VOLUME 37 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1998
Articles and Notes
Behavioral Effects of Simple Manipulable Environmental Enrichment on Pair-housed Juvenile Macaques (Macaca nemestrina), by B. R. Cardinal & S. J. Kent...... 1
Successful Pair-Housing of Male Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), by R. Lynch...... 4
Enrichment and Exercise Room for Free Roaming, by R. Lynch & D. C. Baker ...... 6
Alloparental Behavior Among Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), by J. A.Sommerfeld, S. M. Howell, L. T. Nash, & J. Fritz...... 7
Electric Fence Enclosures for Primates, by A. Chamove...... 12
Pulmonary Filariopsis arator in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), by A. M. Santa Cruz, J. T. Borda, M. I. O. de Rott, & L. Gómez...... 15
Clyde, the Parenting Orangutan, by B. J. McDuffee...... 18
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Belinda R. Cardinal & Stephen J. Kent
Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research
Due to increased awareness of the psychological needs of nonhuman primates, much research has been directed towards environmental enrichment (Bayne et al., 1992). The behavioral effect related to the presence of an enrichment device varies markedly according to the individual animal, its species, sex, and age (Reinhardt & Reinhardt, 1992).
There is much variation in the continued interest of laboratory primates to a simple toy (Bayne et al., 1992; O'Neill, 1988). Monkeys quickly become accustomed to the presence of an enrichment device and their use of it rapidly declines. Previous studies have concentrated on singly housed animals, which frequently exhibit behavioral problems, and have typically examined the use of one type of toy. We are unaware of any previous study that has examined the effect that a number of different toys would have on pair-housed macaques without pre-existing behavioral problems.
Displacement behavior has been studied in wild primates. It is recognized as an important facet of primate life (Sade, 1967) and may be a useful indicator of the well-being of captive macaques (Maestripieri et al., 1992; Bradshaw, 1993). We are unaware of any study that has examined the effect of toys on displacement behavior, particularly in pair-housed juvenile macaques.
This study explores the effects of manipulable environmental enrichment on juvenile pig-tailed macaques. Several parameters of behavior were carefully observed before, during, and after intervention to determine the extent of the effect toys had on both individuals and the group as a whole.
The subjects were six juvenile pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, 5 male, 1 female) ranging from 11 to 15 months old and weighing between 1.6 and 2.2 kg during the study. The animals had been raised in a breeding colony in family troops, then transferred to our facility. The six animals were pair-housed in one room in three 4.6 m3 cages containing multiple-level perches, ropes, rubber chewable toys, forage trays, milk cartons, and cardboard boxes during the study. All animals had visual and acoustical contact with the four animals outside their own cages. These animals were acclimatized to the room and to the observer for six months before the study began. None of them exhibited stereotypic, self-mutilating, or other abnormal behaviors.
The manipulable objects used in the study were the same for all three pairs of monkeys. Each pair received a red and a green child's plastic teething ring (Nuk brand, US$3 for the two), a "Tuffy" (small red object, resembling a rubber beehive with 3 lobes (Kong Company, $7), and a small, soft fabric teddy bear ($3). These items were chosen for their durability, low cost, and ease of cleaning. The toys were washed every other day or as required. Toy preference was noted and total toy use was calculated for each time period. The time periods were compared and each day of recorded exposure was compared to all other days using a Mann Whitney U statistical test to ascertain the relative amounts of toy use.
Procedure: A comprehensive check list and interval sampling were used for recording data (Bloomsmith et al., 1991). Individual play: play without toys or another macaque; includes jumping from perch to perch, jumping up and down on the spot, swinging on the ropes or dangling from the ropes or perches. Conspecific play: chasing or wrestling with cage partner; includes stalking followed by playful attacking. Foraging activity: includes foraging on the floor of the cage, in the trays, at the pellet feeder, or picking small pieces of dried food from the cage walls. Grooming: searching for and clearing the coat of particles. Displacement activity: one animal leaving a perch due to the proximity of its cagemate. Sexual behavior: mounting.
Pretest: Days 1-3 No additional enrichment; Observations Test Period 1: Days 4-6 Enrichment devices introduced Observations Interval: Days 7-9 Devices in cage; No observations Test Period 2: Days 10-12 Devices in cage; Observations Post-test: Days 13-14 Devices removed, ObservationsTable 1: Enrichment and observation schedule.
The position and behavior of each macaque in the cage were recorded each day for twenty minutes, according to the schedule in Table 1, for a total of 240 minutes per animal, spread over 12 days.
Toy usage is greatest in the first day of exposure: There was significantly more toy use during Test Period 1 than during Test Period 2 (p=<0.01). All toys were used significantly more often in days 4 and 5 than in any of the Test Period 2 days (10, 11 and 12; all p=<0.03). There were no significant differences between day 6 and any of days 10, 11 and 12 (p=>0.05).
Toy preference: The teddy bear was preferred as a manipulable toy over the pink teething ring and the green teething ring, with the teddy being used a total of 110 times vs. 43 times for the pink ring and 37 times for the green ring (p<0.005). This may be because it was soft and could be groomed. One macaque (#4) often used the teddy as a comfortable seat. The teddy held up to the rough treatment dealt out by the monkeys better than we expected, the only damage being a slightly chewed nose. The plastic teething rings were quite badly chewed and would eventually have to be replaced, while the hard rubber Tuffy showed no signs of wear. The majority of interactions included biting or mouthing, consistent with most primate exploration of objects being centered around the hands and mouth (Aldis, 1975), very much like young human children. All toys were safe and easy to clean, causing no observed injuries.
Play, grooming and foraging stimulated by the presence of toys: Individual play occurred more often in Test Period 1 than Post-test (p=0.04) and more often in Post-test than in Pretest (p=0.03). No significant changes were recorded in conspecific play or conspecific grooming activity when compared over all four time periods. Self-grooming, however, was observed more often in Test period 2 than Post-test (p=0.04). Interestingly, foraging behavior occurred more often in the Post-test period than during the Pretest period (p=0.02), Test Period 1 (p=0.02) or Test Period 2 (p=0.01).
Displacement behavior: The monkeys' displacement behavior showed that there was a dominant animal in each cage. Number 1 was dominant over #6, displacing him 15 times, but was displaced himself only 3 times. Similarly, #3 displaced #2 66 times and was never displaced, while #4 was minimally dominant over #5, with 61 vs. 54 displacements. Following toy introduction, the dominant animal in each pair increased its displacement activity (2.1, 3.3, and 3.0-fold respectively, compared to pre-test activity), while there was no change in displacement activity of the subordinate animal in each pair.
There was a nonsignificant increase in sexual behavior when comparing the two test periods of the study, with total numbers of sexual behavior activity for all three pairs being: Pretest, 16 occurrences; Test Period 1, 22 occurrences; Test Period 2, 23 occurrences; and Post-test, 15 occurrences. These data appear suggestive, but the p values between various periods ranged from .36 to 1, reflecting the small number of observations.
This study documents a number of behavioral changes following the introduction of toys to juvenile M. nemestrina. The significant difference in toy use between Test Period 1 and Test Period 2, with the toys being used far more frequently early after exposure, was expected, as other studies have found a rapid decline in toy use (Bayne et al., 1992; O'Neill, 1988). Weld et al. (1989) reported that in some cases toy manipulation increases after lengthy exposure to the toy; in our study, however, toy use declined with time, indicating that rotation of toys, at least in the short term, may increase use.
"Individual play" is a vital category in assessing the well-being of captive macaques, especially juveniles. Play encourages exploration and teaches the young macaque about its environment. It keeps the mind active and helps development of limbs, muscles, and coordination (Fagen, 1981). Play is easily recognized by exaggeration of movement, such as bounding or leaping (Hinde, 1970). Significantly more play occurred in Test Period 1 than in the Pretest period. This play did not utilize the toys but was probably stimulated by excitement produced by the novel items, which may be more common in juvenile than in adult macaques. The Post-test period of individual play was higher than in the Pretest period even though the conditions were identical. The beneficial behavioral effects of toys may last longer than the actual contact time.
Self-grooming is an important behavior in all primates. Animals tending to their own coats show an interest in their own well-being; in pair-housed captive primates this is generally regarded as a sign of contentment. A significant decrease in self-grooming occurred in five of the six animals when the toys were removed, suggesting that substituting new toys is more appropriate than simply removing old ones when their novelty declines.
"Conspecific play" and "grooming" did not show any significant differences, staying at a fairly high level throughout the experiment. This may indicate that conspecific interactions are more important to the subjects than the presence of toys. Conspecific grooming was mostly performed by the subordinate macaque in each pair; this did not change with the introduction of the toys.
Conspecific play in macaques is most often wrestling, with the apparent goal of mouthing an opponent without being mouthed oneself. It is easily recognized in macaques by inhibition of biting, open-mouthed play face, and weak defensive actions that indicate that the monkey does not want the play to stop (Aldis, 1975). The maintenance of play and grooming activities at good levels (and without abnormal behaviors) throughout the observation period confirms belief that housing macaques with a conspecific is beneficial.
Foraging requires time and patience and is usually performed by a contented monkey (Chamove, 1989). The animals in this study foraged for leftover food in their trays or small pieces of food left around the mesh cage walls. Unexpectedly, we found that foraging behavior increased in the Post-test period. Perhaps the presence of toys inhibits foraging behavior by providing another way of spending time, and removal of the toys resulted in the monkeys turning to foraging to fill that time. Four of the six macaques showed decreases in foraging when the toys were first introduced, suggesting that the toys were more important to the monkeys than foraging on the first day (when there was maximal toy usage).
Displacement activity, a normal and healthy activity of group-living macaques, was stimulated by the introduction of the toys, but this stimulation was limited to the dominant animal of each pair examined.
The short period of time that the animals were observed for each day may have affected the results - larger differences may have been seen if the animals had been observed for 24 hours per day for an extended period. Recording by remote cameras (which have now been installed in the cage area) would facilitate gaining a more accurate, complete picture of behavior without observer interference. Additionally, since all data collection was done in the mornings, the study may be biased towards morning behavior, which may be different from behavior later in the day. Despite these limitations, we feel this study accurately documents the beneficial effect on juvenile pair-housed macaques of novel manipulable toys.
Manipulable enrichment did not affect all behaviors equally nor did it affect all individuals in the same way. This suggests that primate facilities should take the time to find the most effective form of enrichment for each individual. This may sound extravagant, but it makes sense to keep each animal contented so as to be a true representative of its species, whether in zoos, breeding colonies or research situations.
We conclude that (1) simple manipulable environmental enrichment for juvenile macaques is worthwhile as long as the objects are safe and constantly kept novel by rotation or substitution; and (2) the effects of simple enrichment devices are additive to the beneficial effects of pair-housing.
Aldis, O. (1975). Play Fighting. New York: Academic Press.
Bayne, K. A. L., Hurst, J. K., & Dexter, S. L. (1992). Evaluation of the preference to and behavioral effects of an enriched environment on male rhesus monkeys. Laboratory Animal Science, 42, 38-45.
Bloomsmith, M. A., Brent, L. Y., & Schapiro S. J. (1991). Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science, 41, 372-377.
Bradshaw, R. H. (1993). Displacement activities as potential covert signals in primates. Folia Primatologica, 61, 174-176.
Chamove, A. S. Environmental Enrichment - A Review. (1989). Animal Technology, 40, 372-377.
Fagen, R. (1981). Animal Play Behaviour. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hinde, R. A. (1970). Animal Behaviour: A Synthesis of Ethology and Comparative Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Maestripieri, D. et al. (1992). A modest proposal: Displacement activities as an indicator of emotions in primates. Animal Behaviour, 44 , 967-979.
O'Neill, P. (1988). Developing effective social and environmental enrichment techniques for macaques in captive groups. Lab Animal, 17, 23-31.
Reinhardt, A. & Reinhardt, V. (1992). Qualitatively tested environmental enrichment options for singly caged nonhuman primates: A review. Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 6, 374-384.
Sade, D. S. (1967). Determinants of dominance in a group of free living rhesus monkeys. In S. A. Altmann (Ed.), Social Communications Among Primates (pp. 99-114). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Weld, K., Metz, B., & Erwin, J. (1989). Experimental evaluation of environmental enrichment techniques: Provision of manipulable objects to five primate species. American Journal of Primatology, 18, 169.
Address correspondence to Dr. S. Kent, Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research, P.O. Box 254, Fairfield, 3078, Victoria, Australia [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
We thank Ms. Sue Hutchings, M.Sc., for valuable advice. Financial assistance was obtained from the Commonwealth AIDS Research Grants scheme, Australia.
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Most animal care professionals agree that social housing of compatible nonhuman primates is one of the best ways to provide psychological well-being to these animals. Certain species of nonhuman primates, such as the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), can be quite aggressive to one another, especially the males. Since placing adult male cynomolgus monkeys together in captivity has led to serious fights, these animals are traditionally single-housed in research laboratories (NIH, 1991).
Several studies have shown that adult, juvenile, and infant rhesus and stump-tailed macaques of both sexes can be successfully pair-housed (Reinhardt et al., 1989; Eaton et al., 1994; Reinhardt, 1994). Line et al. (1990) successfully pair-housed adult female cynomolgus monkeys; however, Crockett et al. (1994) were relatively unsuccessful in attempting to pair-house adult male cynomolgus monkeys.
We describe here the steps and procedures used at this facility to enable us to successfully pair-house male cynomolgus monkeys, improving the quality of life of the animals while complying with Animal Welfare regulations. This particular process should be generally applicable for selecting compatible pairs of male monkeys in species found to be essentially incompatible by other recent research.
The animals are 34 male cynomolgus monkeys. They range from 4- 11 years old and weigh from 6-11 kg; all have full canines.
The animals are kept in Class 100 clean rooms. Room temperature is 75°-78°F with humidity at 55% +/- 5% and a 12:12 light/dark cycle. The monkeys are fed ad lib between 7-9 a.m. with commercial dry food. They have access to water at all times and are given fruit and Prima-Treats® in the afternoon.
The monkeys are housed in a Social Interaction Primate Cage System (Figure 1) from Allentown Caging. The cages consist of four compartments with 4.5 sq-ft of floor space per compartment, for a total of 18 sq-ft of floor space. Grid dividers separate the compartments vertically while the upper floor divides them horizontally. Two animals are housed in each cage system, at first one on each side with upper floors removed. Later, with the upper vertical divider removed, the monkeys have the opportunity to socialize and express dominant and submissive behavior as they do in the wild. The lower vertical divider functions as a "privacy panel".
Figure 1: Social Interaction Primate Cage System.
4.5 sq-ft per compartment; 32 in. animal height.
1. To select monkey pairs, we observed the animals, which are classified as dominant (a monkey that seems to be assertive or will come up to the front of the cage) or submissive (one that seems to be shy or stays to the back of the cage). This step is subjective, requiring experience, time, and patience to recognize these social traits; it is also the critical step in selecting compatible pairs. Our behavioral studies indicate that the more dominant one animal is and the more submissive the other, the more compatible the pair will be.
2. The chosen pairs are then housed in a cage with mesh vertical dividers. The cage is set up so the animals have access to the full vertical height. With the divider in the middle, the animals can see each other and touch each other - fingertips only. In this way they gradually become accustomed to each other.
3. During the first week aggressive behaviors, such as "finger fighting" or trying to attack each other through the divider, are signs that the pair are probably not compatible.
4. If there are no signs of aggression and a clear hierarchy has been established after the first week (one monkey showing signs of dominance such as staring or charging and the other showing signs of submission such as yielding or fear grimacing), then pairing can be initiated by putting both monkeys in a different clean cage with no top vertical divider. It is important to use a different clean cage to eliminate territoriality.
5. Pair formation has now been initiated and success is determined rather rapidly, usually within the first 30 minutes; however, the animals should be observed often for the first 24 hours. There may be displays of hostility on the part of the dominant animal to assert his rank; this is normal. There may also be occasional scuffles within the pairs resulting in superficial wounds. If aggressive behavior causes more than superficial wounds, however, then the pair is separated and we do not try to put those two together again.
6. If no unacceptable aggressive behavior has occurred during the first 24 hours, the pair will most likely remain compatible.
7. Food and water are available in both top and bottom sections.
8. Once two monkeys are housed together and found to be compatible, they remain together except for illness or study requirements.
9. If a pair does start to fight they are separated, using the divider.
Seventeen pairs of monkeys were used in this study.
One pair was removed from the study within the first 30 minutes due to unacceptable aggressive behavior.
One pair showed minimal aggressive behavior on the second day, resulting in minor skin abrasions, which were treated with topical antibiotics. The animals remained housed together without further problems.
Two pairs exhibited minor wounds after one week together and were treated with topical antibiotics. They were separated by the vertical divider for one week and then placed together again, without further problems.
The remaining 13 pairs showed no aggressive behavior.
If a pair fights after one week together and the wounds are minor (require superficial, topical treatment), then they are treated and separated by the vertical divider. They are kept separated, side by side, for at least two weeks. During this two-week period, the monkeys are observed several times a day for signs of aggression. Once the wounds completely heal and no signs of aggression are observed, they can be paired again.
At the time this paper was submitted (12-42 months after pairing), there were still 16 compatible pairs with no significant injuries to the animals (94%).
Monkeys are social animals; therefore there should be no reason why they cannot be paired. We have found that this pairing can be accomplished with time, patience, and understanding of the animals' behavior. The results of careful pairing enhances their behavioral well-being and enriches their environment in a research laboratory setting. These monkeys exhibit species-specific behavior, such as grooming, and maintain proper weight, as indicated by semi-annual weight checks.
Past attempts to pair-house male cynomolgus monkeys were, for the most part, unsuccessful (Crockett et al., 1994), but same-sex pair-housing of adult rhesus and stump-tailed monkeys has been successful (Reinhardt, 1989; 1994a; 1994b). In order for male cynomolgus monkeys to be successfully pair-housed, the partners must establish a hierarchical relationship during a period of noncontact familiarization. Once this has been accomplished and a pair is housed together, it is important that:
1. They stay together continuously.
2. If separated due to illness or study requirements, they are put back with their partner as soon as possible.
3. If at all possible, have the separated partner within visual contact during the treatment or study period.
4. If separation is prolonged (2 weeks), separation with a divider may be necessary until they reestablish compatibility.
We believe the best way for social primates to be enriched is by contact with an animal of the same species.
Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Bowden B. D., et al. (1994). Sex differences in compatibility of pair-housed adult long-tailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 32, 73-94.
Eaton, G. G., Kelley, S. T., Axthelm, M. K., Illiff-Sizemore, S. A., & Shiigi, S. M. (1994). Psychological well-being in paired adult female rhesus (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology, 33, 89-99.
Line, S. W., Morgan, K. N., Markovitz, H., Roberts, F., & Riddell, M. (1990). Behavioral responses of female longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to pair formation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29, 1-5.
National Institutes of Health Nonhuman Primate Management Plan (1991). Office of Animal Care and Use, NIH, Bethesda, MD.
Reinhardt, V. (1989). Behavioral responses of unrelated adult male rhesus monkeys familiarized and paired for the purpose of environment enrichment. American Journal of Primatology, 17, 243-248.
Reinhardt, V. (1994a). Social enrichment for previously single-caged stump-tailed macaques. Animal Technology 45, 37-41.
Reinhardt, V. (1994b). Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology, 23, 426-431.
Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Cowley, D., Eisele, S., & Vertein, R. (1989). Alternatives to single caging of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) used in research. Zeitschrift für Versuchstierkunde 32, 275-279.
Author's address: Zeneca Pharmaceuticals Group, 1800 Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE 19897.
Thanks to Joseph R. Tuckosh, V.M.D., Mark S. Jamba, D.V.M., Annette L. Williams, and Karen L. Sofka.
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Richard Lynch and Daniel C. Baker
In an effort to improve the program described above, we have designed an enrichment/exercise room in which pairs of monkeys can roam freely.
The room provides approximately 450 sq-ft of space in which our monkeys can exercise and and exhibit species-typical behavior. We have outfitted the room with enrichment devices that are not possible in the typical cage. We have built apparatuses that provide opportunity for the monkeys to perch, climb, run, hide, and forage. We have provided large rubber tubs with four to six inches of water and various kinds of fruit; bedding on the floor with mealworms in it; large plastic bottles with grapes or nuts; large plastic balls; and anything else we feel the monkeys will enjoy. It is important that whatever is used can be properly cleaned and sanitized or disposed of.
Monkeys are brought into the room in their cage as a pair and then released. Each pair is in the room approximately 1.5 hours at least once every 10 days. New pairs are observed continuously for the first half hour and every 5-10 minutes for the next hour. Established pairs were initially checked every 10-15 minutes. To date, there has been no aggressive behavior exhibited in the enrichment room by any monkey pairs; therefore, established pairs are now checked only once or twice during the 1.5 hours.
At the end of the enrichment period, a clean cage with bananas (their favorite treat) is brought into the room. Most (about 80%) of the monkeys will go immediately into the cage, which is then closed. For the reluctant monkeys, we remove the apparatus they perch on and within five minutes they enter the cage. The monkeys are then returned to their home room and the enrichment room is cleaned and set up for the next pair.
The enrichment room has also proven a very valuable tool in our pair-housing procedure. We are using the free-roaming room at step 4 (see previous page), initiating full contact there, then taking them out together in a new cage. Our hypothesis is that providing the pair with an open, less restricted environment for first full contact would be more conducive to compatibility. We have introduced six new pairs in this manner and all have been compatible. It is important to reemphasize that pairs should not be introduced in the room or in a cage without successfully completing steps 1-3 of the pair-housing procedure! -- David Seelig has visited this laboratory. His comments: "The pair-housing combined with the exercise room makes this the best set-up I have ever seen provided for a caged macaque colony of any species. The animals are noticably behaviorally normal and affiliative even to strangers -- perhaps one could even use the word `contented'."
A. Wolff & G. Ruppert (1991). A practical assessment of a nonhuman primate exercise program. Lab Animal 20, 36-39.
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J. A. Sommerfeld, S. M. Howell, L. T. Nash, and J. Fritz
Primate Foundation of Arizona and Arizona State University
Alloparenting (parenting behaviors performed by conspecifics other than the biological parents) has been documented for a variety of captive and wild nonhuman primates (e.g., Hrdy, 1976; Nicolson, 1987; Watt, 1994). Variations across species in the pattern and likely functions of alloparental care may be attributed to differences in the amount of maternal restriction and relative motivation of members of different age and sex classes. The variations have also generated different explanations of the benefits of alloparental care (Hrdy, 1976; Mckenna, 1979). Several studies suggest that "hands on" experience with infants (alloparenting) provides mothering practice for young females and is important to ensure maternal competence (e.g., Bard, 1994; Hrdy, 1976; Nicolson, 1987). Other benefits, such as increased foraging efficiency for the biological mother, an increase in the possibility of the infant being adopted in the event of its mother's death, and increased socialization and protection of the infant, have also been suggested to explain alloparenting (e.g., Hrdy, 1976; Price, 1991).
Alloparental care is more common among female nonhuman primates, but males also exhibit this behavior. Male care of infants is most commonly associated with monogamous and cooperatively breeding species such as owl monkeys, titi monkeys, and callitrichids (Tardif et al., 1986; Whitten, 1987; Wright, 1984), but it also occurs in some polygamous species such as baboons, spider monkeys, chimpanzees, and several species of macaques (Fairbanks, 1993; Taub, 1984; Watt, 1994; Whitten, 1987). Among wild chimpanzees at the Mahale site, Nishida (1983) found adolescent females to be more active alloparents than any other age class. However, Pusey (1990) reports no overall sex differences in interactions with infants at the Gombe site. This contradiction leaves us with incomplete information on relative age and sex differences in alloparental care for chimpanzees.
To better understand alloparental behavior among captive chimpanzees, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 1/0 daily score data for 47 chimpanzees housed in mixed-age and -sex social groups. The data were collected both indoors and outdoors as part of the Primate Foundation of Arizona's (PFA's) ongoing "Chimpanzee Wellness Program". In addition, focal animal, interval-sampled data were collected indoors for four alloparent-infant and two mother-infant dyads to provide further information on qualitative aspects of alloparental relationships, including responsibility for maintaining contact within the dyad. We focused on understanding age and sex differences in alloparental care, alloparental care by siblings versus nonsiblings, and interaction patterns of alloparents versus mothers.
Housing: Subjects were housed in established compatible social groups in indoor enclosures (17.3 m2 and 2.77 m high) at PFA and were provided with a variety of environmental enrichments throughout the study. The enclosures were furnished with metal benches placed 1.2 m to 1.5 m above the floor, intersecting vertical and horizontal poles forming a T-bar apparatus, and a variety of destructible and indestructible toys. Every other week, subjects were provided with access to large outdoor play cages (43.0 m2 and 4.88 m high) that included additional stationary and mobile furnishings (see Fritz & Howell, 1993 for a complete description).
Subjects and Data Collection: 1/0 Daily Scores: Subjects included 47 individuals with access to immatures (individuals younger than seven years of age). The sample included 11 males and 36 females ranging in age from three to 40 years at study onset. It was possible for immatures to be scored for alloparenting if they performed alloparental behaviors with younger individuals. Alloparental behaviors included embracing, carrying, protecting, grooming, sharing food, and gently playing with neonates (0-30 days), infants (31 days-12 months), older infants (13-47 months), and juveniles (4-7 years). Data were gathered on a 1/0 (yes or no) daily basis over a 13-month period by six members of the PFA care and research staff. Reliability was maintained by periodic testing of the care staff (with 85% correct answers), and by reliability checks (with 85% observer agreement) among the research staff. A monthly "alloparenting score" was calculated as the proportion of days alloparenting behaviors were observed during the month (Fritz & Howell, 1993).
Interval-Sampled Data: Subjects included one infant (12 months) and one older infant (14 months) housed in similar social groups. The infant and older infant were each part of a mother-infant dyad (mothers: 17 and 25 years), a sibling-infant dyad (siblings: 5 years), and an unrelated male- or female-infant dyad (unrelated subjects: 5 and 6 years). Behavioral data collection consisted of 12 15-minute sessions of observing focal animals (two mothers, two female siblings, one female unrelated, one male unrelated) across a six-week period, using point-and -interval sampling methods. Parenting behaviors (grooming and playing with immature) were scored at one-minute intervals. Making and breaking contact ( 5 cm) were recorded continuously. Reliability was maintained at 85% observer agreement. The "Hinde Index" (Hinde & Atkinson, 1970) was used to represent the relative contribution of each partner to maintaining contact within each possible dyad. It is calculated as the percent of all "approaches" between the dyad which are due to the infant minus the percent of all "leaves" which are due to the infant, with an approach or leave defined as the appropriate crossing of a boundary of 5 cm from the focal animal. As used here, the index is positive if the infant was responsible for maintaining contact between the pair, negative if the parent or alloparent played the primary role in maintenance of contact, and zero if each member of the dyad contributed equally.
Because 1/0 scores may not provide a true estimate of alloparenting frequency (Martin & Bateson 1987), and focal interval data were collected on relatively few subjects, this analysis is limited to a preliminary qualitative examination of age and sex differences in alloparental care. Recently, however, Jacobson (1996) has demonstrated that 1/0 daily scores for alloparental care correlated positively with focal animal, interval-sampled data collected at PFA. Thus, 1/0 daily scores may provide a fair estimate of alloparental behavior for this colony.
1/0 Daily Scores: Both males (n = 11) and females (n = 21) engage in alloparenting behavior, although females (x = 0.341, = 0.022) alloparent more than males (x = 0.289, = 0.026). Alloparent age complicated the sex effect: as older infants (13-47 months) and juveniles (4-7 years), females alloparented more than males. Female older infants were observed alloparenting infants and female juveniles were observed alloparenting infants and older infants (e.g., ventro-ventral carrying). As young adults (9-13 years) and adults (15+ years), males alloparented more than females (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Alloparent sex and age class effect on parenting.
Qualitative notes indicate that both males and females frequently initiated alloparental care by presenting their ventrum to infants. Infants "climbed on" and were then carried away from their mothers in a ventro-ventral position. This form of alloparental behavior was seldom recorded after adolescence for either males or females. However, infants and juveniles were observed to embrace the side and "buddy" walk alongside adult males.
Alloparental care was rarely seen for neonates. However, as the age of the potential recipient of allocare increased, alloparenting by siblings (n=3) and unrelated others (n=28) also increased. Parenting by the biological mother (n=15) was consistently high regardless of recipient age. Alloparents parented older infants more than any other age class, and rarely parented juveniles (see Fig. 2).
Figure 2: Recipient age class and kinship effect on parenting.
Additionally, group composition seems to have affected alloparental behaviors. Potential alloparents housed with two potential allocare recipients parented more than individuals with access to one or three potential allocare recipients (one: x = 0.304, = 0.019; two: x = 0.419, = 0.053; three: x = 0.295, = 0.035).
% Time Hinde Index Parenting Median Mean () (min,max) GROUP 1 Mother 0.567 (.092) -1 (-100,40) Sibling (juv) 0.217 (.059) 0 (-100,100) Nonsibling (juv) 0.042 (.036) -33 (-100,0) GROUP 2 Mother 0.100 (.034) 0 (-75,50) Sibling (juv) 0.156 (.047) -50 (-100,100) Nonsibling (juv) 0.133 (.048) -20 (-100,63)Table 1: Amount of Parenting and Maintenance of Contact
Interval-Sampled Data: Alloparental care was scored more frequently for individuals related to the recipient than by unrelated individuals. However, this result was complicated by a sex difference as the females tended to alloparent more than the male, regardless of relationship to the infant (see Table 1). Table 1 provides Hinde Index values to estimate the relative contribution of each individual within a dyad (mother-infant, sibling-infant, or nonsibling-infant) to maintaining contact between the pair. Hinde Index values for the mother-infant pair are provided for comparison with the alloparent-infant pairs. Within both mother-infant dyads, the infants initiated contact about as often as they broke contact. Therefore, the index values are zero and near-zero. This indicates that the infants and mothers were about equal in the control of contact. Both nonsibling alloparents, in contrast, had to take the major role in maintaining contact with the infants , that is, the infants broke contact more frequently than they made contact. Thus, the index values are decidedly negative. However, the Hinde Index was quite variable between the two sibling-infant pairs. The sibling in Group 1 appears to share the control over contact equally with the infant, whereas the sibling in Group 2 took the major role in maintaining contact with the infant. This may be because the sibling in Group 2 was competing for access to the infant with a female nonsibling, who, herself, was a more frequent alloparent than the male nonsibling in Group 1. The infant in Group 2 may have been breaking contact with the sibling more often than making contact because there was another female alloparent present who was heavily soliciting the attention of the infant.
Although further study with a larger subject sample is needed to confirm these preliminary results, we found frequent alloparental care among captive chimpanzees housed in social groups, and suggest it may provide hands-on "experience," ensuring maternal and paternal competence (Bard 1994). However, several factors should be considered in attempts to foster alloparental behavior. First, mothers seldom allowed others to alloparent neonates. Second, older siblings tended to alloparent more than unrelated members of the social group. Thus, housing chimpanzees in "family" groups may provide optimal opportunities for alloparenting. Third, females carried younger immatures in a ventro-ventral position and exhibited competent alloparental skills as early as 13 to 47 months of age, but alloparental care among females waned at adolescence. Thus, the older infant and juvenile periods may represent the best "window of opportunity" for females to develop adequate maternal skills. For males, alloparental care was most common among young adults and adults. Allowing young adult males access to infants may be important for developing an ability for gentle play, protection, and tolerance of infants. Adult male captive chimpanzees sometimes become dangerously aggressive to infants (Fritz & Howell, pers. obs.), so providing alloparenting opportunities for young adult males may help to ensure the safety of immatures in their social groups.
Bard, K. (1994). Evolutionary roots of intuitive parenting: Maternal competence in chimpanzees. Early Development and Parenting, 3, 19-28.
Fairbanks, L. A. (1993). Juvenile vervet monkeys: Establishing relationships and practicing skills for the future. In M. E. Pereira & L. A. Fairbanks (Eds.), Juvenile Primates: Life History, Development, and Behavior (pp. 211-227). New York: Oxford University Press.
Fritz, J. & Howell, S. M. (1993). Psychological wellness for captive chimpanzees: An evaluative program. Humane Innovations And Alternatives, 7, 426-434.
Hinde, R. A., & Atkinson, S. (1970). Assessing the roles of social partners in maintaining mutual proximity, as exemplified by mother-infant relations in rhesus monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 18, 169-176.
Hrdy, S. (1976). Care and exploitation of nonhuman primates by conspecifics other than the mother. In J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, E. Shaw, & C. Beer (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior (pp. 101-158). New York: Academic Press.
Jacobson, A. (1996). High and low labor intensive assessments of wellness in chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. Unpublished master's thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.
Martin, P. & Bateson, P. (1987). Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mckenna, J. J. (1979). The evolution of allomothering among colobine monkeys: Function and opportunism in evolution. American Anthropologist, 81, 818-840.
Nicolson, N. (1987). Infants, mothers, and other females. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struthsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies (pp. 330-342). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nishida, T. (1983). Alloparental behavior in wild chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Folia Primatologica, 41, 1-33.
Price, E. C. (1991). The costs of infant carrying in captive cotton-top tamarins. American Journal of Primatology, 26, 23-33.
Pusey, A. E. (1990). Behavioral changes at adolescence in chimpanzees. Behaviour, 115, 203-246.
Tardif, S. D., Carson, R. L., & Gangaware, B. L. (1986). Comparison of infant care in family groups of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinas oedipus). American Journal of Primatology, 11, 103-110.
Taub, D. M. (Ed.). (1984). Primate Paternalism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Watt, S. L. (1994). Alloparent behavior in a captive group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the Auckland Zoo. International Journal of Primatology, 15, 135-164.
Whitten, P .L. (1987). Infants and adult males. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struthsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies (pp. 343-357). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wright, P. C. (1984). Biparental care in Aotus trivirgatus and Callicebus moloch. In M. F. Small (Ed.), Female Primates: Studies by Female Primatologists (pp. 59-75). New York: A. R. Liss.
Fourth author's address: Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.
The animal data collection portion of this protocol was reviewed and approved by the Primate Foundation of Arizona's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and was supported by NIH Grant No. U42 RR 03602- 11. Additional support was provided to the first author by a grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute through the Undergraduate Biological Sciences Education Program. We would also like to thank Aura McLain and Amy Jutte for help with training the animal care staff in observational data collection, and the staff for their careful observations and cooperation with this study.
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ASP Conservation Awards and Grant
Nominations for Conservation Awards and Grants are now being sought by the American Society of Primatologists (ASP). These awards and grants, funded from the ASP Conservation Fund, are a mechanism to recognize deserving colleagues and students, including those from primate habitat countries - countries with native primate fauna - for whom the prestige of an ASP award or grant can be a valuable aid to the recipient's conservation efforts. An award nomination is basically a letter of recommendation. A grant proposal should consist of a concise narrative (a few pages) plus a budget page.
Subscription Award: This award provides the American Journal of Primatology to worthy individuals in habitat countries who otherwise would have little access to the scientific literature on nonhuman primates. Preference is given to individuals who will make the journal available for use by students and colleagues. The award is normally granted for a five-year period. Recipients are requested to submit a brief report every two years summarizing the use of the journal. A nominating letter should describe the nominee's credentials, his/her primate-related activities, and should explain why the nominee deserves to receive high priority consideration.
Conservation Award ($500): This award provides recognition and financial support for students and young investigators from habitat countries who demonstrate potential for making significant and continuing contributions to primate conservation. Those eligible include students, researchers, and educators from primate habitat countries for whom no more than five years have elapsed since receipt of their terminal degree. Nominators should provide the name, title and full mailing address of their nominee, along with a statement about the nominee's qualifications for the award, focusing on past and potential contributions to primate conservation. A copy of the nominee's vita is encouraged. Supporting letters from other individuals acquainted with the nominee's work may be submitted. Past awards have been presented by U.S. Ambassadors or other senior officials, thereby obtaining favorable publicity for the award, its recipient, and primate conservation in the recipient's country.
Senior Biology and Conservation Award ($500 Honorarium): This award is one of ASP's highest honors. It is given to recognize an individual without an advanced degree who has made substantial contributions over many years to promote primate conservation either through direct action or via enhancement of biological knowledge or well-being of primates. Such contributions could arise from work done in field, laboratory, or zoo settings. Nominees might work directly with primates or be engaged in activities supporting those who work with primates. Examples include, park rangers, census takers, animal caretakers, research technicians, assistants or facilitators, and individuals involved in private enterprise benefiting primate conservation. Nominating letters should detail the nominee's qualifications, contributions to primate biology and conservation, period of service, and full mailing address. A copy of the nominee's vita is encouraged. Supporting letters from other individuals acquainted with the nominee's work may be submitted. This award is typically presented at a public ceremony by senior officials.
Conservation Small Grants (up to $1500, but usually $500): Grant proposals are solicited for conservation research or related projects, including conservation education. ASP and IPS members working in habitat countries are especially urged to apply or to help someone from a habitat country submit a meaningful project which can be a portion of a larger effort. Grant proposals must be typed in English, should not exceed 2000 words, and should include a brief budget page. Recipients of grants must agree that a brief progress report, in a form suitable for publication in the ASP Bulletin, will be made within 12 months of the award.
Evaluation and Application Procedure: With the exception of requests for emergency support, which can be considered at any time for immediate action, the Conservation Committee will make its recommendations for awards and grants to the ASP Executive Committee at its annual meeting. Successful nominees and applicants will be informed following the meeting and their names will be published in the ASP Bulletin. The 1998 deadline for submission of nominations and grant proposals is May 22. They should be sent to Randall C. Kyes, Chair, ASP Conservation Committee, Regional Primate Research Center, Univ. of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195.
Pfizer/LASA Animal Welfare Research Award Fund
The Pfizer/LASA Animal Welfare Research Award Fund was established in 1993 by means of an annual grant made by Pfizer Central Research in the United Kingdom to the Laboratory Animal Science Association (LASA). Pfizer and LASA intend the fund to be used to support research that is concerned with any aspect of animal welfare associated with laboratory science, particularly with the 3Rs of replacement, reduction, and refinement. Awards were made in 1997 to support the following projects: "Cellular mechanisms responsible for the anti-arthritic actions of opioids," by Dr. Judy S. Walker, University of New South Wales, Australia; and "The assessment of the relative severities of routine experimental procedures in laboratory animals," by Professor David B Morton, University of Birmingham, UK.
Applications are now invited for awards to be made in early 1998. Further details and application forms are available from the LASA Secretariat, P.O. Box 3993, Tamworth, Staffordshire B78 3QU, UK [01827 260036; e-mail: email@example.com], and should be submitted by February 28, 1998.
David Starr Jordan Prize
The David Starr Jordan Prize for Innovative Contributions to the Study of Evolution, Ecology, Population or Organismal Biology was established in 1986. Cornell, Indiana and Stanford Universities established a joint endowment to fund a prize in honor of David Starr Jordan, a scientist, educator, and institution-builder with important ties to each of these institutions. The prize is international in scope and presented approximately every three years to a young scientist (normally 40 years of age or less, or with not more than 10 years since receipt of Phd) who is making novel, innovative contributions in one or more of the areas of Jordan's interest: evolution, ecology, population and organismal biology.
The intent of this prize is to recognize young scientists who are making research contributions likely to redirect the principal focus of their fields. In addition to a cash award, the recipient will receive a commemorative medal, attend an awards ceremony, and visit each of the institutions to give scholarly presentations of his/her work. The selection of the prize winner will be made by a committee composed of representatives from each of the three institutions.
The Fourth David Starr Jordan Award will carry a prize of $15,000 and will be announced in mid-1998. Nomination forms are available from Dr. Jeffrey Palmer, Department of Biology, Jordan Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 [812-855-6284; fax: 812-855-6705]. All nomination materials must be received prior to February 1, 1998. The text can be found at: <www.bio.indiana.edu/events/DSJPrize.html>. -- Posted to ABSnet V3 #44
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For restricting animals that can climb, the electric fence is often the fence of choice. It contains or excludes animals not on the basis of its strength but rather by its aversive nature. It further has the advantage that it is about half the cost of a conventional 8-wire fence; however it is not as maintenance-free and must be regularly checked. Equipment is recently available which does this automatically and warns of insecurity.
In climates where the grass is green year round, the simple all-live-wire system is adequate; where the soil dries or becomes frozen, the earth-wire system is needed. In the former, all of the wires are live and the moist soil provides the ground to complete the electrical circuit. The electric mesh fence, in which all the mesh fence is live and the "ground" is the earth, is also in this category.
In the earth-wire system, alternate wires in the fence are connected to the soil to provide the ground to complete the circuit. When the animals, monkeys for example, can jump onto the fence and avoid contacting both the ground and the fence simultaneously, the earth-wire system is necessary, because the animals are insulated from a shock if all the wires are live (this is why birds can sit on electric power wires).
In countries where electric fencing was developed and is extensively used, such as New Zealand, it is most commonly used for enclosing cattle and sheep, but also pigs, deer, horses, and ratites, and is used for excluding wild deer, rabbits, and possums. Consequently, most experience with such fences is with nonclimbers in conventional farming situations. In the last decade it has been used to enclose primates: e.g., in the U.K. Jim Cronan's Monkey World (chimpanzees in 5 ha); and in the U.S. the Texas Snow Monkey Sanctuary (Japanese macaques in 160 ha), the NIH Comparative Ethology Center (rhesus macaques in 2 ha enclosure -- using electric mesh), the Duke University Primate Center (lemurs), the National Zoo in Washington, DC (orangutans), and the Monkey Jungle in Miami (capuchins, rhesus).
The guidelines presented here are therefore extrapolated from use on cattle and sheep with additional but limited experience with primates. The focus will be on large enclosures which, we hope, will become more common for housing primates. The earth-wire system is the focus of this discussion as primates are often kept in dry environments and this system is slightly more complicated than the other system. More data are needed to establish optimal wire spacing and height for primate enclosures.
An electric fence is constructed using heavy posts, which take up the weight of the wire and are located at the corners of the enclosure or where any straight line ends. Consequently the cheapest electric fences enclose a rectangle and the most costly a polygon. A bit of zigzagging is possible and is preferable to fencing over humps or hollows where more posts or tie-downs (insulated anchors to hold the wire down over depressions in the ground) will be needed. Where terrain is irregular, a level track is commonly bulldozed for the fence. This track should be re-grassed and grass growth next to, but not under, the fence encouraged, since grass is a better conductor than bare ground.
These main posts are usually 7 ft long and 6 in. in diameter, half buried in the ground. They are commonly braced at corners as they are under considerable pressure when the wires are under tension of up to 200 lb, almost twice the strain of conventional wire fencing. In New Zealand we put posts at 30-yd spacings with about three wooden or Fiberglas spacers in between. I recommend more than three of these spacers. The function of the spacers is to keep the wires parallel to one another as they sag between the posts. These spacers commonly just touch the ground or are lightly tapped into the ground to anchor them. Metal posts may be driven partly into the ground with special insulators as spacers; these give the fence more strength against large animals (such as cattle) that may be involuntarily pushed against the fence by other animals. I recommend them for primates, as the fence would withstand the weight of a primate better than one with fewer spacers.
The wire used is fencing wire (12.5 gauge High Tensile) or poly-wire. The latter is a plastic/wire mix which is more visible but less conductive. It is used as the sole fencing wire for animals which are very averse to electric fencing and need little shock to be contained, such as horses. It comes in mesh sizes of 1/8, 1/2, and 1-1/2 in. It is best used as a warning wire only; metal wire should be used for the main part of the fence. Stainless-steel wires imbedded in the plastic carry the shock and provide some strength; newer tapes have copper wires in addition to increase conductivity. A new 1/2 in. tape with warning patterns will soon be available; it warns animals away from the fence effectively without their needing to contact the fence at all. Barbed wire is never electrified.
For an earth-wire system, live and ground wires must alternate, with the bottom wire always live. The bottom wire should be parallel to the ground and at such a height that animals cannot walk under the fence. That height is 6 in. for sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs; it should be appropriate for all but the smallest primates. If the wires are not parallel with the ground, very young animals can wander under the fence where there is a depression in the ground and be unable to return to their mothers. That is the most common, and almost only, cause of death with electric fencing. The only other I have heard about is when a fence is sited on a steep slope: an animal may slip on the slope and become entangled in the fence.
Spacing of the wire for goats, one of the more difficult animals to keep fenced, is, from the ground, 6, 6, 6, 8, 10 in. spacing for a 5-wire fence. For primates, which put more pressure on the upper levels of the fence, I would advise 6, 6, 6, 8, 8. It is also recommended that a wire be placed at the level where the animal will first contact the fence. For a sheep that is at sheep-nose height. For a primate, that would be at monkey-hand or shoulder height. For animals that are burrowers, a ground wire 2 in. from the ground is added to the above. The lowest live wires must be kept clear of vegetation, commonly done using herbicides.
The height of an electric fence is determined by the height the animals can jump and still contact the fence. For sheep, goats, cattle, and horses that is 36 in., and for deer 62 in. I would say for primates the fence should be at such a height that the animal when jumping onto the fence would grab the next-to-top wire.
Fail-safe chimpanzee fencing at Monkey World uses 12-in. spacing to 8 ft. high (a local government requirement). That fence also uses two outriggers (see below) at 3 and 6 ft, where each outrigger has four wires alternating live and ground at 4 in. spacing, so that an animal would have to climb up and out over the two outriggers. The fence is an 8-ft high cyclone-type fence which serves as the ground; all horizontal wires are live wires at 12-in. spacing up to 6 ft and are anchored on the same poles and kept just out (~1 in.) from the ground mesh by insulators. The chimps, however, have never been observed contacting the fence above 3 ft high, and then only on the day of release (personal communication, Jim Cronan, November 1997). A similar observation has been made for baboons. It may be that primates rarely jump over things but rather jump onto things. It is likely that 4 ft is the minimum but adequate height for an electric fence for primates.
To further keep climbing animals from scaling fences, offset brackets, stand-off insulators, or "outriggers" are often used. These are usually made from heavy insulated wire which supports an additional live wire for the fence, one which juts out from the fence on the inside. The animals cannot simply climb the fence but must now climb part of the fence, climb over the jutting wire(s), and continue up the fence. It is believed that these slow the animals' rate of climb. One to four such wires are placed near the top of the fence so the fence forms an inverted "L" shape.
I also recommend that a warning wire (live) be placed about a foot or so from the base of the fence and about a foot high using 1/2-in. poly-tape or the new warning poly-tape. This wire serves as a highly visible warning of the proximity of the fence. It also can be used to train the animals about electric fences. The wire or tape can be placed at arm's length outside the animals' home cages before release. They will reach out and contact the wire, getting a shock and learning about the aversive nature of the fence in the calm surroundings of the home cage. This procedure makes it less likely that animals will challenge the fence when first released into the electrically fenced enclosure.
Carole Noon (1997) has made a detailed report of electric fencing used as the primary fencing in three facilities for chimpanzees. She states that electrics are only used as supplementary fencing in the U.S. Duke University, for example, uses a 4-ft electric mesh on top of a 6-ft cyclone fence to enclose lemurs (personal communication, Ken Glander, October 1997).
The power for fences can be supplied by commercial units powered by the sun, by battery, or by a conventional electric supply. The solar power option is used where a conventional electric supply is not available or for backup in case of power failure. Batteries, while unpredictable for long-term use, are only used for temporary fencing or as an excellent back-up. The conventional electric supply is by far the most common source of power for the commercial energizer. Because the power burst is so brief, using it does not move a electricity meter, and so the power it uses is free. There are several sizes of power unit, and the size to choose is determined by the length of the fence (actually the length of the fence times the number of live wires) and not by the jolt you wish to deliver to the animal--the jolt is the same. The pattern of the pulse varies with the length of the wire and the size of the unit. [One joule of output energy will power 6 miles of single wire fence; units of 25 joules are available.]
A new German (Horizont) design called IntelliShock, available from many suppliers, automatically adjusts for the load on the fence. This means less drain on a battery (if one is used) and requires fewer and shorter ground rods, between 25-50% less ground. Stan Potratz, a Premier spokesman, says, "In our tests on our own farm, IntelliShock units, when compared to similar output units, produced lower voltage readings (5-20% lower), but much higher energy transmissions. The energy transmission difference is most marked if the fence circuit contains higher resistance parts, either from the use of electroplastic materials (poly-tapes), dry/snowy soil conditions, or animals with inherently higher relative body resistances (goats, deer, rabbits). Most experts agree that it is joules which cause memorable pain, not volts. Voltage must be high enough to allow the energy to flow -- but it is the quantity of energy flow that is proportionate to probable pain" (pers. comm., November, 1997). In areas of high lightning activity, some protection to the energizer needs to be provided.
The quality of an electric fence relies on its ground. Surveys show that 80% of fences have inadequate ground systems. Three ft of ground per joule is a rule of thumb. There are four guidelines for the construction of a ground system: 1) Place the ground pegs in soil that is moist all year around. 2) Use at least three 6-ft galvanized rods driven almost fully into the earth and connected by one continuous wire. One deep ground peg is more effective than a number of shorter pegs. If the ground is frozen or dry, an additional ground peg should be used for every half mile of fence. 3) Pegs should be at least 15 ft apart and at least 10 yards from any building, plumbing system, telephone or power cable. 4) Check the ground every year during the driest season.
To check the ground, hold the ground wire while touching a few blades of grass with your other hand; if you feel no tingle, then touch the ground with that hand. If you get a shock, the ground is inadequate. Both the ground and the live wires are tested using this method: take a blade of grass, moisten it with saliva, and touch the live wire with it while the other hand is on the ground. A slight tingle will let you know that they are active.
Alternatively you can check the ground as follows: Connect the live wires to the soil at the far end of the fence using several metal rods or pipes, short-circuiting the fence. This should reduce the fence voltage from 7 kv down to around 2 kv or below. Using a digital volt meter (a "fence checker"), check the voltage between the ground wire and an independent ground. The independent ground is a temporary ground made by inserting a metal rod or wire about 10 in. into the ground at least 3 ft away from any ground peg attached to the fence. There should be no voltage recorded, but a reading under 400 volts is acceptable. If the ground is inadequate, (a) use more ground pegs in your fence, (b) use some stainless steel ground pegs, and/or (c) purchase special grounding material (Bentonite + salt which attracts moisture) from an electric fence company. Some energizers are equipped to indicate an inadequate ground with a warning light.
The most popular and, in my opinion, the best manual about electric fencing is available from Gallagher for a couple of dollars (40 pages). It contains more than you will ever want to know about electric fences at a friendly level. It shows the extensive range of accessories available for such fences, from a wide range of insulators to suit different types of posts to poly-tape, electric gates, droppers, tools, and even clever devices which automatically shut off your fence when a creek the fence is spanning is in flood, brewing you a cuppa while you wait. The Pel manual is also good, with an emphasis on how to choose an energizer; it is free (38 pages). The Speedrite manual (23 pages) is brief but covers the basics in a clear style for the beginner. The Premier Fence Systems Catalogue shows a variety of fence accessories and offers electric mesh (36 pages).
The cost for a 5-wire electric fence in New Zealand is (US$4/yard). This compares with Noon's cost of $4.50 in Kenya. The Snow Monkey Sanctuary in Texas paid $30 per yard, but that included gates, electrics, etc.
Electric fencing is an inexpensive way of enclosing animals. I hope that the money saved will be used to increase the size and complexity of enclosures for captive primates.
More advice can be obtained by contacting: USA--Gallagher Power Fence, San Antonio, TX [1-800-531-5908; <www.gallagher.co.nz>] USA--Twin Mountain Fence (Pel), 0800-527-0990; New Zealand Fence Systems (Pel: West Coast) [0800-222-6849; firstname.lastname@example.org.NZ] USA--True-Test (Speedrite), San Antonio, TX [210-377-2885] USA--Premier Fence Systems, Washington, IA [319-653-7622] Canada--Gallagher Power Fencing, Owen Sound, Ontario [519-371-2141] UK--Gallagher Power Fence, Canley, Coventry [1203-470-141].
Gallagher, W. M. Gallagher Power Fence Manual (10th Ed.).
Noon, C. (1997). A report on the use of electric fencing as a primary enclosure barrier for chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. [available from IPPL, Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
O'Neill-Wagner, P. (1996). Facilitating social harmony in a primate group. American Zoo and Aquarium Association 1996 Regional Conference Proceedings, 323-328.
Pel. Electric Fence Manual.
Speedrite. Electric Fence Systems: Know How.
Author's address: Psychology Dept, Massey Univ., Palmerston North, New Zealand [e-mail: A.S.Chamove@massey.ac.nz].
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A. M. Santa Cruz, J. T. Borda, M. I. O. de Rott, and L. Gómez
Grupo de Investigaciones Primatológicas, UNNE
Pulmonary Filariopsis arator was first described in Argentina by Mazza et al. in 1930, and subsequently by Rodríguez and Boero in 1963. On both occasions it was discovered during necropsy. Thirty-two years after its second discovery, many fundamental aspects of its pathology - biological cycle, prevalence, and pathogenesis - remain unknown.
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and histopathology of infestations of the pulmonary nematode Filariopsis arator in captive Cebus apella (monos caí, or capuchin monkeys).
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted at the Argentine Primate Center (Centro Argentino de Primates, or CAPRIM) and at the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences at the Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (38° 12' lat. and 57° 30' long.) in Corrientes, Argentina. We examined 60 monkeys (Cebus apella), 40 males and 20 females, ranging in age from infant to adult, maintained in 15 m3 outdoor cages. The monkeys were housed in harems consisting of one male with two to three adult females or in groups of three to four juveniles or subadults. The monkeys were fed a diet based on monkey chow containing 24% protein, which was given at the rate of 9% of each animal's body weight per day, plus seasonal fruit. Water was given ad libitum.
We examined fresh fecal material for parasites, both by direct examination and by Baermann's method (Basso, et al., 1987), which uses the larvae's tendency to migrate from feces to warm water, from which they can be siphoned off and examined.
Six additional monkeys died from other, unrelated, causes. We took advantage of these occasions to perform necropsies. Using conventional methods, we conducted a histological study of the lesions that we had observed macroscopically in the lungs.
When we examined the feces, we observed larvae of Filariopsis arator (Figure 1), which were translucent, very active, and moved in a serpentine manner. Dead or dormant larvae were coiled. We estimated their largest diameter to be in the anterior part, on the end of which is found the buccal orifice; the posterior quarter tapers into a long filament. They measure 448.8 long by 10.2 wide (at the widest part).
Figure 1: Larva of Filariopsis arator.
448.8 long x 10.2 wide.
The number of larvae observed in the fecal preparations ranged from 1 to 10 per microscopic field at magnification 40X.
We used Baermann's method to confirm negative cases, because direct fecal examination can give false negatives in the case of light infestations.
Of the 60 samples we obtained (one from each animal), we found a prevalence of 62%.
The six necropsied animals showed a prevalence of 100%. We observed multiple nodules, ranging in size from 3 to 5 mm, protruding from the surface of the lungs. Some of the nodules were in clusters and had a dark brown color (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Pulmonary nodules of Filariopsis arator,
3 x 5 mm in diameter
Histological examination of the nodules confirmed the presence of abundant adult nematodes and larvae, located principally in the bronchial tubes, bronchioli, and alveoli. We found a slight, chronic infiltration by lymphocytes and plasmacytes.
Neither the nematodes nor the lesions were the cause of death in any of the six necropsied animals.
Our results show a high prevalence of this pulmonary parasite, which is well adapted to these animals. The variation in number of larvae we observed in fresh fecal samples suggests either a light parasite load or a low rate of reproduction of these nematodes.
From the slight inflammatory reaction found in the lung tissues, we infer a good tolerance of the host for this parasite. A heavy parasite load would be likely to produce mechanical and functional disturbances in the lungs, due to the reduction in respiratory volume, causing coughing and labored respiration when the animals are physically active. In fact, we did observe coughing in all of the parasitized animals (including the necropsied ones), both in those with light and those with heavy parasite loads, whenever they were physically active. We also observed shortness of breath when the animals were caught for tests. However, we are not certain that the labored respiration in these circumstances was a consequence of the parasitosis rather than a result of their struggling at the moment of capture.
The biological cycle of this parasite is unknown, and we cannot confirm its method of transmission. However, we infer that it has a direct life cycle from the high prevalence we found. This high prevalence could be due to the fact that the animals are in captivity, and therefore exposed to contact with each other's feces.
The pulmonary nodules and the size and characteristics of the larvae are consistent with those described by Mazza et al.
The prevalence of Filiariposis arator in our facility is at least 62%.
The parasite does not appear to be lethal to this animal, but does appear to be extremely prevalent in this species and in this area.
Basso, N., Resio, E. C., Dughetti, R. P., Giménez, R. A., Pérez Tort, G. B., Rosa, A. B., & Welch, E. L. (1987). Fundamentos de Parasitología Veterinaría (pp. 47-48). Editorial Hemisferio Sur.
Mazza, S., Parodi, S. & Brachetto Brian, B. (1930). Estrongilosis intestinal y pulmonar en el Cebus libidinosus, 5a. Reunión de la Sociedad Argentina de Patología Regional del Norte, 1054-1063.
Rodríguez, J. A. & Boero, J. J. (1962). Helmintiasis intestinal y pulmonar en el mono Cebus paraguayanus, Molineus torulosus (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) y Filaroides arator (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae), Revista de Medicina Vetinaria, 44 , 103-108.
Grupo de Investigaciones Primatologicas (Primate Research Group), Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE), Sargento Cabral 2139, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina.
This paper was presented during the IV National Congress on Veterinary Sciences and the Scientific Forum LABIOFAM '95, held in La Habana, Cuba, on 4-6 October, 1995.
We thank Mr. Martin A. Rodriguez for the statistical analysis of the data, and Elva Mathiesen and Dr. Morris L. Povar for their translation.
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Free Publications on Environmental Enrichment
The Animal Welfare Institute offers the following publications free of charge to anybody who is directly or indirectly responsible for the care and well-being of nonhuman primates in laboratories and zoos:
1. Environmental Enhancement for Caged Rhesus Macaques: A Photographic Documentation, by Viktor Reinhardt & David Seelig (1997). Order from the Animal Welfare Institute, P.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007.
2. Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates: An Annotated Bibliography for Animal Care Personnel (December 1997), by Viktor Reinhardt, Annie Reinhardt, & David Seelig (1997). Order from Viktor Reinhardt, 4605 Crescent Road, Madison, WI 53711.
Animal Rights and Animal Welfare
The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare will be published by Greenwood Press and is tentatively scheduled for release in early 1998. Edited by Marc Bekoff, of the University of Colorado, this one-volume reference work will provide essays from recognized authorities in the field, addressing the many issues of animal rights and animal welfare. For information, please contact M. Bekoff, EPO Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80302 [303-443-6857; e-mail: email@example.com].
Shane Siers, Curator of the St. Maarten Zoo, is putting together the first formal zoo education program the Island of St. Maarten has ever had. He writes (to Primate-Talk) that he is "really starting from the ground up with a miniscule (almost nonexistent) budget." He hopes that someone may have an extra primate skull or two to donate for educational purposes, especially the species which are in the Zoo (capuchin, vervet, hamadryas baboon, golden-lion tamarin, and marmoset), but would gladly take anything else that may be available.
He is also interested in obtaining taxidermy mounts, full skeletons, pelts, or any other items which may provide real hands-on three-dimensional stimulation for students.
Contact Shane Siers, P.O. Box 523882, Miami, FL 33152 [011-599-5-32030; fax: 011-599-5-32020; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org] for shipping details.
Request for Ethograms
For many zoo staff and scientists wishing to initiate a behavioral study, particularly of a little-known or rare species, a bottleneck in the process is compiling an ethogram. Zoo staff also find ethograms useful when adding a new species to their collection, designing appropriate enrichment and exhibits, and developing signs and educational material. To facilitate the use of behavioral information in zoos, the Behavior and Husbandry Advisory Group (BHAG) of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) is establishing a repository of ethograms. They have begun the process of collecting and compiling existing ethograms and are making a standing request of researchers in animal behavior to assist in this effort by sending copies of published or unpublished ethograms they have developed and used in their studies. Author/s of the ethogram will be cited at the top of the first page. Ethograms will be stored and provided to AZA member institutions (with relevant citations) upon request.
The contact person for collecting and distributing ethograms is Dr. Tammie Bettinger, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 3900 Wildlife Way, Cleveland, OH 44109 [216-661-6500; fax: 216-661-3312; e-mail: email@example.com]. Due to time constraints, at this time they are only requesting vertebrate and cephalopod behavior ethograms. Although it is optional, we would prefer that donors include the following information with their ethograms: Species Author of ethogram Location of the study Length of study period Sampling method Composition of study group (i.e., single animal, single sex group, or mixed sex group) Contact person for questions Any additional references recommended.
Alouatta Genital Sizes
Dr. Clara B. Jones would like to receive descriptions of relative vulval sizes (in particular the presence or absence of female genital hypertrophy) and relative scrotal sizes for Alouatta species. She is particularly interested in reports on A. fusca and A. belzebul, but all responses will be appreciated and acknowledged. Thank you for any attention. Please write to Clara B. Jones, 1406 East Front St, Plainfield, NJ 07062 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. -- From Neotropical Primates, 1997, 5
World Directory of Primatologists (WDP)
Those of you who need contact information for colleagues in the field of primatology are strongly encouraged to set a bookmark to the World Directory of Primatologists, a Web directory developed by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. If you are not in the directory, take five minutes to create an entry. Everything can be done on-line. We currently have 1100 entries and will continue to build this resource. If you do not find a colleague you would expect to appear in the directory, please encourage that person to create an entry. Note that you must have an e-mail address to participate. No fees are involved. Primatologists from all countries around the world are welcome to be part of the WDP. Organizations can help by encouraging their staffs to create WDP entries. The more complete we can make this directory, the more useful it will be. The URL is <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/wdp>.
Martin's Primate Origins and Evolution
Books From Bree has a used copy of R. D. Martin's Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction for sale. Their description: "Princeton University Press, 1990; first edition. 804 pages. This book is in print with a list price of $135.00. Our copy is in as-new condition with no defects of any kind. Animal illustrations are by Anne-Elise Martin." They are asking $90.00 plus $4 for shipping and handling in the U.S., $6 overseas. Contact Morgan or Shoshana Edwards, Books From Bree, New and Used Scientific & Technical Books, 7795 SW Hall Blvd, Beaverton, OR 97008 [503-644-7218; 503-643-7577; fax: 503-626-9149; e-mail: Bree@auldbooks.com; <www.auldbooks.com/bree/>].
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Betty Jo McDuffee
Millions of years ago the orangutan left the rest of the primate family to become a solitary animal: living alone, coming together to mate, then each going his or her own way, the male to forage and seek other females, and the female to forage, give birth, and raise her offspring. Over the ages this has not changed.
However, captive animals in zoos and parks are usually displayed together, male and female. Their activities are more restricted. "Ken Allen," the Bornean male orangutan at the San Diego Zoo, who was born right here, maintains typical orang behavior even though his female companion shares the enclosure. He will not allow her to stay at the viewing window or the climbing structure when he arrives, chasing her and hitting her if she refuses to go. She will not go where he is, except during mating. When he decides to retire from the viewing area he goes back down into the moat and spends the better part of his day alone.
This is not the case in the enclosure next door, where the Sumatran orangs are displayed.
Clyde, a 250 lb. male Sumatran, came to the San Diego Zoo in May, 1994. He came from the zoo where he was born, which had a very bad enclosure for him, all concrete, no climbing structure, no grass. The first day he walked out into the San Diego orangutan enclosure was the first time he had ever touched dirt, touched grass, or walked free for any length of time: he began to explore his new enclosure.
The first thing he did was climb the structure and look around. Knowing that he had spent the past 15 years alone, I wondered what was going on in his mind. When he was walking on the ground he walked backwards as if he didn't want to miss anything. He didn't stop this behavior until he became used to the enclosure and to the other orangs there.
He was slowly introduced to the other orangs, who were all females. Inda was about 8 years old, Bubbles about 33. They wanted no part of him, hitting at him with their browse and running away when he came near. But when 35-year-old Josephine came out with nearly-3-year-old Karen, her adopted daughter, success was immediate. (Josephine had had two previous babies, raising one successfully.) Clyde and Josephine began mating almost immediately. When this big male approached her on their first day upstairs together, Karen grabbed Josephine and screamed with horror because she was so frightened, but Josephine, the consummate mother, knew why Karen was afraid. When Karen was with her she would always go sit by Clyde, as if to tell Karen, "it's all right." And slowly Karen lost her fear. She grew to love Clyde; she ran to him if she was frightened and Josephine wasn't near. She would run to Clyde, though Clyde really didn't want to be bothered by this little thing that was constantly coming to his mouth, asking for food, pulling his cheekpads, and what have you. Slowly he became her protector.
When Josephine's baby Satu was born, mother and infant were kept downstairs for a day or so. We wondered what would happen, because Karen always came up with Josephine, but Josephine wasn't coming up. On Karen's first day without her, we watched as Clyde came up and, sure enough, Karen was holding on to his back leg. He stayed with her as they came to the top of the stairs. She was kind of shaking and holding on to him, but he was clearly taking over for Josephine.
During the summer, when the zoo is open until ten p.m., the orangs are taken indoors an hour or so later than usual. About the time that they were usually taken in the orangs would all gather and sit on the grass at the top of the stairs, waiting to be called. One particular evening Karen was at the viewing window and had fallen sound asleep. When the call came and the orangs started down the stairs, Clyde was the last one going down. He stopped about midway, turned around and came back, apparently missing Karen. He came over to the window, woke her and took her downstairs. It amazed us that he had even thought about her.
An even more amazing thing happened a few months later. When Karen got browse she liked to play with it. There was a small hole, about 3 ft high, in the concrete near the end of the viewing glass. Karen sometimes would put a stick in the hole and then try to climb it. Usually the stick broke because of her weight. This one particular day she got a very strong, long stick with a little knob on it, so when she put it in the hole it stuck and wouldn't come out. Karen immediately climbed it. She got up to the top and seemed to be having a pretty good time moving down and up; the stick was holding. But finally she twisted in such a way that her foot got caught between the stick and the concrete, so her own weight was holding her pinned. There she was, dangling by one foot and starting to cry.
Three of us were watching; I jumped up to get a keeper when, to my amazement, over the hill came Clyde. He went right up to Karen, got hold of her and unhooked her, sat down and began to examine her. He checked her completely, though she was uncooperative. She grabbed the stick and tried to get away, but he took it back and snapped it in two! I think she bit him three times before he released her. She took off in a panic and fled downstairs. Clyde in the meantime had turned around and was examining the hole and the stick, giving us looks as if we had had something to do with it. He had not seen where Karen had gone and started looking around. He traipsed over the whole enclosure, down to the moat and in all the little places she could be for almost ten minutes. He finally went down the stairs and apparently saw her, because he turned around and came back up the stairs, climbed into the cave, and went to sleep.
While Karen's first experiences with Clyde had been a little frightening for her, I don't believe Satu was ever afraid of his father. As soon as he was old enough to spend some time away from Josephine, he would saunter around and if he saw the big male he would immediately go toward him. At first Josephine was very leery of this and would go at once and retrieve Satu when he was about to pounce on his father. Maybe her experiences in the past indicated that it might not be the wisest thing for Satu to do; but as he got older and spent more and more of his time away from his mother, he would spend more time with Clyde if he got the opportunity.
I'm not sure Clyde was in favor of all of this as he would make himself quite unavailable most of the time. Clyde would be lying asleep and the little guy would come up to him; Clyde would very gently move away. Clyde could not bear to have his hair pulled, but one of Satu's favorite games was to grab one of Clyde's dreadlocks and try to run away with it. Clyde would react immediately, grab the dreadlock, examine it very intently, and then move away carefully. He never tried to step on him or push him away although Satu has rather large teeth and would try to bite everybody. No one bit back and made him cry, because if Satu yelled they would have to do battle with Josephine; we never saw anyone in the enclosure provoke her, not even Clyde. If the little guy got too rambunctious, Clyde would place his big hand on top of Satu. Satu couldn't move so that would end the confrontation until Clyde could make a hasty exit.
As time goes by Clyde's relationship with Karen and Satu becomes closer and closer, and it is apparent that Clyde has become a parenting orang. I don't know if there are a whole lot of them in existence but he definitely is one. He feeds them...and he usually gets the best choice of food. He's so big, who would argue with him? The little guys quickly learned that if they wanted a really good bite they could get it from old Dad. I've seen him sit there and feed them both. They both love to get in his face, grab his cheekpads and just push him back and forth. Clyde will make playful passes at them. Sometimes it really is just more than my mind can bear, the way he acts with the two little ones.
The other day Clyde was against the wall sound asleep while Josephine was just a few feet away from him, in the cave with Satu. Satu saw his dad, ran over to him, and threw himself onto Clyde's leg and tried to take a nap, baby style. Of course he couldn't hold still two seconds. But I watched Clyde's hand moving over and sort of fondling the baby, gently pushing him away and playing with him.
The thing that really blew our minds away happened a couple of weeks ago. Clyde was at the top of the structure and Satu had joined him, climbing all over him. This went on for some time. Finally, Clyde got up and moved across the top of the structure; we noticed that Satu was on Clyde's back! About three-quarters of the way across Satu swung off on a rope, but there was no doubt that Clyde had carried the baby on his back.
Every day the bonding gets stronger, to the point that the baby seeks the father, and the father makes himself available. Only yesterday I watched the two playing together with affection. When Clyde decided to move, Satu went with him holding on to his back and at times riding on Clyde's side.
Another interesting thing has been developing the past few weeks with Josephine and Karen. Any interaction between them had been sharply curtailed at the birth of Satu. However, recently I have observed that Karen seems to be courting Josephine, staying with her, holding onto her leg when they move away. I have seen Karen giving Josephine "bites of food" on one occasion, though Josephine doesn't seem to be interested. To give food away is not a normal action for a young orang, who is usually seeking it. The coming days will be very interesting indeed. -- Editors' Note: We met B.J. while visiting the San Diego Zoo after the ASP meeting. She told us anecdotes while we watched Clyde and his family. We asked her to write some of them down for us...she has done so here.
Author's address: 9413 Wintergardens Blvd, #42, Lakeside, CA 92040.
Ms. McDuffee is a member of the "Orang Gang," regular watchers of the orang exhibits at the San Diego Zoo. They publish an occasional newsletter, The Orang Gang News.
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En esta primera edición de "Primates de las Américas...La Página", hemos decidido el incluir la participación de dos importantes investigaciones que se desarrollan actualmente por primatólogos en nuestro continente. Aspecto de significativa importancia resulta el comunicar a los colegas de habla hispana y portuguesa, los objetivos y avances de estos estudios, pues los datos aquí presentados seguramente motivarán el intercambio de opiniones académicas entre los autores y los interesados en los temas que a continuación presentamos. Reiteramos nuestra invitación a participar en esta sección que estamos seguros crecerá en medida de sus amables contribuciones. Los Editores: Juan Carlos Serio Silva (email@example.com) / T. Elva Mathiesen (Theresa_Mathiesen@brown.edu)
"Etoecología del mono aullador (Alouatta palliata mexicana) en un fragmento perturbado de selva en Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México ". Francisco José Gómez-Marín, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Barcelona, España - Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana, ap 57 CP 95870, Catemaco, Veracruz, México [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
El presente estudio se está desarrollando (Junio/1996 - Diciembre/1997) en un pequeño fragmento de selva alta perennifolia (30 ha) en Playa Escondida, Catemaco, Veracruz, México. Durante este período, hemos monitoreado dos grupos (Gpo 1/ N=7 y Gpo 2/ N=9) de monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata mexicana) a fin de obtener sus actividades diarias, especies y partes vegetales consumidas; lo anterior con el fin de conocer los problemas que enfrenta esta especie en habitat perturbado, particularmente en relación al balance energético y nutricional que obtienen en este habitat. Ambos grupos han consumido en el área de 50 especies de árboles y 19 de lianas y enredaderas de un total de 1700 árboles de 125 especies arbóreas (>20 cm diámetro a la altura del pecho), esta información ubica un número mayor de especies consumidas que en otros estudios en la zona (Estrada, 1984) en condiciones de habitat con menor grado de perturbación y reducción (+/- 600 ha). Esto se debe seguramente, a una mayor intensidad de muestreo en el presente trabajo, aunque, tambien puede ser un indicador de que áreas reducidas hasta cierto punto, pueden mantener la diversidad y número de especies y árboles suficientes para mantener grupos de monos a lo largo de todo un ciclo anual.
Aunque se ha señalado a la reducción del habitat como causa principal de la extinción local del mono aullador (Estrada, 1996), los resultados en Playa Escondida y otros fragmentos de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, sugieren que la acción humana directa sobre los monos puede ser más decisiva sobre su sobrevivencia, por lo que se considera resaltar la importancia de estos manchones para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Toda esta información ha dado pie para elaborar una primera versión de un Plan de Uso y Manejo del Área que satisfaga los intereses de los propietarios así como los de la conservación de la zona. Este proyecto ha sido dirigido por el Dr. Joaquim Vea y amablemente apoyado por el Instituto de Neuroetología de la Universidad Veracruzana, el Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, y la Generalitat de Catalunya.
Nueva Mesa Directiva de la Asociación Mexicana de Primatología (AMP)
Durante la celebración del pasado Simposio Nacional de la Asociación Mexicana de Primatología, se eligió la nueva mesa directiva que presidirá durante el Bienio 1997-1999. Los cargos se distribuyeron de la siguiente forma: Presidente: Dr. Jorge Martínez-Contreras (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana [UAM]-Iztapalapa); Secretario: Dra. Ana María Santillán-Doherty (Inst. Mex. De Psiquiatría); y Tesorero: Jorge Ocampo Carapia (UAM-Iztalapapa). La dirección de e-mail de la Asociación para este período será la siguiente: email@example.com [[exclamdown]]Felicidades y los mejores deseos para la nueva mesa directiva de la AMP!
Aspectos Cognitivos Associados ao Forrageamento por Primatas Neotropicais Diurnos e Noturnos. Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Dept of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Recursos utilizados por primatas em florestas tropicais podem variar consideravelmente em sua disponibilidade espacial e temporal. Para uma eficiente exploração destes recursos, os macacos devem ser capazes de utilizar informações sensoriais, espaciais e temporais durante o forrageamento. Neste sentido, o presente projeto representa uma pesquisa experimental de campo comparativa sobre o uso de informação visual, olfativa, espacial e quantitativa em decisões de forrageamento por Saguinus imperator imperator, Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli, Callicebus cupreus cupreus e Aotus nigriceps. Este projeto será desenvolvido de agosto/1997 a julho/1998 no Parque Zoobotânico da Universidade Federal do Acre (9°56'30"-9°57'19"S, 67°52'08"-67°53'00"W; área: 100 ha), Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil. Este trabalho representa minha tese de doutorado em antropologia biológica sob a orientação do Dr. Paul A. Garber. Apoio: Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, SOS Amazônia/Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza/The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Fundo Mundial para a Natureza-WWF Brasil, American Society of Primatologists, Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies/UIUC, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-CAPES e Parque Zoobotânico/UFAC.
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Tropical Research Scientist
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) invites applications for a research scientist. STRI is particularly interested in a zoologist investigating the ecology, evolution, behavior, or physiology of tropical terrestrial vertebrates. Based in the Republic of Panama, the STRI provides unique opportunities and support for field and laboratory research in the tropics. Beginning salary will be in the $36,000 - $52,000 range and other allowances may apply. STRI is an Equal Opportunity Employer and these positions are open to scientists of any nationality. Applicants should send a CV, a description of research interests, addresses and telephone numbers of three references, and copies of significant publications. Please submit materials to Vertebrate Biologist Search Committee, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Unit 0948, APO AA 34002-0948. Review of applications will begin in January 1998 and will continue until the positions are filled. The appointment will begin in the fall of 1998. -- From ABSnet V3 #36
International Primate Sanctuary of Panama
The International Primate Sanctuary of Panama will host a 9-week Primate Behavior and Ecology Program from May 25 to July 26, 1998. Florida State University-Panama Canal Branch is now accepting applications to the program from students who have a strong interest in Primate Behavior and Ecology. As a part of the training, students will conduct guided research projects on the endangered Panamanian tamarin (Saguinus geoffroyi).
The program will be conducted on Isla Tigre, one of a group of about a dozen islands located in Gatun Lake. This artificial lake was created in 1914 to form the Panama Canal, linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The flora on Isla Tigre is secondary neotropical rain forest. The current research area consists of Isla Tigre, 33 hectares, and Isla Pantera, 25 hectares. Tamarins are found in the forests around the edges of Lake Gatun, so placing tamarins on the islands was a reintroduction of a species that occupied the area before Lake Gatun was made.
The program will include courses in primate and animal behavior, and in research design and statistics. All applicants must meet the requirements of enrollment in the courses at Florida State University-Panama Canal Branch and will be expected to have considerable depth in relevant course work before entry into the program. Students will be selected on the basis of previous college performance and letters of recommendation.
Our current estimates indicate that the Primate Behavior and Ecology Program will cost approximately $3000, which includes tuition, books, food and lodging, travel within Panama, and round trip transportation from Miami, FL. Students attending must provide their own transportation to Miami. New information concerning cost will be added to the Web page as soon as it is available.
There will be an opportunity for participants who receive 3.4 or better GPA in the program courses to continue to work up research papers based on the data gathered during the summer. These students will be required to enroll in undergraduate guided research courses at their home university and find a professor who will supervise their efforts on a weekly basis. Dr. Rasmussen will work with these students and their professors via e-mail. Students who take this research opportunity may, if they wish, work up their papers for presentation to scientific meetings.
For more information about the program, contact D. R. Rasmussen, PSC #4 Box 3351, APO AA 34004 [507-285-6388; e-mail: email@example.com]; Rick Jenks, Director, College Programs, 210 A Williams Bldg, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL 32306-4044 [904-644-2233; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; or D. S. Carter, HSS Dept, Montana Tech, Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT 59701 [406-496-4224; e-mail: email@example.com]. Web: <www.sinfo.net/islatigre>.
AFAR Scholarships in Aging
The American Federation for Aging Research is accepting applications for student programs. The Glenn/ AFAR Scholarships for Research in the Biology of Aging was established to afford both MD and PhD students an opportunity to acquire an understanding of the challenges involved in improving the quality of life of older people. Students will undertake three-month research projects related to the basic sciences and aging. Up to 25 $5,500 grants will be awarded, of which $4,000 will go to the student and $1,500 to the mentor. The deadline for receipt of applications is February 26, 1998.
The Merck/AFAR Research Scholarships for Medical and Pharmacy Students in Geriatric Pharmacology offer medical and Pharm.D. students an opportunity to explore the field of geriatric pharmacology and acquire an understanding of its challenges. Up to nine scholarships of $4,000 will be awarded in 1998 for students to undertake an 8-12-week full-time research project on any subject in the field of geriatric pharmacology. The deadline for receipt of applications is January 21, 1998.
For information and applications, contact AFAR at 1414 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019 [212-752-2327; fax: 212-832-2298].
Animal Behavior Summer Field Course
An eight-week field course on the ecological and evolutionary study of behavior will be offered 8 June - 31 July, 1998 (5 semester hours) at the University of Montana's Flathead Lake Biological Station. This intensive course is designed to provide the dedicated student with experience performing theoretically informed, potentially publishable research. It is intended for students anxious to move out of their usual undergraduate role of knowledge consumption to become active empiricists and discoverers of new knowledge. The format of the course centers on student teams performing genuine observational and experimental studies in the field and laboratory. Students get a coherent experience of every stage of the research process, from initial naturalistic observation and hypothesis development to data analysis and manuscript preparation. Study subjects will range from fairy moths to ground squirrels, all in the beautiful Rocky Mountains of northwestern Montana.
The research projects are supported by lectures emphasizing evolutionary principles for analyzing animal and human behavior, detailed class discussions, and lots of contact with the instructor during all phases of the research. The course is well suited to mature undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and science teachers. The course's top priority will be development of observational and analytical skills needed to implement a modern hypothesis-testing approach to behavioral ecology. Independent study opportunities in animal behavior for graduates and undergraduates also abound either as an extension of the main course or as a stand-alone part of a summer at the biological station.
Introductory college-level biology is a prerequisite, and courses in genetics or evolution are recommended. The instructor is Dr. Paul J. Watson, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. For course information, check out <biology001.unm.edu/~pwatson/ab.htm> For tuition and housing information, see <www.umt.edu/biology/flbs/> or contact: Sue Gillespie, Flathead Lake Biological Station, 311 Bio Station Lane, Polson, MT 59860-9659 [406-982-3301; fax: 406-982-3201; e-mail: email@example.com]. Interested students should notify Sue Gillespie and Dr. Watson as early as possible.
Summer Biodiversity Program
The Smithsonian Institution/Measurement and Assessment of Biodiversity Program (SI/MAB) will hold its annual course, "Biodiversity Measuring, Monitoring, and Research Certification," May 10-June 12, 1998, at the Smithsonian Conservation and Research Center, Front Royal, VA. This intensive five-week course provides an opportunity for professionals to gain expertise in current methodology for developing, carrying out, and maintaining long-term biodiversity inventory, monitoring, and research programs. To date, over 110 participants from 45 countries have been trained through this course. The training will assist participants to incorporate their work and ideas with the measuring and monitoring framework established by SI/MAB. In addition, techniques and examples of other biodiversity monitoring programs will be discussed.
For more information, contact SI/MAB Biodiversity Program, Smithsonian Inst, S. Dillon Ripley Center, 1100 Jefferson Dr. SW, Washington, DC 20560 [202-357-4792; fax: 202-786-2557; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; <www.si.edu/organiza/museums/ripley/simab>
Internship and Master's Program, San Francisco
The University of California, San Francisco, is offering a paid internship at its Animal Care Facility, in conjunction with an MA program at San Francisco State University. Candidates must be willing to work at improving the well-being of animals, mostly individually caged, which are involved in biomedical research projects. Most of the animals involved are marmosets, squirrel monkeys, macaques, dogs, cats, pigs, rabbits, and Guinea pigs. Duties will include planning, designing, purchasing, preparing, distributing, and analyzing the utility of environmental enrichment equipment. Successful completion of an MA program in Behavior and Physiology or Ecology with a concentration in Biology will include research and thesis work on enrichment.
Please submit a CV, copies of transcripts and GRE scores, and a letter of interest to Dr. Hal Markowitz, Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132. For more information please contact Allegra Bukojemsky [415-476-6100 ext 40733; fax: 415-502-6107; e-mail: email@example.com].
Public Policy Opportunities
The American Association for the Advancement of Science invites applications for one-year public policy fellowships, which bring scientists and engineers to Washington, DC, to work in Congress, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the RAND Critical Technologies Institute. Applicants must be U.S. citizens and must have a PhD or equivalent doctoral-level degree at the time of application (January 1998) from any physical, biological, or social science or any field of engineering. Persons with a master's degree in engineering and at least three years of post-degree professional experience may also apply. Federal employees are not eligible for the fellowships.
The programs are designed to provide each Fellow with a unique public policy learning experience and to bring technical backgrounds and external perspectives to decision making in the U.S. government. Stipends vary by program. All applications must be postmarked by January 15, 1998.
For further information and application instructions call 202-326-6700, fax 202/289-4950, or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Opportunities in the Study of Animal Welfare
A new animal welfare program was launched at the University of British Columbia (in Vancouver, Canada) in October, 1997. As a key element in the program, we want to create research opportunities and training for graduate students and post-doctoral workers. Our funding comes from a range of interested parties, including the humane movement, the veterinary profession, and animal agriculture, and we hope to develop research projects to address welfare issues relevant to these various supporters.
Two main areas of graduate and post-doctoral research are envisioned: (1) Students working in the life sciences, especially with backgrounds in biology, animal science, and veterinary medicine, will conduct behavioral or related research on farm, laboratory, companion, or wild animals (including fish) directed at significant animal welfare issues. Possible topics include: the use of vocalizations and other behaviors to assess distressin animals; and the study of animals' environmental preferences as a basis for improving housing design. (2) Students interested in interdisciplinary studies with appropriate backgrounds in the social sciences, law and other fields are also encouraged, in conjunction with the Centre for Applied Ethics. Possible topics include: the adequacy of legal protection of animals in Canada; the impact of international trade on animal welfare; how economic constraints and incentives affect the welfare of farm animals; and the effectiveness of animal protection programs.
We welcome inquiries from potential graduate students and post-doctoral workers with a strong interest in animal welfare and outstanding aptitude for research and teamwork. The Animal Welfare Program is developing some financial support for graduate students, and will assist others in applying for funding. Contact David Fraser and Dan Weary, Department of Animal Science and Centre for Applied Ethics, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall - Suite 208, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada [1-604-822-2040 (Fraser), 1-604-822-3954 (Weary); fax: 1-604-822-4400; e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; <www.interchange.ubc.ca/agsci/animalsci/chair.html> -- From ABSnet V3 #46
The 1998 Earthwatch schedule includes several projects involving nonhuman primates, led by scientists such as G. Agoramoorthy, J. C. Ruiz, E. Fernandes-Duque, and P. Wright. For information on joining (or leading) an Earthwatch project, contact Earthwatch/Primate Projects, 680 Mt. Auburn, P.O. Box 9104, Watertown, MA 02272 [800-776-0188; [<www.earthwatch.org>].
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Papers in Primatologie will be published primarily in French. However, each paper will be accompanied by an two- to three-page abridged version in English. Occasionally, papers in English may also be published. The editor of Primatologie is Joel Fagot, PhD, Center for Research in Cognitive Neuroscience (CNRS), 31 ch. Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille cedex 20, France [fax: (33) (0)4 91.71 49 38; e-mail email@example.com].
If you read French, have connections or wish to establish connections with French-speaking primatologists, or even just want to be informed about the activities of French-speaking groups, the Primatologie Web page: <lnf.cnrs-mrs.fr/lnc/primatologie.html> gives basic information on the journal (e.g., scope and editorial board).
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Nonaffiliated and Nonscientist Members of IACUCs
The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) sponsors workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The workshops are open to institutional administrators, members of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, laboratory animal veterinarians, investigators, and other institutional staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs. Ample opportunities will be provided to exchange ideas and interests through question-and-answer sessions and information discussions.
A workshop titled "Nonaffiliated and Nonscientist Members of IACUCs" will be held January 16, 1998, at the NIH Natcher Conference Center in Bethesda, MD, cosponsored by the OPRR, the NIH Intramural Research Program, and the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW).
For registration, contact Ms. Lee Krulisch, SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20700 [301-345-3500; fax: 301-345-3503; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
For information on future NIH/OPRR Animal Welfare Education Workshops, contact Ms. Darlene M. Ross, OPRR, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd, Suite 3B01, MSC 7507, Rockville, MD 20892-7507 [301-496-8101, Ext. 233; fax: 301-402-0527; e-mail: email@example.com].
Bioethics and Laboratory Animals
The 1998 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) Forum will be on the topic of Bioethics and the Use of Laboratory Animals -- Ethics in Theory and Practice. The Forum will explore ethical principles, religious and secular views, emerging bioethical issues and public attitudes, opinions, and accountability relating to the use of laboratory animals. Plenary speakers include T. Beauchamp, C. Chapple, D. DeGrazia, J. Gordon, T. Hamm, C. McCarthy, P. Nathanielz, S. Paris, B. Rollin, A. Rowan, P. Singer, J. Tannenbaum, F. Trul, and R. Veatch. The program Chairs are D. Renquist and A. L. Kraus. The Forum will be held at the Pheasant Run Resort and Conference Center, St. Charles, IL, on May 3-6, 1998. For more information and registration forms, contact Dr. Charles McPherson, ACLAM Executive Director, 200 Summerwinds Dr., Cary, NC 27511 (fax: 919-851-3126; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Comparative Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation
The National Center for Research Resources, NIH, and Yerkes Primate Research Center, Emory University, announce a workshop on Comparative Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation, to be held March 19-20, 1998 in Atlanta, GA. This workshop will evaluate current methods for cryopreservation of gametes and embryos in several genera from fishes to primates (including human) with the intent of describing the state of the art, discussing techniques which can be of use in other genera, and identifying priority areas for future research support by the NIH. Drs. Peter Mazur, Stanley Leibo, Chris Polge and several world-leading cryobiology experts and professionals have been invited to organize several panels involving fish, insects, primates, and exotic species. Attendance is limited.
For information on registration and fees please contact Dr. Ken Gould or Dr. A. I. Younis, Dept of Molecular Medicine, YRPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30329 [404-727-7714 or 404-727-1499; fax: 404-727-2958; e-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org].
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John Henry Drake, LABS, P.O. Box 557, Yemassee, SC 29945-0557.
Jeff Edwards, 3400 Ave. of the Arts, #J222, Costa Mesa, CA 92626.
Tamara Goode, Merck Research Labs, WP44-201, West Point, PA 19486.
Roy Henrickson, 1324 Sanderling Island, Pt. Richmond, CA 94801.
Veronica Jennings, 2755 Fairoaks Rd, Decatur, GA 30033.
Guy Mulder, UCI, ULAR, 147 BSA, Irvine, CA 92697-1310.
Rebecca Schwiebert, 7812 Truxton Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90045.
D. W. van Bekkum, IntroGene, P.O. Box 2048/Wassenaarseweg 72, 2301 CA Leiden/2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands.
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To further promote the well-being of animals in science and encourage additional institutions to seek accreditation, the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) International has launched a second program, offering a "Program Status Evaluation" service. The service is tailored for nonaccredited institutions that want to determine where their program stands in terms of meeting AAALAC standards for high-quality animal care and use, and those that want to gain a better understanding of the accreditation process before they officially apply.
Program Status Evaluation works much the same way as AAALAC's traditional accreditation program. Institutions complete the same application and Program Description necessary to apply for accreditation, conducting an intensive review and self-assessment of its own program. The process identifies strengths and weaknesses, raises internal awareness of issues surrounding animal care and use, and helps institutions understand exactly what is involved in achieving accreditation.
Next, an on-site evaluation is conducted by an evaluation team led by AAALAC Associate Director K. A. Bayne, MS, PhD, DVM, a Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. In a traditional accreditation site visit, AAALAC evaluators serve exclusively as peer reviewers -- they don't prescribe specific methods of dealing with program deficiencies. Instead, they identify areas that need improvement, and leave it up to the institution to improve them in ways that conform with the principles in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the primary resource used by AAALAC evaluators), and also achieve the program's research objectives.
The ultimate goal of the Program Status Evaluation service is to help more institutions reach accreditable levels, and encourage them to go through the formal process. So, unlike an accreditation site visit, the on-site evaluators will serve more as consultants than reviewers, and the Program Status Evaluation will provide more in-depth detail and specific guidance on how to improve deficient program areas.
Institutions that complete the Program Status Evaluation process and find they meet AAALAC standards can resubmit the same application and Program Description for entry into the accreditation program. A team of current Council members and ad hoc consultants will conduct the actual accreditation site visit. The team's evaluation will then be reviewed and deliberated on by the full Council, which will determine official accreditation status.
Fees for Program Status Evaluations are based on the direct cost of conducting the site visit and administrative expenses. Those that complete the Program Status Evaluation and decide to pursue accreditation will be charged a reduced application fee.
For more information, or to receive an application, call 800-926-0066, 301-231-5353, or send e-mail to email@example.com
Established in 1965, AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through a voluntary accreditation program. Institutions seeking accreditation receive independent, expert assessments of their animal care and use programs. Those that meet or exceed applicable standards are awarded accreditation. Attaining and maintaining accreditation demonstrates a commitment to the responsible and ethical treatment of animals used in research, teaching and testing.
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The fourth annual workshop on the Care and Management of Captive Chimpanzees was held in conjunction with the American Society of Primatologists meeting in San Diego on June 27, 1997. The topic this year was facility design, and 48 participants attended. Nevin Lash of Ursa International and Gail Laule of Active Environments were the invited speakers. Nevin presented a slide show on chimpanzee enclosure design for the twenty-first century. Gail spoke on the role of behavioral management in enhancing chimpanzee exhibit design and use. Following these presentations, workshop participants worked on small group facility design projects, the results of which were summarized at the conclusion of the workshop.
Proceedings are now available for the workshop. One copy of the proceedings will be sent to each workshop participant. Others may request a copy of the proceedings by sending your mailing address to Linda Brent, PhD, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
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The Spring Meeting of the Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) will be held 23-24 March, 1998, in Bristol, UK. Day 1 will be on the "The Impact of Bushmeat Hunting on Primates in Africa" and day 2 is for more general papers. The event is being organized by John Fa, Elizabeth Rogers and Ian Redmond. For more information: Dr John Fa, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augrhs Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, British Isles [(0)1534 864666 ext. 233; fax: (0)1534 864592; e-mail: email@example.com].
Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) and Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) will hold their annual conferences on issues relating to animal care, animal research, and research review, on March 26-28, 1998, at the Sheraton Boston Hotel & Towers, Boston, MA. The meetings will focus on practical and conceptual issues in animal research. Topics to be covered will include: Regulatory Updates from both the USDA and OPRR Genetics and Xenotransplantation Disaster Planning. The conference will also train and assist Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members, administrators, and scientists in the ongoing challenge of conducting responsible and ethical research in an era of rapid change and development.
The tenth Annual Meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society will be held July 8-12, 1998, at the University of California at Davis. The deadline for abstracts is March 16. We welcome papers on nonhuman animals that have relevance to human behavior. Contact Peter Richerson (Div. of Environmental Studies) or Monique Borgerhoff Mulder (Dept of Anthropology), UC-D, Davis, CA 95616 [<www.des.ucdavis.edu>].
The fifth International Symposium on the Lion-Tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) is being organized by the University of Mysore, India. The symposium dates are January 11-13, 1999. Papers may be prepared on any aspects of lion-tailed macaque biology, ecology, behavior and conservation. A special emphasis during the symposium will be on problem-oriented collaborative research between scientists working on captive and wild lion-tailed macaques. For details of paper submission dates, registration, etc., contact Dr. Mewa Singh, Professor of Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore - 570 006, India [91-821-514239; Office: 91-821-518772; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
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During the recent meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in New Orleans, Joe Erwin discussed with a number of colleagues the prospect of forming the Comparative Primate Neurobiology Group. It has been decided to form such a group to enhance communication among scientists whose research or focal interest is in human and/or nonhuman primate neurobiology. The primary purpose is to help bridge the gap between human and nonhuman primate comparative neurobiology by improving connections and communication between primatology, evolutionary psychology, paleoneurology, neuropathology, and other relevant fields. The integration of these multiple lines of inquiry can amplify the value and utility of primate research.
Plans for action include development of sessions, symposia, and workshops for presentation at future neuroscience, psychology, anthropology, pathology, primatology, etc., meetings. Also under consideration are development of a web site, e-mail network, newsletter (perhaps to be called The Primate Brain), a book series (perhaps Advances in Comparative Primate Neurobiology, similar to the Comparative Primate Biology series Erwin edited about ten years ago, which was published by Liss, now Wiley-Liss), and possibly even a new journal (entitled Comparative Primate Neurobiology or just Comparative Neurobiology). The journal, if established, would publish mostly manuscripts reporting research with human primates or nonhuman primates (or both, involving direct comparisons). Authors would always be expected to provide a connecting context with the broader scientific literature, but there would be a special emphasis on integration of evidence from human clinical, experimental, and neuropathology studies with the same range of studies from nonhuman primates. The journal would attract outstanding manuscripts through a rapid and thorough review process and innovative methods to achieve very rapid and high-quality publication, including electronic publication. The review procedures would be an updated version of those developed for the American Journal of Primatology.
If you are interested in joining this group, please contact Joseph M. Erwin, PhD, VP, BIOQUAL, Inc., and Director, Division of Neurobiology & Behavior, 9600 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850-3336 [fax: 301-251-2801; e-mail: JoeMErwin@aol.com].
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NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts
The NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts is no longer available by Gopher and e-mail. The full text of all Requests for Applications (RFAs), Program Announcements (PAs), and Notices are now available on the World Wide Web at <http:www.nih.gov/grants/oer.htm>. Earlier issues of the NIH Guide are also retrievable at this URL.
The Table of Contents for each week's issue of the NIH Guide will continue to be made available by e-mail. For each title listed there will be a URL that will enable investigators to link to the full text of each announcement that is of interest. Investigators are encouraged to subscribe to this service by sending an e-mail request to: email@example.com. The text of the message should read only: subscribe NIHTOC-L First-name Last-name.
Inquiries regarding these procedures may be directed to James O'Donnell, Office of Extramural Programs, NIH, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6182, MSC 7910, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910 [301-435-2768; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
NSF Custom News Service
The National Science Foundation is making a transition to a new form of electronic distribution of news materials, which will eventually replace the current "list-serve" with a new Custom News Service. From the toolbar on NSF's home page, <www.nsf.gov>, you can sign up to receive electronic versions of all (or some) NSF materials. NSF is an independent federal agency responsible for fundamental research in all fields of science and engineering. NSF funds reach all 50 states, through grants to more than 2,000 universities and institutions.
Friends of the Primate Center Library (FPCL)
A Friends Group has been established for the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Library. The WRPRC Library sponsors Primate-Talk, Primate Info Net, Askprimate, the World Directory of Primatologists, Primate-Jobs, the International Directory of Primatology, and borrowing from its Audiovisual Archive. Gabriele Lubach is the Coordinator, Robert Goy (Professor Emeritus), President, of the FPCL, which maintains a website at <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/fpclweb.html>.
Animal Behavior Society Graduate Program Bulletin
The Animal Behavior Society Graduate Program Bulletin (1996, Canada, Mexico and the United States), prepared by the Education Committee of the Animal Behavior Society, is available on the WWW at <www.cisab.indiana.edu/ABS/Resource/index.html>.
Since this is a very large document, and will be slow to load and print, you may want to order the hard copy from the ABS Main Office for $8. Send checks made out to Animal Behavior Society to American Editorial Office for Animal Behaviour, 2611 East 10th Street, #170, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408-2603 [812-856-5541; fax: 812-856-5542; e-mail: email@example.com].
Internet Science Guide
An Internet Directory and Information Service has been established, run by Scientists and Physicians for Scientists and Physicians. The Science Guide is designed to help scientists and physicians find information on the internet and to sponsor communication between those interested in science. It has a number of sections: medical and research news (compiled from national news sources around the net, including CNN, EurekAlert, HMS Beagle, MSNBC Sci-Tech, Science Magazine, ScienceNow, CBS Space News, Scientific American Web Weekly, The Why Files, Discover Magazine, Scientific American, Smithsonian Magazine, and the Technology Review); a directory of relevant Usenet and discussion groups; and links to peer-reviewed scientific journals (indicating whether the journal provides only the table of contents, TOC with abstracts, or full text), scientific employment databases and classifieds, and funding and grant databases. The URL is <www.scienceguide.com>.
To make getting science news even easier, a Daily News EMailer lists the articles which have been compiled on the site. To subscribe to the Emailer, send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org with the message "Subscribe". -- from ABSnet v.3 #39
Attitudes Toward Animal Research
Michael Walker, a graduate student at Western Carolina University, is conducting a survey on attitudes toward animal research, using the World Wide Web. He states: "There is considerable controversy over the use of animals in research. Although this issue has a broad impact, studies regarding attitudes toward animal experimentation have typically been conducted with limited populations (e.g., small sample sizes, similar backgrounds, and similar interests). [My] survey [is] designed to assess a broad-spectrum of views regarding animal experimentation. This survey should take 15 to 20 minutes to complete and will allow you to express your opinions regarding this issue. A summary of the results will be published at [the Web] site in the summer of 1998." To take this survey or to access further information about it, go to: <www.wcu.edu/ceap/psychology/surveys/ar.html>.
Field Studies Supplement
Julia Casperd would be grateful if those involved in primate fieldwork would send her the following information about their work to help her compile the 1997-99 Primate Society of Great Britain's Current Primate Field Studies Supplement: * Name * Director of Research * Research Project Title * Field Site * Country * Research Team * Correspondence Address * E-mail address * Status (planned, current, or completed) * Date field work started * Duration * Species studied * Project aims.
Please send to Julia M. Casperd, Dept. of Psychology, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box, 147, Eleanor Rathbone Bldg, Myrtle St, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK [e-mail: email@example.com].
E-mail Lists of Interest
Wildlife Ecology Digest, a weekly e-mail digest for research, conversation, job opportunities, issues, thoughts, and general postings concerning wildlife ecology. Send e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject: "Subscribe to WED."
The Evolution of Language Discussion List (and On-Line Symposium) will pool the expertise of anthropologists, neuroscientists, behaviorists and the medical profession. To subscribe, send an e-mail to Majordomo@list.pitt.edu with the message in the body: "subscribe evolutionlanguage" or "subscribe evolutionlanguage-digest"
More Interesting Web Sites
* Bushmeat Project: biosynergy.org/bushmeat/
* St. Maarten Zoo: www.megatropic.com/partners/sxmzoo/default.htm
* Zoo Atlanta: www.zooatlanta.org
* National Animal Welfare Workshops: www.nih.gov/grants/guide/1997/97.10.17/n4.html
* News reports on Indonesian fires: www.worldwildlife.org/new/fires/home.htm
* Wisconsin RPRC's quarterly newsletter, Centerline: www.primate.wisc.edu/WRPRC/Centerline/index.html
* Wildlife Ecology Digest: members.aol.com/EcoDigest/wed.html
* American Zoological Association: www.aza.org
* Applied Animal Behaviorists' Certification Program (ABS Board of Professional Certification): www.cisab.indiana.edu/ABS/Applied/index.html
* Sulawesi Primate Newsletter: biology.sewanee.edu/bynum/home.html
* Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW): www.users.dircon.co.uk/~ufaw3/
* Gorilla Haven (this is a correction): www.gorilla-haven.org
* Minnesota Branch, AALAS, "Animals in Science": www.ahc.umn.edu/rar/MNAALAS/
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The annual report of the National Reference Center for Imported Diseases, Paris, reported 2,244 cases of imported malaria in France in 1996. Ninety-four percent of the cases were contracted in Africa, 56% in Western Africa, 29% in Central Africa, 13% in Eastern Africa or the Indian Ocean area (Comores Archipelago, Madagascar); 3% in India, Asia or Western Pacific area; and 3% in Latin America or the Caribbean. Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam yielded only 5, 2, and 1 cases, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum caused 85% of the cases, P. vivax 6.6%, P. ovale 7.1% and P. malariae 1.4%. Mixed infections occurred in 3.9 % of the patients.
Every year, about 2.2 million travelers have left France for malaria-endemic areas. Since travelers' malaria often has been the result of a lacking, inappropriate or unsuccessful prophylaxis, the following comments are relevant:
Of 864 replies, 75% of the patients admitted never using physical or chemical anti-mosquito devices. Only 5.5 % used both a physical barrier and an insecticide. Of 1,912 cases who responded, about half never used any chemoprophylaxis. For about 66% of the remaining, the prophylaxis had been inappropriate or insufficient.
Careful investigation of case records from patients who had correctly taken their prophylaxis indicated that chloroquine was involved 9 times out of 10, and possibly mefloquine for 5 cases.
About 20 patients died of imported malaria in France during 1996. - A Press cutting from "La Lettre de la Société de Médecine des Voyages", edited by the French Society for Travel Medicine, reported by the World Health Organization.
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Herpes B Death at Yerkes
ATLANTA (CNN, AP) -- A researcher at Emory University's primate center has died after contracting herpes B from a rhesus monkey, the center announced December 11. The researcher was a young woman employed at Emory's Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, a facility known for AIDS research. The woman, whose name was not released, died December 10, about six weeks after she contracted the virus. The woman was hit in the eye by an as-yet-unidentified fluid as she was moving a caged rhesus monkey, a spokesman said. The woman didn't think the incident was significant until she developed symptoms about 10 days later.
The herpes B virus is common in monkeys but can be deadly in humans. About 70 percent of the humans who contract the disease die. Only about 40 cases of humans contracting herpes B have been reported since 1933, when the first case of a person catching the virus was identified, said a Yerkes spokeswoman. The most common mode of infection is through animal bites and scratches. Exposure can also occur if a human comes in contact with monkey saliva, secretions or tissue. In 1991, a veterinarian died after contracting herpes B from a monkey at HRP, Inc., an Alice, TX, facility that supplies monkeys to research centers. This is the first serious injury reported from Yerkes.
National Academy of Sciences Bill Passes
On November 13, the U.S. Senate joined the House of Representatives in approving legislation that would exempt the National Academy of Sciences from strict openness rules, but still require the Academy to make its panels more accountable to the public.
The legislation was filed following a refusal by the U.S. Supreme Court to review a ruling by a lower court, in a case brought by the Animal Legal Defense Fund, that found the Federal Advisory Committee Act applied to the Academy's advisory panels. The court case, filed by the animal rights group Animal Legal Defense Fund, dealt specifically with an Academy advisory panel which had been formed to revise the Guide on the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
The bill exempts the Academy from the Act, but requires it to allow public comment on the choice of panel members and to provide brief summaries of panels' meetings. Panels would have the right to hold closed deliberations, although any information-gathering sessions must remain open. Except in cases involving national security, the Academy is required to make available public copies of final reports of the panels and, following release, the names of those who review the panels' reports, which up until now had been kept secret.
Officials of the Academy and critics alike have called the legislation a practical compromise that will expand public accountability while protecting the Academy's panels from outside pressure. Academy leaders had maintained that adhering to the Federal Advisory Committee Act's provisions would have seriously damaged the National Research Council's independent role in advising the government. -- Posted by Americans for Medical Progress to the CompMed mailing list
UC Berkeley Retires Langurs to Sanctuary
Fourteen Indian langur monkeys that have been observed and studied by UC-Berkeley anthropologists and students for 20 years will soon be permanently retired to a Texas sanctuary after relentless protests from local animal rights groups. A series of protests and vigils were held at the northern California campus to challenge the fate of the monkeys. The University says federal funds to care for the primates dried up almost a decade ago and the colony's upkeep has been a steady drain on campus resources. The monkeys will be transferred to Primarily Primates, an animal sanctuary in Leon Springs, TX by the beginning of next year. The University paid Primarily Primates an initial $38,000 to build cages and prepare for the arrival of the monkeys. An additional $20,000 has been promised to ensure proper care and treatment until private funding is sufficient for the upkeep of the primates.
Monkey Population Problem
OITA (Kyodo) -- The monkey population at the Mt. Takasaki Park in Oita has declined for the second straight year to 1,687, but primatologists believe the number is still too high. The monkey population stood at 1,999 a year ago, park officials said Monday. The officials conducted a head count in November over seven days and found the population had dropped by 312. Primatologists from Kyoto University, which has conducted 26 similar studies in the park, say they believe the density of the mountain's monkey population should be stabilized at 1,200. Kyoto University primatologists have been conducting a birth control experiment on the monkeys since September, injecting 35 females with birth control hormones in a bid to inhibit their ovum production.
The monkeys at the 628-meter mountain thrive on food from visitors. The monkey population had been increasing over the years, drawing complaints from local farmers over damage to crops. -- From Daily Yomiuri, 9 December 1997
* * *
Research Fellow, Florida
Disney's Animal Kingdom, Conservation Station, is seeking a research fellow to assist in the development and design of studies to track daily range patterns, habitat usage, and activity patterns of a variety of free-ranging species using radio telemetry. This person will coordinate the data collection protocol and work in close association with scientific, veterinary, and animal management teams. He or she will be responsible for training others in the use of telemetry equipment and data collection and also assist in the coordination and public exhibition of programs that use VHF, satellite, and GPS technology that will be highlighted in the Wildlife Tracking Center.
Major duties and responsibilities will include * assisting in the design of an appropriate telemetry system to monitor birds and mammals at Disney's Animal Kingdom * working in close association with the scientific, veterinary, and animal management teams to develop transmitter attachment techniques * training staff members using the current technology * coordinating data collection * developing interactive interpretive experiences in partnership with the scientific and educational staff for guests and * communicating research results in staff seminars, scientific journals, conference presentations, and popular publications.
This will be a one-year appointment. The successful candidate will have a minimum of a BS in biology, zoology, wildlife biology, or psychology; experience with wildlife tracking technologies; excellent oral and written communication skills; and the ability to work with others in a fast-paced, team-oriented atmosphere.
Send resume and three references to Dr. Anne Savage, Conservation Biologist, Disney's Animal Kingdom., P.O. Box 10,000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830-1000 [e-mail: AnneSavage@aol.com].
Postdoctoral and Graduate Opportunities, Indiana
The NSF-supported Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior at Indiana University seeks outstanding candidates for training in animal behavior that combines approaches from biology, neuroscience, and psychology. Predoctoral candidates should apply by Jan. 15th for fall 1998, while postdoctoral candidates should apply by March 1, 1998. Inquiries to CISAB, 402 N. Park Ave, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 [812-855-9663; fax: 812-855-0411; e-mail: email@example.com; <www.cisab.indiana.edu/PAB>]. Applications by minorities and women are encouraged. AA/EOE. - From ABSnet V3 #36
Post-Doc in Laboratory Animal Medicine
The Scripps Research Institute's Department of Animal Resources invites applications for a post-doctoral veterinary training position in laboratory animal medicine. Review of applications will begin immediately and will continue until the position is filled, with the earliest planned start to be July 1, 1998. The three-year program is designed to support preparation toward ACLAM board certification, to provide a good foundation for ability to manage a program of laboratory animal care and research support, and to develop and/or increase research aptitude. Areas of training include laboratory animal clinical medicine, comparative pathology, methods and practice of biomedical research, and animal resource and facilities management. The position furnishes opportunities to work with a wide variety of animal species in an accredited, respected animal care and use program, as well as opportunities to work with established research scientists in a sophisticated research environment to attain the necessary skills to plan and conduct research and to contribute to the scientific literature.
Candidates for this position should have a DVM/VMD or equivalent degree. The salary range is $28,000 to $30,500 plus benefits. For further information and a program brochure, contact Dr. Kent Osborn, Dept of Animal Resources, MB-18, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037. Interested applicants should forward a CV, statement of goals and interests and three letters of recommendation to Dr. Osborn. The Scripps Research Institute is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.
Zoo Curator, St. Maarten
The Zoo in St. Maarten (Netherlands Antilles) is seeking a curator, who will be responsible for all aspects of captive exotic animal care for a collection of 65 Neotropical species, including six species of primate. This person will supervise four zookeepers and will also assist in fundraising, marketing, and other management functions. This job requires a very "hands-on" person with a wide range of interests, experience, and abilities. A degree is preferred, but experience and references are more important. Ability to communicate in French is an asset. A very computer-literate candidate, especially with graphics, or ability to learn, is preferred. Housing and transportation will be provided, for a two-year commitment. Please submit cover letter, resume, and references before February 28 to Shane Siers, Curator, St. Maarten Zoo, P.O. Box 531, Philipsburg, St. Maarten, Netherlands Antilles [fax: 011-599-5-32020; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
* * *
Behavioral Science Research in Mental Health
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) invites applications for Centers for Behavioral Science Research in Mental Health (CBSR). The purpose of these Centers is to provide integrated multidisciplinary research environments in which to pursue focused questions in basic behavioral science related to mental health and mental disorder. This mechanism is intended to encourage investigators from a variety of disciplines and approaches to contribute the full range of expertise and advanced technologies available in basic behavioral science (including psychology, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics) toward the understanding of mechanisms underlying mental health and mental illness, and to begin the translation of basic behavioral findings and techniques to relevant clinical issues.
There are two goals of the CBSR: to foster integration among the various basic behavioral science approaches in order to provide a fuller understanding of mental health, and to begin the process of translating basic behavioral findings and techniques from the laboratory or the field to more applied mental health arenas by including in each Center some examination of relevant clinical, preventive, or services issues related to mental health and disorder. Research questions addressed must concern basic behavioral processes and mechanisms that are important to understanding mental health.
A CBSR should be conceptualized and defined by its integrative, multidisciplinary nature and need not be limited by geographical or departmental boundaries. A research team may consist of investigators or institutions that are geographically distant, to the extent that the research design requires and accommodates such arrangements.
Letter of intent receipt dates are January 5, 1998 and 1999; application receipt dates are March 23, 1998 and 1999. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues and address letters of intent to Mary Ellen Oliveri, Div. of Mental Disorders, Behavioral Research, and AIDS, NIMH, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm 18C-26, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-3942; fax: 301-443-4822; e-mail: email@example.com].
Short-term Fellowships for Research in Japan
Through arrangements made with the Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the National Institutes of Health, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) will award up to 20 short-term fellowships for American researchers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences to pursue collaborative research in Japan for periods ranging from seven to sixty days during Japanese fiscal year 1998 (April 1, 1998-March 31, 1999). They will also award similar short-term fellowships for American postdoctoral scientists for periods ranging from three to eleven months. These fellowships are intended to enhance American-Japanese collaboration in biomedical and behavioral research by providing opportunities for capable American scientists to work with colleagues in leading Japanese laboratories on substantive projects of mutual interest. Applications must be received by January 30, 1998.
For complete information, contact Dr. Allen Holt or Ms. Christina McLauchlan, Div. of International Relations, FIC, 31 Center Dr., Rm B2C11, MSC 2220, Bethesda, MD 20892-2220 [301-496-4784; fax: 301-480-3414; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) announces a continuation of the INNOVATION Grant Program for Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research implemented by NIAID, National Institutes of Health (NIH). This program aims to encourage the entrance of novel and innovative vaccine discovery and development concepts into the research pipeline. As such, the emphasis of this program is on supporting vaccine research projects that are particularly innovative, novel, high risk/high impact, and show clear promise in advancing AIDS vaccine design or evaluation. Applications are especially welcome from young investigators and those not currently active in the field of AIDS research. The INNOVATION Grant Program utilizes a grant mechanism which provides funds to projects of an exploratory nature to generate preliminary data for further studies. In addition, the program utilizes streamlined review and award processes to accelerate the rate of response to these new scientific opportunities. Two general areas of investigation are targeted in this iteration of the program: 1) studies to investigate the structure and immunogenicity of HIV envelope proteins, and 2) studies to investigate mechanisms that affect cellular immune responses to HIV or related lentiviruses during disease progression.
The letter of intent receipt date is February 10, 1998; the application receipt date is March 10, 1998. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to Dr. Steve Bende, Division of AIDS, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 2A29, MSC 7620, Bethesda, MD 20892-7620 [301-435-3756; fax: 301-402-3684; e-mail: email@example.com].
Characterization of the Vulnerable Plaque
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) solicits proposals for research into the properties of the atherosclerotic "vulnerable plaque', especially those that relate to its tendency to progress to erosion or to rupture, leading to thromboembolic events, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and/or sudden death. A special emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary approaches in view of the variety of research disciplines and strategies that are needed to study the vulnerable plaque. Of interest would be studies on pathoanatomical and biochemical issues to identify major determinants of plaque vulnerability to erosion or rupture; humoral and systemic factors involved in coronary thrombosis; the physical forces associated with plaque disruption; and methods to identify and quantify the physicochemical features of plaque in vivo.
The letter of intent receipt date is February 2, 1998; the application receipt date is March 11, 1998. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues and requests for sample budget pages to: Momtaz Wassef or Alan Berson, Div. of Heart & Vascular Diseases, NHLBI, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Suite 10186, Bethesda, MD 20892-7956 [301-435-0550 or 301-435-0513; fax: 301-480-2848 or 301-480-1454; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com].
Small Grant Program for the NIDCD
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) announces its Small Grant Program for support of pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant or a First Independent Research Support and Transition (FIRST) award application. The research must be focused on one or more of the areas within the biomedical and behavioral scientific mission of the NIDCD: hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, or language. The Small Grant Program is designed to support basic and clinical research of scientists who are in the early stages of establishing an independent research career.
Current and previous recipients of NIH research grants such as research project grants, FIRST, or NIH Academic Research Enhancement Awards are ineligible for this Program, as are investigators who have served as project or subproject directors of research program projects and Centers. Current and previous recipients of Small Grants (excluding Minority Dissertation Small Grant Awards), Exploratory/Development High Impact Research Grants, and Shannon Awards are ineligible. Individuals who have served as principal investigators on other Federally funded research grants are also ineligible.
Application receipt dates are April 23 and August 21, 1998. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to Division of Human Communication, NIDCD, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 400-C, MSC-7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [fax: 301-402-6251]; Chyren Hunter (Hearing) [301-402-3461; e-mail: Chyren_Hunter@nih.gov]; Daniel Sklare (Balance/Vestibular) [301-496-1804; e-mail: Daniel_Sklare@nih.gov]; Jack Pearl (Taste) [301-402-3464; e-mail: Jack_Pearl@nih.gov]; Rochelle Small (Smell) [301-402-3464; e-mail: Rochelle_ Small@nih.gov]; Beth Ansel (Voice/Speech) [301-402-3461; e-mail: Beth_Ansel@nih.gov]; Judith Cooper (Language) [301-496-5061; e-mail: Judith_Cooper@nih.gov].
Parkinson's Disease Research Centers of Excellence
In response to recent research progress and opportunity, and in recognition of Congressional interest in intensifying and expanding basic and clinical research in Parkinson's Disease, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) invites qualified investigators to submit grant applications for the establishment of NINDS Parkinson's Disease Research Centers of Excellence. The purpose is to encourage additional research opportunities and discoveries that will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of patients with Parkinson's Disease, based on a better understanding of the fundamental cause(s) of the disease. It is expected that these Centers will foster an environment that will enhance the research effectiveness of investigators in a multi-disciplinary setting, utilizing specialized methods relevant to the study of Parkinson's Disease.
The letter of intent receipt date is January 15, 1998; the application receipt date is April 24, 1998. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to Eugene J. Oliver, Division of Stroke, Trauma and Neurodegenerative Disorders, NINDS, 7550 Wisconsin Ave, Rm 806, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-5680; fax: 301-480-1080; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Extramural Research Facilities Construction Projects
The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) is issuing a Request for Applications (RFA) RR-98-001 for support of construction and renovation of facilities for biomedical and behavioral research and research training. The application receipt date is January 23, 1998. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues, requests for application Standard Form 424, and special application instructions, and comments, if any, to Dr. Charles L. Coulter, Research Infrastructure, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6142, MSC 7965, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0766; fax: 301-480-3770; e-mail: email@example.com].
Role of the Oral Environment in HIV
The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) invite applications to support outstanding multidisciplinary research to: (1) determine whether or not HIV can be transmitted through the oral cavity; (2) elucidate the mechanisms of possible HIV and HIV-associated disease transmission through the oral cavity; and (3) identify socio-behavioral risk(s) associated with patterns and/or characteristics of oral-genital contact and design approaches to increase protective behaviors reducing risks of HIV transmission via the oral route. The Institutes are interested in supporting multidisciplinary research in these areas conducted by scientists from the fields of virology, immunology, genetics, oral biology, biochemistry, social and behavioral sciences, and epidemiology.
The letter of intent receipt date is February 1, 1998; the application receipt date is March 12, 1998. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to Eleni Kousvelari, Division of Extramural Research, NIDR, Natcher Bldg, Rm 4AN 18A, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2427; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; or Willo Pequegnat, Office on AIDS, NIMH, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 18-101, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-9700; fax: 301-443-9719; e-mail: email@example.com].
* * *
Editors' Note: Jokes
In the October, 1997 issue of the Newsletter, we published a not particularly "tasteful" joke. We are sorry that we offended some readers.
* * *
(Addresses are those of first authors)
* Planning, Proposing, and Presenting Science Effectively: A Guide for Graduate Students and Researchers in the Behavioral Sciences and Biology. J. P. Hailman & K. B. Strier. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. [Price: Paper: $14.95; Cloth: $49.95]
* Primate Cognition. M. Tomasello & J. Call. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press, 1997. [Price: Paper: $35; Cloth: $75]
* The Evolving Female: A Life History Perspective. M. E. Morbeck, A. Galloway, & A. L. Zihlman (Eds.). Ewing, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. 344 pp. [Price: Paper: $27.95]
* Primate Conservation: The Role of Zoological Parks. Special
Topics in Primatology, Volume 1. Janette Wallis (Vol. Ed.); H. Dieter Steklis
(Series Ed.). A Publication of the American Society of Primatologists.
[Price: $25.00; U.S. shipping add $2.50; non-U.S. shipping add $5.00. Order
from Steve Schapiro, UTMD Anderson Science Park, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX
. . . Authors include R. A. Mittermeier, J. Wallis, R. J. Wiese, M. Hutchins, F. W. Koontz, K. C. Gold, R. Tilson, K. Castle, J. Supriatna, K. J. Gurmaya, W. Brockelman, S. Tunhikorn, A. Savage, H. Giraldo, L. Soto, D. G. Lindberg, J. Iaderosa, L. Gledhill, C. Jendry, G. E. Reinartz, G. K. Boese, C. R. Cox, T. Stoinski, B. Beck, M. Bowman, J. Lehnhardt, S. Zeeve & I. Porton. All profits from sale of this book go to the American Society of Primatologists' Conservation Fund.
* Template Atlas of the Primate Brain. R. F. Martin & D. M. Bowden.
Seattle: Primate Information Center, 1997. [Price: $59.95 (outside U.S. add
$6.00 shipping). Make checks payable to U. of Washington; send to PIC, 1101
Westlake Ave N., Seattle, WA 98101-3527]
. . . A set of 63 drawings based on cortical views and coronal sections of the brain of the longtailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Also available on the WWW at <rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/~atlas>.
* Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals (8th Ed.). V. Reinhardt
(Ed.). Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1997. [Free to anyone who is
directly or indirectly responsible for the care and well-being of nonhuman
primates in laboratories and zoos. Order from Animal Welfare Institute, P.O. Box
3650, Washington, DC 20007].
. . . Includes "The benefits of giving experimental animals the best possible environment," by M. R. A. Chance and W. M. S. Russell; "Considerations for the housing and handling of New World primates in the laboratory," by H. M. Buchanan-Smith; and "Species-adequate housing and handling conditions for Old World nonhuman primates kept in research institutions," by V. Reinhardt.
* How to Babysit an Orangutan. T. Darling & K. Darling. New
York: Walker and Co., 1996. 33 pp. [Price: US$5.95; Canadian $8.25]
. . . This book describes how baby orangutans whose mothers have died are nurtured by human babysitters at Camp Leakey until they are ready to live in the wild. Preface by Gary Shapiro.
* New Frontiers in Animal Behavior Management. G. Priest. VHS
video. (35 min.) [Price: $15, from Gary Priest, Dept. Head, Animal Behavior
Management, San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112]
. . . Demonstrations of several management techniques, all using positive reinforcement, on various animals, from siamangs and tigers to human teenagers.
* Animal Euthanasia. Animal Welfare Information Center, 1997.
[Free from AWIC, NAL, 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705]
. . . A multidatabase bibliography, including many abstracts, covering 223 literature citations from January 1990-November 1997.
* Comparative Medicine Resources. Bethesda: National Center for
Research Resources, NIH, 1997. 94 pp. [Available from the Office of Science
Policy, NCRR, NIH, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 5146, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965]
. . . Includes name, geographic, and key word indexes.
Magazines and Newsletters
* AAALAC International Connection, Fall 1997. [AAALAC
International, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
. . . Includes "IACUC responsibilities under the new Guide," by R. Dell, ILAR Director.
* Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, Summer 1997,
8. [National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 10301 Baltimore Ave,
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351]
. . . Includes "Lighting conditions for laboratory monkeys: Are they adequate?" by V. Reinhardt.
* IPPL News, August 1997, 24. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville,
. . . Includes a report on monkeys, including infants and pregnant females, shipped by air in violation of various laws and regulations.
* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, September, 1997, 5.
[Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302,
31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Contents include: Recent observations of Nicaraguan primates and a preliminary conservation assessment, by C. M. Crockett, R. D. Brooks, R. C. Meacham, S. C. Meacham, & M. Mills; Two howler species in southern Piauí, Brazil? by M. Chame & F. Olmos; Capuchin monkeys in the Caatinga: Tool use and food habits during drought, by A. Langguth & C. Alonso; Common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) feeding on Chrysophyllum colombianum (Sapotaceae) in southern Ecuador, by E. P. Toyne; A new locality for Brachyteles arachnoides and the urgency of finding new directions for muriqui conservation, by P. Auricchio.
* Noldus News, 1997, 4. [Costerweg 5, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG
Wageningen, Netherlands, or 6 Pidgeon Hill Dr., Suite 180, Sterling, VA
. . . Includes a "sneak preview" of their new video analysis system, The Observer 4.0.
* Our Animal WARDS, Fall 1997. [WARDS, Inc., 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714]
* Primate Eye, October 1997, No. 63. [Bill Sellers, Primate Soc. of Great
Britain, Dept of Anatomy, Univ. of Edinburgh, Med. School, Teviot Pl.,
Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Scotland]
. . . This issue includes abstracts from the PSGB 1997 Winter Meeting, as well as tributes to the late P. H. Napier, by D. Brandon-Jones, C. Groves, and A. B. Rylands.
* PrimeApes, Summer 1997, 3. [Center for Orangutan & Chimpanzee Conservation, 11000 SW 57th Ave, Miami, FL 33156]
* PSYETA News, Fall 1997, 17. [Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297]
* Science and Animal Care, 1997, 8. [WARDS, Inc., 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714]
* Tamarin Tales: Newsletter of the International Committees for Recovery & Management of Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, L. chrysomelas, and L. caissara, 1997, 1. [c/o J. D. Ballou, Dept Zool. Research, Nat'l Zool. Park, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20008]
Special Journal Issues
* International Issues Edition. AAALAC International Connection, August 1997. [AAALAC International, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
* Ethical issues in the use of animals in research. Ethics and
Behavior, 1997, 7.
. . . Edited by K. D. Pimple, F. B. Orland, & J. P. Gluck.
* Cebus meets Pan. International Journal of
Primatology, 1997, 18.
. . . Contents: Cebus meets Pan, by E. Visalberghi & W. C. McGrew; Comparisons of development and life history in Pan and Cebus, by D. M. Fragaszy & K. Bard; Postconflict behavior of captive brown capuchins in the presence and absence of attractive food, by P. Verbeek & F. B. M. de Waal; Vertebrate predation and food-sharing in Cebus and Pan, by L. M. Rose; Nonconceptive sexual behavior in bonobos and capuchins, by J. H. Manson, S. Perry, & A. R. Parish; Using the tools at hand: Manual laterality and elementary technology in Cebus spp. and Pan spp., by W. C. McGrew & L. F. Marchant; Success and understanding in cognitive tasks: A comparison between Cebus apella and Pan troglodytes, by E. Visalberghi.
* 25th Anniversary Special Gala Issue. Pongo Quest: Newsletter of the Orangutan Foundation International, 1997, 8. [O.F.I., 822 S. Wellesley Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90049]
Anatomy and Physiology
* Hematologic and serum biochemical and electrolyte values in clinically
normal domestically bred rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) according to
age, sex, and gravidity. Buchl, S. J. & Howard, B. (UTMDACC,
Science Park, Dept of Vet. Sciences, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1997, 47, 528-533.
. . . The objective of this study was to provide clinicians and researchers with complete blood values for clinically normal, domestically reared rhesus monkeys of Indian origin and of different age, sex, and gravidity. Values were obtained from 572 healthy animals. Establishing reference values allows accurate interpretation of biochemical and hematologic values for normal, subclinical, or clinically ill animals.
* Evaluation of a vaginal moisturizer in baboons with decreasing ovarian
function. Hubbard, G. B., Carey, K. D., Levine, H., & Bachmann, G. A.
(Southwest Fnd for Biomed. Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX
78245-0549). Laboratory Animal Science, 1997, 47, 36-39.
. . . Eight baboons with decreasing ovarian function were used to evaluate a nonhormonal, nonsystemic, bio-adhesive vaginal moisturizer. Study results indicate the efficacy of the test product and the value of the baboon as a model to study decreasing ovarian function and vaginal health.
* The provision of cage furnishings as environmental enrichment at the
Primate Foundation of Arizona. Howell, S., Mittra, E., Fritz, J., & Baron,
J. (P.F.A., P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027). The Newsletter, 1997,
. . . Results suggest a preference for horizontal furnishings above the enclosure floor, as well as an age-difference in preferences. Adults infrequently used "moving" furnishings, and seemed to prefer "stable" ones.
* Prevalence of Herpesvirus papio 2 in baboons and identification
of immunogenic viral polypeptides. Eberle, R., Black, D. H., Blewett, E. L.,
& White, G. L. (Oklahoma State Univ., Dept of Vet. Infectious Dis. & Physiol., Vet. Med. Bldg,
224 Vet. Med., Stillwater, OK 74078-0353). Laboratory Animal Science,
1997, 47, 256-262.
. . . The prevalence of H. papio 2 (HVP2) in several groups of captive and wild-caught baboons was determined by detection of anti-HVP2 antibodies in 133 sera of adult baboons. Over 90% of newly imported, wild-caught adult olive baboons (P. anubis) from Kenya and chacma baboons (P. ursinus) from South Africa were found to have anti-HVP2 titers. Similarly, about 85% of captive breeding colony baboons (P. anubis and ursinus) were seropositive for HVP2. Results indicate that HVP2 is a common infection of baboons; there is little antigenic variation among HVP2 strains; and there are several HVP2 antigens that represent consistent targets of the anti-HVP2 immune response of baboons.
* Screening for simian type-D retrovirus infection in macaques, using nested
polymerase chain reaction. Lerche, N. W., Cotterman, R. F., Dobson, M. D.,
Yee, J.-A. L., Rosenthal, A. N., & Heneine, W. M. (Appl. Virology &
Special Pathogens Sect., California RPRC, Univ. of California, Davis, CA
95616). Laboratory Animal Science, 1997, 47, 263-268.
. . . A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of macaques infected with simian type-D retrovirus (SRV/D). PBMC samples from 395 macaques of unknown SRV/D status, obtained from several primate facilities, were tested in parallel by Western blot analysis, virus isolation, and nested PCR. Infection was detected in 60 animals by nested PCR, in 40 by virus isolation, and in 28 by immunoblot. All 40 culture-positive samples were positive by nested PCR.
* Viral infections of nonhuman primates. Kalter, S. S., Heberling, R. L.,
Cooke, A. W., Barry, J. D., Tian, P. Y., & Northam, W. J. (Virus Reference
Laboratory, 7540 Louis Pasteur, San Antonio, TX 78229). Laboratory Animal
Science, 1997, 47, 461-467.
. . . Approximately 53,000 serologic tests and viral isolation studies were performed on 1700 nonhuman primate specimens for evidence of past and/or current viral infection. The resulting data are in keeping with those of previous studies and offer an insight into the needs of colony management, as well as some general information on the overall frequency of infection with the indicated viruses. The information supports continued use of nonhuman primates in human viral research, and may be helpful in terms of animal selection for use in xenotransplants.
* Five spontaneous deaths associated with Clostridium difficile in a
colony of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Rolland, R. M.,
Chalifoux, L. V., Snook, S. S., Ausman, L. M., & Johnson, L. D. (New England RPRC,
Harvard Med. School, 1 Pine Hill Dr., Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772).
Laboratory Animal Science, 1997, 47, 472-476.
. . . Clostridium difficile toxin was detected in the feces of five cotton-top tamarins that died spontaneously over a period of 10 weeks. Deaths occurred subsequent to antibiotic therapy for infectious diarrhea associated with Campylobacter spp. Relevant clinical signs of disease prior to death included weight loss, watery diarrhea, hematochezia, weakness, and sudden collapse. The proximity of the cases raises the possibility of environmental contamination by resistant C. difficile spores or fecal spread of the organism. The relative importance of C. difficile and its potential role as an unrecognized cause of enteric disease secondary to antibiotic therapy in nonhuman primates is discussed.
* A computerized method for taking animal census. Talham, D. J. (Lab.
Animal Resources, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 423 Guardian Dr., 100 Blockley Hall,
Philadelphia, PA 19104). Lab Animal, 1997, 26, 32-35.
. . . A flexible system using bar-code scanning together with manual entry.
Instruments and Techniques
* Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system of the rhesus
monkey. Price, R. E., Leeds, N. E., Hazle, J. D., Jackson, E. F., Stephens, L.
C., & Ang, K. K. (Dept of Vet. Med. & Surgery, Box 63, UTMDACC, 1515
Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030). Laboratory Animal Science, 1997,
. . . The head and the cervical and thoracic parts of the spinal cord of two rhesus monkeys were imaged in a clinical 1.5-T whole-body imager. Specific images were selected, and some notable structures were identified. Results of this study document the usefulness of MRI as an expeditious, noninvasive research and diagnostic imaging technique and illustrates the normal magnetic resonance signal patterns of the brain and spinal cord in rhesus monkeys.
* Detection of urogenital mycoplasmal infections in primates by use of
polymerase chain reaction. Schoeb, T. R., Dybvig, K., Keisling, K. F.,
Davidson, M. K., & Davis, J. K. (Div. of Comp. Med., Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32610). Laboratory Animal Science, 1997, 47,
. . . Results for 232 vaginal, cervical, or endometrial and urethral swab specimens from 166 animals indicate that naturally acquired urogenital infections are readily detected by polymerase chain reaction, and suggest that urogenital mycoplasmal infections are common in laboratory primates.
* Hepatic hemosiderosis in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus:
Effect of diet on incidence and severity. Miller, G. F., Barnard, D. E.,
Woodward, R. A., Flynn, B. M., & Bulte, J. W. M. (Vet. Resources Program,
NCRR, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892). Laboratory Animal Science, 1997, 47,
. . . Thirteen young adult common marmosets were fed nutritionally balanced natural-ingredient diets formulated to contain either 100 or 500 ppm of iron. Six were fed the low-iron, seven the high-iron. Midway in the study, the high-iron diet was reformulated to contain 350 ppm of iron because of the death of a male which had consumed that diet for 7 months. Four of seven marmosets fed the high-iron diet died during the first year of the study, compared with one death in the low-iron cohort. The mean increase in liver iron content of the high-iron animals was 6371 g/g, dry weight analysis, compared to 632.5 g/g for the low-iron animals.
* In vitro fertilization of follicular oocytes by frozen-thawed
spermatozoa in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Sankai, T., Shimizu,
K., Cho, F., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Tsukuba Primate Center for Med. Science, Natl
Inst. of Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan). Laboratory Animal Science,
1997, 47, 58-62.
. . . A report on cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa and in vitro fertilization. Ovarian stimulation of seven monkeys with equine chorionic gonadotrophin and human chorionic gonadotrophin during the nonbreeding season enabled the collection of oocytes from ovarian follicles. The oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization by the frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa collected from a male monkey during the nonbreeding season. Before fertilization, the epididymides and oocytes were transported about 500 km, during which the epididymides were kept in mineral oil to prevent drying and the oocytes were kept in a maturation medium.
* Breeding of bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) in captivity. Rao,
A. J., Ramesh, V., Ramachandra, S. G., Krishnamurthy, H. N., Ravindranath, N.,
& Moudgal, N. R. (Primate Res. Lab. Centre for Reproductive Biology &
Molecular Endocrinology, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India). Laboratory Animal
Science, 1997, 47, 180-183.
. . . Results of 20 years of studies on the breeding of South Indian bonnet monkeys. The menstrual cycle and hormonal changes were similar to those reported for M. macaca. It was noted that summer amenorrhea could be eliminated by housing the monkeys in rooms supplied with humidified air. Although a fertility index of 60-65% was achieved by random breeding, an index of 80-85% was achieved by controlled breeding (monitoring serum estradiol-17 concentration on days 7, 8, 9, and 10).
* Surplus chimpanzee crisis: Planning for the long-term needs of research
chimpanzees. Brent, L., Butler, T. M., & Haberstroh, J. (Chimp Haven,
Inc., P.O. Box 760081, San Antonio, TX 78245). Lab Animal, 1997,
. . . Discussion and description of the proposed "Chimp Haven" retirement facility, the goal of which is "to provide a low-cost, effective alternative to standard laboratory housing, by furnishing large, enriched, and permanent housing for chimpanzees living in large groups. An endowed care plan for the life of each chimpanzee and an emphasis on training and enrichment are key components.
In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by the Primate Information Center, UW RPRC, Westlake Facility, 1101 Westlake Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109-3527. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. We would also like to acknowledge Primate-Talk as a source for information about new books.
* * *
All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the
World Wide Web at
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover illustration of a lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) by Anne M. Richardson
Copyright (c) 1998 by Brown University
Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen
Last updated: December 19, 1997