J. Helmsen, Research Resources Officer, Executive Plaza South, Suite 350, Bethesda, MD 20892-7164 [301-496-5301; fax: 301-402-0528; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of General Medical Sciences: Dr. Michael R. Martin, Deputy Associate Dir. for Extramural Activities, Bldg 45, Rm 2AN-32K, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-3910; fax: 301-480-1852; e-mail:]; Natl Heart, Lung, & Blood Inst.: Dr. Ronald Geller, Dir., Div. of Extramural Affairs, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Rm 7100, Bethesda, MD 20892-7922 [301-435-0260; fax: 301-480-3460; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of Mental Health: Dr. Richard Nakamura, Div. of Extramural Activities, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 9-105, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-3367; fax: 301-443-0954; e-mail:]; Natl Inst. of Neurological Diseases & Stroke: Dr. Joseph S. Drage, Training & Special Programs Officer, Federal Bldg, Rm 1016, Bethesda, MD 20892-9190 [301-496-4188; fax: 301-402-4370; e-mail:]; Natl Center for Research Resources: Dr. Louise E. Ramm, Deputy Dir., Bldg 12A, Rm 4009 Bethesda, MD 20892-5662 [301-496-6023; fax: 301-402-0006; e-mail:]. Application receipt dates are September 25, 1997; January 25, 1998, and May 25, 1998.

Tissue Engineering, Biomimetics, Medical Implants

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) invite applications to design and engineer natural and novel approaches for the repair, restoration, and replacement of tissues and whole organs based on a comprehensive scientific understanding of biological structures and their function. Applications must be received by August 25, 1997. For more information, contact Dr. Paul Didisheim, Head, Biomaterials Prog., Div. of Heart and Vascular Diseases, NHLBI, Rockledge 2 Bldg, Rm 9180 Bethesda, MD 20892-7940 [301-435-0513; fax: 301-480-1336; e-mail:]; Dr. Eleni Kousvelari, Prog. Dir. for Biomaterials, Biomimetics, & Tissue Engineering, Div. of Extramural Research, NIDR, Natcher Bldg, Rm 4AN 18A, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2427; fax: 301-480-8318; E-mail:]; or Dr. James S. Panagis, Director, Orthopaedics Prog., NIAMSD, Natcher Bldg, Rm 5AS 37K, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:].

AIDS Vaccine Development

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Division of AIDS (DAIDS), invites applications for research and development efforts directed toward obtaining a safe and efficacious vaccine to protect against HIV-1 infection or AIDS. The aim of this program, Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development, is to encourage the process of laboratory-to-clinic development, evaluation, and refinement of vaccine concepts. Applicants may apply for support for preclinical/basic research aimed at creation of vaccines and testing in animal models, vaccine lot production and toxicology testing, and limited clinical studies in humans.

For more information, contact Dr. Steven Bende, Div. of AIDS, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 2A29, Bethesda, MD 20892-7620 [301-435-3756; FAX: (301) 402-3684; e-mail:]. Application receipt dates are July 30 in 1997, 1998, and 1999.

Minority Faculty, Institutions, and Students

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute announces a program to provide support to underrepresented minority faculty members with varying levels of research experience to prepare them for research careers as independent investigators. The research development programs of the candidates are based on scholastic background, previous research experience, past achievements, and potential to develop into an independent research investigator. The objective is to develop highly trained minority investigators, whose basic or clinical research interests are grounded in the advanced methods and experimental approaches needed to solve problems related to cardiovascular, pulmonary and blood diseases, transfusion medicine, and sleep disorders.

NHLBI also provides research support to faculty members at minority institutions who have the interest and potential to conduct state-of-the-art research in the areas of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or hematologic disease, or in sleep disorders. This is an effort to enhance the institution's science programs, and to assist in the acquisition of "hands on" research opportunities for minority students at the applicant's institution. A related program provides short-term research training (T35) support to minority underrepresented undergraduate students, graduate students, and students in health professional schools to provide them with career opportunities in these research fields. The grant provides training experiences of two to three consecutive months and exposes talented students to various possibilities in biomedical research careers.

Requests for Applications HL-97-006, HL-97-007, and HL-97-008, describing research objectives, application procedures, review considerations, and award criteria, may be obtained electronically through the NIH Grant Line (data-line 301-402-2221), the NIH Gopher (, and the NIH Website (, and by mail or e-mail from Mary S. Reilly or Ann Rothgeb, Div. of Lung Diseases, NHLBI, 6710 Rockledge Dr., Rm 10112, MSC 7952, Bethesda, MD 20892-7952 [301-435-0222; fax: 301-480-3557; e-mail:;]. Application receipt date is August 25, 1997.

Support of Scientific Meetings by NIH

The National Institutes of Health has published its guidelines for support of scientific meetings, conferences, and workshops that are relevant to its scientific mission and to public health. Detailed information may also be obtained from the NIH Extramural Programs book, which is available on the NIH home page on the WWW at or by gopher at

Cancer Drug Discovery

The Developmental Therapeutics Program, Div. of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC), National Cancer Inst. (NCI), invites Program Project grant applications proposing innovative combinatorial chemical and biosynthetic approaches to the generation of structural diversity and smart assay development for cancer drug discovery (see Nature, November 1996, 384[6604], Suppl. 7). This program will bring together chemists and biologists who will propose novel approaches to the discovery of compound classes potentially active against cancer. It is estimated that $3.75 million total costs (direct plus facilities and administrative costs) will be available for the first year to support approximately four to five awards for up to five years.

RFA CA-97-006, which describes the research objectives, application procedures, review considerations, and award criteria for this solicitation, may be obtained electronically through the NIH Grant Line (data line 301/402-2221), the NIH gopher (, and the NIH Website (, and by mail and e-mail from Mary K. Wolpert, Ph.D., DCTDC, NCI, 6130 Executive Blvd, Rm 841 - MSC 7456, Bethesda, MD 20892-7456 [301-496-8783; fax: 301-402-5200; e-mail:]. Application receipt date is August 22, 1997.

Diabetic Retinopathy

The National Eye Institute (NEI) and the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International (JDFI) participate in an ongoing cooperative program of research support to stimulate basic cellular and molecular biological research on diabetic retinopathy. Applications submitted to the NIH will be assigned and reviewed according to the usual NIH peer review procedures. Meritorious applications not funded by the NEI may be considered by the JDFI for possible funding.

The purpose of this NEI/JDFI cooperative program is to accelerate basic research activities directed toward dis-covering the cellular and molecular basis of diabetic retinopathy. Recent advances in structural, cell, and molecular biology can be applied more widely to gain a better understanding of retinal cell basement membrane biology, pericyte-endothelial cell interactions, three-dimensional structure of retinal enzymes, and regulation of retinal gene expression. More information about retinal metabolic pathways and how these pathways are regulated could possibly lead to the development of biological modifiers or pharmacologic agents that would be useful in preventing or treating diabetic retinopathy.

Studies in experimental animals point to elevated blood glucose levels as important in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Laboratory investigations employing cultured cells show that elevated glucose levels affect the metabolism and growth of pericytes, capillary endothelial cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells. However, the fundamental mechanisms which cause diabetic retinopathy remain unknown.

Direct inquiries to: Peter A. Dudley, Div. of Extramural Research, NEI, 6120 Executive Blvd, Suite 350, MSC 7164, Rockville, MD 20892-7164 [301-496-0484; fax: 301-402-0528; e-mail:].

Alcohol-induced Hormonal Changes

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) invites applications to investigate how alcohol-induced hormonal changes can lead to medical complications. Alcohol intake can influence the synthesis, secretion, and action of many hormones, resulting in physiological and pathological disturbances. Either blunting or overstimulation of hormonal activities can disturb intercellular signaling and create adverse consequences. Studies are encouraged to establish cause-and-effect relationships and to clarify the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which alcohol influences the synthesis, secretion and action of various hormones. Also, studies are encouraged to interpret the mechanisms of interactive effects of alcohol and hormones which may cause tissue injury. Such studies will provide information that can be used to ameliorate alcohol-hormone-related medical complications.

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is interested in research applications examining how alcohol use influences the development of age-related changes in the endocrine system.

The Endocrinology Research Programs at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) are interested in studies which focus on hormonal regulation of gene expression under normal and pathological conditions, including alcohol-induced altered conditions of hormonal release and response.

Direct inquiries to Vishnudutt Purohit [301-443-4224; e-mail:] or Jules Selden [301-443-2678; e-mail:], Div. Basic Research, NIAAA, 6000 Executive Blvd, Suite 402 MSC 7003, Bethesda, MD 20892-7003 [fax: 301-594-0673]; Frank Bellino, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail:]; or Ronald N. Margolis, Endocrinology Sect., NIDDKD, Bldg 45, Rm 5AN-12J, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8819; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail:].

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News Briefs

Mary Leakey, 1913-1996

Mary Leakey, archaeologist and anthropologist, died in Nairobi on December 9, 1996. Born on February 6, 1913, she was the daughter of the landscape painter Erskine Nicol, who died when she was 13. Much of her childhood was spent in France, and it was the cave paintings of the Dordogne, to which her father introduced her, that kindled her interest in prehistory and her talent for drawing prehistoric artifacts. "I dug things up," she later explained. "I was curious, and then I liked to draw what I found. The first money I ever earned was for drawing stone tools."

After seeing some of her work, Louis Leakey asked her to illustrate his book Adam's Ancestors, and soon afterward she accompanied him to Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

Mary Douglas Leakey had gained archaeological experience at Hembury Fort in Devon and at Jaywick Sands in East Anglia. In 1937 she excavated Hyrax Hill near Nakuru in Kenya, an early Iron Age site, publishing the results in a long paper in the Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. Her competence as an archaeologist was then widely recognized. Her next important work was at Olorgesailie, near Nairobi, an Acheulean site with spectacular concentrations of handaxes and fossil fauna. Here for the first time the actual living sites of early man were discovered.

In 1948 Mary found on Rusinga Island in Lake Victoria the skull of Proconsul africanus, a 16 million-year-old Miocene ape and at that time the only fossil ape skull known. This she painstakingly reconstructed from innumerable fragments. At Olduvai in 1959 she repeated the feat, piecing together her most spectacular find, the skull of Australopithecus (Zinjanthropus) boisei from more than 400 tiny fragments. Later, by the newly developed potassium-argon dating technique, "Zinj" was dated to 1.7 million years and was in fact the first australopithecine skull to be dated.

This discovery was the beginning of world renown for the Leakeys and, more important for them, financial support from the National Geographic Society of Washington for their work at Olduvai, which had previously been done on the proverbial shoestring. It also proved the beginning of Mary's long association with Olduvai as her permanent home. Here she could devote her time to research and writing, and enjoy her love of solitude.

Apart from many papers in Nature and other scientific journals, her publications included a popular account of her life at Olduvai in Olduvai Gorge: My Search for Early Man (1979).

She was awarded a number of medals, and honorary doctorates of science from the Universities of the Witwatersrand, Yale and Chicago, as well as a D.Litt. from Oxford. She was a Fellow of the British Academy.

She is survived by her three sons, Jonathan, Richard and Philip, all of Kenya, and by 10 grandchildren. - From the December 10, 1996 issues of the London Times and the New York Times.

James Foster, DVM, Died in Rwanda

Dr. James Foster, head of the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project and formerly with the Woodland Park Zoo, died May 10th of a heart attack in Kigali, Rwanda while resting at the end of the day. He had been coordinating the non-invasive treatment of the 650 remaining mountain gorillas in Rwanda, Uganda and Zaire.

Small animals were his specialty in his Bellevue, WA, veterinary practice in the 1960s. Exotics were under his care as Woodland Park Zoo's first veterinarian in the 1970s and early 1980s.

Dr. Foster offered his services to work with Dian Fossey and the gorillas in 1984. When she approved his final proposal shortly before her death, he obtained funding from the Morris Animal Foundation of Colorado and went to Africa in 1986. He spent two full years there building the clinic, then made regular visits after that. At his life's end he was doing the work he loved: directing the Mountain Gorilla Project and Fossey's Karisoke Research Center in Africa.

Memorials may go to the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, c/o Morris Animal Foundation, 45 Inverness Drive E, Englewood, CO 80112; to Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA 50011; or to Woodland Park Zoological Society, c/o Woodland Park Zoo, 5500 Phinney Ave N, Seattle, WA 98103. - From the Seattle Times, posted to Primate-Talk by Laurence Gledhill

Death of P. H. Napier

P. H. (Prue ) Napier died at the age of 81 on the isle of Mull, Scotland, on Saturday, 7 June. She had been suffering from cancer, but died suddenly while convalescing from a serious operation.

Prue was best known as the co-author with her late husband, John Napier, of the classic reference works, A Handbook of Living Primates and The Natural History of the Primates, and co-editor with John, of Old World Monkeys. She was also the sole author of the first three volumes of the important Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History). She was a president of Twycross Zoo, and remained interested in the doings of British primatology until her death. Last year she personally presented the Primate Society of Great Britain's medal in honor of her husband, an event which gave both Prue and the Society enormous pleasure. We know that while the Society has lost a important and most senior member, many in the Society will, as we do, grieve personally for the death of such a good friend, one who with her indomitable spirit, humorous and wise outlook on life, and her generosity, enriched the lives of all who knew her.

In her later years after retirement and the death of John, her life on Mull encompassed the new and successful activity of jam and chutney making, and she also hosted, with her son Gremlin, the annual Frisbee golf competition. The inhabitants of this island, locals and incomers alike, will miss Prue greatly. She is survived by Gremlin and her older son Hugo, his wife, and their two young children. - Posted to Primate-Talk by Christine Brandon-Jones

Full Access to Scientific Information

The National Research Council has released a report recommending that governments around the world guarantee access to electronic databases of scientific information by researchers, educators and others "working in the public good.... Full and open access to scientific data should be adopted as the international norm for the exchange of scientific data derived from publicly funded research." The report warns against proposals currently under consideration by the World Intellectual Property Organization, the European Community and the U.S. House of Representatives, saying they do not guarantee "fair use" of data by the scientific and education communities. "If adopted in their current form, these legal proposals could jeopardize basic scientific research and education, eliminate competition in the markets for value-added products and services, and raise insuperable legal barriers to entry." - From the Chronicle of Higher Education, 25 April 97

APHIS Consolidation

RALEIGH, N.C., March 10, 1997 - Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman announced that USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) will consolidate its thirteen field offices into two regional hubs, one in Raleigh, NC, and the other in Ft. Collins, CO. Moves will take place within a two-to-four-year time frame. About 150 employees will be relocated to the Raleigh hub and about 160 employees to the Ft. Collins hub.

As part of the evaluation process, USDA paid particular attention to the fact that APHIS currently has scientific and technical centers located in Raleigh and Ft. Collins. The university communities found in both cities will offer APHIS employees substantial training opportunities and contribute to the diversity of the workforce.

The 13 regional offices to be consolidated are located in Arlington, Fort Worth, and Brownsville, TX; Albany, NY; Englewood and Lakewood, CO; Sacramento, CA; Tampa, FL; Annapolis, MD; Brentwood, TN; Gulfport, MS; and Moorestown, NJ. - From a USDA press release

Man Accused of Animal Smuggling

LIMA, Peru (AP) - A man from the Czech Republic has been arrested for allegedly trying to smuggle 35 animals - monkeys, turtles, and even crocodiles - out of Peru in a suitcase. Police said Alex Havelka was arrested Tuesday at the Lima airport with an assortment of protected species inside a suitcase, stowed in plastic Tupperware-type containers with holes punched in the top.

The animals, all protected under Peruvian law, included 17 tiny monkeys of two different species, 10 turtles, two boa constrictors, one lizard and five crocodiles. Two of the monkeys and the lizard had suffocated, police said. - From an April 2 AP note, posted to Primate-Talk

NASA Concurs with Review of Bion 11 Mission

NASA is suspending its participation in primate research on the Bion 12 mission, part of an international project to study the physiological effects of low gravity and space radiation. NASA's decision is based on the recommendations of an independent review board requested by the Agency to look into the post-flight death of a rhesus monkey following the successful flight and landing of the Bion 11 satellite.

The panel found that there was an unexpected mortality risk associated with anesthesia for surgical procedures (biopsy of bone and muscle) on the day following return from space. NASA has determined that this risk is unacceptable and is therefore discontinuing its participation in the primate experiments on Bion 12.

The independent review was led by Dr. Ronald Merrell, Chairman, Department of Surgery, Yale University, New Haven, CT. Dr. Merrell closely consulted with the Russian Bioethics Commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which conducted the Russian inquiry.

Based on the difficulty encountered with post-flight anesthesia on the Bion 11 mission, the research protocols originally developed for the Bion 12 mission cannot be conducted without an unacceptable risk to the primates. NASA therefore plans to: incorporate lessons learned from this mission into ongoing scientific research, reviews and medical considerations for space flight; in concert with the biomedical community, conduct research with the appropriate models to investigate medical care in relation to space physiology; work with the biomedical research community to develop new technologies for collecting critical data needed to continue this important research.

The Bion program is a cooperative space venture among the U.S., Russian, and French space agencies for conducting biomedical research using Russian-owned rhesus monkeys. The 14-day Bion 11 mission, carrying two rhesus monkeys as well as other life science and microgravity experiments, began on Dec. 24, 1996, with its launch from Russia's Plesetsk launch site. The flight was successfully completed when the spacecraft landed in Kazakhstan on Jan. 7, 1997.

Experiments flown on the Bion missions encompass a broad range of important investigations that expand our understanding of a variety of fundamental and applied life sciences questions.

The Bion experiments were thoroughly reviewed four times by NASA and outside panels to ensure that they met ethical standards, and that they pursued worthwhile and important scientific objectives that could not be achieved without the use of animals. - NASA Press Release, 22 April 1997

U.S. Air Force to Stand Down Space-age Chimps

Jane's Defence Weekly (June 11, 1997): The U.S. Air Force intends to divest one hundred and forty-three chimpanzees along with its primate research complex at Holloman AFB, NM. The chimps, all descendants of the five procured for space flight research in 1959, have been deemed non-essential and their mission requirement is "nonexistent", a USAF spokesman said. They range in age from infants to the mid-forties. The animals are now the subjects of biomedical research by the Coulston Foundation. The private organization, whose work includes HIV and hepatitis research, has leased the primates and facility from the Air Force since 1994.

The USAF is accepting bids from individuals and organizations "who may be seriously interested" in the primates and research center. Potential buyers can use the chimps only for scientific research or must retire them, promising to provide adequate care. - Copyright 1997, Jane's Information Group

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Research and Educational Opportunities

The NCI Scholars Program

The purpose of the NCI Scholars Program is to provide outstanding new research investigators who are ready to initiate their first independent program in cancer research with an opportunity to develop their program in the supportive and uniquely interactive intramural environment of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and to facilitate their successful transition to an extramural environment as independent researchers. This program is also intended to continually enhance and invigorate the NCI intramural community by providing a cadre of new, creative scientists who will interact with and expand the collaborative research opportunities of NCI intramural scientists. This program will address the need of the NCI intramural laboratories to attract outstanding scientists, and of the extramural cancer research community to identify new investigators capable of sustaining a successful research program.

Direct inquiries to Dr. Vincent J. Cairoli, Div. of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis, & Centers, NCI, Executive Plaza North, Rm 520, Bethesda, MD 20892-7390 [301-496-8580; fax: 301-402-4472; e-mail:]. Application receipt date is July 30, 1997.

Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine

An annual 9-week diploma course in Clinical Tropical Medicine will next be given February 3-April 4, 1998. It is sponsored by the Gorgas Memorial Institute and given in Lima, Peru at the Tropical Medicine Institute, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. This unique tropical medicine training initiative combines an international faculty (North America, Peru, Africa) with didactic and formal bedside teaching. There will be 320 contact hours (in English): 160 formal lecture hours, plus diagnostic laboratory, daily ward rounds on a 36-bed tropical disease unit or out-patient clinic, case conferences, and two 4-day teaching trips to field clinics in the Andes and Amazon. There is an on-site Education Resource Facility with internet-wired PCUs, a complete collection of reference texts, teaching slides, and WHO/PAHO videos. This course is for physicians, nurses, and public health professionals interested in tropical medicine and emerging pathogens. CME and up to 9 Graduate Credit hours are available, accredited by the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. A limited number of full scholarships are available to residents of the developing world. For information, contact David O. Freedman, M.D., Gorgas Memorial Inst., Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170 [800-UAB-MIST (US) or 205-934-2687 (from overseas); fax: 205-933-5671; e-mail:; on the Web:].

Institutional Research Training Grants

The National Institutes of Health will award National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Training Grants to eligible institutions to develop or enhance research training opportunities for individuals, selected by the institution, who are training for careers in specified areas of biomedical and behavioral research. The purpose of this program is to help ensure that a diverse and highly trained workforce is available to assume leadership roles related to the nation's biomedical and behavioral research agenda.

Predoctoral Training: Predoctoral research training must lead to the Ph.D. degree or a comparable research doctoral degree. Students enrolled in health-professional programs that are not part of a formal, combined program (e.g. M.D./Ph.D. or D.D.S./Ph.D.) and who wish to postpone their professional studies in order to gain research experience may also be appointed to an Institutional Research Training Grant. Predoctoral research training must emphasize fundamental training in areas of biomedical and behavioral sciences. Postdoctoral Training: Postdoctoral research training is for individuals who have received a Ph.D., an M.D., or a comparable doctoral degree from an accredited domestic or foreign institution. Research training at the postdoctoral level must emphasize specialized training to meet national research priorities in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. Short-Term Research Training for Health-Professional Students: Applications for Institutional Research Training Grants may include a request for short-term predoctoral positions reserved specifically to train medical or other health-professional students on a full-time basis during the summer or other "off-quarter" periods. Short-term appointments are intended to provide health-professional students with opportunities to participate in biomedical and/or behavioral research in an effort to attract these individuals into research careers.

Applicants must use grant application form PHS 398, available on the NIH website at and at institutional offices of sponsored research or their equivalent; or call 301-435-0714 or send a request, accompanied by a self-addressed mailing label, to: ASKNIH, Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, NIH, 6701 Rockledge Drive MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910 [e-mail:]. Applicants are encouraged to contact appropriate institute/center staff before preparing and submitting an application.

For additional information, see the document entitled Guidelines for National Research Service Awards, Individual Awards - Institutional Grants, usually available at the institution.

Post-Doctoral Fellowship, NIAAA

For a joint Neurogenetics/Primate Unit project assessing genetic influences on behaviors related to serotonin function/malfunction, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) is seeking a post-doctoral fellow with less than 5 years of postdoc experience, expertise in population genetics and laboratory techniques, and willingness to work as a team member while developing an independent research program. The research includes genotyping rhesus macaques for informative polymorphic DNA markers, assessing paternities and male reproductive success, and correlating differential reproductive success with individual differences in CNS serotonin function and psychobiological mechanisms.

US citizenship or resident alien status is necessary. Salary will be $25,000 - $50,000, commensurate with experience. An initial appointment of 2 years may be followed by yearly renewal to a total of 5 years. The application deadline is 18 July 1997. To apply, submit CV, statement of research interests, and three letters of reference to Kathleen Hanratty, NIAAA Personnel, NIH 31/1B58, 31 Center Dr. MSC 2088, Bethesda, MD 20892-2088 [301-496-9842; fax: 301-402-0016; e-mail:] - As posted on Primate-Jobs

Fulbright Grants for U.S. Faculty and Professionals

More than 700 awards are being offered in over 120 countries for university lecturing, advanced research, and other professional activities in the fields of agriculture, veterinary science, zoology, and the animal sciences. The basic eligibility requirements are a Ph.D. or equivalent professional/terminal degree at the time of application and U.S. citizenship (permanant residency is not sufficient). For professionals outside academe, recognized professional standing comparable to that associated with the doctorate in higher education is required, unless otherwise noted in the awards book. College or university teaching experience is required at the level and in the field of the proposed lecturing activity for lecturing and combined lecturing/research awards. Non-U.S. candidates must apply for Fulbright grants in their home countries, either through the Fulbright commission or the U.S. embassy.

Awards range in duration from two months to twelve months. Most lecturing assignments are for an academic term/semester or a full academic year. Although the majority of teaching assignments are in English, foreign language proficiency is expected for lecturing awards in some areas (e.g., Latin America, francophone Africa) and for some research projects.

For detailed descriptions of award opportunities and to request application materials and/or the awards book, contact USIA Fulbright Senior Scholar Program, Council for International Exchange of Scholars, Box INET, 3007 Tilden Street, NW, Suite 5M, Washington, DC 20008-3009 [202-686-7877; e-mail:; on the Web:]. The application deadline is August 1, 1997.

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Awards Granted

Russell and Burch Award to Andrew Rowan

Dr. Andrew Rowan, Director of the Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy, received the Russell and Burch Award from the Humane Society of the U.S. The Award is presented annually to "scientists who have made outstanding contributions toward the advancement of alternative methods in the areas of biomedical research, testing, or higher education."

Coimbra-Filho: Lifetime Achievement

A jury composed of major figures in conservation, academia, government, business and the press elected Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho as the first recipient of the Henry Ford Environmental Conservation Lifetime Achievement Award for Brazil, for his pioneering lifelong dedication to the conservation of the Atlantic forest.

In 1996, the Ford Motor Company in partnership with Conservation International established the "The Ford Motor Company Brazilian Conservation Awards" to identify and support a wide range of successful conservation and environmental initiatives, empower new leaders, and reward lifetime achievements in biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in Brazil. Awards will be presented on a yearly basis, each comprising a cash sum of $10,000 and an accompanying medal. The Awards are: Lifetime Achievement; Young Conservationist; Conservation Enterprise; Conservation Science; and Conservation Achievement of the Year.

Four major figures in the Brazilian conservation arena were considered for the Lifetime Achievement Award: José Pedro de Oliveira Costa, an architect with a doctorate in geography and one of the leading figures in the defense of the Atlantic forest; Admiral Ibsen de Gusmão Câmara, paleontologist and expert in marine mammals, who participated actively in the establishment of parks in the Brazilian Amazon in the 1970s and 80s; Célio Murilo de Carvalho Valle, biologist, currently Director of the Minas Gerais State Forestry Institute (IEF); and Adelmar Faria Coimbra-Filho, scientist and conservationist, one of the first to draw attention to the plight of the Atlantic forest and its fauna and flora, and a totally dedicated campaigner throughout his life.

AIDS Research Awards

Two primate researchers, Drs. Marta Marthas and Andrew Lackner, are among five investigators chosen to receive an Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award from the Pediatric AIDS Foundation. Named in memory of the organization's cofounder, who died of AIDS-related complications in 1994, each 5-year award will provide up to $682,000 to support biomedical investigations related to pediatric AIDS. Up to 25 Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Awards will have been made by the turn of the century in an effort to help eradicate pediatric AIDS.

Dr. Lackner, Chairman of Comparative Pathology at the New England RPRC, will use his $650,000 Glaser award to investigate the neurological effects of the AIDS virus in a monkey model. Dr. Lackner will study macaques infected with SIV, which causes simian AIDS, to understand why AIDS-related neurologic abnormalities are more common in children than in adults.

A research grant of more than $675,000 will help Dr. Marthas, a virologist at the California RPRC, develop strategies for preventing infection or delaying progression of pediatric AIDS in the rhesus macaque model. Dr. Marthas and her colleagues recently concluded a study of a new antiviral agent called PMPA ((R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl) adenine), which suppressed SIV infection in infant and adult monkeys so successfully that the drug was rapidly moved into human trials. - From the NCRR Reporter, March/April 1997, 21[2], 14.

Ammann Receives Genesis Award

Karl Ammann, prize winning photographer and conservationist, received the Dolly Green Special Achievement Award at the 11th annual Genesis Awards banquet held in Los Angeles on April 5th, 1997. The Genesis committee selected Ammann for this award to honor his success in gaining world-wide recognition of the horrible and needless commercial slaughter of thousands of great apes every year in the forests of West and Central Africa.

For nine years Karl Ammann has documented scenes of chimpanzees and gorillas being butchered for sale as expensive commercial bushmeat. Ammann's reports and documentaries convinced the European Parliament and leaders of over twenty African states to sign a proclamation against the slaughter of apes and caused the government of Cameroon to convene a national conference on the illegal bushmeat trade.

Edward Taub Honored by APS

Psychologist Edward Taub, best known as the target of animal rights activists in a celebrated 1981 case involving his treatment of research monkeys at his Silver Spring, MD lab, has received a public stamp of approval from his peers. Last week, at its annual meeting in Washington, the American Psychological Society bestowed its highest honor on him, naming him a William James Fellow. Taub was honored for "fundamental discoveries" about brain reorganization, upon which he has based new treatments for human rehabilitation.

Taub's award is based on research that he says is no longer permitted anywhere: He severed nerves in monkeys' arms to see what happens in the corresponding regions of their brains. Infiltration of his lab by a PETA member led to police seizure of the 16 animals and a trial in which Taub was convicted of providing inadequate veterinary care to six monkeys. He spent years litigating the case, and in 1984 a Maryland appeals court overruled the conviction. Since 1986, he has been at the University of Alabama, Birmingham. Taub and others, including Tim Pons of Bowman Gray Medical Center in Winston-Salem, NC, have published research on the monkeys showing that their brains, surprisingly, underwent "massive reorganization" after their injuries. Based on this research, Taub has designed, to help people with disabilities from brain injuries, a routine that entails extensive exercise of an afflicted limb. - From Science, 6 June 1997, 276, 1503.

Sue Rumbaugh Honored

E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science by the University of Chicago on June 14, 1997. The award was in recogition of her language and cognitive research with bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (P. troglodytes). The contributions of her research to education, conservation, and the formulation of principles that have proven beneficial to language-challenged children and young adults were underscored in her letter of recognition. Her research for the past 20 years has been supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Development and the College of Arts & Sciences, Georgia State University. Sue is Professor of Biology and Psychology and conducts her research at GSU's Language Research Center, which she helped found in 1981.

* * *

Positions Wanted or Available

Post-Doctoral Position, North Carolina

The Behavioral Biology Program in the Department of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, has an immediate opening for a postdoctoral fellow interested in using molecular genetic techniques to better understand phenotypic differences in primate behavior and neurobiology. The ideal candidate would have training in anthropology, psychology, or neuroscience, and also experience with molecular biology. Advanced training in molecular genetics will be provided, following which the fellow would take responsibility for managing studies linking candidate genes to individual differences in social behavior and brain biomarkers. The training and research will make use of an ongoing collaboration between the Department of Comparative Medicine at Bowman Gray and the Department of Genetics at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. Applications should be submitted before August 15. Contact: Jay R. Kaplan, Department of Comparative Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040 [910 716-1522; e-mail:] or Jeffrey Rogers, Department of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, PO Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245 [210 674-1410; e-mail:].

Summer Jobs

The Wisconsin RPRC's Primate-Jobs listings at (see this Newsletter, April 1996, 35[2], p. 26) has been revised to allow posting of summer programs: internships, workshops, field opportunites, special summer courses, and primate-oriented tours. If you are offering any kind of summer program directed toward students seeking education and/or experience in the field of primatology, please post your information to Primate-Jobs. In a field where opportunities are so limited, students find it very difficult to find this kind of information. If you have any question about posting to this site, please contact Gabrielle Lubach, American Society of Primatologists' Education Chair [e-mail:] or Larry Jacobsen [e-mail:], Wisconsin RPRC, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715.

Veterinary Assistant

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Veterinary Sciences has a position open for a Veterinary Assistant in central New Jersey. This individual will be required to work with nonhuman primates on a daily basis. The position requires an individual that is comfortable handling NHPs, both cynomolgus and African green, performing TB tests, and bleeding animals for routine health screens and serology, as well as medicating when necessary. Experience in pole and collar techniques is a plus. This person will be responsible for compiling data on the animals into a computer-based data file, maintaining accurate records on all the animals, performing routine health care, and assisting in supervising the care staff. Requirements include a B.S. degree in an animal-related field, plus technologist certification and/or AHT certification and 3-5 years working experience. Previous experience working with NHPs is essential. Previous supervisory experience is a plus.

Interested persons should forward a resume and 3 references to: John W. Deck, Operations Manager, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 76 4th St, Somerville, NJ 08876 [908-722-1764; fax: 908-722-7039; e-mail:].

Postdoctoral Fellow, Primate Behavior

The NIH Gerontology Reseach Center in Baltimore is conducting a longitudinal study of aging and nutrition in a large sample of rhesus and squirrel monkeys of different ages. We are seeking a postdoctoral fellow who would participate in behavioral studies of our monkeys, involving the development and use of automated operant equipment to assess sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive performance. Applicants must have demonstrated experience in nonhuman primate behavioral analysis using automated equipment. Similar experience in other species will be considered. Applicants must have less than 5 years postdoctoral experience. This position will be an Intramural Research Training Award, with salary dependent on years of postdoctoral experience. The initial appointment will be for two years, with year to year extensions up to a 5 year maximum. For information or to apply, contact Dr. Donald K. Ingram, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Room 4E-01, Gerontology Research Center, NIA, NIH, 4940 Eastern Ave, Baltimore, MD 21224 [410-558-8180; fax: 410-558-8323; e-mail:]. - as posted to Primate-Jobs

Research Scientist/Technologist, Seattle

The Washington RPRC and the Dept of Pharmaceutics, Univ. of Washington are seeking a research scientist/technologist to work on NIH-sponsored research, focusing on developing therapeutic strategies to prevent maternal-fetal HIV infection using Macaca nemestrina as a model. Intra-aminotic administration of RT-SHIV followed by AZT monotheray or combination chemotherapy (AZT+3TC+Nevirapine+Protease inhibitor) will be tested. A BS degree in a biological science or equivalent and extensive experience working with tethered nonhuman primates, handling infectious agents (HIV, SIV or SHIV) and HPLC is desirable. The work will involve pharmacokinetic studies, infection and clinical monitoring of animals, and coordinating virological and immunological assays with central laboratory facilities of the Primate Center. Interested persons should call Dr. Unadkat and then submit a letter of application, C.V., and three letters of reference to: Jashvant (Jash) Unadkat, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmaceutics, Box 357610, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 [206-543-9434; fax: 206-543-3204; e-mail:]. The University of Washington is an equal opportunity/Affirmative Action employer.

* * *

New Book Series: Special Topics in Primatology

The American Society of Primatologists has published the first volume in its projected series, Special Topics in Primatology. The series editor is H. Dieter Steklis. All profits from sale of this book will go to the ASP Conservation Fund.

The title of the first volume is Primate Conservation: The Role of Zoological Parks, edited by Janette Wallis. It can be ordered from Steve Schapiro, Treasurer, American Society of Primatologists, UTMD Anderson, Science Park, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602. The price is $25.00 (US shipping add $2.50; Non-US shipping add $5.00. Make checks payable to American Society of Primatologists. Payment must be in U.S. funds, payable on a U.S. bank. Sorry, no credit card orders accepted).

The contents include Foreward, by R. A. Mittermeier; Preface, by J. Wallis; From ancient expeditions to modern exhibitions: The evolution of primate conservation in the zoo community, by J. Wallis; The role of North American zoos in primate conservation, by R. J. Wiese & M. Hutchins; Zoos and in situ primate conservation, by F. W. Koontz; The conservation role of primate exhibits in the zoo, by K. C. Gold; Multi-disciplinary strategic planning for gibbon conservation in Thailand and Indonesia, by R. Tilson, K. Castle, J. Supriatna, K. J. Gurmaya, W. Brockelman, & S. Tunhikorn; Developing a conservation action program for the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), by A. Savage, H. Giraldo, & L. Soto; Steady-state propagation of captive lion-tailed macaques in North American zoos: A conservation ctrategy, by D. G. Lindberg, J. Iaderosa, & L. Gledhill; Partners in conservation: Establishing in situ partnerships to aid mountain gorillas and people in range countries, by C. Jendry; Bonobo conservation: The evolution of a Zoological Society program, by G. E. Reinartz & G. K. Boese; Drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus): Research and conservation initiatives, 1986-1996, by C. R. Cox; The Gateway Zoo program: A recent initiative in golden lion tamarin reintroductions, by T. Stoinski, B. Beck, M. Bowman, & J. Lehnhardt; Zoo-based conservation of Malagasy prosimians, by S. Zeeve & I. Porton; and an Appendix: Primate conservation resources on the World Wide Web.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Social Influences on Vocal Development. C. T. Snowdon & M. Halsberger (Eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. [Price: $90]
. . . Contents include the following: Social influences on the acquisition of human-based codes in parrots and nonhuman primates, by I. M. Pepperberg; Social influences on vocal development in New World primates, by C. T. Snowdon, A. M. Elowson, & R. S. Roush; Some general features of vocal development in nonhuman primates, by R. M. Seyfarth & D. L. Cheney; Social influences on vocal learning in human and nonhuman primates, by J. L. Locke & C. T. Snowdon.

* Ecology of an African Rain Forest: Logging in Kibale. T. T. Struhsaker. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1997. [Price: $39.95]
. . . This summary of 20 years of research in the Kibale forest, Uganda, provides long-term data on a variety of plants and animals, demonstrating that future logging must be done at far lower intensities than is currently practiced if intact ecosystems are to be maintained.

* New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. W. G. Kinzey (Ed.). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1997. 464 pp. [Price: Cloth, $62.95; Paper, $31.95]
. . . Contents: Introduction, by W. G. Kinzey. Part I. Perspectives on New World Primates. Platyrrhines, catarrhines, and the fossil record, by J. Fleagle & R. F. Kay; Brains of New and Old World monkeys, by E. Armstrong & M. A. Shea; Color vision polymorphisms in New World monkeys: Implications for the evolution of primate trichromacy, by G. H. Jacobs; Is speech special? Lessons from New World primates, by C. T. Snowdon; Sex differences in the family life of cotton-top tamarins: Socioecological validity in the laboratory, by W. C. McGrew; Subtle cues of social relations in male muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides), by K. B. Strier; The influence of New World mating and rearing systems on theories about Old World primates, by C. M. Anderson; Behavioral and ecological comparisons of Neotropical and Malagasy primates, by P. C. Wright; The human niche in Amazonia: Explorations in ethnoprimatology, by L. E. Sponsel. Part II. Synopsis of New World Primates (16 Genera), by W. G. Kinzey. Classification of living New World monkeys; The genera; Maps, References; Index.

* The Howling Monkeys of La Pacifica. K. E. Glander. 1996. [Price: $4 (Includes shipping and handling in USA), from Dr. Ken Glander, Duke University Primate Center, 3705 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27705]

* Advances in the Study of Behavior, Volume 26. P. J. B. Slater, J. S. Rosenblatt, C. T. Snowdon, & M. Milinski (Eds.). New York: Academic Press, 1997. [Price: $95]
. . . Contents include: Vocal learning in mammals, by V. M. Janik & P. J. B. Slater; Behavioral ecology and conservation biology of primates and other animals, by K. B. Strier; How to avoid seven deadly sins in the study of behavior, by M. Milinski; Representation of quantities by apes, by S. T. Boysen.

Children's Books

* The Golden Lion Tamarin Comes Home. G. Ancona. New York: MacMillan, 1994. 38 pp. [Price: $15.95]
. . . Lavishly illustrated with the author's photographs, this book tells the story of the reintroduction of the National Zoological Park's tamarins to the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve in Brazil. The book is simple enough for elementary school readers, but informative enough for everyone.


* 1997-1998 Congressional Directory: 105th Congress. [Price: $2.50, from NABR, 818 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 303, Washington, DC 20006]

Magazines and Newsletters

* AAALAC International Connection, April 1997. [AAALAC International, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]

* African Primates: The Newsletter of the Africa Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1996, 2[1]. [T. M. Butynski, Zoo Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Prog., P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya]
. . . Includes "Le commerce de la viande de chasse au sud-est du Cameroun dans la region trinationale," by L. Usongo & B. Curran; "International trade in CITES Appendix II African primates," by T. M. Butynski; "Survey of Cercopithecus erythrogaster populations in the Dahomey Gap," by J. F. Oates; "Assessing galago diversity - a call for help," by S. K. Bearder, P. E. Honess, M. Bayes, L. Ambrose, & M. Anderson; "Notes on the behavioural ecology of the Iringa red colobus Procolobus badius gordonorum," by B. S. Decker; "Activity budgets of Angolan colobus Colobus angolensis in a naturalistic zoo habitat," by W. Neal & D. Forthman.

* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, Winter 1996/1997, 7[3-4]. [National Agricultural Library, AWIC, Beltsville , MD 20705]
. . . Includes "The Wisconsin gnawing stick," by V. Reinhardt.

* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 1995-96, 5[3-4]. [A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
. . . Includes "An initial summary of diurnal primate status in Laos," by N. Ruggeri & R. J. Timmins; "Conservation status of proboscis monkey groups and the effects of habitat degradation," by C. P. Yeager; "Humans, habitat loss and hunting: The status of the Mentawai primates on Sipora and the Pagai Islands," by A. Fuentes & E. Ray; "Primates in Bherjan, Borajan and Podumoni reserved forests of Assam, India, by A. Choudhury; and "Javan gibbon surviving at a mined forest in Gunung Pongkor Mount Halimun National Park, West Java: Considerable toleration to disturbances?" by M. Indrawan, D. Supriyadi, J. Supriatna, & N. Andayani.

* Australasian Primatology, Summer 1997, 11[2]. [G. A. Crook, Australasian Primate Soc., P.O. Box 500, One Tree Hill, SA 5114 Australia]
. . . Includes abstracts from the XVth Annual Conference of the Australasian (formerly Australian) Primate Society.

* Comparative Pathology Bulletin, February 1997, 29[1]. [Registry of Comp. Path., AFIP, Washington, DC 20306-0001]
. . . Includes a special feature article: "Nonhuman primate models of AIDS," by V. G. Sasseville & A. A. Lackner.

* IPPL News, April 1997, 24[1]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes reports from the Limbe Wildlife Rescue Center in Cameroon.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, March, 1997, 5[1]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Includes: "Primate translocation in French Guiana - A preliminary report," by J.-C. Vié & C. Richard-Hansen; "An eastern extension of the geographical range of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea," by M. G. M. van Roosmalen & T. van Roosmalen; "Hybridization in free-ranging Callithrix flaviceps and the taxonomy of the Atlantic forest marmosets," by S. L. Mendes; "Terrestrial travel in muriquis (Brachyteles archinoides) across a forest clearing at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil," by L. R. T. Dib, A. S. Oliva, & K. B. Strier; "Hybridization between Callithrix geoffroyi and C. penicillata in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil," by M. Passamani, L. M. S. Aguiar, R. B. Machado, & E. Figueiredo; "Crossing the great barrier: Callicebus cupreus discolor north of the Napo River," by D. M. Brooks & L. Pando-Vasquez.

* The Newsletter, 1997, 8[4]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . . Includes "Chimpanzee diet at the Primate Foundation of Arizona," by K. Born, J. Fritz, & P. Trueblood.

* Primate Eye, February 1997, No. 61. [Bill Sellers, Primate Soc. of Great Britain, Dept of Anayomy, Univ. of Edinburgh, Med. School, Teviot Pl., Edinburgh EH3 9AG, Scotland]

* Our Animal WARDS, Winter 1997. [WARDS, Inc., 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714]

* Science and Animal Care, Summer 1997, 8[2]. [WARDS, Inc., address above]
. . . Includes "Getting serious about monkey business: The benefits of environmental enrichment for non-human primates", by C. Watson.


* Animal Use Trends in the United States, 1986-1994: An Analysis of Federal, Academic, and Commercial Laboratories. C. Davis. [Price: $8 ($5 each for orders of 3 or more) from WARDS, address above]
. . . Data from 124 federal facilities, 242 selected universities and medical schools, and 15 commercial laboratories was analyzed in this study, which was Ms. Davis's thesis in the Tufts Univ. School of Vet. Med.'s Animals and Public Policy Masters Program.


* Wildlife Conservation, Zoos and Animal Protection - A Strategic Analysis. A. N. Rowan (Ed.). [Price: $30.00, from the Center for Animals & Public Policy, Tufts Univ. School of Vet. Med., 200 Westboro Rd, N. Grafton, MA 01536]
. . . Proceedings of a workshop held at the White Oak Conservation Center, Yulee, FL, April 21-24, 1994. Contents include: Preface, by A. Rowan; Wild/captive and other suspect dualisms, by D. Jamieson; The wild and the tame, by J. Clutton-Brock; Naturalizing and individualizing animal well-being and animal minds: An ethologist's naiveté exposed? by M. Bekoff; Animal well-being in the wild and in captivity, by S. Bostock; Preserving individuals versus conserving populations: Is there a conflict? by D. G. Lindburg; Animal well-being in zoos, conservation centers and in-situ conservation programs, by J. Lukas.

* Animal Research at the Crossroads: Challenges for the 21st Century. [Price: $30, from PRIM&R, 132 Boylston St., Boston, MA 02116]
. . . The Proceedings of a conference held March 23-24, 1994 at the Boston Park Plaza Hotel and Towers, sponsored by Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) and Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

Special Journal Issues

* From behavioural research to sex ratio manipulation. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 1997, 51[3-4].
. . . Guest Editors are G. Hosey and A. R. Glatston. Partial contents: Behavioural research in zoos: Academic perspectives, by G. R. Hosey; Sex ratio research in zoos and its implications for captive management, by A. R. Glatston; Possible factors influencing vertebrate sex ratios: An introductory overview, by I. C. W. Hardy; Further evaluation of the developmental asynchrony hypothesis of sex ratio variation, by S. Krackow; Manipulation of sex ratio at birth and maternal investment in female mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus, Primates), by M. Perret and S. Colas; Social rank and birth sex ratios in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by C. Nevison; The socio-ecology of sex ratio variation in primates: Evolutionary deduction and empirical evidence, by J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff.

* Keepers of the gate: The crucial role of the IACUC. Lab Animal, 1997, 26[5].
. . . Includes: Do pressure and prejudice influence the IACUC? by J. Silverman; The SCAW IACUC survey: Part I: Preliminary results, by L. Krulisch & J. A. Mench; Part II: The unaffiliated member, by P. Theran; Resource: IACUCs and the World Wide Web, by K. Boschert.

* The role of computational models in animal research. ILAR Journal, 1997, 38[2]. [2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418]

Anatomy & Physiology

* Neural mechanisms of visual working memory in prefrontal cortex of the macaque. Miller, E. K., Erickson, C. A., & Desimone, R. (R. D., NIMH, 49 Convent Dr., Bldg 49, Rm 1B80, Bethesda, MD 20892-4415). Journal of Neuroscience, 1996, 16, 5154-5167.
. . . Prefrontal (PF) cells were studied in two rhesus monkeys performing a delayed matching-to-sample task, which requires working memory. Results suggest that the PF cortex plays a primary role in working memory tasks and may be a source of feedback inputs to the inferior temporal cortex, biasing activity in favor of behaviorally relevant stimuli.

Animal Models

* Neurotrophins and the primate central nervous system: A minireview. Hayashi, M. (Dept of Cellular & Molecular Biology, Primate Research Inst. of Kyoto Univ., Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan). Neurochemical Research, 1996, 21, 739-747.
. . . The distribution of, and changes with development in levels of, nerve growth factor (NGF) in the primate CNS are closely correlated with the cholinergic system of the basal forebrain. The administration of NGF into the monkey brain prevents the degeneration of the cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain after axotomy, a result that suggests that neurotrophins might be valuable agents for treatment of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

* Evidence for greater sight in blindsight following damage of primary visual cortex early in life. Payne, B. R., Lomber, S. G., MacNeil, M. A., & Cornwell, P. (Lab. of Visual Perception & Cognition, Center for Adv. Biomed. Res., Boston Univ. School of Med., Boston, MA 02118). Neuropsychologia, 1996, 34, 741-774.
. . . This review compares the behavioral, physiological, and anatomical repercussions of lesions in the primary visual cortex incurred by developing and mature humans, monkeys, and cats. Earlier, but not later, damage unmasks a latent flexibility of the brain to compensate partially for functions normally attributed to the damaged cortex.

* Reduced immune responses in rhesus monkeys subjected to dietary restriction. Roecker, E. B., Kemnitz, J. W., Ershler, W. B., & Weindruch, R. (Dept of Biostatistics, Univ. of Wisconsin, 6795 Med. Sciences Ctr, 1300 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706). Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, 1996, 51A, B276-B279.
. . . A report on some differences in immunologic function in rhesus monkeys subjected to two to four years of adult-onset dietary restriction.

* Effects of social reorganization on cellular immunity in male cynomolgus monkeys. Line, S. W., Kaplan, J. R., Heise, E. R., Hilliard, J. K., Cohen, S., Rabin, B. S., & Manuck, S. B. (J. R. K., Comp. Med. Clinical Res. Ctr, Dept of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School of Med, Wake Forest Univ., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). American Journal of Primatology, 1996, 39, 235-249.
. . . Twenty Herpes B virus-positive male cynomolgus monkeys were exposed to four periodic reorganizations of social group memberships over five months. Reorganization was associated with increased lymphocyte counts and decreased lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin, particularly among monkeys showing high levels of fear. High-aggressive monkeys showed lower baseline natural killer cell activity and higher lymphocyte counts than low-aggressive monkeys. Herpesvirus antibody titers decreased over time and no positive virus cultures were obtained.

* Group A streptococcal bacteremia: The role of tumor necrosis factor in shock and organ failure. Stevens, D. L., Bryant, A. E., Hackett, S. P., Chang, A., Peer, G., Kosanke, S., Emerson, T., & Hinshaw, L. (Infectious Disease Section (Bldg. 6), VA Med. Ctr, 500 W. Fort St, Boise, ID 83702). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1996, 173, 619-626.
. . . A baboon model of group A streptococcal infection fulfills the diagnostic criteria of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- as a mediator of shock and organ failure in this acute model is substantiated not only by a dramatic rise in serum TNF- levels, but also by attenuation of shock, hypotension, improved tissue perfusion, reduced organ failure, and improved survival in animals receiving anti-TNF monoclonal antibody treatment.

* Effect of short-term regression of atherosclerosis on reactivity of carotid and retinal arteries. Sobey, C. G., Faraci, F. M., Piegors, D. J., & Heistad, D. D. (D. D. H., Dept of Internal Med., Univ. of Iowa College of Med., Iowa City, IA 52242-1081). Stroke, 1996, 27, 927-933.
. . . Three groups of monkeys were studied: normal cynomolgus monkeys, monkeys fed an atherogenic diet for 34 months, and atherosclerotic monkeys that were fed a regression diet for about 9 months. Within a few months of regression of atherosclerosis, endothelial function and hyperresponsiveness of carotid and ophthalmic arteries to serotonin and platelet activation returned toward normal. Functional improvement is associated with resorption of lipid from atherosclerotic lesions, but with little reduction in size of intimal lesions.

* Fetal and maternal endocrine responses to experimental intrauterine infection in rhesus monkeys. Gravett, M. G., Haluska, G. J., Cook, M. J., & Novy, M. J. (Dept of OB/GYN, Legacy Emanuel Hospital, 2801 N. Gantenbein Ave, Portland, OR 97227). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1996, 174, 1725-1733.
. . . [Experimental] infection-associated preterm parturition is associated with dramatic increases in fetal adrenal steroid biosynthesis but not by corresponding increases in placental estrogen biosynthesis. This suggests that fetal stress is accompanied by placental dysfunction and that infection-associated parturition is not dependent on the increased estrogen biosynthesis observed in spontaneous parturition.

* Manganese intoxication in the rhesus monkey: A clinical, imaging, pathologic, and biochemical study. Olanow, C. W., Good, P. F., Shinotoh, H., Hewitt, K. A., Vingerhoets, F., Snow, B. J., Beal, M. F., Calne, D. B., & Perl, D. P. (Mt Sinai Med. Ctr, Dept of Neurology, One Gustave L. Levy Pl., Box 1137, New York, NY 10029). Neurology, 1996, 46, 492-498.
. . . In contrast to Parkinson's disease and MPTP-induced parkinsonism, manganese primarily damages the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticularis and relatively spares the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

* Transient and persistent experimental infection of nonhuman primates with Helicobacter pylori: Implications for human disease. Dubois, A., Berg, D. E., Incecik, E. T., Fiala, N., Heman-Ackah, L. M., Perez-Perez, G. I., & Blaser, M. J. (Dept of Med., USUHS, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799). Infection and Immunity, 1996, 64, 2885-2891.
. . . Rhesus monkeys can be infected experimentally with H. pylori, but individuals differ in susceptibility to particular bacterial strains, infections may be transient, and the fitness of a particular strain for a given host partly determines the consequences of exposure to that strain.

* Osteoarthritis in cynomolgus macaques III: Effects of age, gender, and subchondral bone thickness on the severity of disease. Carlson, C. S., Loeser, R. F., Purser, C. B., Gardin, J. F., & Jerome, C. P. (Dept of Comp. Med, Bowman Gray School of Med., Wake Forest Univ., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 1996, 11, 1209-1217.
. . . Knee joints from cynomolgus monkeys of both genders and a wide range of ages were examined to characterize further the natural history of osteoarthritis in these animals. The thickening of the subchondral bone plate may be more important than the volume of epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous bone in determining the biomechanical stresses in the joint and in influencing the development of articular cartilage lesions.

* Impact of various simian immunodeficiency virus variants on induction and nature of neuropathology in macaques. Czub, S., Müller, J. G., Czub, M., & Müller-Hermelink, H. K. (Patholog. Inst., Univ. Würzburg, Josef-Schneider Str. 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany). Research in Virology, 1996, 147, 165-170.
. . . Rhesus macaques were infected with molecularly cloned SIVmac239 which replicates poorly in cultured macrophages, with SIVmac251/32H which is a macrophage-tropic biologic clone, or with SIVmac251/MPBMC which is an early passage of 32H with enhanced replication competence in macrophages. Results underline the significance of macrophage infection for the development of SIV encephalitis, and suggest that SIVmac239 either undergoes a change in cell tropism in vivo that results in the ability to replicate in macrophages, or else macrophages become more permissive to infection by this virus in the terminal stage of immunosuppressive disease.

* Nature and sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus-induced central nervous system lesions: A kinetic study. Czub, S., Müller, J. G., Czub, M., & Müller-Hermelink, H. K. (Address same as above). Acta Neuropathologica, 1996, 92, 487-498.
. . . Brains of 19 SIV-infected but clinically unaffected rhesus monkeys were compared to 8 animals with SAIDS as well as to 8 controls. Results demonstrate that subtle leukoencephalopathy was a specific feature of clinically silent as well as clinically evident phases of SIV infection.

* Macaque models for AIDS vaccine development. Johnson, R. P. (New England RPRC, P.O. Box 9102, One Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772). Current Opinion in Immunology, 1996, 8, 554-560.
. . . This review concludes that protection against disease or persistent infection may be achieved in the absence of total immunity, suggesting that new benchmarks for AIDS vaccines may be in order.

* Live attenuated HIV as a vaccine for AIDS: Pros and cons. Ruprecht, R. M., Baba, T. W., Li, A., Ayehunie, S., Hu, Y., Liska, V., Rasmussen, R., & Sharma, P. L. (Dana-Farber Cancer Inst., 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115). Seminars in Virology, 1996, 7, 147-155.
. . . Attenuated primate lentiviruses tested thus far have been replication-impaired but may still harbor genetic determinants encoding virulence. Other safety issues concern insertional oncogenesis, genetic instability, vertical transmission and differential pathogenicity in adults and newborns, and viral persistence with possible reactivation during intercurrent illness.

* Progress towards a vaccine to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. Miller, C. J. & McGhee, J. R. (California RPRC, UC-Davis, Davis, CA 95616). Nature Medicine, 1996, 2, 751-752.
. . . "Identifying viral antigens and immunization routes that can elicit...immune responses and determining which of these can be applied in a clinical setting remain the challenge before us."

* Immune strategies utilized by lentivirus infected chimpanzees to resist progression to AIDS. Heeney, J., Bogers, W., Buijs, L., Dubbes, R., ten Haaft, P., Koornstra, W., Niphuis, H., Nara, P., & Teeuwsen, V. (Dept of Virology, Biomed. Primate Res. Centre, P.O. Box 3306, 2280 HG Rijswijk, Netherlands). Immunology Letters, 1996, 51, 45-52.
. . . Chimpanzees may maintain the capacity for T helper (Th) cell renewal by preserving their MHC class II lymphoid environment by dramatically suppressing the extra-cellular virus load. This may be in part mediated by soluble lentivirus suppressing factors.

* Zidovudine kinetics in the pregnant baboon. Garland, M., Szeto, H. H., Daniel, S. S., Tropper, P. J., Myers, M. M., & Stark, R. I. (College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia Univ., BB411, 630 W. 168th St, New York, NY 10032). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1996, 11, 117-127.
. . . A series of experiments to delineate more clearly the complex maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics and the effects of AZT in the maternal and fetal baboon, where the mothers had chronically implanted arterial and venous catheters and the infants had implanted catheters as well as EEG and ECG electrodes.


* Ant-gathering with tools by captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Westergaard, G. C., Lundquist, A. L., Kuhn, H. E., & Suomi, S. J. (NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). International Journal of Primatology, 1997, 18, 95-103.
. . . Seven of 14 subjects used experimenter-provided sticks and small branches to gather ants from an apparatus. Six of them modified probes by detaching sticks from larger branches, breaking sticks into two or more pieces, and removing leaves and bark. Later, 3 subjects used a stone and stick "tool set" to break through an acetate barrier placed on the apparatus.

* The formation of red colobus-diana monkey associations under predation pressure from chimpanzees. Noë, R. & Bshary, R. (Max-Planck-Inst für Verhaltensphysiol., Seewiesen, P.O. 1564, 82319 Starnberg, Germany). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Ser. B, 1997, 264, 253-259.
. . . Red colobus, but not diana monkeys, are frequently killed by cooperatively hunting chimpanzees. Association rates peaked during the chimpanzees' hunting season as a result of changes in the behavior of the red colobus. Playbacks of recordings of chimpanzee sounds, but not leopard sounds, induced the formation of new associations and extended the duration of existing associations.


* Working safely at animal biosafety levels 3 and 4: Facility design implications. Richmond, J. Y., Ruble, D. L., Brown, B., & Jaax, G. P. (CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd, F05, Atlanta, GA 30333). Lab Animal, 1997, 26[4], 28-35.
. . . Aspects of biomedical research and animal care in high hazard biocontainment from the perspective of the safety officer and the animal care provider.

* Accidental injuries associated with nonhuman primate exposure at two regional primate research centers (U.S.A.): 1988-1993. bin Zakaria, M., Lerche, N. W., Chomel, B. B., & Kass, P. H. (N. W. L., Virology & Immunol. Unit, California RPRC, UC-Davis, Davis, CA 95616). Laboratory Animal Science, 1996, 46, 298-304.
. . . Analysis of injury records and a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire revealed that under-reporting of work-related injuries was high; that frequency of injuries was greatest in personnel employed 2 years, those having 20 hrs/week contact with animals, and those having contact with > 50 animals/week; and that scratches and bites were the most common injuries.

* Effect of companions in modulating stress associated with new group formation in juvenile rhesus macaques. Gust, D. A., Gordon, T. P., Brodie, A. R., & McClure, H. M. (Yerkes Primate Center Field Stn, 2409 Taylor Lane, Lawrenceville, GA 30243). Physiology & Behavior, 1996, 59, 941-945.
. . . Juveniles placed in a new peer group, either alone or with one or more companions from their old group, were compared with each other and with controls in their physiological responses to stressors. Results confirm the stressful effect of removal from the natal group, and also add to the growing body of data indicating that the presence of companions can modulate the physiological effects of a stressor.


* Effects of early parenting on growth and development in a small primate. Johnson, E. O., Kamilaris, T. C., Calogero, A. E., Gold, P. W., & Chrousos, G. P. (G. P. C., NICHHD, NIH, Bldg 10, Rm 10N262, Bethesda, MD 20892). Pediatric Research, 1996, 39, 999-1005.
. . . The care given by the parents of 26 infant Callithrix jacchus jacchus was observed. Somatic growth was measured six times between 3 and 50 weeks of age. Plasma IR ACTH and IR cortisol response to synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone was measured at 50 weeks. Juveniles that were mistreated by their parents during infancy were smaller than others in body weight, knee-heel length, and head-tail length; demonstrated abnormal social behavior; and had altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

* Social development in nursery-reared pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Worlein, J. M. & Sackett, G. P. (Oregon RPRC, 505 N.W. 185th, Beaverton, OR 97006). American Journal of Primatology, 1997, 41, 23-35.
. . . The social development of 240 nursery-reared macaques was studied from postnatal weeks 4 to 32. The infants were separated from their mothers and housed singly, but had access to peers for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, in a large playroom. Although disturbance behaviors occurred with some frequency and duration early in development, they occupied a very small portion of the infants' time budget at 8 months of age. Weaning from infant formula at 16-19 weeks retarded development of play behavior. Permanent removal of a cloth comforter during weeks 20-24 had no long-term behavioral effects. At 8 months of age, these infants showed relatively normal species-typical behavioral repetoires.

* Neurobiological bases of age-related cognitive decline in the rhesus monkey. Peters, A., Rosene, D. L., Moss, M. B., Kemper, T. L., Abraham, C. R., Tigges, J., & Albert, M. S. (Dept of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118). Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 1996, 55, 861-874.
. . . A review of behavioral and morphologic data from several research groups. While degree of cognitive impairment increases with age, it is not a simple function of age. Disruption of the oligodendroglial/myelin system is involved, but more work is needed to determine how this disruption can be retarded.


* Positive selection and rates of evolution in immunodeficiency viruses from humans and chimpanzees. Mindell, D. P. (Dept of Biology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S. A., 1996, 93, 3284-3288.
. . . Evolutionary theory predicts the recent spread of primate immunodeficiency viruses (PIVs) to new human populations to be accompanied by positive selection in response to new host environments and/or by random genetic drift. Phylogenetic analyses show that neither PIVs type 1 infecting humans nor those infecting chimpanzees represent monophyletic groups, suggesting multiple host-species shifts for PIVs.

* Why don't the natural hosts of SIV develop simian AIDS? Kurth, R. & Norley, S. (Paul-Ehrlich-Inst, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 51-59, D-63225 Langen, Germany). Journal of NIH Research, 1996, 8[12], 33-37.
. . . The authors propose that the simple lack of an immune response to viral core proteins might account for the lack of virus trapping in the lymph nodes - and the subsequent destruction of lymph-node structure - that probably contributes to AIDS development in species that are not natural hosts to the virus.

* The three human T-lymphotropic virus type I subtypes arose from three geographically distinct simian reservoirs. Liu, H.-F., Goubau, P., Van Brussel, M., Van Laethem, K., Chen, Y.-C., Desmyter, J., & Vandamme, A.-M. (A.-M. V., Rega Inst for Med. Research, Kathol. Univ. Leuven, Minderbroederstr. 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium). Journal of General Virology, 1996, 77, 359-368.
. . . LTR and env genes of HTLV-I strains from Brazil, Central African Republic, Taiwan, and Zaire and the simian T-lymphotropic virus type I strain PHSu1 from a baboon from the Sukhumi primate center were sequenced and compared.

* BSE transmission to macaques. Lasmézas, C. I., Deslys, J.-P., Demaimay, R., Adjou, K. T., Lamoury, F., Dormont, D., Robain, O., Ironside, J., & Hauw, J.-J. (Serv. de Neurovirol. CEA/DSV/DRM/SSA, 60-68, av. General Leclerc, B. P. 6, 92 265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex, France). Nature, 1996, 381, 743-744.
. . . Two adult and a neonate cynomolgus macaques were inoculated by an intracerebral route with 400 and 200 ul respectively of a 25% bovine spongiform encephalopathy cattle brain homogenate from the U.K. One hundred and fifty weeks after inoculation, the two adults developed abnormal behavioral signs, including depression for one, edginess and voracious appetite for the other, followed by cerebellar signs with truncal ataxia, broad-based gait, and tremors in both. The young animal exhibited similar clinical signs 128 weeks after inoculation.

* Clinical and epidemiological features of simian parvovirus infection in cynomolgus macaques with severe anemia. O'Sullivan, M. G., Anderson, D. K., Lund, J. E., Brown, W. P., Green, S. W., Young, N. S., & Brown, K. E. (Dept of Comp. Med., Bowman Gray School of Med., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Laboratory Animal Science, 1996, 46, 291-297.
. . . Detailed clinical and epidemiological features of two outbreaks of simian parvovirus infection in cynomolgus monkeys at different facilities.

* Gastric infarction in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Fikes, J. D., O'Sullivan, M. G., Bain, F. T., Jayo, M. J., Harber, E. S., & Carlson, C. S. (M. G. O., Address same as above). Veterinary Pathology, 1996, 33, 171-175.
. . . Five cases of gastric infarction were observed in adolescent or adult cynomolgus monkeys over a 20-month period. All animals had acute clinical episodes with substantial tissue damage resulting from a variety of causes, including trauma, pancreatitis, necrotizing cystitis, and intestinal intussusception. Three animals also had microvascular thrombosis in nongastric tissues.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* A hominid from the lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: Possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans. Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., Arsuaga, J. L., Carbonell, E., Rosas, A., Martínez, I., & Mosquera, M. (Museo Nac. de Ciencias Nat., Consejo Sup. de Investigaciones Científicas, Depto de Paleobiología. J. Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain). Science, 1997, 276, 1392-1395.
. . . Human fossil remains recovered from a lower Pleistocene cave site exhibit a unique combination of cranial, mandibular, and dental traits and are suggested as a new species of Homo-H. antecessor sp. nov., whichmay represent the last common ancestor for Neandertals and modern humans.


* "So you torture poor defenseless animals for a living?" How to talk about your job to any audience. Wagner, W. L. (Dept of Comp. Med. RAR, Univ. of Minnesota, Box 351, UMHC, Minneapolis, MN 55455). Lab Animal, 1997, 26[5], 34-36.


* Successful long-term concordant xenografts in primates: Alteration of the immune response with methotrexate. Matsumiya, G., Gundry, S. R., Nehlsen-Cannarella, S., Fagoaga, O., Morimoto, T., Arai, S., Folz, J., & Bailey, L. L. (S. R. G., Div. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Loma Linda Univ. Med. Ctr, Loma Linda, CA 92354). Transplantation Proceedings, 1996, 28, 751-753.
. . . Therapy with cyclosporin A, methotrexate, and anti-thymocyte globulin has a significant immunosuppressive effect on prolonging graft survival in rhesus monkey to baboon cardiac transplantation. Humoral mechanisms of xenograft rejection are successfully suppressed, and T cell-mediated acute rejections are well controlled with additional steroid therapy.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by the Primate Information Center, UW RPRC Westlake Facility, 1101 Westlake Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109-3527. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. We would also like to acknowledge Primate-Talk as a source for information about new books.

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Volunteer Opportunities: Field Assistant - Central African Republic

The Department of Anthropology, SUNY at Stony Brook, is seeking a Field Assistant for a research project on western lowland gorilla ecology and social organization in the Parc-National Dzanga-Ndoki, Central African Republic. This is an NSF-funded project. The work will involve assisting with the habituation of gorillas, collection of data on group composition and diet, vegetation surveys, and phenological monitoring of trees. The field site is in a very isolated location (a 20 km hike from the nearest navigable river) and conditions are physically challenging, but the position represents the chance to gain fieldwork experience, working on an exciting new project in one of the most undisturbed areas in Africa. Applicants should have a biological or related degree, an interest in primate ecology and behavior, and be physically fit, independent, resourceful, and able and willing to work as part of a small team in challenging, isolated conditions. Previous fieldwork experience, work in Africa, and ability to speak French would be highly advantageous. Airfare and living expenses will be paid. Send a C.V., cover letter and three letters of reference to Dr. Diane Doran, Department of Anthropology, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 [fax: 516-632-9165].

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]

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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) father carrying twin infants, by Anne M.Richardson

Copyright (c) 1997 by Brown University

Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen