Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Pair Housing Adult Macaques: A Symposium...... 1
. . . Pairing Female Macaca nemestrina, by R. Byrum & M. St. Claire...... 1
. . . Pairing Macaca mulatta and Macaca arctoides of Both Sexes, by V. Reinhardt...... 2
. . . Pairing Female Macaca fascicularis, by B. Kurth & D. Bryant...... 3
. . . Discussion: A Plea for Pair-housing of Adult Macaques, by V. Reinhardt, D. Bryant, B. Kurth, R. Lynch, C. Asvestas, R. Byrum, M. St. Claire, & D. Seelig...... 4

Managing Gorillas with Broken Bones...... 6

News, Information, and Announcements

Editor's Notes...... 5
. . . Changes; No Changes; LPN Staff in Madagascar

Primates de las Américas...La Página...... 8

Announcements from Publications...... 9
. . . African Primates; Biology of Reproduction; Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science

Grants Available...... 10
. . . Analysis of Complex Biological Systems; Urology Research Centers; Restoration of Orofacial Tissues; Tuberculosis Research Unit; Drug Research on Opportunistic Infections; Therapeutic Modulation of Angiogenesis in Disease; Animal Model Testing of Tuberculosis Drugs; Unconventional Innovations Program; Research on Human Sexuality; New Directions in Pain Research: I; Stem Cell Transplantation to Establish Allochimerism; Central Nervous System as the HIV Sanctuary

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 15
. . . Veterinary Internship/Fellowship, Animal Welfare; Laboratory Animal Medicine Post-Doc; Course in Primate Behavior and Ecology; Postdoc: Biomarkers of Aging; Mountain Gorilla Projects

Meeting Announcements...... 17

Workshop Announcements...... 19
. . . NIH Animal Welfare Education Workshops; Biological Acoustics Workshop; Anthropological and Primate Genetics

Information Available...... 20
. . . Whatever Happened to Primate-Talk?; Animal Welfare Report FY 1997; Archaeology -- Web Resources; Answers to Questions; On-line Training on the Web; Recent Additions to the Primate Info Net (PIN); ASP Statement on Private Ownership of Primates; More Interesting Web Sites

Awards Granted...... 21
. . . ASP Conservation Awards for 1998; Glaser Award to David Watkins

News Briefs...... 22
. . . Walter Baumgärtel, 1902-1997; Changes at AMP; Reed, Arnoldi to Head APHIS; LEMSIP Chimps Move to Canada; Twins Born at Gombe; Air Force Chimps Placed; New Director for CDC; Ron Hunt Retires as NERPRC Director; New Center at UC-Davis; Update on Challenge of USDA Primate Regulations


Address Changes...... 7

Positions Available...... 16
. . . Clinical Veterinarian -- Tulane RPRC; Research Veterinarian -- Harvard Med School; Research Animal Technical Supervisor, Chicago; Professorship in Comparative Med, Yale; Director Animal Resources, Cornell; Clinical Track Assistant Professor -- Missouri

Recent Books and Articles...... 24

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Pair Housing Adult Macaques: A Symposium

There is general agreement that permanent single-housing is not an adequate environment for nonhuman primates. A group of scientists have contributed descriptions of their successful pairing of various species of macaques. These are followed by a discussion of their results.

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Pairing Female Macaca nemestrina

Russell Byrum and Marisa St. Claire
Bioqual Inc.

Twenty-four female pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were transferred from single-housing to isosexual pair-housing over a period of four years. The animals were three to ten years old at the time of pairing.

Familiarization: Partners were initially housed in adjacent single cages (0.8 m2 floor space, 0.18 m2 perch, 1 m high; Primate Products, Redwood, CA) with sliding Plexiglas dividers allowing visual and vocal communication. Animals who exhibited mutual threatening or charging were not considered suitable partners for pre-testing.

Pre-testing: Each cage is equipped with a squeeze-back mechanism. After a familiarization period of about 24 hours, the squeeze-back of one cage was pulled forward approximately 33% and the Plexiglas barriers opened. One female could now move into the back area of her neighbor's home. A potential pair was placed together in this manner for several hours a day, so that they could be closely observed by attending animal care personnel. Partners usually groomed each other through the mesh of the squeeze-back and spent much of the time sitting close to each other on the same perch.

By the end of one week, all 12 pairs had established clear dominance-subordination relationships. There were no injuries; partners never bit each other's fingers or other body parts.

Introduction: The Plexiglas dividers were removed, allowing the two animals full access to each other and the run of both cages.

Figure 1: Compatible adult female pig-tailed macaques spend most of the time sitting close together on the perch.

Management: To ensure that both animals of a pair got their adequate share of food, two feeders and two water bottles were placed at opposite sides of the double cage. Fruit and other supplemental foods were cut into small pieces and distributed in both halves of the homecage so that the dominant partner would have great difficulty in monopolizing them.

All animals could see -- but not touch -- adjacently caged macaques, as well as these across from them.

General observations: We have observed no serious fighting and wounding in our pairs, neither at the moment of introduction nor during follow-up observations of up to two years. We have witnessed occasional scuffles, usually over favored food, but these altercations end quickly with the subordinate partner retreating.

Paired companions are most commonly observed sitting close together on the perch (Figure 1) and/or engaged in mutual grooming. Pairs will support each other and display aggressive or threatening behaviors toward unfamiliar humans, or toward staff members whose actions -- such as pulling up the squeeze-back or attempting to catch one animal -- upset them.

We separated one pair because one female was not gaining weight, and another pair was separated for long-term treatment of a chronic diarrhea problem in one of the animals. There was no indication that either of these two pairs were incompatible.

One female exhibited overgrooming while in a single cage. We successfully paired her with another female, but she did not cease the hair-pulling activity.

In our experience, pig-tailed macaques are calmer and more socially-oriented than other macaque species such as rhesus. We had no serious problems pairing these female pig-tailed macaques.


Authors' address: 2501 Research Blvd, Rockville, MD 20850 [e-mail:].


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Pairing Macaca mulatta and Macaca arctoides of Both Sexes

Viktor Reinhardt
Animal Welfare Institute

One hundred and sixty-two female and 48 male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 10 female and 8 male stump-tailed macaques (M. arctoides) who had lived in single cages for several years were transferred to isosexual pair-housing conditions. Pairs were kept in double cages, which were created either by removing the dividing panel of double-modules (85 x 170 x 85 cm for M. mulatta; 85 x 170 x 92 cm for M. arctoides) or by interconnecting single-modules with short tunnels. Each half of the cage was furnished with a feeder box, a drinking spout and a PVC perch. Pairs living in adjacent cages had no visual contact with each other.

Familiarization: Randomly selected partners were placed in a double cage with a grated dividing panel. They could see, hear and smell each other but were unable to touch -- and possibly injure -- one another. Of 160 pairs tested, 114 (71%) established a dominance-subordination relationship within the first 24 hours. Unidirectional withdrawing, looking-away, threatening-away and fear-grinning were signs of an established rank relationship. Reciprocal threatening or charging against the cage divider were indicators that the two animals had not yet settled their relationship. Partners with an equivocal relationship were not paired in order to avoid fighting over dominance at the moment of introduction.

Introduction: Animals who had established their dominance-subordination relationship within the first day were introduced to each other on the morning of the following day, not by simply removing the grated panel (to eliminate the chance of territorial disputes, and aggression instigated by familiar roommates), but by transferring them to a different cage in another room where everything was unfamiliar except the partner.

Having already established their rank relationship during the non-contact familiarization period, the two had little reason to fight over dominance. Fighting was witnessed in three (2.6%: two female rhesus pairs and one male stump-tailed pair) of the 114 pairs during the first day. These disputes were non-injurious and only lasted a few minutes in two pairs. One partner of the third pair (female rhesus) was seriously injured during the fighting. Those two animals were classified as incompatible and permanently separated. The laceration was sutured; wound healing was normal.

The time investment in establishing a new pair (transfers, observations) ranged from 20 minutes to 2 hours with a mean of approximately 40 minutes.

Management: A dividing panel with a passage hole close to the back wall was installed in each double cage on the second day after pair formation for optional visual seclusion.

New pairs were allowed to live together uninterruptedly for at least one month so that partners could develop a firm social bond. If they had to be physically separated thereafter, care was taken that they could maintain visual and auditory contact via a transparent cage divider or a mobile "companion-cage". If partners had to be housed in different rooms for more than one week, they were re-united by first giving them the opportunity to briefly recognize each other across a transparent panel. This was a safeguard that they did not treat each other as strangers, ready to fight immediately.

Male pairs were kept in male-only areas to avoid sexual competition possibly triggered by the sight and smell of females.

Pairs were checked for compatibility each day in the morning and in the late afternoon. Signs of compatibility were adequate food sharing and absence of serious injury and depressive behavior.

One-year compatibility was 89% for the 81 female rhesus pairs, 83% for the 24 male rhesus pairs, 80% for the 5 female stump-tailed pairs, 100% for the 4 male stump-tailed pairs.

In the course of one year 1.3% (3) of the 228 animals required veterinary care due to injurious, but not life-threatening, fighting with an incompatible partner.

Incompatible animals were separated and re-paired with compatible partners.


Author's address: 4605 Crescent Rd, Madison, WI 53711 [e-mail:].


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Pairing Female Macaca fascicularis

Barbara Kurth and Donald Bryant
University of Virginia

Twenty-nine adult female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) had been singly housed -- four per Fourplex Cage (TM Suburban Surgical, Wheeling, IL) -- in three different rooms for a minimum of one year prior to pair-housing. Each of the four cage units was provisioned with a feeder box, a drinking spout and a perch.

Caging arrangement: The original dividers between side-by-side cage units consisted of a large grid with spaces big enough for the monkeys not only to see each other but also to get their fingers through. These dividers were extremely heavy and could not be moved easily and quickly in case a fight broke out between paired animals. Therefore, we paired the monkeys in vertical configurations in which the middle catch tray had been removed.

Pre-selection: We tested a total of 16 new pairs. The partners of 12 pairs had seen each other across grid panels. They were selected as potential companions because one of them acted in a more assertive manner (e.g., cage-shaking) while the other one behaved more submissively (e.g., looking/turning away). The partners of the other four pairs had never seen each other.

Introduction: Pairs were formed by introducing two monkeys in a clean cage that was unfamiliar to both of them. New couples were observed during the first 30 minutes; they were checked several more times on day one, two times on each subsequent day.

The 12 pairs of familiar partners were compatible in 75% of cases, the four pairs of unfamiliar partners were compatible in 100% of cases. A clear sign that two females would be absolutely happy with each other was when one of them presented her genital area, turned around and started fervently grooming the companion's eyelashes, eyebrows, ears, anus, fingers, toes, tail, and all areas in between for several minutes. Delicate areas such as eyelashes were carefully groomed with teeth as well as fingers. The groomee responded to this overture with constant lip-smacking and a deep mewing-purring sound which was accompanied by soft grunts. We witnessed this amicable scene in three couples. Ten other couples were more tentative during the first 10-20 minutes, exhibiting displacement by the dominant partners and genital display by the submissive partners. Thereafter, companions also started grooming each other affectionately. The remaining three couples (19%) fought with each other immediately upon introduction. These pairs were quickly separated to avoid injuries.

In the course of the first month three other pairs became incompatible:
1) Ollie and Chief got along with each other seemingly well for about four weeks. Puncture wounds were seen on Ollie's neck one morning which made it advisable to permanently separate the two. The wounds healed without medical treatment.
2) The relationship between Charlie and Too was always a bit tense because Too consistently, but not very successfully, tried to prevent Charlie from getting special food treats. Finally, Charlie started to terrorize Too, who one morning crouched in a corner not accepting any treats, looking quite shaky and greasy (a greasy-looking coat is one of the first indications that our cynos are not well in some way). Close examination revealed several puncture wounds requiring medical treatment. This pair was also permanently separated.
3) Disregarding the fact that she was very frequently groomed by her companion, Eeny was an exceptionally domineering animal and kept Red in the bottom unit of the vertically arranged cage almost all the time. We classified this pair, too, as incompatible and separated them.

Figure 1: Female M. fascicularis looking through opening in privacy panel.

Management: Neighboring pairs were often charging each other across the grid panel and we had a lot of bitten fingers. To avoid this, pairs were transferred to a horizontal configuration after the first month. For this purpose, the grid panels were replaced by solid privacy panels. Each privacy panel was equipped with a small sliding door close to the back wall of the cage (Figure 1), giving companions the option of visual seclusion and allowing care personnel to separate partners if needed.

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Discussion: A Plea for Pair-housing of Adult Macaques

Viktor Reinhardt, Donald Bryant, Barbara Kurth, Richard Lynch, Carol Asvestas, Russell Byrum, Marisa St. Claire, and David Seelig
Animal Welfare Institute, University of Virginia, Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wild Animal Orphanage, Bioqual Inc., Coulston Foundation and Yale University

Professional guidelines and legislative rules stipulate that the social needs of primates have to be addressed, and that single-housing should be avoided whenever possible (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1991; Canadian Council on Animal Care, 1993; International Primatolog-ical Society, 1993; National Research Council, 1998).

Transferring single-caged macaques to permanent group-housing conditions would be the most species-appropriate managerial refinement to address their sociality. Adult macaques, however, usually show a distinct intolerance of other adults, which can make it problematic to establish and maintain new groups in the research laboratory setting without undue risks of distress, trauma, and death. Pair-housing is a recommended alternative to group-housing, as it reduces these risks yet still provides for the animals' social needs.

In the three reports of Byrum & St. Claire,Kurth & Bryant, and Reinhardt, printed above, and in two articles, by Lynch and by Asvestas, published in recent issues of this Newsletter, protocols are described which have been successful in forming and maintaining isosexual pairs of previously single-caged adult Macaca nemestrina, M. fascicularis, M. mulatta, and M. arctoides. These reports make it clear that the pair-housing of adult macaques is a practical alternative to single-housing which not only is inexpensive in terms of time investment but is also reasonably safe for the animals.

Figure 1: Compatible adult male long-tailed macaque engrossed in social grooming. Photo by Richard Lynch.

Of the 170 pairs reported, 97% (165/170) were compatible during pair formation. This success probably depends not so much on the fact that potential companions knew each other in most cases, but that they had already established dominance-subordination relationships during a non-contact familiarization period. When introduced into the same cage, they had no real reason to engage in rank-determining aggressive, possibly injurious, behaviors. This inference is supported by earlier studies in which adult macaques were also familiarized but subsequently paired without prior verification of the partners' dominance-subordination relationships: the incidence of fighting upon introduction was 14% (3/21) and 27% (5/18) in rhesus female pairs (Eaton et al., 1994; Reinhardt et al., 1988) and 67% (10/15) in long-tailed male pairs (Crockett et al., 1994). In the papers reviewed here the incidence of fighting was 2% (2/81) in rhesus female pairs, and 11% (3/28) in long-tailed male pairs.

The relatively low pairing success (81% overall) of Kurth and Bryant's female long-tailed macaques is surprising. It may be attributed to the initial, vertical arrangement of the animals' cages in which new pairs were constantly exposed to another pair in the adjacent cage units. Neighboring pairs often acted like rival gangs, and it is possible that disputes leading to the incompatibility of a pair were instigated and fostered by the two animals across the grid panels. Crockett et al. (1994) reported a compatibility of 100% in 15 pre-familiarized pairs of female long-tailed macaques who were tested in a horizontal cage arrangement so that pairs could not be seen and touched by cage neighbors.

Macaques -- like most other primates -- are defined by their intense biological needs for social contact and social interaction (Yerkes, 1925; Lindburg, 1980; Bernstein 1981; de Waal, 1991). It has been documented by several investigators that transferring single-caged macaques to compatible pair-housing conditions allows the animals to actively express these needs without jeopardizing their physical well-being and without interfering with routine husbandry procedures and common research protocols (review: Reinhardt et al., 1995). Pair-housed macaques are probably better models for medical, toxicological, physiological and psychological research than single-housed animals because they are more representative of their own kind: they are now truly social animals who no longer are forced to live under solitary housing conditions to which they are biologically not adapted.


Asvestas, C. (1998). Pairing Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 37[3], 5.

Bernstein, I. S. (1991). Social housing of monkeys and apes: Group formations. Laboratory Animal Science 41, 329-333.

Canadian Council on Animal Care (1993). Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, Volume 1, 2nd Edition. E. D. Olfert, B. M. Cross, A. A. McWilliam (Eds.). Ottawa, Ontario: CCAC.

Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Bowden, D. M., & Sackett, G. P. (1994). Sex differences in compatibility of pair-housed adult longtailed macaques. American Journal of Primatology 32, 73-94.

Eaton, G. G., Kelley, S. T., Axthelm, M. K., Iliff-Sizemore, S. A., & Shiigi, S. M. (1994). Psychological well-being in paired adult female rhesus (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 33, 89-99.

International Primatological Society (1993). International guidelines for the acquisition, care and breeding of nonhuman primates. Codes of Practice 1-3. Primate Report 35, 7-29.

Lindburg, D. G. (Ed.) (1980). The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Lynch, R. (1998). Successful pair-housing of male macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37[1], 4-6.

National Research Council (1998). The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates (prepublication copy). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Reinhardt, V., Houser, D., Eisele, S., Cowley, D., & Vertein, R. (1988). Behavioral responses of unrelated rhesus monkey females paired for the purpose of environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology 14, 135-140.

Reinhardt, V., Liss, C., & Stevens, C. (1995). Social housing of previously single-caged macaques: What are the options and the risks? Animal Welfare 4, 307-328.

U.S. Department of Agriculture(1991). Title 9, CFR, Part 3. Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register 56, 6426-6505.

de Waal, F. B. M. (1991). The social nature of primates. In M. A. Novak, & A. J. Petto (Eds.), Through the Looking Glass: Issues of Psychological Well-being in Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 69-76). Washington: American Pscyhological Association.

Yerkes, R. M. (1925). Almost Human. London: Jonathan Cape.


First author's address: Univ. of Virginia, Box 439, Charlottesville, VA 22408 [e-mail:].


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Editor's Notes


Starting with the January, 1999, issue, there will be changes on the Newsletter's front cover. Elva Mathiesen, our long-time Copy Editor, is being promoted to Assistant Editor, acknowledging the importance of her contributions, which include copy editing in, and translating from, both Spanish and Russian. James Harper, our Associate Editor, will have a Co-Associate Editor, Gordon Hankinson. Jim is the Director, and Gordon the Assistant Director, of the Bio-Med Animal Care Facility here at Brown.

No Changes

There will be no increase in the charge for mailing the Newsletter outside the United States this year.

LPN Staff in Madagascar

The Editor and Assistant Editor, along with the Editor's husband, enjoyed the hospitality of the University of Antananarivo and the people of Madagascar this summer at the XVIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society. We expect to print reports on some aspects of the meeting in the January issue.

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Find the Lemur
Photo taken at Ranamafana National Park by Paul Wilde

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Managing Gorillas with Broken Bones

Jane Dewar (Gorilla Haven) posted to Primate-Talk a request for information about techniques for tending to post-op situations of gorillas with broken bones. Here is a summary of responses she received.

From Peter Halliday (formerly at Howletts): Pin and plate the fractures (then a cast is not needed), suture the incision so that the cut edges are turned inward and the sutures themselves are inside the cut (I don't know the name for this suturing procedure, but I have seen it done), then give a mild tranquilizer and analgesic so the animal doesn't bother it too much and let it rejoin the group if it isn't going to get hassled (depends on how the fractures were caused etc.). Chris Furley could advise better.

From Chris Furley (Howletts): Bone fractures in gorillas are a problem. Best left alone unless the fractures are easily reparable using screws/plates etc. There are many records of bone breaks in apes healing on their own -- including one here when an adult female smashed her elbow in four places: it has healed well without surgery and she puts weight on it. A cast is probably doomed to failure. I did one in my early days, and the animal took it off within four hours of coming around from the sedation.

In the case you described to me [broken ulna and radius], it appears that the gorilla will need to have the radius pinned with a steel intra-medullary pin. The ulna should heal on its own providing the radius is pinned. No cast should be applied -- the animal should receive pain-killers post-surgery for a fortnight. Hopefully, if the broken ends of the bones are waving about and risk breaking through the skin, surgery has been performed.

In 1986 Kehoe & Chan published an article reviewing 21 cases of fractures and other traumas in orangutans.

From Sue Kneill (Volunteer Staffordshire Regional Coordinator for The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund UK): Jersey Zoo, I believe, recently treated a gorilla with a broken limb. It may be worth contacting them. -- [I remember they did a paper about setting a broken leg (gorilla Julia?) somewhere? Julia was in Jersey and is now in Melbourne --Jane]

From Cobie Brinkman (Australian National University): A few tactics that had some success in preventing macaques from picking at wounds: a) Minimize shaving the area; do just enough to be able to make your incision, then thoroughly clean area as usual. The fur seems to "tactually distract" picking fingers. b) Consider making the incision in a less accessible area for picking, e.g., if you have to work on the front of the arm, move incision, then retract skin; it is usually elastic enough. c) For large incisions (eg, on the scalp for brain surgery), close subcutaneous tissues in layers, as usual, then suture skin with interrupted stitches using a heavy "string", not silk material, with triple knots (made on the "least accessible side" of the wound), and leave ends long (ours were half an inch). I found that animals would tug a bit on the ends initially, but then leave them. The stitches would eventually come out by themselves, without problems, after about ten days, by which time the wound would have closed. Continuous or subcutaneous stitches were picked at more consistently, and tended to become undone, or pulled loose; either because of the picking, or because they were less strong then our much thicker, interrupted stitches. d) Give the animal something else to pick at! We used plastic "spray on bandage" on the animals' tails or legs; they would spend a lot of time grooming the sticky bits off. What did not help: painting the area of the suture with one off those anti-nailbiting lotions -- they seemed to love it!

Here are a few case histories:

1. In a study where forelimb use was restricted for 24 hrs at a time (with limbs alternating from day to day) in young, intact pigtail macaques (up to 1.5 kg), I made a jacket with one arm hole, of fleecy stretch fabric. The jacket closed at the back with velcro straps. It fitted loosely around the body but was held snug at the neck and waist by the straps. Inside the jacket, the arm was restricted in its movements but not immobilized, and animals readily used the arm once it was freed. This could work if an arm was stitched or in a cast, to prevent nipping, etc. I should add that the animals were socially housed in a peer group but other youngsters never "undressed" their friends!

2. To prevent a young fascicularis (about 1 yr old) from nipping at his fingers, I made up an "Elizabethan" collar of a small ice cream container, cutting a neck hole in the bottom, and padding its edge by taping a wad of cottonwool around it. Just big enough to prevent the animal from bringing its hands to its mouth, the collar did not interfere with drinking. Food was put on the cage floor, and the animal either retrieved it by mouth, or used its feet to hold small apples. This animal was housed singly for the duration of wound healing, but within visual and auditory contact of its peers. This was one of the animals for whom anti-nailbiting solutions seemed to have the opposite effect!

3. An adult fascicularis female in our breeding group had a long skin cut on her back which would not heal because she, or another female, kept picking at it. We removed her from the group (housing her within sight and sound of them) and, under anesthesia, cleaned, sutured, and dressed the wound, then dressed her in a length of elastic supportive "stocking" (the kind also used as a bandage; it is just a tube of elastic material), cutting arm and leg holes in the side. Every other day, we changed the dressing. Without direct access for a good scratch, the wound healed quickly, and she was returned to the group.

From Meg White, in St. Louis: All of our gorillas that have had to have surgery (not casts) have pulled out their steel sutures after a period of time, depending on the animal. Our 7-year-old male orang had to have a finger amputated and had a cast on only for a few hours before removing; ditto a female chimp. The orang we put on Valium until we could take the cast off. There can be a "coming down" time on Valium though. The animal would be at risk in a group.

From Shirley McGreal (IPPL): Bitter application really works with gibbon hot spots but I can't imagine them managing with a cast. Check with Seattle Zoo where a siamang had an arm amputated and was fitted with an artificial arm.

From Ann Stevens (Dallas Zoo): The longevity of a cast put on a gorilla depends largely on the temperament of the gorilla. The rest depends on how busy you can keep them so that they leave it alone. To this end, we built several casts to cover a necrotic spider bite wound by wrapping the area with the appropriate gauze and vet tape, then covered the area with a PVC pipe. This was then covered with cast material that may have had a fiberglass component to it. For specifics you may want to e-mail Dr. Bonnie Raphael at: It was reused repeatedly since the gorilla was immobilized every few days to work on the bite site. Food is the most common way to keep a gorilla busy. Raisin boards and other enrichment items can be used. A training program using operant conditioning may be another form of enrichment that can have lasting good effects. A quiet social partner may also be of use. We have tried small doses of sedatives on various primates to keep them from taking out IV's, etc., but it hasn't worked, by my judgement.

From Larry Jacobson (Wisconsin RPRC): You may want to look at "Helping Ndjia," by Catherine Bell which appeared in the March 1998 ZooNooz (San Diego Zoo). It reports on surgery to Ndjia's leg and has good pictures showing her cast.

From Max Snodderly (Schepens Eye Research Institute): I have a follow-up suggestion on Cobie Brinkman's comments. We have found that primates are very adroit at removing sutures. One thing that helps is to put a drop of super glue (cyanoacrylate, Krazy Glue, or other synonyms) on the knot after tying the suture. This can buy you days of healing time before the sutures are removed. [Couldn't the super glue cause an infection if it gets into the wound? Or can you apply it just on the suture knots themselves?? I always glue my fingers together when using that stuff! Of course, a surgeon's supposed to be more adroit than I am -- Jane] There is a medical version of the super glue that is available through vet suppliers, and it is sometimes used to help close wounds, so tissue tolerance is pretty good. If carefully applied, most of the glue will be absorbed by the suture material and very little will adhere to the skin. However, the medical version of the glue is slightly more viscous and does not penetrate the suture material as well, so we prefer the ordinary stuff to lock the suture.


Kehoe, M. M. & Chan, L. C. (1986). Fractures, dislocations and contusions in the Borneon orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) -- A review of 21 cases. Veterinary Record, 118, 633-636.

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Address Changes

W. Richard Dukelow, High Meadows Enterprises, 325 Spring Creek Rd, Somers, MT 59932.

Lisa Forman, Northwestern Univ. Center for Experimental Animal Resources, Searle Medical Research Bldg, 320 E. Superior St, Chicago, IL 60611-3010.

Debra Glanister, Toxicology Research Laboratories GL45, Eli Lilly and Company, P.O. Box 708, Greenfield, IN 46140.

James V. Hawkins, NIMH, NIH, Bldg 36, Rm 1A27, 36 Convent Dr., MSC 4032, Bethesda, MD 20892-4032.

Karen L. Krueger, Mass. General Hospital, 149 Thirteenth St, Mail Stop 149.08.019, Charlestown, MA 02129.

Judith Masters, Natal Museum, Private Bag 9070, Pietermaritzburg, 3200 South Africa.

Jeffrey W. Richig, Anilab, Inc., 54 Crest Dr., Englishtown, NJ 07726.

Kim E. Saunders, Clinical Veterinarian, Dept of Animal Care, Mail Code L110, Oregon Health Sciences Univ., 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97201.

Ed Schroeder, 7206 Jaffrey Ct, Tallahassee, FL 32312.

Science et Vie, 11259 Barca Blvd, Boynton Beach, FL 33437.

Stephanie Torlone, 2 Royalston Ave, Winchester, MA 01890.

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Primates de las Américas...La Página

En el presente número de "La Página" les ofrecemos un reporte de una estudiante de doctorado de la Universidad de Georgia (Athens), quien realizó una breve estancia en el sur de Veracruz, México a fin de ganar experiencia de campo con primates silvestres. Tambien, realizamos una reflexión acerca del estímulo que representa para algunos primatólogos mexicanos los estudios que la Dra. Elizabeth Watts desarrolló sobre la conservación de los primates de la Península de Yucatán, México al cumplirse el 25 de Octubre cuatro años de su fallecimiento. Seguimos esperando sus amables contribuciones para esta sección. Los Editores: Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen. E-mail:

Patrón de Actividades de Monos Aulladores Silvestres (Alouatta palliata mexicana) en una Zona Perturbada del Sur de Veracruz, México, por Serena Ruiz Guerrero, University of Georgia, Athens, USA.

Este estudio es resultado de una breve estancia en las selvas del sur de Veracruz, México, a fin de obtener experiencia en el trabajo con primates silvestres. Así, dos tropas silvestres de monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata mexicana) fueron observadas en un fragmento de bosque denominado "Playa Escondida", en Catemaco, Veracruz, México a fin de determinar su patrón de actividades y comparar los resultados con datos de poblaciones libres presentados por otros autores. Se utilizó el método de muestreo focal animal en "scans" de 10 minutos para registrar cuatro actividades: Descanso, Alimentación, Locomoción, y Otras (las cuales incluyeron conductas como vocalización, juego, exploración, y conflicto social).

Los resultados obtenidos durante 30 horas de observación indican que el patrón de actividades de los monos de Playa Escondida no varía del que se reporta para otras poblaciones de la misma especie. Los sujetos dedicaron la mayor parte de su tiempo al Descanso ocupando 18.99 horas (63.3%); 5.67 horas (18.9%) para la Alimentación; 0.18 horas (0.6%) para la locomoción; y 5.16 horas (17.2%) a otras actividades. Los valores de las actividades de Descanso y Alimentación se ubican dentro de los rangos sugeridos por otros autores en otros sitios de estudio; sin embargo en este breve muestreo, el período de tiempo proporcionado a la locomoción fué significativamente menor a los promedios ofrecidos en otros estudios. Lo anterior puede deberse principalmente a la concentración de recursos alimenticios que, durante el momento de muestreo, se presentó en el ámbito hogareño donde los monos desplegaban sus actividades, por lo que los monos aparentemente no tenían necesidad de desplazarse en la búsqueda de otras opciones alimenticias. Fué notable que el porcentaje obtenido para la actividad de "otros" (17.2%) fué muy importante en el tiempo dedicado por los monos; esto sin duda es consecuencia de la participación de los infantes y juveniles de ambos grupos, quienes desplegaban principalmente la actividad de exploración y conflicto social mientras que el resto de los adultos descansaban. Finalmente, esta breve estancia ha demostrado que el estudio de los primates silvestres incluye grandes ventajas, como poder identificar comportamientos que los grupos de primates sólo despliegan en su hábitat natural, además de saber enfrentarse a las condiciones propias del lugar donde estos monos ubican sus actividades habituales.

Siguiendo las Huellas de Elizabeth S. Watts en la Conservación de los Primates Mexicanos, por Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Víctor Rico-Gray, Departamento de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, México.

Con el fallecimiento de la Dra. Elizabeth S. Watts, el 25 de Octubre de 1994, la Primatología mundial perdió a uno de sus más destacados integrantes; sin embargo para los estudiosos de los primates mexicanos la pérdida fué aún mayor. La escuela que la Dra. Watts iniciaba con sus estudios sobre la ecología, comportamiento, y conservación de los primates de la Península de Yucatán quedó detenida a partir de su lamentable muerte. Tan es así que desde los últimos muestreos de campo realizados por la Dra. Watts y sus colaboradores en 1985 (publicados en 1986 y 1987), no encontramos en la literatura reportes en extenso que nos den información sobre el estado de conservación de los monos silvestres de los estados de Yucatán, Quintana Roo y Campeche.

Actualmente, con apoyo de la American Society of Primatologists, estamos decididos a reiniciar estos esfuerzos que la Dra. Watts motivó en algunos interesados en nuestros primates nativos, por lo que a partir del primer trimestre de 1999 desarrollaremos un reconocimiento actual del estado de conservación de las poblaciones silvestres de monos de la península de Yucatán, el cual reportaremos oportunamente en este y otros foros académicos.

Traducciones Disponibles

La Sociedad Española para las Ciencias del Animal de Laboratorio (SECAL) anuncia que ha traducido al español tres importantes artículos sobre la Recogida de Sangre en Animales de Laboratorio, la Formación del Personal y los Parámetros Sanitarios, a partir de sus originales en inglés contenidos en la revista Laboratory Animals. Las copias impresas conjuntamente se encuentran disponibles gratuitamente. Este proyecto ha sido patrocinado por Laboratory Animals Ltd.

Estos artículos son: "Extracción de sangre en los mammíferos y aves de laboratorio"; "Recomendaciones de FELASA (Federación de Asociaciones Europeas de las Ciencias del Animal de Laboratorio) sobre los estudios y la formación de las personas que trabajan con animales de laboratorio: Categorías A y C"; "Recomendaciones de FELASA para controles de sanidad en unidades experimentales de ratones, ratas, hamsters, jerbos, cobayas y conejos".

Para obtener las copias por favor contacte con: José M. Orellana, Universidad de Alcalá, Centro de Experimentación Animal, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España [fax: 34 91 885 45 44; e-mail:]. El número máximo de copias solicitadas no podrá ser superior a 5. Estas traducciones deben utilizarse como método de formación y ser difundidas entre el personal técnico e investigador directamente relacionado con los animales de laboratorio.

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Announcements from Publications

African Primates

Senior Editor Tom Butynski writes in the current issue of African Primates: "African Primates continues to provide a broad range of articles and notes relevant to primate conservation, particularly on primate numbers, distributions, and conservation problems.

"Unfortunately, there continues to be a great shortage of materials in French. We hope this situation will change in coming issues, as the majority of Africa's most interesting, unique, and endangered primates, and many of the continent's most distinguished primatologists, are in Francophone countries.

"Another situation noted with concern is the lack of materials submitted on Africa's several species of nonforest primates." Tom is looking for your articles to be sent to him at Zoo Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Program, P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya.

Biology of Reproduction

The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) is pleased to announce that the full text of the society's journal Biology of Reproduction is now available online at <> (for readers in many countries outside North America, <>). The online journal contains the full content of each issue, including all figures and tables. In addition, the full text is searchable by keyword, and the cited references include hyperlinks to Medline and to the online full text of many other frequently-cited journals.

Online full-text content currently begins with the January, 1998 issue, and will expand with each month's new issue. Each issue will be placed online approximately on the date it is mailed to subscribers; therefore the online site will be available prior to receipt of your paper copy. In addition, the table of contents and abstracts of upcoming issues will regularly be placed online, as a "future table of contents."

Online readers may want to sign up for the "eTOCs" service, which will deliver each issue's new table of contents -- and each newly-posted future-issue table of contents -- via e-mail. Readers can sign up for this service from any table of contents page.

The full-text articles on the site are free and available to all on the Internet through January, 1999. Thereafter, access will be by institutional site license, which comes with all institutional subscriptions, or by individual subscription. Abstracts will remain available to all without subscription.

The site is being produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press, which also works with other medical/research journals, such as these journals, frequently cited by articles in Biology of Reproduction: Science Magazine, Journal of Biological Chemistry, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science

"We have now sent volume 2 number 1 of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science to the printer. We have been fortunate in having the backing of a strong publisher of academic journals, Lawrence Erlbaum, as well as an outstanding board of editors.

"Now we need to begin to attract more manuscripts, particularly in the area of wildlife and zoos. Until the journal is better known, manuscripts must be solicited. Please feel free to contact us with any prospects of papers from yourself, colleagues, or students, or any other leads." -- Ken Shapiro, Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, 403 McCauley St, P.O. Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880 [301-963-4751; e-mail:].

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Grants Available

Analysis of Complex Biological Systems

The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) are interested in supporting research projects that develop quantitative approaches describing, analyzing, and predicting the behavior of complex biological systems, especially those requiring the integration of potentially large amounts of molecular, biochemical, cell biological, and physiological data. Such studies, adapted to the analysis of complex systems in humans, will ultimately have an impact on the treatment of human disorders and disease. These projects are expected to require the participation of individuals with diverse expertise and thus to be of a collaborative and cross-disciplinary nature. Applicants are strongly encouraged to consider research areas in which systems approaches are likely to make significant contributions. These include NIGMS-supported research on basic studies in genetics, biochemistry, neuroscience, cell biology, and developmental biology that typically utilize nonhuman models; basic studies in pharmacology, physiology, metabolic engineering, and anesthesiology; and inflammation, burn, and trauma. NIMH is especially interested in studies using mathematical, computational, or theoretical approaches to understanding the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying behavior.

Projects responsive to this announcement will 1) treat a biological problem as a system of interacting components; 2) employ quantitative approaches appropriate to the level of organization of the process under study; and 3) seek to determine organizing principles of the larger assemblage and/or the system dynamics. This announcement does not specify approaches, but emphasizes the importance of quantitative treatments that focus on the behavior of the integrated system. Responsive proposals are likely to combine the expertise of individuals thoroughly familiar with the biological problems and experts in such disciplines as physics, engineering, chemistry, computer sciences, or applied mathematics.

Direct inquiries to James C. Cassatt, Div. Cell Biology & Biophysics, NIGMS, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-0828; fax: 301-480-2004; e-mail:]; Judith H. Greenberg, Div. Genetics & Developmental Biology, NIGMS, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-0943; fax: 301-480-2228; e-mail:]; Michael E. Rogers, Div. Pharmacology, Physiology & Biological Chemistry; NIGMS; 45 Center Dr., MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-3827; fax: 301-480-2802; e-mail:]; or Dennis L. Glanzman, Theoretical & Computational Neuroscience Prog., Div. Basic & Clinical Neuroscience Research, NIMH, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm 11C-16, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-1576; fax: 301-443-4822; e-mail:].

Urology Research Centers

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) invite investigators to submit research grant applications for the George M. O'Brien Research Centers Program. The emphases for this program are to: (1) attract new scientific expertise into the study of the basic mechanisms of urological diseases and disorders; (2) encourage multidisciplinary research focused on the causes of these diseases and disorders; and (3) extend the development of innovative clinical and epidemiologic studies of the causes, therapy and possible prevention of urological diseases and disorders. It is anticipated that extensive collaboration will be required between individuals in the clinical and basic sciences, including, e.g., investigators with training and expertise in cell biology, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, epidemiology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathology. An intent of this invitation is to attract investigators not currently active in this field and to explore new basic areas that may have clinical research applications. Individual institutions with both basic and clinical research capabilities are eligible to apply. Inter-institutional collaborative research arrangements are also appropriate and encouraged. Coordination for such arrangements must be evident, clearly meaningful and appropriate for the research proposed. Applications may be submitted by domestic for-profit and non-profit organizations, public and private, such as universities, colleges, hospitals, laboratories, units of state and local governments, and eligible agencies of the federal government. Foreign institutions are not eligible.

The application receipt date is November 20, 1998. Inquiries may be directed to: Charles H. Rodgers, Division of Kidney, Urologic, & Hematologic Diseases, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., Rm 6AS-19J, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-7717; fax: 301-480-3510; e-mail:]; or Jorge Gomez, Office of Centers, Training & Resources, ODDES, NCI, Executive Plaza North, Suite 512, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-8528; e-mail:].

Restoration of Orofacial Tissues

The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) invite applications in support of both design-directed and hypothesis-driven research, the aim of which is to develop natural and novel approaches to the repair, restoration, and replacement of oral, craniofacial, dental, skin and musculoskeletal tissues and organs based on a comprehensive scientific understanding of biological structures and their function. The overall goal of this Request for Applications is to facilitate multidisciplinary research aimed at developing a new generation of natural and synthetic oral, craniofacial, dental, skin and musculoskeletal biomaterials, including total biological approaches for use in instances in which synthetic implants historically have been used. Because of the nature of biomimetics and tissue engineering research, the NIDR and the NIAMS are particularly interested in supporting research conducted by collaborative, interdisciplinary teams of scientists from the fields of engineering, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and biology.

Traditional research project grants (R01) and exploratory/developmental grants (R21) may be submitted. The application receipt date is November 19, 1998. Direct inquiries to: Eleni Kousvelari, Div. of Extramural Research, NIDR, Natcher Bldg, Rm 4AN 18A, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2427; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail:]; or James S. Panagis, Orthopaedics Program, NIAMSD, Natcher Bldg, Rm 5AS 37K, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:].

Tuberculosis Research Unit

The Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), wishes to support a multifaceted, clinical and basic research effort in tuberculosis. The program is aimed at supporting the translation of basic research findings into useful tools for clinical tuberculosis. The effort requires a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to validating surrogate markers of disease progression and protection, and using these new tools to advantage in the conduct of Phase 1, 2 and 3 studies of potential tuberculosis therapeutic, diagnostic and intervention strategies. The Contractor must have demonstrated experience in clinical and basic tuberculosis research. It is anticipated that one cost-reimbursement, level-of-effort type contract will be awarded for a period of seven years.

Request for Proposals (RFP) NIH-NIAID-DMID-99-20 is available through the NIH Home Page: <'s/rfp9920.htm>.

Responses to this RFP will be due on October 29, 1998. Inquiries may be directed to Carl Henn, Div. of Extramural Activities, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 3C07, MSC 7610, Bethesda, MD 20892-7610 [301-496-0993; fax: 301-480-5253; e-mail:].

Drug Research on Opportunistic Infections

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) invite investigator-initiated research project grant applications to support projects with adequate preliminary data for serious development of new therapies to treat AIDS- and cancer-associated opportunistic infections. Studies may include research on identified targets for rational design of inhibitors or projects with chemically identified candidate compounds with suitable efficacy and selectivity for exploration as candidate drugs. Applications that include collaborations with the private sector (e.g., pharmaceutical, chemical or biotechnological companies) are strongly encouraged. The opportunistic pathogens emphasized in this PA are human cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Cryptosporidium parvum, systemic candidiasis, Aspergillus, and the Microsporida.

Areas of research include, but are not limited to: * Expression of confirmed drug targets; modeling and synthesis of inhibitors; efficacy evaluations in vitro and in vivo; toxicity testing and preliminary pharmacokinetics. * Evaluation of known gene products expressed during infection for targeted intervention; comparison of synthesized or known therapeutics on organisms growing intracellularly or at the site of infection; selection and production of candidate therapeutic agents for animal efficacy and toxicity testing. * Further preclinical development to examine the clinical candidacy of a selected compound or immune-based therapy including synthesis research, biological efficacy testing in animal systems, bioavailability estimations, interactions with anti-retroviral agents, toxicology evaluations, and mechanism of action studies.

Inquiries may be directed to: Barbara Laughon, Div. of AIDS, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 2C26, MSC 7620, Bethesda, MD 20892-7620 [301-402-2304; fax: 301-402-3171; e-mail:]; or Mary K. Wolpert, Div. of Cancer Treatment & Diagnosis, NCI, 6130 Executive Blvd, Rm 841, Bethesda, MD 20892-7456 [301-496-8783; fax: 301-402-5200; e-mail:]. The application deadline is November 19, 1998.

Therapeutic Modulation of Angiogenesis in Disease

The National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Eye Institute (NEI) encourage the translation of basic knowledge of the angiogenic process into therapeutic applications. They also promote new collaborations between basic and clinical scientists currently engaged in this area of research to design novel therapeutic approaches to disease. This Program Announcement (PA) is for new grant applications focusing on vascular biology in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Projects ranging from pre-clinical studies in appropriate biological systems or models to the design of pilot clinical applications are encouraged. The research could involve the testing of known pro- or anti-angiogenic agents to determine optimal therapeutic strategies for specific pathologies, to the development of animal models of particular diseases that might more accurately predict the human response to treatment with modulators of angiogenesis.

New strategies for treating cancer and cardiovascular disease, two entirely different diseases, are beginning to emerge that are surprisingly similar, and involve regulating angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels arise as outgrowths of existing vessels. In addition to these potentially fatal diseases, other less life-threatening diseases involving uncontrolled angiogenesis, e.g. neo-vascular eye diseases causing blindness, may also be amenable to this type of treatment. Therefore, controlling the angiogenic process may prove effective as a treatment paradigm for a wide range of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, for inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, and for preventing and treating certain eye diseases.

Direct inquiries to: Colette S. Freeman, Div. of Cancer Biology, NCI, 6130 Executive Blvd, Rm 505, Bethesda, MD 20892-7385 [301-496-7028; fax: 301-402-1037; e-mail:]; Christine A. Kelley, Div. of Heart & Vascular Diseases, NHLBI, Two Rockledge Center, Suite 10193, Bethesda, MD 20892-7956 [301-435-0565; fax: 301-480-2858; e-mail:]; or Peter Dudley, Div. of Extramural Research, NEI, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 350, Bethesda, MD 20892-7164 [301-496-0484; fax: 301-402-0528; e-mail:]. Application receipt dates are November 19, 1998 and July 20, 1999.

Animal Model Testing of Tuberculosis Drugs

The Opportunistic Infections Research Branch, Therapeutics Research Program, Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, seeks responsible offers for establishment of drug screening capability. Organizations that are, or are subsidiaries to, pharmaceutical or chemical companies (i.e., an organization which sells drugs and/or chemicals to the general public for profit) are examples of organizations that are excluded from competition.

It is anticipated that one cost-reimbursement, completion-type contract will be awarded for a period of seven years, beginning approximately August 17, 1999. RFP NIH-NIAID-DAIDS-99-15 is now available electronically and may be accessed through the NIAID Contract Management Branch (CMB) Home Page at <>.

Following proposal submission and the initial review process, offerors comprising the competitive range will be requested to provide additional documentation to the Contracting Officer. Responses to this announcement will be due on November 13, 1998. Any responsible offeror may submit a proposal that will be considered by the Government. This advertisement does not commit the Government to award a contract.

For more information, contact Ross Kelley, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 3C07, Bethesda, MD 20892-7610 [301-402-2234; fax: 301-402-0972; e-mail:]. No collect calls will be accepted.

Unconventional Innovations Program

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) announces the creation of the Unconventional Innovations Program (UIP) to fund the development of high impact, long-range technologies to support cancer research. Initial plans target $48 million in the UIP over the next five years for technology platforms to enable integration of:* noninvasive sensing of molecular alterations in vivo * transmission of molecular information to an external monitor controlled intervention * specific for the molecular profile * monitoring of intervention.

The NCI is soliciting input from researchers about technologies that could fundamentally change the approach to the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Submitted information will help define the general scope of a Broad Agency Announcement to fund research that will be issued in late 1998 or early 1999. Ideas are requested in the form of white papers, which address: * nature of the technological opportunity * current capability of the technology * technological barriers to meeting the defined goal * contribution to the opportunity for the non-intrusive sensing, signaling, and intervention for cancer based on tumor-specific molecular profiles * potential impact on the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

For further information and guidance see <>. For programmatic issues contact: Carol Dahl, Office of Technology and Industrial Relations, NCI, 31 Center Dr., Rm 11A03, MSC 2590, Bethesda, MD 20892-2590 [301-496-1550; fax: 301-496-7807; e-mail:].

Research on Human Sexuality

The Social Science Research Council in New York City, with support from the Ford Foundation, is accepting applications for fellowships to support dissertation and postdoctoral research on human sexuality. Researchers from a wide range of fields, including anthropology, demography, economics, education, ethics, history, cultural and women's studies, political science, psychology, and sociology are eligible for these fellowships. The deadline for applications is December 15. Up to $28,000 will be awarded for each of 10 fellowships. For more information, contact Social Science Research Council, 810 Seventh Ave, New York, NY 10019 [212-377-2700; fax: 212-377-2727; e-mail:] or see <>. -- From ABSnet V4 #31

New Directions in Pain Research: I

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), serving as the lead Institutes for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pain Research Consortium, together with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), and the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH), encourage investigator-initiated research project grant applications to study mechanisms underlying analgesic response and pain to advance the development of novel pain interventions, treatments, and management strategies. The purpose of this PA is to inform the scientific community of broad, shared interests in pain research encompassing the various components of the NIH, and to stimulate and foster a wide range of basic, translational, and patient-oriented clinical studies on pain. Applications are particularly encouraged to study pain throughout the lifespan from the perspectives of molecular genetics; transcriptional controls; signal transduction, including cellular/molecular mechanisms; innovative imaging technologies; and plasticity; and from hormonal or gender influences. The pain experience needs to be examined at all levels of analysis from the gene, molecule, cell, tissue, and organ, to the individual, family and community, with the ultimate goal of developing new insights into pain intervention, treatment and management.

Basic, translational, and patient-oriented clinical research on pain is solicited through this PA. Applications should not be limited to theses' topics or viewed as restricted to only one specific Institute, Office or Center. Current NIH referral guidelines will be used to assign grant applications to the most appropriate NIH Institute based on the scientific focus of the application.

The following examples are provided as topics falling within the scope of this PA: * Investigation of the genetic contribution of differences in pain response, perception and modulation, using tools such as quantitative trait locus analysis for identifying genes that contribute to complex traits and diseases, such as pain. * Exploration of the neuromolecular basis of pain, by investigating targets in signal transduction pathways, e.g., calcium, potassium or sodium ion channels, that may be the most effective points for drug development and intervention. * Exploration of the role of second messenger systems, including G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases, in pain transmission and modulation. * Expansion of research on neuroimaging of pain, including analytical techniques for the study of structural and functional correlates of pain perception, particularly for diagnostic purposes. * Research on neuroplastic processes as these relate to the development and persistence of chronic pain conditions. * Mechanisms underlying differences in pain and analgesic response due to hormonal or gender-related factors.

Direct inquiries to: Cheryl A. Kitt, Div. Convulsive, Infectious & Immune Disorders, NINDS, Federal Bldg, Rm 504, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1431; fax: 301-402-2060; e-mail:]; Patricia Bryant, Temporomandibular Joint Disorders & Neuropathies & Neurodegenerative Diseases, NIDR, 45 Center Dr., Rm 4AN-24E, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402; [301-594-2095; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail:]; Claudette Varricchio, Div. Cancer Prevention, NCI, 6130 Executive Blvd, Rm 300, Bethesda, MD 20892-7340 [301-496-8541; fax: 301-496-8667; e-mail:]; Judith A. Finkelstein, Neuroscience & Neuropsychology of Aging Programs, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 3C307, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9350; fax: 301-496-1494; e-mail:]; John Y. Killen, Div. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 2A18, Rockville, MD 20892-7620 [301-496-0545; fax: 301-402-1505; e-mail:]; James S. Panagis, Orthopaedics Program, NIAMSD, 45 Center Drive, Rm 5AS-37K, MSC 4500, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; FAX: (301-480-4543; e-mail:]; Rochelle Small, Div. Human Communication, NIDOCD, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 400C, MSC 7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [301-402-3464; fax: 301-402-6251; e-mail:]; David A. Thomas, Div. Basic Research, NIDA, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rm 10A-19, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-4975; e-mail:]; Alison E. Cole, Div. Pharmacology, Physiology, & Biological Chemistry, NIGMS, 45 Center Dr., Rm 2AS.49K, MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-1826; fax: 301-480-2802; e-mail:]; Mary D. Leveck, Program Director, NINR, Bldg 45, Rm 3AN-12, Bethesda, MD 20892-6300 [301-594-5963; fax: 301-480-8260; e-mail:]; or Joyce Rudick, Office of Research on Women's Health, NIH, Bldg One, Rm 201, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-402-1770; fax: 301-402-1798; e-mail:].

Stem Cell Transplantation to Establish Allochimerism

The Cellular Hematology Scientific Research Group, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, NHLBI, and the Hematology Program, Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases, NIDDK, announce the availability of a Request for Applications on the above subject. The objective of this initiative is to develop improved and novel preparative regimens that will permit incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in immunized recipients with hemoglobinopathies. The possibility of successful stem cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies being performed where complete myeloablation is not desirable and partial replacement of defective marrow may be sufficient for clinical benefit needs to be explored. The overall goal of the initiative is to focus on approaches to enable successful stem transplantation for hemoglobinopathies and minimize recipient morbidity and mortality. It is important that the approaches proposed include the potential to evolve into human clinical studies. Such studies will undoubtedly improve the morbidity and mortality associated with marrow and stem cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies.

Inquiries may be directed to Helena O. Mishoe, Div. of Blood Diseases and Resources, NHLBI, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Rm 10156, Bethesda, MD 20892-7950 [301-435-0050; fax: 301-480-0868; e-mail:]; or David G. Badman, Div. of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases, NIDDKD, 45 Center Drive, Room 6AS-13C, MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-7717; fax: 301-480-3510; e-mail:]. Application receipt date is November 24, 1998.

Central Nervous System as the HIV Sanctuary

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) invite investigator-initiated research grant applications that address the potential role of the central nervous system (CNS) as a reservoir for HIV. HIV can penetrate the CNS, and a subset of HIV-infected individuals develop motor and/or cognitive impairments to varying degrees. The mechanisms responsible for this CNS dysfunction are not well known. Direct injury by the virus or viral components and the abnormal secretion of cytokines likely damage nervous system cells. It is assumed that halting HIV replication and/or eliminating the virus would prevent CNS damage. This Request for Applications solicits research applications to study mechanisms of HIV trafficking through the blood brain barrier (BBB); CNS viral localization, control, and eradication; and the CNS as a potential virus reservoir. Applications addressing anti-HIV CNS drug discovery, drug delivery and pharmacology are especially encouraged.

Examples of relevant research include, but are not limited to, the following: * Development of methodology to modulate BBB to control viral dissemination and viral load, and to enhance drug delivery; * consequences of HIV infection of the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS); * Investigation of signal transduction which may induce recruitment and proliferation of inflammatory cells and further cytokine/chemokine dysfunction; * Refinement and assessment of structural imaging of the brain using computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), MR spectroscopy and functional MR, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) in diagnosis and treatment of neurological disease; * Identification of surrogate markers for use in rapid and early diagnostic tests of HIV infection, and for the measure of neuropathogeneic damage and treatment success; * Development of animal, in vitro, and computer models of HIV disease, and potential treatments; * Investigation of possible common links for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and HIV-dementia, where microglial activation is a common pathway for neural destruction.

Direct inquiries to: A. P. Kerza-Kwiatecki, Div. Convulsive, Infectious, & Immune Disorders, NINDS, 7550 Wisconsin Ave., Rm 504, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1431; fax: 301-402-2060; e-mail:]; Sander G. Genser, Center for AIDS & Other Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse, NIDA, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 10A-08, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-1801; fax: 301-594-6566; e-mail:]; Charles W. Sharp, Div. Basic Research, NIDA, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 10A-31, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-1887; fax: 301-594-6043; e-mail:]; or Diane M. Rausch, Office of AIDS Research, NIMH, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 18-101, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-6100; fax: 301-443-9719; e-mail:]. Application receipt date is December 11, 1998.

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Research and Educational Opportunities

Veterinary Internship/Fellowship, Animal Welfare

The William and Charlotte Parks Foundation invites applications for a * one-year internship in animal welfare from final year veterinary students or veterinary graduates at U.S. institutions; or * a PhD fellowship from students already enrolled in a PhD program at an accredited institution of higher learning in the United States. The successful candidate will receive a grant of up to $30,000.

Applications should be sent to the William & Charlotte Parks Foundation for Animal Welfare, c/o Dr. Barbara Orlans, 7106 Laverock Lane, Bethesda, MD 20817, postmarked no later than December 1, 1998. They should include a no more than five-page description of a proposed project or work to be undertaken, addressing the welfare of companion, laboratory, or farm animals. For complete details on these awards and how to apply for them, contact Dr. Orlans at the address above or 301-229-7525 [e-mail:].

Laboratory Animal Medicine Post-Doc

The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) Department of Animal Resources invites applications for a post-doctoral veterinary training position in laboratory animal medicine. Review of applications will begin immediately and will continue until the position is filled, with the earliest planned start to be July 1, 1999. The three-year program is designed to support preparation toward ACLAM board certification, to provide a good foundation for ability to manage a program of laboratory animal care and research support, and to develop and/or increase research aptitude. Areas of training include laboratory animal clinical medicine, comparative pathology, methods and practice of biomedical research, and animal resource and facilities management. The position furnishes opportunities to work with a wide variety of animal species in an accredited, respected animal care and use program, as well as opportunities to work with established research scientists in a sophisticated research environment to attain the necessary skills to plan and conduct research and to contribute to the scientific literature.

Candidates for this position should have a DVM/VMD or equivalent degree. The salary range is $28,000 to $30,500 plus benefits. For further information and a program brochure, contact Dr. Kent Osborn, Department of Animal Resources, MB-18, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 [e-mail:].

Course in Primate Behavior and Ecology

Paul Garber and a team of graduate teaching assistants will offer an "advanced" primatology course on the behavior and ecology of capuchin monkeys and howler monkeys at Ometepe, Nicaragua, December 27, 1998-January 18, 1999. The course is designed for advanced undergraduates (juniors and seniors) and graduate students who are interested in a career in biological anthropology, primatology, tropical ecology, rainforest conservation, and field biology. Our goals in the course are to challenge students intellectually; to provide them with the problem-solving skills and academic background needed to address key issues in tropical ecology, primate behavior, and rainforest conservation; and to instill in all students a passion for inquiry, exploration, and a personal appreciation for our natural world.

An intermediate course in Primate Behavior and Conservation will be taught by Dr. Patricia McDaniel at our site, La Suerte Biological Research Station, in Costa Rica during the same dates.

For more information contact Dr. Paul A. Garber, Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Illinois, 109 Davenport Hall, 607 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 [217-333-0075; fax: 217-244-3490; e-mail]; or see <>.

Postdoc: Biomarkers of Aging

A postdoctoral position is available to investigate potential biomarkers of aging utilizing a multicenter database that includes data from several nonhuman primate species as well as humans and canine species. Applicants with a background in biogerontology or primatology are preferred. Candidates should have a PhD in a biology-related field with specific research experience relevant to the position. Please send curriculum vitae, three letters of reference, and a statement of research interests to: Dr. Mark A. Lane, Rm 1B04-Bldg 103, NIH Animal Center, 16701 Elmer School Rd, P.O. Box 56, Poolesville, MD 20837 [e-mail:].

Mountain Gorilla Projects

The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, run by the Morris Animal Foundation, a private, not-for-profit foundation, aims to provide a comprehensive veterinary program of health care and research that will contribute to the long-term survival of the highly endangered mountain gorillas that are found in the national parks of Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaïre). Funding will be available for research projects in the following categories: * Population health threats * Pathology * Nutrition * Parasitology * Genetics * Reproduction * Miscellaneous. For information, contact Mike Cranfield, Baltimore Zoo, Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD 21217 [410-396-0070; fax: 410-396-0300].

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Positions Available

Clinical Veterinarian -- Tulane RPRC

The Tulane Regional Primate Research Center (TRPRC) is seeking applications for the position of clinical veterinarian within the Department of Veterinary Sciences. The TRPRC is one of seven regional primate research centers in the U.S. The TRPRC is an AAALAC International-accredited facility housing approximately 5000 nonhuman primates (NHP) of nine different species. The large research program primarily involves infectious disease research concentrating on the study of AIDS. Other areas of research involve gene therapy, reproduction, vaccine studies, malaria, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, antiviral therapy, and clinical NHP medicine and surgery.

Responsibilities of the position include general medical and surgical care of breeding colony and research animals, provision of research support, and training of investigators, veterinary students, and technicians. The successful candidate will be provided opportunities to conduct independent or collaborative clinical research directed toward NHP medicine and surgery. This is a junior faculty position.

The candidate must hold a DVM/VMD degree from an AVMA-accredited college of veterinary medicine and be licensed to practice veterinary medicine in one of the 50 states. ACLAM, ACVIM, or ACVS board certification or eligibility is desirable. The candidate should have good verbal and written communication skills and the ability to interact positively with others.

Interested persons should submit a letter of interest, curriculum vitae, and a list of three references to: Rudolf P. Bohm, Jr., DVM, Senior Veterinarian, Head, Unit of Clinical and Research Medicine, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433. For more information call 504-892-2040, extension 276.

Tulane University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer and encourages applications from women and members of minority groups.

Research Veterinarian -- Harvard Medical School

The AIDS Research Laboratory at Harvard Medical School seeks a veterinarian to assist in designing and performing studies in rodents and nonhuman primates. Responsibilities include coordinating studies at three institutions, performing procedures, and maintaining IACUC compliance. There will be opportunities for independent research. Nonhuman primate and/or research experience is desirable, but not necessary. Full- or part-time potential. Contact Keith Reimann, DVM, Div. of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School [617-667-4583; e-mail:].

Research Animal Technical Supervisor, Chicago

The University of Chicago needs a Research Animal Technician Supervisor to supervise, assist, and train three Animal Health Technicians (AHTs) in support of clinical services in the Animal Resources Center. This group assists veterinary staff and investigative groups in pre-, intra-, and postoperative care of lab animals (primarily rabbits, nonhuman primates, dogs, and pigs) and health surveillance of all housed species. Candidates need five years of experience in the animal health care field, including anesthesia of multiple species for lengthy procedures. Experience in rodent techniques and supervision is a must. Illinois AHT license, BS, and AALAS certification at LATG level are desirable. Salary is excellent and commensurate with experience; excellent university benefits. Continuing education is encouraged, as well as presentations at local and national meetings. Please contact Craig L. Wardrip, Dept. of Surgery, Univ. of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 1030, Chicago, IL 60637 [fax: 773-702-9152; e-mail:] for information and for the address for a formal application (which must go through our university human resources department). Faxed or e-mailed resumes may be sent to Dr. Wardrip for quicker processing, or may be "snail-mailed".

Professorship in Comparative Medicine, Yale

The Section of Comparative Medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine is pleased to announce a faculty position at the assistant/associate professor level for an academically-oriented laboratory animal clinician. Primary duties will entail clinical services for the Yale Animal Resources Center, a large, diverse, AAALAC-accredited program which cares for more than 44,000 animals, including 200 nonhuman primates. The position also will involve participation in research, training, and regulatory services. Broad opportunities for collaborative research are available and will be tailored to individual needs and interests. Applicants must have completed specialty training in laboratory animal medicine and have demonstrable enthusiasm for academic comparative med-icine. Interest and experience in rodent genetics is welcomed. Letters of interest and a resume which includes the names and addresses of at least three references should be sent to Robert O. Jacoby, Professor and Chair, Section of Comp. Med., Yale Univ. School of Med., P.O. Box 208016, New Haven, CT 06520-8016 [203-785-2525; e-mail:]. Yale University is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.

Director Animal Resources, Cornell

Cornell University, in Ithaca, NY, is seeking a qualified veterinarian to serve as Director of the University's Center for Research Animal Resources (CRAR). This is a full time position reporting to the Executive Vice Provost for Research. The Director, CRAR, will oversee the animal care and use program at Cornell including over 130 facilities owned by the Colleges of Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine, Human Ecology, Arts and Sciences and Engineering located on campuses in Ithaca, Geneva and Harford, New York. These facilities contain over 500,000 ft2 of enclosed animal housing and are AAALAC-accredited.

The CRAR is composed of four full-time veterinarians, four full-time animal health technicians, a Program Coordinator, and an Information Specialist. The CRAR is responsible for employee training programs, assisting investigators in the housing and procurement of research animals, and for providing advice and consultation on animal models and on federal, state, and local rules and regulations pertaining to animal use. In addition, the CRAR provides support to the IACUC, the Occupational Health Program, and University Design, Planning and Construction Services. The Director shares rotational "on-call" duty with other CRAR staff members.

The successful candidate must be a graduate of an accredited College of Veterinary Medicine, licensed to practice in a state, be ACLAM-boarded, and have 5 years experience in program management. Strong interpersonal and communication skills are essential.

The opportunity also exists for the Director of the CRAR to have a tenure-track academic appointment in the College of Veterinary Medicine. To qualify for this option, the candidate should also have academic credentials consistent with a professorial rank appointment, including evidence of scholarly activity and research support. An advanced degree is preferred. Ample time will be made available from the responsibilities of the Directorship to pursue scholarly activities.

Applicants are invited to send a curriculum vitae and the names, addresses and telephone numbers of five references to Dr. Douglas McGregor, Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Education, S3-016 Schurman Hall, Veterinary College, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401.

Clinical Track Assistant Professor -- Missouri

The Research Animal Diagnostic & Investigative Laboratory in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology at the University of Missouri invites applications for a Clinical Track Assistant Professor. The successful candidate will have a DVM, PhD, or DVM/PhD with experience in molecular microbiology. Responsibilities will include development of novel diagnostic immunoassays and molecular diagnostic assays and supervision of technical personnel performing diagnostic testing. In addition, the individual will participate in graduate and resident training. Ability to work in a team environment is essential. Individuals with experience in molecular techniques, such as cloning, expression of recombinant proteins and PCR are especially encouraged to apply. Experience in laboratory animal medicine desirable but not required. Applicants should send a curriculum vita, a statement of goals and interests, and names of three references to Dr. Lela Riley, Dept. of Veterinary Pathobiology, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211. Review of applications will begin on October 1,1998 and will continue until a suitable individual is identified. The University of Missouri - Columbia is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action institution.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour will sponsor a meeting on "Genetic Analysis of Behaviour," 3-4 December, 1998, at the Zoological Society of London. Contact Dr. M. G. Ritchie, Environmental & Evolutionary Biology, Bute Medical Bldg, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9TS, UK [fax: +44 (0) 1334 463600; e-mail:]; or Dr. Bambos Kyriacou, Department of Genetics, Adrian Bldg, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK [fax: +44 (0) 1162 523378; e-mail:].

The first European Zoo Nutrition Meeting, organized by Rotterdam Zoo and the Veterinary Faculty in Utrecht in cooperation with the nutrition research group of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, will be held January 9-11, 1999, in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Registration fees are Fl 300 (~US$150) for students, Fl 400 (~US$200) for others. The final registration deadline is December 7, 1998. For information on the scientific program contact Dr. Jean-Michel Hatt, Division of Zoo Animals and Exotic Pets, Univ. of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland [+41 01-635 83 42; fax: +41 01-635 89 01; e-mail:]. For more information on the meeting contact Joeke Nijboer, Rotterdam Zoo, P.O. Box 532, 3000 AM Rotterdam, The Netherlands [+31 010-4431441; fax +31 010-4431414; e-mail:]; or see < >.

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University and the College of Health Professions in cooperation with the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida announce that a conference entitled The Balanced Evaluation of Animal Research: Fulfilling the Obligations of Science and Society will be held at the University of Florida in Gainesville, FL on February 6-8, 1999. The program will consider issues of decision-making in a variety of animal-use contexts. The conference is intended for biological, biomedical, behavioral, and social scientists; clinicians, students, and scholars of the humanities and philosophy; and members of the concerned public. The seminar is particularly important to those individuals concerned with the education of researchers and those involved in making decisions that directly affect the welfare of animals (e.g., researchers, veterinarians, members of animal care committees). For additional information contact Robbie Eller, Office of the Dean, College of Health Professions, P.O. Box 100185, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0185 [352-392-4215; fax: 352-392-6529; e-mail:]; John P. Gluck, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 [515-277-3420; fax: 505-277-1394; e-mail:]; or F. Barbara Orlans, Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC 20057 [202-687-6774; fax: 202-687-6770; e-mail:]; or see <>.

The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM) African Malaria Conference will take place in Durban, South Africa, 15-19th March, 1999. This Conference will be held in conjunction with the Southern African Malaria Conference, a gathering that has common objectives to the MIM meeting. The MIM AMC will be open to malaria researchers internationally and to health professionals and other individuals involved in malaria control activities across Africa. For more information, contact: Zandile Malloy, Malaria Programme, Medical Research Council, P.O. Box 17120, Congella 4013, Durban, South Africa [27-31-251481; fax: 27-31-251498; e-mail:]; or see <>.

The Fourth Primate Ultrasound/Imaging Symposium will be held March 17-19, 1999 in Mobile, AL. The program will include presentations on echocardiography, ultrasound-guided sampling techniques, digital ultrasound technology, and other topics. Laboratories will give participants the opportunity to perform echocardiography and obstetric, gynecologic, and other diagnostic techniques under the supervision of professionals who are familiar with them. Participants will also have the opportunity to present cases of their own to get input from the group. Ultrasound vendors will be on hand to demonstrate and discuss ultrasound equipment and supplies. For registration materials contact Ms. Marilyn Holladay, Dept of Comp. Med., Rm 992 MSB, USA College of Medicine, Mobile, AL 36688 [334-460-6239; fax: 334-460-7783; e-mail:]; or see the Squirrel Monkey Breeding and Research Resource Web site <>.

Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) and Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) will hold their annual conferences on issues relating to animal care, animal research, and research review, on March 21-23, 1999, at the San Diego Paradise Point Resort, California.

The 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences will take place in Bologna, Italy, 29 August-2 September, 1999. Further information is available on the Congress web site: <>.

The IVth International Congress of Aleš Hrdlièka, titled "World Anthropology on the Turn of the Century", will be held 31 August-4 September, 1999, in Praha-Humpolec, Czech Republic, organized by Charles University in Prague, the Czech Anthropological Society, the town of Humpolec, the National Museum, Prague, and the Museum of Dr. Aleš Hrdlièka, Prague. The main topics of the Congress will be: Theory, history and methodology of anthropology; Human evolution; Human ecology; Human genetics; Human ontogeny; Evolution of man in the Upper Paleolithic; Historical anthropology and paleodemography; Clinical anthropology; Functional anthropology; Forensic anthropology; Primatology; Social and cultural anthropology; and Anthropological education at universities. The official language of the Congress is English. Deadline for registration is 31 December, 1998. For more information, contact the Dept of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Viniena 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic [0420 2 21953218, 0420 2 21900173; fax: 0420 2 21953217; e-mail:,,, or]; or see the Web site: <>.

The III Congreso de la Asociación Primatológica Española (APE) will be held September 20-22, 1999, at the campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. The subject will be "Primate Models of Human Evolution." For more information, contact III Congreso de la Asociación Primatológica Española, Secretaría del Depto de Biología Celular y Fisiol., Fac. de Ciencias, Univ. Autónoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola 08193, Barcelona, Spain [fax: 93-5812295; e-mail:].

The Third International Conference on Cognitive and Neural Systems will be held May 26-29, 1999 in Boston, MA, sponsored by Boston University's Center for Adaptive Systems and Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, with financial support from DARPA and ONR. For more information, contact the Dept of Cognitive & Neural Systems, Boston University, 677 Beacon St, Boston, MA 02215.

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Workshop Announcements

NIH Animal Welfare Education Workshops

The NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) sponsors workshops on implementing the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The workshops are open to institutional administrators, members of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other institutional staff who have responsibility for high-quality management of sound institutional animal care and use programs. Ample opportunities will be provided to exchange ideas and interests through question-and-answer sessions and information discussions.

A workshop on "Animal Pain Management and Humane Endpoints" will be held 2-3 November, 1998, at the National Academy of Sciences Auditorium, Washington, DC, sponsored by OPRR, Office of Intramural Research, Office of Animal Care and Use, NIH and the Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. It will focus on the science, ethics, and assessment/alleviation of pain, stress, and distress in animals involved in research. Speakers will include Paul Flecknell (University of Newcastle), Gary Moberg (UC-Davis), Nelson L. Garnett (NIH, OPRR), W. Ron DeHaven (USDA, APHIS), John G. Miller (AAALAC International), Judith Davis (AHCS, NINDS, NIH), Andrew N. Rowan (HSUS), Kenneth R. Boschert (Washington University), Ralph B. Dell (ILAR, NAS), and Ernest Olfert (University of Saskatchewan). Contact Marilyn Principe, The John Hopkins University CAAT, 111 Market Pl., Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709 [410-223-1617; fax: 410-223-1603; e-mail:].

A two-day conference titled "IACUC Responsibility for Research Animal Well-being" will be held December 7-8, 1998, at the Holiday Inn, Riverwalk, in San Antonio, TX, cosponsored by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), the OPRR, and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. For registration, write to Conferences, SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 340, Greenbelt, MD 20700 [301-345-3500; fax: 301-345-3503; e-mail:].

For information on future NIH Animal Welfare Education Workshops, contact Ms. Darlene M. Ross, OPRR, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd, Suite 3B01, MSC 7507, Rockville, MD 20892-7507 [301-453-5648; fax: 301-402-0527; e-mail:].

Biological Acoustics Workshop

A workshop addressing "Biological Aspects of Acoustics", funded by the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, is to be held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, March 24-27, 1999. The workshop is being organized by Peter Slater and Mike Ritchie. C. Gerhardt (Missouri), V. Janik (Woods Hole), G. Jones (Bristol), P. K. McGregor (Copenhagen) and R. Ranft (British Library) have agreed to deliver lectures or lead discussions. The workshop will cover a variety of topics, but one of its main aims will be to introduce biologists to physical acoustics.

In addition to lectures and discussions we hope to include demonstrations of equipment and software, and hands-on sessions illustrating their use. Participants will be encouraged to bring recordings and other material.

The fee for the meeting will be 325 Pounds Sterling for research students and 350 Pounds Sterling for others. Participants will be expected to finance their own travel to St Andrews, although some travel scholarships may be available for research students. Full board and lodging from dinner on the 24th to tea on the 27th will be provided free of additional charge.

For more information contact Mike Ritchie at Environmental & Evolutionary Biology, Bute Medical Bldg, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland KY16 9TS [0 (44 outside UK) 1334 463495; fax: 0 1334 463600; e-mail:]; or see <>. Applications must be received by November 30, 1998.

Anthropological and Primate Genetics

A Workshop on Anthropological and Primate Genetics will be held November 19-21, 1998, at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research. The workshop is sponsored jointly by the American Association of Anthropological Genetics and the Southwest Foundation, and will focus on the genetics of normal variation and genetic epidemiology in both human and nonhuman primate populations. Its purpose is to introduce concepts, methods, and results of genetic analysis, with the aim of helping participants to get started in genetic studies. For details see <> or contact Bennett Dyke, Dept of Genetics, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245-0549 [210-674-1410, Ext 281; fax: 210-670-3317; e-mail:].

* * *

Information Requested or Available

Whatever Happened to Primate-Talk?

Primate-Talk is gone. Long live Primate-Science and Alloprimate, two separate e-mail lists which will be dividing up the territory. Primate-Science, which will be managed by Larry Jacobsen of the Wisconsin RPRC, will be focused on research, while Alloprimate, which will be managed by Robert Lewis and Judith Schrier, will be more general. Alloprimate will be moderated, in an attempt to avoid the "flame wars" that were the less-than-endearing feature of the otherwise very successful Primate-Talk. This means that all postings will go to a manager first, and that some submissions may not get posted. Yes, this is censorship, but we hope it will be a very enlightened dictatorship. There will also be an option for sending a message anonymously -- again, only with the permission of the manager.

Larry, Robert, and Judith plan to cooperate to ensure that information of interest and importance is distributed to subscribers of both lists.

As this issue of the LPN goes to press, Primate-Science has not yet started. Alloprimate, however, under Robert Lewis's management, has made a very successful start. You are invited to join by sending a blank e-mail message to

Animal Welfare Report FY 1997

The USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, has published its Animal Welfare Report, Fiscal Year 1997, which provides broad coverage of APHIS programs and activities as well as statistics on animals used in research. This report is available on the WWW at <>. To obtain a printed copy [APHIS 41-35-054], send a request to Dr. Jerry DePoyster, USDA, APHIS, AC, 4700 River Rd, Unit 84, Riverdale, MD 20737-1234 [301-734-7586; fax: 301-734-4978; e-mail:].

Archaeology -- Web Resources

Archaeology on the Net is a new site indexing archaeology resources on the internet. Currently over 1200 sites are indexed under 33 categories provided with annotated links. New sites can be added to the index through a link on each category page. Web sites indexed under "Anthropology" heading include: African primates at home American Anthropological Association -- Anthropology and the environment section Anthropology classes at various institutions Fossil hominids various journals various museums, including the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago Primate handedness and brain lateralization research site. The URL is <>.

Answers to Questions

A collection of "Research Questions and Answers" is now available on the ASP Web page at <>. The material is aimed at the intelligent layman, and should be helpful to all of us when we are asked these questions by our friends, students, and others.

On-line Training on the Web

An "investigator training program" is located at <> "You can create a guest account if you would like to see how it works. You can take each quiz five times and each time you will be given a random set of questions from a question database.

"This program was created by WebCT, a software system providing a framework for creating and delivering WWW-based course materials. It can be used to publish entire on-line courses or make supplemental materials available on-line. Using a Web browser, the instructor accesses WebCT to add course materials and tools. Many features that might be desirable in a Web-based course, such as conferencing, chat, quizzing, and electronic mail, are available. For more information about WebCT, see <>." -- Posted to CompMed by Mike Parker, of the University of Iowa

Recent Additions to the Primate Info Net (PIN)

Primate Info Net <> is an international Web site managed by the Wisconsin RPRC. PIN has links to over 700 Web pages at 300 sites. Using the PIN search feature, you can look for any topic or species. For questions about accessing PIN or reporting problems with PIN links, please contact Ray Hamel at

Recent additions include the following articles: Constraints of tourist contact on competitive and social behavior of free-living long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) (In German); Personhood, property and legal competence; Ecotourism: Can it save the orangutans? from Inside Indonesia; A safe haven: Before the journey home, by L. Salter; Use, misuse and abuse of the orangutan, by A. Leiman & N. Ghaffar; Chat with Koko (Transcript of America Online session with Koko); Approaches to cost recovery for animal research: Implications for science, animals, research competitiveness and regulatory compliance; and a selection of images.

ASP Statement on Private Ownership of Primates

A statement on the private ownership of primates was approved by the Board of Directors of the American Society of Primatologists on 30 June, 1998. This statement is available on the ASP Web page at <>.

More Interesting Web Sites

* Animal Welfare Information Center :

* Primadome -- a patented geodesic dome used for housing nonhuman primates.:

* Glasgow Zoopark Animal Behaviour Files:

* National Science Board's Science and Engineering Indicators 1998:

* The New York Times: The Malaria Network (WHO/CTD):

* Networking for Tropical Disease Research:

* National Agricultural Library's bibliographic database, AGRICOLA:

* Pharmacological Reviews:

* The Malaria Foundation:

* Alternatives to Animal Testing:

* NASA Biomedical Research Timeline:

* American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists:

* Primarily Primates:

* Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia:

* The Monkey Room:

* SECAL (Spanish Society of Laboratory Animal Science):

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Awards Granted

ASP Conservation Awards for 1998

This year at the American Society of Primatologists meeting in Texas, Subscription Awards for the American Journal of Primatology were awarded to Minna J. Hsu, of National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan, and Komang Gde Suaryana, of Universitas Udayana, Indonesia. Nineteen journal subscriptions were continued for individuals in habitat countries where primate literature is scarce.

Julio Cesar Bicca-Marques, of Brazil, received a $500 Travel Award to attend the IPS Congress.

Small Grants of $500-$1500 each were awarded to Rebeca Araya, of New York University, for "Genetic structure in two sympatric and behaviorally diverse saki monkeys, Pithecia pithecia and Chiropotes satanas (Platyrrhini, Pitheciinae)"; Lucy Beresford-Stooke, of the UK, for "Primate population densities after Pitsawing in Budongo Forest, Uganda"; Mukesh K. Chalise, of Nepal, for "Environmental protection in Makalu-Barun Conservation Area through conservation education"; Mugambi Karere, of Kenya, for "Pre-translocation ecological study of De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus Schlegel) in Western Kenya"; Christian Mokalu, of Indonesia, for "Population survey of the Sulawesi black macaque (Macaca nigra) at the Tangkoko-Duasudara Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia"; Erwin Palacios, of Colombia, for "Density of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in Southeastern Colombia"; Jill Pruetz, of the University of Illinois, for "Forest characteristics and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) densities in forest fragments at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica"; Juan Carlos Serio Silva, of Mexico, for "The primates of the peninsula of Yucatan: Current state and strategies for their conservation"; Kimberly Williams-Guillen, of New York University, for "The behavioral ecology of mantled howling monkeys living in Nicaraguan coffee plantations."

Glaser Award to David Watkins

David Watkins, a scientist at the Wisconsin RPRC, is among five researchers to win the 1998 Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award. He will receive nearly $700,000 from the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation to study how the primate immune system responds during the earliest stages of HIV and SIV infection, a situation that cannot be studied in humans. One long-term goal of his research is to develop a therapy that prevents HIV and SIV infection or alters disease progression by eliciting a cellular immune resonse. "Our center and others are now also engaging in research toward the goal of preventing the virus from being transmitted from HIV-infected mothers to their babies," says Dr. Watkins, Professor of Pathology at the University of Wisconsin.

* * *

News Briefs

Walter Baumgärtel, 1902-1997

Robert Glaser reports that Max-Walter Baumgärtel died on November 8, 1997, six weeks before his 95th birthday. He willed his remains to the Department of Anatomy of the University of Munich, "concluding a life well spent in the service of science."

In 1955 Baumgärtel was the proprietor of the "Travelers Rest" lodge in Kisoro, Uganda, at the foot of Mt. Mgahinga of the Virunga Range. He informed leading scientists worldwide of the access his place offered to the nearby mountain gorilla habitat -- incidentally also offering free board and lodging to serious students.

Baumgärtel's guest book at "Travelers Rest" reads like a "Who's Who." Beginning with Raymond Dart, discoverer of the Taung child, there followed names such as Kinji Imanishi, Junichiro Kitani, Russell Train, Harold Coolidge, Alan Moorehead, John Emlen, Alan Root, Nadine Gordimer, Julian Huxley, Vernon Reynolds, George Schaller and Dian Fossey. All expressed their appreciation of Walter's enthusiasm, good humor, and willingness to share his firsthand knowledge of gorillas.

Walter early recognized the dangers to wildlife of unfettered tourism, and restricted his visitors to one small group for a limited time each day. He wrote a book, König im Gorillaland, in 1960 (translated and bowdlerized as Up Among the Mountain Gorillas, 1979). He became better known through National Geographic articles, in which he left the limelight to his guide to gorillas, Reuben Rwanzigire.

In later years, Baumgärtel came upon hard times, both financially and due to failing eyesight. The Bavarian Society for the Blind provided him with support and comfort in the village of Brannenburg, where he received visitors and was able to reminisce, retaining his mental faculties almost to the end of his life.

Changes at AMP

After seven years of dedicated service, Susan Paris resigned this week as President and Chief Executive Officer of Americans for Medical Progress (AMP) for personal reasons. Americans for Medical Progress conducts public education campaigns and media outreach, and works to keep laboratory animal professionals and others informed about important trends in the animal activist opposition to research.

The Board of Directors of the AMP Educational Foundation has appointed Jacquie Calnan as President and Lynn O'Connell as Vice President of AMP. For the past three years, Jacquie directed the constituent, public and media outreach programs and the intelligence resources of AMP. --AMP News, Monday, July 2 and 20, 1998

Reed, Arnoldi to Head APHIS

Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman announced the selection of Craig A. Reed and Joan M. Arnoldi for the two top positions of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, a part of USDA's marketing and regulatory programs mission area. Reed, currently serving as the acting administrator, was named by Glickman to serve as the permanent administrator. Arnoldi, currently heading the veterinarian services of APHIS, was named to serve as associate administrator. --APHIS Press Release, July 24, 1998

LEMSIP Chimps Move to Canada

Twelve chimpanzees from the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP) at New York University, which closed last year, have moved to the Fauna Foundation ranch, six miles southeast of Montreal. The Jane Goodall Institute donated money to build their enclosure.

Jim Mahoney, a veterinarian and part of the LEMSIP team that conducted research on the chimps, was a guest at the enclosure's unveiling. Thanks to his efforts, 90 of the 240 chimpanzees of his laboratory have found homes to spend their last days. About 100 others were sent to another laboratory where they will still be used for research. Mahoney is still seeking retirement homes for 24 chimps. There are about a dozen chimp sanctuaries in the United States. -- From a posting to Primate-Talk

Twins Born at Gombe

"The Jane Goodall Institute is pleased to announce the recent birth of chimpanzee twins at Gombe National Park in Tanzania. The twins, named Golden and Glitter, were born to Gremlin, one of the matriarchs of the Gombe community. Gremlin is the daughter of Melissa, who herself bore twins more than 20 years ago -- Gyre and Gimble. Gyre died at the age of 10 months, but Gimble is alive and well.

"Multiple births are rare among wild chimpanzees. Another set of twins born at Gombe -- Roots and Shoots -- died with their mother, Rafiki, during the epidemic of pneumonia that spread through the Mitumba community in 1996. Although researchers noted two youngsters of the same age traveling with an unhabituated female in 1987, they were not able to get close enough to determine whether the infants were twins. The mother and youngsters soon disappeared from the study area.

"We have high hopes that both Golden and Glitter will survive under Gremlin's excellent maternal care. And we look forward to studying this rare set of wild chimpanzee twins well into adulthood.

"If you have any research questions on the topic of twin chimpanzees in the wild or the Gombe chimpanzee community, please contact Jennifer Williams at the JGI Center for Primate Studies, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 [e-mail:]." -- Posted by the Jane Goodall Institute to Primate-Talk, July 31, 1998

Air Force Chimps Placed

August 6, 1998 -- Primarily Primates, of San Antonio, TX, has been selected as a retirement home for 30 of the 141 U.S. Air Force "Space Chimps". The remaining 111 chimpanzees have been awarded to the Coulston Foundation, where they will continue to be used in further studies. -- From a Primarily Primates press release

New Director for CDC

U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Donna Shalala has appointed Jeffrey P. Koplan, MD, MPH, to be director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Koplan replaces Dr. David Satcher, who was confirmed as U.S. Surgeon General on February 13, 1998. "Jeffrey Koplan is a dedicated public health professional who will bring extensive experience in researching, preventing and controlling disease both in the United States and around the world," said Shalala. "He is a leader of great integrity. As a former assistant Surgeon General and senior CDC manager, he has the leadership ability to help guide the agency into the next millennium." -- Posted for the tropical disease research community: "tdr-scientists list"

Ron Hunt Retires as NERPRC Director

Dr. Ronald Hunt has stepped down as director of the New England Regional Primate Research Center in Southborough, MA after 22 years of service. Dr Hunt has made seminal contributions to the understanding of herpesviruses, vitamin D metabolism, and AIDS. In the mid-1980s, Dr. Hunt and his colleagues sought and uncovered a lentivirus that infects rhesus monkeys and causes a disease remarkably similar to human AIDS. The simian immmunodeficiency virus (SIV) is now studied worldwide to shed light on the pathogenesis of lentivirus infections and to evaluate potential therapeutic and preventive strategies for AIDS. -- From the NCRR Reporter, July-September 1998

New Center at UC-Davis

The University of California, Davis, opened the doors of its new Center for Comparative Medicine (CCM) on June 4, 1998. Located adjacent to the California RPRC, the new facility will integrate the research efforts of medical and veterinary scientists in combatting infectious agents that affect both humans and animals, including immunodeficiency viruses, cytomegaloviruses, papillomaviruses, and Helicobacter.

In addition, the new center will place special emphasis on research career training for professional, graduate, and postgraduate students. -- From the NCRR Reporter, July-September 1998

Update on Challenge of USDA Primate Regulations

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia concluded yesterday that Marc Jurnove, an individual plaintiff-appellee in Animal Legal Defense Fund vs. the Secretary of Agriculture and the National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) (ALDF III), has the required standing to contest the validity of U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations covering environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates (9 CFR Section 3.81). A sharply divided court wrote two opinions totaling 56 pages debating the pros and cons of the standing question. With four of the eleven judges dissenting, the majority said that Jurnove satisfied the injury, causation, and redressibility tests of constitutional standing, and also came within the zone of interests for the Animal Welfare Act (AWA).

Once standing is recognized for one plaintiff, there is no need for the court to rule on the legal status of co-litigants in order for the case to move forward. This Appeals Court opinion did not address whether the existing regulation meets Congress's mandate under the AWA, a central issue in ALDF III. The merits of ALDF's claims are to be decided by a future appeals panel. It is not yet known when the case will be heard. The full text of the ruling is available at < /opinions/199809/97-5009b.txt>. -- From an NABR announcement of September 2, 1998

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Introduction to the Primates. D. R. Swindler. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1998. 336 pp.. [Price: $22, paper]
. . . A comprehensive comparative guide to the living and fossil primates, illustrated with drawings by L. E. Curtis and numerous photographs.

* Environmental Management in Laboratory Animal Units: Basic Technology, Hygiene Methods and Practice. Gnotobiotechnique - SPF-Technique - Barrier Systems. W. O. P. Heine. Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers, 1998. 664 pp. German and English in one volume. [Price: DM 60.00 or US$36]
. . . The author sums up his practical experience from 36 years of environmental management in laboratory animal maintenance and breeding.

* Orang-Utans in Borneo. G. Kaplan & L. Rogers. Armitage, NSW, Australia: University of New England Press, 1994. [Price: $23.50 from Primate Information Center, 1101 Westlake Ave North, Seattle, WA 98109-3527]
. . . Contents include an introduction by G. Shapiro; The cultural context; Orang-utan habitat; Debates surrounding the orang-utan; Sexual behaviour and reproduction; Introducing "our" orang-utans; and A brain like humans?

* The Ape in Myth & Art. S. Zuckerman, with a foreward by The Duke of Edinburgh. London: The Zoological Society, 1998. [Price: 85 Pounds Sterling in U.K., 93.5 Pounds Sterling elsewhere]
. . . Lord Zuckerman's last manuscript has been published to commemorate his dedication to the Zoological Society of London, and as a fundraiser for the Society.

* The Ethics of Animal Experimentation. Proceedings of the European Congress held 17-18 December 1996, Brussels. O'Donoghue, P. N. (Ed.). London: European Biomedical Research Association, 1998. 274 pp. [Price: 16.00 Pounds Sterling plus 3.00 Pounds Sterling postage and packing]
. . . Includes a section on The Use of Primates in Experiments, with papers by T. Kos, G. Eder, and J. Goodall.

* Stress and Behavior. A. P. Møller, M. Milinski, & P. J. B. Slater (Eds.). Advances in the Study of Behavior (Volume 27). P. J. B. Slater, J. S. Rosenblatt, C. T. Snowdon, & M. Milinski (Eds.). Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1998. 552 pp. [Price: $99.95]
. . . Chapters include: The concept of stress and its relevance for animal behavior, by D. Von Holst; Stress and immune response, by V. Apanius; Behavioral variability and limits to evolutionary adaptation under stress, by P. A. Parsons; Developmental instability as a general measure of stress, by A. P. Møller; Stress and decision-making under the risk of predation: Recent developments from behavioral, reproductive, and ecological perspectives, by S. L. Lima; Parasitic stress and self-medication in wild animals, by G. A. Lozano; Welfare, stress, and the evolution of feelings, by D. M. Broom; and Biological conservation and stress, by H. Hofer & M. L. East.


* Women's Health: Developing Treatments and Cures Through Animal Research. Alexandria, VA: Americans for Medical Progress, 1998. [Price: $4]
. . . This booklet describes the contributions of animal research to developing treatments for several conditions, including breast and ovarian cancers, infertility, osteoporosis, arthritis and depression.


* Directory of Resources on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences (2nd revised ed.). [Free from AWIC, 10301 Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351]

* Selected Databases for Biomedical, Pharmaceutical, Veterinary and Animal Science Resources. [Free from AWIC, address above]
. . . A list of bibliographic databases, with information on the subjects covered, provider, and format.

Magazines and Newsletters

* African Primates: The Newsletter of the Africa Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1996, 2[2]. [T. M. Butynski, Zoo Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Prog., P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya]
. . . Includes: The Zanzibar red colobus monkey Procolobus kirkii: Conservation status of an endangered island endemic, by T. T. Struhsaker & K. S. Siex; Census of diurnal primates in the Gran Caldera de Luba, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, by G. W. Hearn & R. W. Berg-haier; Hamadryas baboons Papio hamadryas in Eritrea, by D. Zinner & F. Torkler; Survey of gorillas Gorilla gorilla and chimpanzees Pan troglodytes in the Réserve de Faune du Dja, Cameroun, by L. Williamson & L. Usongo; A biologist's perspective on the role of sustainable harvest in conservation, by T. T. Strusaker; Descriptions of the dwarf galago species of Tanzania, by P. E. Honess & S. Bearder; The conservation status of Pan paniscus, by A. Kortlandt; Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes nesting behaviour in Guinea and Uganda, by A. Kortlandt; and The Sanje mangabey Cercocebus galeritus sanjei, by C. Groves.

* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 1996-1997, 6[3-4]. [A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786]
. . . Includes: Present status of the golden langur in Assam, India, by R. P. Mukherjee & C. H. Southwick; A preliminary study of the Philippine tarsier in Leyte, by M. Dagosto & D. L. Gebo; New information about the distribution of Presbytis on Sumatra, by J. Vermeer; Black langur rediscovered, by T. Nadler; Preliminary survey for Hatinh langur in north central Vietnam, by N. Pham, T. Do, & V. L. Truong; The Indo-U.S. Primate Project: A summary of recent activities, by C. H. Southwick; and a cumulative index of volumes 5 and 6.

* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, Mayo 1998, 5[2]. [Área de Etología y Beinestar Animal, Depto de Veterinaria, Centro Univ. San Pablo CEU, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia,Spain]
. . . Contents include: El estudio del déficit de vitamina E y selenio en primates platirrinos, particularmente calitrícidos, en cautividad, by C. Juan-Sallés, X. Valls, A. Marco, J. Vergés, & M. Domingo.

* CCC Update, Spring/Summer 1998, 9[1]. [Community Conservation Consultants, Howlers Forever, Inc., RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]

* Gorilla Conservation News, May 1998, No. 12. [K. J. Stewart, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616]
. . . Summary of gorilla conservation progress and events across Africa in 1997.

* IPPL News, August 1998, 25[2]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes several articles from the Limbe Wildlife Centre, Cameroon.

* Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1998, 1[2].

* Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1998, 1[3].
. . . Contents include: Cage toys reduce abnormal behavior in individually housed pigtail macaques, by A. L. Kessel & L. Brent.

* Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1998, 2[1].
. . . Contents include: Use of temporary and semi-permanent enrichment objects by five chimpanzees, by C. Sanz, A. Blicher, K. Dalke, L. Gratton-Fabbri, T. McClure-Richards, & R. S. Fouts.

* Lemur News: The Newsletter of the Madagascar Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, August, 1998, 3. [B. Rakotosamimanana, Dépt de Paléontologie et d'Anthropologie Biologique, Fac. des Sciences, Univ. d'Antananarivo, B.P. 916, Antananarivo, Madagascar]
. . . Includes: Les lémuriens de la région de Bemaraha: Forêts de Tsimembo, de l'Antsingy et de la région de Tsiandro, by E. Ausilio & G. Raveloanrinoro; Preliminary report on a survey for Daubentonia madagascariensis and other primate species in the west of Madagascar, June-August 1994, by E. J. Sterling; First release of captive-bred lemurs into their natural habitat, by C. Britt, C. R. Welch, & A. S. Katz; The lemur community of Ambato Massif: An example of the species richness of Madagascar's classified forests, by I. C. Colquhoun; Predation on the eastern woolly lemur (Avahi laniger) and other vertebrates by Henst's goshawk (Accipiter henstii), by S. Goodman, L. A. R. de Roland, & R. Thorstrom; Lemurs of the Comoro archipelago: Status of Eulemur mongoz on Mohéli and Anjouan, and of Eulemur fulvus on Mayotte, by I. Tattersall; Organization de la recherche forestiére dans les zones sèches: Un cas concret dans l'ouest de Madagascar, by J.-P. Sorg; Behavior and ecology of the mongoose lemur, by D. J. Curtis & A. Zaramody; Recent discoveries of the hairy-eared dwarf lemur (Allocebus trichotis), by N. Rakotoarison; Photographic evidence of Allocebus trichotis in the Réserve Spéciale d'Anjanaharibe-Sud, by H. Schütz & S. Goodman; and Progress report on the QMM faunal studies: Lemurs in the littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, by J. U. Ganzhorn.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, June, 1998, 6[2]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]
. . . Contents include: The most enigmatic monkey in the Bolivian rain forest -- Callimico goeldii, by A. Christen; A broad-band contact call by female mantled howler monkeys: Implications for heterogeneous conditions, by C. B. Jones; Observations on reproduction and behavior of the muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, in captivity, by A. Pissinatti, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, & A. B. Rylands; Primate densities in the natural reserve of Nouragues, French Guiana, by P. Kessler; Temporal and acoustic properties of long-distance calls of the masked titi monkey, Callicebus personatus, by M. M. Martins & A. H. P. Silva; and Unusual sexual posture in a howler monkey couple, Alouatta fusca clamitans, by S. Steinmetz & M. de Souza.

* Positively Primates, 1998, 4[1]. [DuMond Conservancy, 14805 S.W. 216 St, Miami, FL 33170]
. . . Includes an article about owl monkeys by E. Fernandez-Duque.


* Primate Report, March, 1998, 50. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . . Contents: Parental division of infant-care in the pigmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea) and the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), by A. M. Queralt & J. J. Veà; Cost-benefit analysis of allogrooming behaviour in primates II, by A. Pérez & J. J. Veà; Mixed-species tamarin groups (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus) in northern Bolivia, by S. M. Hardie; Blood biochemical data in Saguinus mystax, Callithrix jacchus and Macaca fascicularis used in experiments with viral hepatitis, by V. F. Poleschuk, I. P. Titova, M. S. Balayan, A. V. Sobol, T. V. Gulyaeva, & V. P. Dokin; Are infant Callithrix jacchus being fed by their parents? by R. Hager & C. Welker; Toxoplasmosis outbreak in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), by M. Brack, P. Wohlsein, D. Minnemann, & H.-P. Brandt; Multivariate analysis of the ankle joints in five species of Chinese macaques, by F. Yu, Y. Peng, R. Pan, Y. Peng, & Z. Li; Allometric analysis of the shoulder joint in Rhinopithecus bieti and Presbytis francoisi, by F. Yu, Y. Peng, Y. Peng, & R. Pan; Preliminary report on the distribution of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in southwestern Cameroon, by A. Matthews, A. Matthews, & C. Niemitz; and The Primate Rescue Centre in Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam, by W. P. Peter, J. H. Adler, & R. Wirth.

* Primate Report, June, 1998, 51. [Address same as above]
. . . This issue is devoted to articles by C. Welker, B. Jantschke, & A. Klaiber-Schuh, under the general title, Behavioural data on the titi monkey Callicebus cupreus and the owl monkey Aotus azarae boliviensis: A contribution to the discussion on the correct systematic classification of these species.

Special Journal Issues

* Proceedings of the Symposium "Primate Conservation: A Retrospective and a Look into the 21st Century" held during the XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, August, 1996, Madison, Wisconsin. Primate Conservation: The Journal of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, No. 17, 1996/1997. [Conservation International, 1015 18th St, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036]

* Understanding and using the Internet and the World Wide Web. ILAR Journal, 1997, 38[4].
. . . Includes: Animal resources on the Web, by K. Boschert; and Internet resources in primatology, by L. Jacobsen, R. Hamel, and J. Brown.

* Animal well-being: Immune function, behavior, morphology, and psychoneuroimmunology. ILAR Journal, 1998, 39[1].
. . . Includes: Social experience and immune system measures in laboratory-housed macaques: Implications for management and research, by J. Capitanio; and Why it is important to understand animal behavior, by J. Mench.

* Japanese macaques in natural habitats: Comparative studies in Kinkazan and Yakushima. Primates, 1998, 39[3].
. . . Includes: Long-term studies on wild Japanese macaques in natural habitats at Kinkazan and Yakushima: Preface, by J. Yamagiwa, K. Izawa, & T. Maruhashi; Intraspecific variation in the social organization of Japanese macaques: Past and present scope of field studies in natural habitats, by J. Yamagiwa & D. A. Hill; Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: Comparison between Yakushima and Kinka-zan, by N. Agetsuma & N. Nakagawa; Home range structure and intergroup competition for land of Japanese macaques in evergreen and deciduous forests, by T. Maruhashi, C. Saito, & N. Agetsuma; Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), by C. Saito, S. Sato, S. Suzuki, H. Sugiura, N. Agetsuma, Y. Takahata, C. Sasaki, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, & J. Yamagiwa; Inter-annual var-iation of reproductive parameters and fruit availability in two populations of Japanese macaques, by S. Suzuki, N. Noma, & K. Izawa; Cheek-pouch dispersal of seeds by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan, by T. Yumoto, N. Noma, & T. Maruhashi; Reproduction of wild Japanese macaque females of Yakushima and Kinkazan Islands: A preliminary report, by Y. Takahata, S. Suzuki, N. Agetsuma, N. Okayasu, H. Sugiura, H. Takahashi, J. Yamagiwa, K. Izawa, T. Furuichi, D. A. Hill, T. Maruhashi, C. Saito, S. Sato, & D. S. Sprague; Male life history in natural populations of Japanese macaques: Migration, dominance rank, and troop participation in two habitats, by D. S. Sprague, S. Suzuki, H. Takahashi, & S. Sato; Comparative study of grooming relationships among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan A troop and Yakushima M troop, by H. Takahashi & T. Furuichi; and Ecological determinants of the behavior and social structure of Japanese monkeys: A synthesis, by N. Nakagawa.

* Alouatta. International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19[3].
. . . Contents: Introduction, by M. R. Clarke; Population characteristics of howlers: Ecological conditions or group history, by C. A. Chapman & S. R. Balcomb; Growth of mantled howler groups in a regenerating Costa Rican dry forest, by L. M. Fedigan, L. M. Rose, and R. M. Avila; Agonistic and affiliative relationships of adult female howlers (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica over a 4-year period, by E. L. Zucker & M. R. Clarke; Infant-nonmother interactions of free-ranging mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica, by M. R. Clarke, K. E. Glander, & E. L. Zucker; Relation of intergroup variation in allogrooming to group social structure and ectoparasite loads in red howlers (Alouatta seniculus), by M. R. Sánchez-Villagra, T. R. Pope, & V. Salas; Parasites of wild howlers (Alouatta spp.), by M. Stuart, V. Pendergast, S. Rumfelt, S. Pierberg, L. Greenspan, K. Glander, & M. Clarke; Physiological ecology of howlers (Alouatta): Energetic and digestive considerations and comparison with the Colobinae, by K. Milton; Conservation biology of the genus Alouatta, by C. M. Crockett; Effective solutions for howler conservation, by R. H. Horwich; Arboreal quadrupedism and forelimb articular anatomy of red howlers, by M. A. Schön Ybarra; Skeletal pathologies in a population of Alouatta palliata: Behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary implications, by D. DeGusta & K. Milton.

* Predation and primate social systems. Behaviour, 1998, 135[4]. C. H. Janson & C. B. Stanford (Guest Eds.).
. . . Contents: Testing the predation hypothesis for vertebrate sociality: Prospects and pitfalls, by C. H. Janson; An evaluation of the roles of predation rate and predation risk as selective pressures on primate grouping behaviour, by R. A. Hill & R. I. M. Dunbar; The role of vigilance in the survival and reproductive strategies of desert baboons, by G. Cowlishaw; The influence of group size and neighbors on vigilance in two species of arboreal monkeys, by A. Treves; Impact of predation risk on the behaviour of Propithecus diadema edwardsi in the rain forest of Madagascar, by P. C. Wright; and Predation and male bonds in primate societies, by C. B. Stanford.

* Veterinary laboratories for infectious diseases. Scientific and Technical Review, 1998, 17[2].

Anatomy & Physiology

* Normal hematological and plasma biochemical parameters of the captive bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Ramachandra, S. G., Ramesh, V., Krishnamurthy, H. N., Ravindranath, N., & Taranatha Shetty, K. (Primate Research Lab., Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India). Primates, 1998, 39, 127-134.
. . . Serum enzymes, glucose, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, bilirubin, Ca, P, N, Mg, Mn, K, and total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, PCV, ESR, and differential leukocyte count for groups of juvenile and adult bonnet monkeys of both sexes were similar to those of rhesus monkeys and humans. The value for alkaline phosphatase, however, was three- to five-fold higher.

Animal Models

* Evidence for morphine-induced galactorrhea in male cynomolgus monkeys. Malaivijitnond, S. & Varavudhi, P. (Primate Research Unit, Dept of Biology, Fac. of Science, Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok, 10330 Thailand). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1998, 27, 1-9.
. . . Morphine does not cause a long-term effect on hormonal changes, but a morphine-induced transient rise in prolactin levels accompanied by a decrease in testosterone levels can induce spontaneous galactorrhea in male cynomolgus monkeys.

* Reproductive exocrine and endocrine profiles and their seasonality in male langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus entellus). Lohiya, N. K., Sharma, R. S., Manivannan, B., & Anand Kumar, T. C. (Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302 004, India). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1998, 27, 15-20.
. . . The reproductive exocrine and endocrine profiles of male langurs are reported. None of the parameters studied showed any correlation with season, suggesting that these animals could be used as a model for research in human reproduction.

* A method for creating reversible ureteric obstruction in the primate. Evans, J. P., Candy, G. P., Veller, M. G., & Esser, J. D. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand Med. School, Dept of Urology, 7, York Rd, Parktown, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1998, 27, 44-48.
. . . A technique for establishing a state of reversible ureteric obstruction was tested in ten adult male baboons (Papio ursinus). Autopsies demonstrated patency of every previously occluded ureter.

Presence of anti-ovalbumin IgE antibody in the sera of laboratory-reared squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) fed quail eggs. Imaoka, K., Ono, F., Hamano, M., Inouye, S., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Dept of Microbiology, Nat. Inst. of Public Health, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato, Tokyo 108-8638, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1998, 47, 195-197.
. . . Examination of serum anti-ovalbumin (OVA) IgE and IgG antibodies in 95 laboratory-reared Saimiri sciureus that had been fed a boiled quail egg every day showed that 36 (38%) had specific IgE and 42 (44%) had specific IgG against OVA. These antibody titers seemed to increase with age. There was, however, no apparent correlation between the anti-OVA IgE and IgG antibody titers.

* Adaptation of the [13C]urea breath test as a noninvasive method for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). Stadtländer, C. T. K.-H. & Stutzenberger, F. J. (School of Publ. Health, Univ. of Alabama, 120 Ryals Bldg, Birmingham, AL 35294). Laboratory Animal Science, 1995, 45, 239-243.
. . . A canine anesthesia inhalation mask was modified with a volume-reducing insert allowing sufficient breath collection within 30 sec. Fourteen mg of [13C]urea per Kg of body weight was adequate for clear distinction between experimentally infected and noninfected animals. Initial infection of five squirrel monkeys resulted in increased 13CO2 in breath within three days after inoculation with H. pylori. Breath test results indicating H. pylori infection were confirmed by high [13C] concentration in blood, by urease-positive culture, modified Steiner stain reaction, and Western blot analysis. This modified [13C]urea breath test provides a rapid, reproducible, noninvasive method for screening small primates used as models for the study of gastric infection with H. pylori.

* Immunogenicity and safety of recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease in a nonhuman primate. Stadtländer, C. T. K.-H., Gangemi, J. D., Khanolkar, S. S., Kitsos, C. M., Farris, H. E., Jr., Fulton, L. K., Hill, J. E., Huntington, F. K., Lee, C. K., & Monath, T. P. (Address same as above). Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 1996, 41, 1853-1862.
. . . Groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.), predetermined to be free of Helicobacter infections in the gastric mucosa, were immunized orally with 0.5-4.5 mg of H. pylori recombinant urease (rUrease) and 25-500 g of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) adjuvant. Oral immunization with rUrease resulted in a markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response with peak levels at 45 days after immunization. No significant gastric inflammation or cytotoxicity was evident in rUrease-immunized monkeys as determined by light and electron microscopy. Twenty-five micrograms of LT was a sufficient and safe adjuvant dosage, whereas higher dosages resulted in diarrhea and lethargy. Animals developed a serum IgG antibody response to LT that did not impede the production of anti-rUrease antibody levels. These results indicate that rUrease is immunogenic in a nonhuman primate.

* Experimentally induced infection with Helicobacter pylori in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.): Clinical, microbiological, and histopathologic findings. Stadtländer, C. T. K.-H., Gangemi, J. D., Stutzenberger, F. J., Lawson, J. W., Lawson, B. R., Khanolkar, S. S., Elliott-Raynor, K. E., Farris, H. E., Jr., Fulton, L. K., Hill, J. E., Huntington, F. K., Lee, C. K., & Monath, T. P. (Address same as above). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 303-309.
. . . Results of this study indicate that squirrel monkeys can be infected with H. pylori, but infection is transient, and only one of five monkeys developed moderate lymphocytic gastritis. Several diagnostic tools were necessary to confirm infection. In addition, preexisting minimal to mild gastritis complicated evaluation of gastritis induced by infection with H. pylori. On the basis of these observations, the squirrel monkey is not as useful for the study of experimentally induced gastritis as was expected, but is useful for evaluation of immune responses against H. pylori vaccine candidates, as well as the conduct of vaccine safety trials.

* Helicobacter pylori in liquid culture: Evaluation of growth rates and ultrastructure. Kitsos, C. M. & Stadtländer, C. T. K.-H. (C. T. K.-H. S., Address same as above). Current Microbiology, 1998, 37, 88-93.
. . . An investigation of the growth of H. pylori in Brucella broth supplemented with either IsoVitaleX, hemin, agar, or blood agar blocks. IsoVitaleX can stimulate growth by shortening the lag phase while hemin has a stimulating effect on growth during the log phase. The incubation of liquid cultures on rotary shaker platforms at 120 rpm was found to enhance growth of H. pylori. The addition of fetal bovine serum and glycerol can minimize both loss in viability and structural damage of cells after long-term storage as well as after multiple thawing.

* Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees by hyperimmune serum against the hypervariable region 1 of the envelope 2 protein. Farci, P., Shimoda, A., Wong, D., Cabezon, T., De Gioannis, D., Strazzera, A., Shimizu, Y., Shapiro, M., Alter, H. J., & Purcell, R. H. (Hepatitis Viruses Sect., Lab. of Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 7, Rm 200, 7 Center Dr., MSC 0740, Bethesda, MD 20892-0740). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1996, 93, 15394-15399.
. . . Identification of the neutralization domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is essential for development of an effective vaccine. It is shown that the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the envelope 2 (E2) protein is a critical neutralization domain of HCV. Neutralization of HCV in vitro was attempted with a rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against a homologous synthetic peptide derived from the HVR1 of the E2 protein, and the residual infectivity was evaluated by inoculation into HCV-seronegative chimpanzees. The source of HCV was plasma obtained from a patient (H) during the acute phase of post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis, which had been titered for infectivity in chimpanzees. The anti-VR1 antiserum induced protection against homologous HCV infection in chimpanzees, but not against the emergence of neutralization-escape mutants that were found to be already present in the complex viral quasispecies of the inoculum. The finding that HVR1 can elicit protective immunity opens new perspectives for the development of effective preventive strategies. However, the identification of the most variable region of HCV as a critical neutralization domain poses a major challenge for the development of a broadly reactive vaccine against HCV.

* Mechanisms of reorganization in sensory systems of primates after peripheral nerve injury. Kaas, J. H. & Florence, S. L. (Dept of Psychology, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN 37240). In H.-J. Freund, B. A. Sabel, & O. W. Witte (Eds.), Brain Plasticity, Advances in Neurology, Vol. 73 (pp. 147-158).Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997.
. . . A review of an extensive collection of experiments on the central effects of sensory perturbations where changes take place in the central nervous system.

* Preclinical evaluation of group B Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli K92 capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Devi, S. J. N., Zollinger, W. D., Snoy, P. J., Tai, J. Y., Costantini, P., Norelli, F., Rappuoli, R., & Frasch, C. E. (C. E. F., Div. of Bacterial Prod., HFM 428, Office of Vaccine Research & Review, CBER, FDA, 1401 Rockville Pk, Rockville, MD 20852-1448). Infection and Immunity, 1997, 65, 1045-1052.
. . . Three different group B Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (B PS)-protein conjugate vaccines and an Escherichia coli K92 capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (K92-TT) conjugate vaccine are here evaluated for safety and relative immunogenicities in juvenile rhesus monkeys with or without adjuvants. Monkeys were immunized intramuscularly with either B PS-cross-reactive material 1997 conjugate, B PS-outer membrane vesicle (B-OMV) conjugate, or N-propionylated B PS-outer membrane protein 3 (N-pr. B-OMP3) conjugate vaccine. A control group received one injection of the purified B PS alone, and another group received injections of B PS noncovalently complexed with OMV. Antibody responses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay varied among individual monkeys. All vaccines except B PS and the K92-TT conjugate elicited a twofold or greater increase in total B PS antibodies after one immunization. All vaccines, including the K92-TT conjugate, elicited a rise in geometric mean B PS antibody levels of ninefold or more over the preimmune levels following the third immunization. Antibodies elicited by N-pr. B-OMP3 and B-OMV conjugates were directed to the N-propionylated or to the spacer-containing B PS antigens as well as to the native B PS complexed with methylated human serum albumin. None of the vaccines caused discernible safety-related symptoms.

* The Philippine cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) provides a new nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis that resembles human disease. Walsh, G. P., Tan, E. V., Dela Cruz, E. C., Abalos, R. M., Villahermosa, L. G., Young, L. J., Cellona, R. V., Nazareno, J. B., & Horwitz, M. A. (M. A. H., Dept of Med., CHC 37-121, UCLA School of Med., 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095). Nature Medicine, 1996, 2, 430-436.
. . . Macaca fascicularis challenged intratracheally with extremely high doses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (105 or 104 CFU) developed an acute, rapidly progressive, highly fatal multilobar pneumonia. However, monkeys challenged with moderate or low doses of M. tuberculosis (103 CFU) developed a chronic, slowly progressive, localized form of pulmonary TB, akin to the disease in humans, that was frequently accompanied by such clinical syndromes as ocular tuberculosis, meningitis, and tuberculous spondylitis. A significant proportion of monkeys challenged with 102 of 101 CFU contained the infection in a subclinical state. This monkey is an excellent model of chronic TB and provides an opportunity to study subclinical and potentially latent disease in an animal model.


* Comprehension skills of language-competent and nonlanguage-competent apes. Williams, S. L. (Language Res. Ctr, GSU, Atlanta, GA 30303). Language and Communication, 1998, 17, 301-317.

* Cohort size and the allocation of social effort by female mountain baboons. Henzi, S. P., Lycett, J. E., & Weingrill, T. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Natal, King George V Ave, Durban 4001, South Africa). Animal Behaviour, 1997, 54, 1235-1243.
. . . A comparison of grooming interactions of adult females from four troops in the Drakensberg Mountains. Mean female grooming clique size reached an asymptote at 7.4 females, so that females in cohorts of eight or more no longer attempted to groom all other females, and mean grooming bout length declined as the cohort grew to 7.9 females and then increased again. When the demands of grooming all other females reduce bout length to a point when no reciprocated bouts are possible, female clique size is capped. As a troop continues to grow, the mechanical difficulties involved in gaining access to grooming partners leads to a reduction in the diversity of grooming relationships. This weakening of the total female network, as cliques become more differentiated, is likely to facilitate fission.


* Cage toys reduce abnormal behavior in individually housed pigtail macaques. Kessel, A. L. & Brent, L. (L. B., Dept of Lab. Animal Med., Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245-0145). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1998, 1, 227-234.
. . . Five individually housed pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were provided with multiple cage toys in an effort to reduce high levels of abnormal behavior. Ten 30-min observations of each subject were conducted before, and again after, novel toys were presented, both loose inside the cage and attached to the outside of the cage. The new toys were used during 27% of the observation time. Kong Toys were used most consistently during the 5-week observation period. Significant decreases in abnormal behavior and cage-directed behavior, as well as significantly increased enrichment use, were evident after the toys were added. Several of the toys were destroyed quickly, and individual differences were evident in levels of enrichment use and abnormal behavior.

* Secnidazole vs. paromomycin: Comparative antiprotozoan treatment in captive primates. Gracenea, M., Gómez, M. S., Fernández, J., Feliu, C. (Lab. de Parasitología, Fac. de Farmacia, Univ. de Barcelona, Agda. Diagonal, s/n, 08028, Barcelona, Spain). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1998, 27, 38-43.
. . . The antiprotozoan activity of secnidazole was studied in Cercocebus t. torquatus, Cercopithecus campbelli, Erythrocebus patas, and Gorilla gorilla, compared with that of paromomycin in Cercocebus t. lunulatus, E. Patas, and G. gorilla, by coprological analysis. The antiprotozoan activity of both drugs depended on the parasite species and the host species. The drugs acted in a similar way on Entamoeba coli parasitizing C. t. torquatus and E. patas. This activity was different from that observed on I. buestchlii from the same host species. E. coli parasitizing cercopithecids and pongids responded to drugs differently.

Development and Aging

* Estimation of gestational ages in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) from published prenatal growth curves. Tardif, S. D., Jaquish, C. E., Toal, R. L., Layne, D. G., & Power, R. A. (Dept of Biological Sciences, Kent State Univ., Cunningham Hall, Kent, OH 44242-0001). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1998, 27, 28-32.
. . . Estimated gestational ages from published curves were compared to gestational ages estimated retrospectively from delivery dates in 28 pregnancies from 10 marmosets. Both crown-rump length (CRL)- and biparietal distance (BPD)-based estimates were closely correlated with delivery-based estimates. Combined CRL- and BPD-based estimates on poor outcome pregnancies suggest that there was less growth in BPD in late gestation for those pregnancies that resulted in nonviable offspring.

* Growth variation in common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) fed a purified diet: Relation to care-giving and weaning behaviors. Tardif, S., Jaquish, C., Layne, D., Bales, K., Power, M., Power, R., & Oftedal, O. (Address same as above). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 264-269.
. . . Significant relations were observed between select infant-care and weaning behaviors and growth in body weight in Callithrix jacchus. The patterns of these relations suggest that earlier occurrence of developmental milestones, such as cessation of transport (being off carriers) and weaning to solid food, were associated with slower growth during the subsequent period. In contrast, more frequent nursing bouts during the period in which weaning was initiated were associated with higher growth rates. In the case of being off carriers, these effects did not carry over to older ages, suggesting that any deficits in growth were temporary. In the case of earlier, more frequent consumption of solid food, there was some suggestion that there were longer-term effects, followed by catch-up growth. There was no relation between early weaning to sold food and leanness at day 75, suggesting that, although this behavior was affecting overall weight, it did not affect relative gains of fat versus lean mass. There were, however, significant correlations between cessation of transport or frequency of nursing bouts during the weaning period and leanness, with earlier cessation of transport and less frequent nursing associated with leaner infants, after weaning.

* Age-related changes in major lymphocyte subsets in cynomolgus monkeys. Nam, K.-H., Akari, H., Terao, K., Itagaki, S., & Yoshikawa, Y. (K. T., Tsukuba Primate Ctr, NIID, 1 Hachimandai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0843, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1998, 47, 159-166.
. . . Age-related changes in major lymphocyte subsets were analyzed in 195 Macaca fascicularis aged from one month to 31 years. The percentages of CD20+ B cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) decreased with age to five years of age, but after that no significant change was observed. Percentages of CD16+ NK cells gradually increased during the first five years, peaking at 4-10 years, while the percentages of CD3+ T cells in PBL were relatively constant throughout life. Other results indicated that the age-related changes in percentages of major lymphocyte subsets as well as in phenotypes of T cells might be related to the maturation of the immune system, including an increase in memory cells, in cynomolgus monkeys.

* Development of the hand and wrist bones in chimpanzees. Hamada, Y., Udono, T., Teramoto, M., & Hayasaka, I. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan). Primates, 1998, 39, 157-169.
. . . A total of 207 radiographs from 65 chimpanzees were analyzed. A development pattern repeated accelerations and decelerations displaying "early-juvenile trough," "pre-adolescent peak," "mid-adolescent trough," and "post-adolescent peak" in incremental curves. Males develop more slowly during infant and early juvenile phases, while females are fully mature at younger ages than males.


* Wild Primate Populations in Emerging Infectious Disease Research: The Missing Link? N. D. Wolfe, A. A. Escalante, W. B. Karesh, A. Kilbourn, A. Spielman, & A. A. Lal (A. A. L., CDC, Mail Stop F12, 4770 Buford Hwy, Chamblee, GA 30341). Emerging Infectious Diseases, April-June 1998, 4[2].
. . . Wild primate populations, an unexplored source of information regarding emerging infectious disease, may hold valuable clues to the origins and evolution of some important pathogens. Primates can act as reservoirs for human pathogens. As members of biologically diverse habitats, they serve as sentinels for surveillance of emerging pathogens and provide models for basic research on natural transmission dynamics. Since emerging infectious diseases also pose serious threats to endangered and threatened primate species, studies of these diseases in primate populations can benefit conservation efforts and may provide the missing link between laboratory studies and the well-recognized needs of early disease detection, identification, and surveillance.

* Clinical disease associated with simian agent 8 infection in the baboon. Martino, M. A., Hubbard, G. B., Butler, T. M., & Hilliard, J. K. (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX 78245-0145). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 18-22.
. . . Simian agent 8, first reported as a spontaneous natural infection in a captive baboon colony in 1988, is an economically important disease entity in captive baboons because it causes severe morbidity, decreased reproductive performance, and ultimately death.

* Seroprevalence of specific viral infections in confiscated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Warren, K. S., Niphuis, H., Heriyanto, Verschoor, E. J., Swan, R. A., Heeney, J. L. (J. L. H., Dept of Virology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Lange Kleiweg 157, 2288 GJ Rijswijk, Netherlands). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1998, 27, 33-37.
. . . Antibodies specific for human hepatitis A and B, herpes simplex viruses, and human T-lymphotropic virus, as well as for the simian type D retroviruses and simian immunodeficiency virus, were tested in samples from 143 confiscated orangutans. Results revealed a high prevalence of potential pathogens, confirming the importance of quarantine and the need for diagnostic differentiation of virus infections to determine if they are of human origin or unique orangutan viruses.

* Prevalence of herpes B virus antibody in nonhuman primates reared at the National University of Japan. Sato, H., Arikawa, J., Furuya, M., Kitoh, J., Mannen, K., Nishimune, Y., Ohsawa, K., Serikawa, T., Shibahara, T., Watanabe, Y., Yagami, K., Yamamoto, H., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Nagasaki Univ. School of Med., 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan). Experimental Animals, 1998, 47, 199-202.
. . . A serological investigation by enzyme immuno assay test for herpes B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) was performed on sera of 961 healthy nonhuman primates reared in laboratory animal facilities which belong to the Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of the National University of Japan. An antibody prevalence of 40% (384/961) was demonstrated. The antibody titer was higher among macaques (60% of Macaca fascicularis, 53% of M. mulatta, and 34% of M. fuscata) than among non-macaque species (21%). These data indicate that nonhuman primates reared in animal facilities may present an occupational health problem and a potential zoonotic biohazard as demonstrated in limited cases in the United States.

* Shigella infection in macaque colonies: Case report of an eradication and control program. Wolfensohn, S. (Dept of Vet. Services, Univ. of Oxford, Oxford, UK). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 330-333.
. . . A primate colony comprising three distinct but interrelated units had long-term history of undiagnosed diarrhea and associated deaths for many years. In 1989, the clinical problem was recognized as a confounding factor for the experimental work, and steps were taken to eradicate the disease. This was done by a combined approach involving improved sample collection techniques and microbiological methods, treatment of all animals in the colony, and improvement in management. These management changes included alterations in basic facility and cage design, disinfection procedures, and continuous routine microbiological sampling of all groups of animals on a random basis, as well as sampling those suspected to be at risk for stress-associated Shigella sheding. Using this approach, we have eliminated clinical cases of shigellosis and have not had any further isolations of Shigella.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* Tarsier brain component composition and its implications for systematics. Joffe, T. H. & Dunbar, R. I. M. (Dept of Anthropology, George Washington Univ., 2110 G St NW, Washington, DC 20052). Primates, 1998, 39, 211-216.
. . . Recent molecular and anatomical studies have shown that tarsiers share a number of derived traits with anthropoids. These include aspects of their reproductive biology and aspects of their olfactory and visual systems. It has therefore been suggested that, despite a number of convergences with strepsirhine primates, tarsiers should be classified with the anthropoid primates. Comparative analyses of relative primate brain part volumes are used to determine whether Tarsius should be classified as a haplorhine. For each of seven brain components whose relative size discriminates unequivocally between strepsirhines and haplorhines, the tarsiers fall in the haplorhine distribution, confirming their classification with the haplorhines.

Instruments & Techniques

* Use of microsatellite polymorphisms for paternity exclusion in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Kanthaswamy, S. & Smith, D. G. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616). Primates, 1998, 39, 135-145.
. . . A total of 224 infant rhesus macaques and their dams and potential sires in 11 multimale groups in two different specific pathogen-free breeding colonies were screened for up to six different microsatellite polymorphisms using cross-species PCR amplification. Observed and expected success of paternity exclusion analysis (PEA, based on gene frequencies of sires and dams in each colony) were computed by individual locus and cumulatively. Greater or less success of PEA than expected was observed at most loci due to the nonrandom distribution of genotypes between sires and dams and among breeding groups at each colony and because genotypes at different loci did not provide completely independent information about parentage. The combined success of PEA using all loci, however, was slightly greater than predicted both with and without assuming knowledge of one parent's (i.e. the dam's) genotype, and was far greater than that based on protein coding loci or DNA-restriction fragment-length polymorphisms.

* Paternity determination in captive lowland gorillas and orangutans and wild mountain gorillas by microsatellite analysis. Field, D., Chemnick, L., Robbins, M., Garner, K., & Ryder, O. (Center for Reproduction of Endangererd Species, Zool. Soc. San Diego, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551). Primates, 1998, 39, 199-209.
. . . This study used eight human nuclear microsatellite loci, in the absence of species-specific PCR primers, to genetically identify the sires of 12 captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and 2 captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and P. p. abelii). Parentage assignments were confirmed by excluding all except a single potential sire for each offspring with at least two loci. Additionally, five of the eight microsatellite loci, in conjunction with behavioral data, were used for a nonexhaustive set of paternity exclusions for five wild mountain gorillas (G. g. beringei). The eight loci described in this study should be useful additions to the tools available for the study of genetics in the great apes.

* Rapid diagnosis of simian varicella using the polymerase chain reaction. Gray, W. L., Williams, R. J., &Soike, K. F. (Dept of Microbiology & Immunology, Slot 511, Wuniv. of Arkansas for Med. Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St, Little Rock, AR 72205). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 45-49.
. . . Simian varicella virus (SVV) causes sporadic epizootics of a varicella-like disease in nonhuman jprimates. Rapid diagnosis of simian varicella is critical in controlling epizootics. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay for detection of SVV DNA in cell culture and clinical samples from SVV-infected monkeys was developed. The assay is rapid, specific, and highly sensitive. The SVV DNA is readily detected in skin rash specimens and in peripheral blood lymphocytes of infected monkeys during the early stages of clinical varicella. In addition to providing an important diagnostic tool, the SVV PRC assay is also useful for investigating the epidemiology and pathogenesis of simian varicella.


* A chronic, low-dose regimen of the antiprogestin ZK 137 316 prevents pregnancy in rhesus monkeys. Zelinski-Wooten, M. B., Chwalisz, K., Iliff, S. A., Niemeyer, C. L., Eaton, G. G., Loriaux, D. L., Slayden, O. D., Brenner, R. M., & Stouffer, R. L. (Oregon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006) Human Reproduction, 1998, 13, 2132-2138.
. . . Continual administration of low doses of the antiprogestin ZK 137 316 was previously reported to permit ovarian/menstrual cyclicity, but also to disrupt endo-metrial growth in macaques. The contraceptive efficacy of this regimen was tested in female rhesus monkeys (10 per group) treated daily with vehicle (controls), 0.01 or 0.03 mg ZK 137 316 per kg body weight for 30 days before and during continual cohabitation with males of proven fertility. Treatment continued until confirmation of pregnancy or for five months after pair-housing with males. Mating and vaginal sperm were evident in all females. A cumulative pregnancy rate of 90% (9/10) was observed in the controls. Of the 10 animals receiving 0.01 mg/kg, four conceived during the first two months of pairing (P = 0.06) with no further conceptions. No pregnancies were observed in the 0.03 mg/kg group (P < 0.01). Timely, overt menses occurred at a higher frequency in the 0.01 mg/kg group than the 0.03 mg/kg group. However, corpora lutea were present in ovaries from both groups during the last treatment cycle, indicating that ovarian cycles occurred. Thus, chronic administration of low-dose ZK 137 315, which permits continued ovarian cyclicity and a high incidence of timely menses, also prevents pregnancy in nonhuman primates. This regimen may provide a novel method of contraception for women.


In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by the Primate Information Center, UW RPRC Westlake Facility, 1101 Westlake Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109-3527. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. We would also like to acknowledge Primate-Talk as a source for information about new books.


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Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) by Anne M. Richardson

Copyright (c) 1998 by Brown University

Copy Editor: Elva Mathiesen

Last updated: September 19, 1998