Laboratory Primate Newsletter

VOLUME 38 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 1999

CONTENTS

Articles and Notes

The Earthwatch Institute: Bringing Science to the Public and the Public to Science, by L. E. Miller...... 1

Pair-Housing Overcomes Self-Biting Behavior in Macaques, by V. Reinhardt...... 4

Addendum to "History and Development of the Institute of Medical Primatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences," by B. Lapin...... 7

A Review of Hand Preferences in Nonhuman Primates: Some Data from Patas Monkeys, by J. A. Teichroeb...... 10

Behavioral Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates, by L. Cocks, C. Baker, G. Harris, & F. Butcher...... 14

News, Information, and Announcements

Announcements from Publications...... 3
...Journal of Medical Primatology; Global Biodiversity; Animal Welfare;
Pioneer Online Commentary

Travelers' Health Notes...... 5
...Reminder - IAMAT; Global Infectious Surveillance; African Tick-Bite Fever in International Travelers; Bovine TB in South African Wildlife; Trypanosomiasis in Angola; Cholera in Kenya under Control; Diarrheal Disease in Nepal; Dengue Fever in Vietnam; Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania

Resources Wanted and Available...... 9
..."18q- Syndrome"; NIH Establishes Malaria Reagent Repository; Primagam®, a Test for Tuberculosis in Primates; The Scent of a Bushbaby

Awards Granted...... 15
...Martha J. Galante Award - IPS; Veterinary Society Honors Whitehair; Bayne Honored by AALAS; $35 Million for Biodiversity Research

Primates de las Américas...La Página...... 16

Grants Available...... 17
...NIH Grants Policy Statement; NSF Support for Undergraduate Mentoring; Research on Skeletal Growth and Development; NEI Scholars Program; Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award; Bioengineering Research Grants; Small Grant Program for the NIAMS; ACLAM Grants Available

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 21
...Orangutan and Rain Forest Research; MSc in Wild Animal Health; Fyssen Foundation 1998-1999 Fellowships; Summer Course in Animal Behavior; Biology of Aging Scholarships; Animal Behavior at Indiana University; Graduate Studies in Animal Welfare, BC, Canada; AFAR Scholarships in the Biology of Aging

Volunteer Opportunity: Primate Care Volunteer, Texas...... 22

Award Nominations: Fyssen Foundation 1999 International Prize...... 24

Meeting Announcements...... 25

Information Requested and Available...... 26
...New Nonhuman Primate Well-being Report; Environmental Enrichment Database; Primate-Science; Askprimate Lives! More New E-mail Lists; Symposium on Biotelemetry; Looking for a Particular Book? CRISP on the World Wide Web; Species.net; Free Web Directory to Printed Periodicals; Grantmakers Electronic Proposal Processing System; Internet2 Albilene Project; Centerline on the Web; USDA Readies Annual Reports for Internet; Quote Without Comment; ASKNIH Becomes GrantsInfo; New Resources from APS; More Interesting Web Sites

Primatology Textbooks...... 29

News Briefs...... 30
...Yerkes/Emory Settle OSHA Case; Caribbean Center Hurricane Appeal; Antique Prints in NYC; Officers of the IPS; New Members, Officers for AAALAC-International; Tropical Disease Research; Bonobo Birth at Apenheul; Emerging Infectious Diseases: U.S.; Animal Rights Crusader Henry Spira Dies; ISAR Founder Helen Jones Dies; Arrests at Oregon RPRC

Update on Daddy Clyde...... 32

Top 14 Rules of the Laboratory...... 32

Departments

Address Changes...... 22

Positions Available...... 23
...Head, Division of Veterinary Science, Louisiana; Research Assistant, New York City; Editor: Laboratory Animal Science; Chimpanzee Caregiver, Ghana; Facility Manager, Texas; Department Chair in Biological Sciences, Ohio

Recent Books and Articles...... 33

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The Earthwatch Institute: Bringing Science to the Public and the Public to Science

Lynne E. Miller
Department of Anthropology, University of California at San Diego

This article is a little different from what you normally find in the LPN. It isn't about research findings and it doesn't come from a lab scientist. I study behavioral ecology among capuchin monkeys at a field site in Venezuela (Hato Pinero). What I want to share here is my experience working with Earthwatch. The Earthwatch Institute is a nonprofit organization that recruits paying volunteers to participate in research. The program provides funding and person-power to scientists, and it gives Earthwatch volunteers a marvelous experience that they cannot get from ordinary ecotourism. In 1995, I hosted 11 teams of Earthwatchers, totaling 45 diverse and inspiring people. Conducting an Earthwatch expedition is not for everyone, nor will it be successful for all types of projects. It is hard work and provides only a minimal budget. However, Earthwatch gave me a chance to do two of the things I love best: field research and teaching. It also allowed me to meet and work with some extraordinary and dedicated volunteers.

Some of you have never heard of Earthwatch; others have only a vague idea of what it's about. Earthwatch's mission is to promote science by bringing researchers and laypersons together. Principal investigators (PIs) gain the opportunity to conduct field studies, thanks to the funding and field assistance Earthwatch provides. Earthwatch volunteers get the chance to participate in the type of project that they would normally only see on television or read about in Discover magazine. And science as a whole benefits because the public, one person at a time, gains a better understanding of and appreciation for field research. In this way, Earthwatch gives not only short-term financial support for field costs, but also long-term public support for the sciences.

Since its inception in 1972, Earthwatch has recruited more than 50,000 volunteers to participate in about 1000 research projects in some 120 different countries. The typical Earthwatch team is in the field for two weeks, and so an Earthwatch PI may host several teams of volunteers in the course of a field season. Projects cover diverse areas, such as archaeology and paleontology (e.g., Dinosaur Footprints, Search for the Neanderthals, Empires of Ancient Morocco, Hopi Ancestors), human health and cultural resources (Community Health in Cameroon, Guatemala's Craft Markets, Indonesian Sun Cooking), and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems (Orchids and Bees of Brazil; Whales of South Africa; Rocky Mountain Wild Flowers; Saving Borneo's Rainforest, with Dr. Carey Yeager; Golden Bamboo Lemurs, with Dr. Patricia Wright). Clearly some types of projects make good use of Earthwatch volunteers and others simply cannot. Successful Earthwatch projects are those that truly incorporate the volunteers into the daily process of the research, from data collection to data processing to maintenance of the field site. For this reason, archaeological projects have been popular, as unskilled field assistants can be quickly trained and make valuable contributions to excavation. Laboratory studies that require extensive training might be less appropriate for the use of Earthwatchers. And of course, projects will be popular among volunteers if they offer exotic destinations, unique cultural settings, and comfortable accommodations.

There is no such thing as a "typical" Earthwatch volunteer. They come from many different countries (though most are from the United States and Western Europe). They span all age groups (though they must be at least 16 years of age and in good physical condition). They come from different professions and educational backgrounds (many are educators or skilled professionals). They bring all types of life experiences and special abilities. The only thing they share is a truly exceptional commitment to helping with the project.

The nuts and bolts of Earthwatch are fairly straightforward. The PI receives $500 to $900 per volunteer. This per capita grant must cover all of the volunteers' expenses while working on the project, including accommodations, food, local transportation, equipment, and anything else that comes along. The volunteers bring only their field clothing, lots of mosquito repellent, and a tremendous level of enthusiasm.

Any money left after the volunteers' expenses are covered goes into the PI's field budget, and so, the more volunteers, the bigger the budget. The PI is limited, however, in how many people the project can handle. Certain types of studies (such as archaeological excavations) can make use of a dozen or more workers at a time. In contrast, studies of animals in their natural habitats may limit team sizes to minimize disturbance.

Another limitation on the working budget is the number of teams a project can accept. This is determined primarily by the PI's free time and energy. Running Earthwatch isn't easy. A PI wears a lot of hats: scientist, teacher, coordinator, tour guide, doctor, friend, arbitrator, and shoulder-to-cry-on. It is a challenge to organize activities so that volunteers are genuinely useful and make a tangible contribution to the project. It drains the PI's energy to train a new team every two weeks or so. It is also difficult to make sure that the volunteers are having a good time. Much of science (as you all know) is drudgery. This is fine for those of us who are dedicated to what we do, but it can be tedious for a paying volunteer. Successful projects allow volunteers to rotate their activities, and break up long weeks of work with sight-seeing expeditions or field trips to the local town. And of course, there are all the tricky logistics of running a field study, multiplied by the number of volunteers, as you coordinate moving teams around a developing country, providing adequate room and board, and making sure that everyone gets along reasonably well. Add to this the usual unexpected circumstances - like the volunteer who misses her flight, or the eager trail-cutter who slashes his leg open with a machete, or the father and daughter who just aren't getting along right now - and you can understand why most PIs take long breaks between teams.

But it's all worth it. My own experience with Earthwatch began in 1993 when I was approached by a program representative at the American Society of Primatologists' meeting in Sturbridge. She had heard about my research, thought that it might make a good project, and invited me to submit a proposal. I had been home from the field for about two years at that time and was ready to tackle another long season, and so I wrote up a lengthy description of my research objectives and methods, the working and living conditions, and how I could incorporate Earthwatch volunteers into the study. The proposal was reviewed for its scientific value, its overall significance, and, of course, its marketability. Projects that involve monkeys are usually popular, and mine had the added advantage of comfortable housing for the volunteers. I tried to underplay the mud and mosquitoes. The project was approved.

The volunteers who joined my project in 1995 made a considerable contribution to my research. On the most crass and basic level, their financial support made it possible for me to be in the field for that year. But they did so much more. After just a couple of days of training, they were splitting up into small teams to help me locate monkey troops. As you can imagine, this was far more efficient than my walking trails all alone. Once we made contact with the subjects, Earthwatchers quickly learned to recognize the different age-sex classes, at which point they began to collect simple behavioral data. When monkeys weren't to be found, my assistants collected phenological data, measuring trees and counting fruits. They also helped out with site maintenance by swinging machetes and tagging trails. And of course, they added to my field season in many intangible ways.

There are three volunteers I remember especially well. Devon was just 16 and it was her first time away from home and family. She was tremendously homesick and spent many hours hiding her tears behind a curtain of long, blond hair. And yet, despite her angst, she was the motivating factor of that group. She and her three teammates came during the height of the wet season, when the forest was flooded and full of mosquitoes. Tracking the monkeys was hard work when the rain came pouring down and the trails were a foot deep in cloying mud. But Devon never let us give up. When a storm rolled in, I would quietly suggest that we could call it a day and head back to camp, but Devon would brightly say, "No way! Let's follow the monkeys!" Who could throw in the towel in the face of such cheerful enthusiasm?

In contrast to teenaged Devon, Neal was 86 when he came to work with me. He had been a career army man and had spent the past couple of decades joining many Earthwatch projects all over the world. At every meal, he held us spellbound with tales of his long and exciting life. Out in the forest, he moved a little more slowly than other volunteers, but he enthusiastically carried a machete and hacked at vegetation as he went along. A good PI is flexible, working with each volunteer's strengths and weaknesses. In return, you get these really inspirational examples of what people can do if they want to.

Suzi was entering her "middle years." She worked as a development administrator at a small, private school, and clearly she had never done anything like this in her whole life. I'm not sure if she had ever even been camping before. She, too, came during the rainy season, and walking the slippery trails was tough going. One day, toward the end of her two weeks with me, we decided we would work on clearing out some new trails. Breaking new ground is really different from maintaining old tracks; it is a huge amount of work, and it wasn't made any easier by the forest conditions. However, Suzi latched onto Seth, an eager high school student, and they set off into the forest to cut a small stretch that would bring them out onto the road. I went off to do something else but returned at about the time I thought they might be done. I sat on the hood of my truck for about a half an hour, listening to the sounds of their machetes whacking at the heavy foliage. Finally they broke out of the forest and into the clear. Suzi was a mess. She was covered with mud from head to foot. Her hair was disheveled, her clothes were torn, and I knew that her hands were raw with blisters. But on her face was this beaming smile and a look of absolute triumph. "Yes!" she shouted as she hiked out onto the road, machete raised over her head like a flag "We did it!" Earthwatch gives volunteers a chance to push themselves in ways they never imagined.

In conclusion, Earthwatch turned out to be a terrific challenge but an unexpectedly rewarding experience. Thanks to Earthwatch, I got to be in the field for another year, and thanks to my volunteers, I collected far more data than I could have gathered on my own. At the same time, I got to share my life in the field, my love of my research, and a sense of what science is all about. And finally, I got to meet these amazing people who made me laugh and kept reminding me of how exciting my work could be. I still keep in touch with many of these friends and I look forward to seeing them in 1999 as I return to Venezuela for another year of research with Earthwatch. 

The Earthwatch Institute is always interested in hearing from scientists about new projects. For information about submitting a proposal, call them (800-776-0188) or check <www.earthwatch.org>.

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Author's address: 130 East Hawthorne Dr., Ontario, CA 91764 [e-mail: CebusLEM@aol.com].

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Announcements from Publications

Journal of Medical Primatology

The Journal of Medical Primatology covers such research areas as veterinary care, husbandry, experimental methodology, morphology, physiology, reproductive biology, cardiovascular diseases, neurology, molecular biology, genetics, nutrition, wildlife management, behavior and sociology as related to medical conditions, and captive primate needs. In addition, subjects on infectious diseases have always played an important role in the journal, especially since 1989, when the first of the now yearly issues on nonhuman primate models for AIDS was published. Since 1996, the Editor-in-Chief has been Prof. Dr. Jorg W. Eichberg, Rijswik, The Netherlands [e-mail: eichberg@bprc.nl]. The founding editors are E. I. Goldsmith and J. Moor-Jankowski. One volume of six issues is published annually, including one special issue. For subscriptions: Munksgaard International Publishers Ltd., 35 Norre Sogade, P.O. Box 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K., Denmark [fax: +45 33 12 93 87; e-mail: fsub@mail.munksgaard.dk]; or Regional Office for North America, Munksgaard International Publishers Ltd., Commerce Pl., 350 Main St, Malden, MA 02148-0518 [fax: 617-388-8274]. - From Neotropical Primates, 1998, 6[3]

Global Biodiversity

Global Biodiversity is a quarterly magazine published by the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, dedicated to all aspects of biological diversity research and conservation. Besides regular articles, it includes updates and news on biodiversity policy, biosafety, meetings, and conservation. Two theme issues have been produced, one on Ecoforestry (1997), and another on Ecoagriculture (1998). For more information, write to Global Biodiversity, Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Station D, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6P4, Canada [888-437-6287; fax: 613-566-4673; e-mail: sswan@mus-nature.ca; or see: <www.nature.ca/english/gbzine.htm>]. - From Neotropical Primates, 1998, 6[3].

Animal Welfare

Animal Welfare is a quarterly journal published by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), UK. It has established itself as an international forum for quarterly publication of peer-reviewed papers on all aspects of farm, laboratory, zoo, wild, and companion animal welfare science, from practical husbandry to ethical debates. The range of subjects covered by Animal Welfare is constantly expanding and changing in response to new legislation, discoveries, and technologies, and growing interest in the field.

Subscriptions are accepted by (four-issue) volume at the following (1999) rates: UFAW members: 40/U.S.$80 for individuals; 50/U.S.$100 for corporate/insti-tutes/libraries; Non-members: 50/U.S.$100 and 70/ U.S.$140.

Animal Welfare welcomes submissions of * original papers (reporting the author[s] own studies) * review papers; * short communications (of less than 2000 words); * technical contributions (reports on practical methods for assessing or improving animal welfare); and * letters (on topical welfare issues). The journal will not include any papers based on work which causes unnecessary pain, distress, suffering, or lasting harm. It also publishes book, video, and CD-ROM reviews; reports and comments; a books received list; and an annual index.

For information about membership or the journal, or for a detailed Instructions for Authors leaflet, contact UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Herts AL4 8AN, UK [++ (0) 1582 831818; fax: ++ (0) 1582 831414; e-mail: ufaw@ufaw.org.uk]. - Posted to CompMed

Pioneer On-line Commentary

The British journal BMJ is testing a new kind of article review. The paper, "The Metamorphosis of Biomedical Journals," was written by a professor of epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and has already been rejected for publication by The Journal of the American Medical Association, Nature Medicine, and The New England Journal of Medicine. Visitors to the BMJ site <www.bmj.com> can read the paper, post their comments, and read others' opinions about it. Based on those comments and the evaluation of traditional peer reviewers, BMJ will decide later this year whether to publish it in its print journal. "I don't believe in the conventional process of peer review," says author Ronald LaPorte. "This is the model of how scholarly publishing should be done." Other scholars are not so sure: "Raw articles are not worth people's attention," says a professor of psychology who operates a Web site on cognitive science. "They're not worth sending out to gazillions of people. This is no way to run a journal." - From the Chronicle of Higher Education, 16 Oct 98, posted to CompMed

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Pair-Housing Overcomes Self-Biting Behavior in Macaques

Viktor Reinhardt
Animal Welfare Institute

Introduction

While there is debate whether all stereotypies -- such as pacing and somersaulting -- are behavioral abnormalities or merely attempts to cope with inadequate environmental conditions, self-biting is commonly regarded as a serious, potentially destructive behavioral pathology in macaques. Research has shown that approximately 10% of captive, individually housed [rhesus] monkeys show this problem (Jorgensen et al., 1998; Novak et al., 1998). To date, no effective therapy has been developed (Jorgensen et al., 1996). There is, however, a general consensus that prolonged individual housing is probably a contributing factor (National Research Council, 1998). If this assumption is correct, single-caged animals should stop exhibiting self-biting behavior when transferred to a compatible social housing arrangement.

Subject Sex    Body part bitten           Effect of pair-housing

Minette female hand (no visible injury)   self-biting stops gradually
Fox     female hand (abrasion)            self-biting stops gradually
Chewy   female hand (abrasion)            self-biting stops gradually
Moon    male   thigh (no visible injury)  self-biting stops immediately
Alex    male   hand (no visible injury)   self-biting stops gradually
Troll   male   thigh (serious laceration) self-biting stops immediately
Darie   male   arm (serious lacerations)  self-biting stops immediately

Observations

In a colony of more than 600 mother-reared, artificially weaned, single-caged rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), self-biting was witnessed in four adult males and three adult females over a four-year period. This behavior pattern was predictably exhibited whenever one of the subjects was approached by personnel: the animal would show signs of intense excitation -- such as trembling, head jerking and piloerection -- and start repeatedly biting one particular body part while staring at and/or charging the person. Five subjects bit one hand, two subjects bit one thigh, while one subject bit his right upper arm. The self-biting resulted in no visible trauma in three animals. Two animals showed moderate abrasions on the bitten hand; two other animals required surgical treatment, one of a lacerated thigh, the other of a lacerated biceps (Table 1).

All seven macaques were successfully transferred from single-housing to compatible pair-housing arrangements with same-sex adult partners (six cases) or with an infant (one case; Reinhardt, 1994). They were checked once or twice on workdays for self-biting behavior over a period of one year or longer.

Pair-housing had a therapeutic effect in all seven subjects. The conspicuous excitation and self-biting in the presence of personnel was abandoned immediately on the day of pair formation in three animals or gradually within the next two months in the four others (Table 1). The behavior pattern was no longer witnessed thereafter.

Conclusion

The transfer to a compatible social-housing arrangement effectively cured the rhesus subjects from the behavioral pathology of habitual self-biting. This finding supports an earlier study with long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): five adult females stopped self-biting once they were transferred from single-housing to pair-housing arrangements (Line et al., 1990). Since macaques have a strong social disposition, it is not surprising that the presence of a social companion is a crucial factor for their behavioral health and emotional well-being.

References

Jorgensen, M. J., Novak, M. A., Kinsey, J. H, Tiefenbacher, S., & Meyere, J. S. (1996). Correlates of self-injurious behavior in monkeys. XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society/XIXth Conference of the American Society of Primatologists, Abstract No. 767.

Jorgensen, M. J., Kinsey, J. H., & Novak, M. A. (1998). Risk factors for self-injurious behavior in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology, 45, 187 (Abstract).

Line, S. W., Morgan, K. N., Markowitz, H., & Riddell, M. (1990). Behavioral responses of female longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to pair formation. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29[4], 1-5.

National Research Council (1998). The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates. Washington: National Academy Press.

Novak, M. A., Kinsey, J. H., Jorgensen, M. J., & Hazen, T. J. (1998). Effects of puzzle feeders on pathological behavior in individually housed rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 46, 213-227.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Pair-housing rather than single-housing for laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology, 23, 426-431.

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Author's address: Animal Welfare Institute, P.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007 [e-mail: viktor@animalwelfare.com].

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Travelers' Health Notes

Reminder - IAMAT

The International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers, a volunteer group, compiles an annual list of doctors around the world who meet the organization's criteria, who speak English or another second language, and who agree to charge a specific fee. The 1998 Directory lists the current schedule of fees as U.S.$55 for an office visit, U.S.$75 for a house (or hotel) call, and U.S.$95 for night, Sunday, and holiday calls. These fees do not include consultants, laboratory procedures, hospitalization, or other expenses. The 60-page listing of doctors and centers includes 122 countries. IAMAT also publishes and provides to its members pamphlets on immunization and on malaria. For information, contact IAMAT, 40 Regal Rd, Guelph, Ontario, N1K 1B5, Canada [519-836-0102]; 417 Center St, Lewiston, NY 14092, USA [716-754-4883]; P.O. Box 5029, Christchurch, NZ; or 57 Voirets, 1212 Grand-Lancy-Geneva, Switzerland; or see <www.sentex.net/~iamat> [e-mail: iamat@sentex.net].

Global Infectious Disease Surveillance

A communicable disease in one country today is the concern of all. During 1996, fatal yellow fever infections were imported into the United States and Switzerland by tourists who had travelled to yellow fever endemic areas without having had yellow fever vaccination. During the same year approximately 10,000 reported cases of malaria were imported into the European Community, with one fourth of them reported in the United Kingdom.

In industrialized countries where communicable disease mortality has greatly decreased over the past century, the concern is preventing diseases from entering and causing an outbreak or re-emergence. In developing countries, the concern is detecting communicable disease outbreaks early and stopping their mortality, spread and potential impact on trade and tourism.

One of the major means of addressing the concerns about communicable diseases in both industrialized and developing countries is through the development of strong surveillance systems. The World Health Organization has been creating a global surveillance system by developing a "network of networks" which links together existing local, regional, national, and international networks of laboratories and medical centers.

The Global Public Health Information Network (GPHIN) is a second-generation electronic surveillance system developed and maintained by Health Canada. It has powerful search engines that actively trawl the World Wide Web looking for reports of communicable diseases and communicable disease syndromes in electronic discussion groups, on news wires, and elsewhere on the Web. Other networks which are sources for communicable disease reporting include nongovernmental organizations such as the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Médecins sans Frontiéres, Medical Emergency Relief International, and religious organizations such as the Catholic and Protestant mission networks.

Once a communicable disease outbreak has been confirmed, pertinent information is placed on the World Wide Web and can be accessed by the general public at <www.who.ch/emc/outbreak_news/>. At the same time, an international response, with the input of technical and humanitarian partners, is mounted if required. A WHO team arrives on site within 24 hours of outbreak confirmation to make an initial assessment, begin immediate control measures, and prepare the ground for a larger international response if needed. By linking the international response to systematic global surveillance, a worldwide "network of networks" is available from which to solicit support, thus ensuring that no one country or organization must bear the entire burden. - From WHO Fact Sheet No 200, June 1998

African Tick-Bite Fever in International Travelers

In May, the Oregon Health Division received a report from a local physician that nine persons developed annular skin lesions accompanied by influenza-like symptoms within eight days of leaving southern Africa. All nine persons were members of a 34-person group from Oregon that traveled to Swaziland in April, 1998, to participate in a three-week humanitarian construction project. Two cases of African tick-bite fever (ATBF) were diagnosed in this group, underscoring the importance of pretravel counseling about vectorborne illnesses and post-travel recognition of imported rickettsial diseases. - From Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 1998, 47, 950

Bovine Tuberculosis in South African Wildlife

The South African Press Association has reported the culling of at least 500 buffalo infected with tuberculosis in Kruger National Park. This activity, reportedly using poisoned darts, was concentrated in the northern, southern, and central areas of the park. A coordinator of the culling, J. J. van Altena, was quoted as saying that the culling had been going on for a few weeks. There are about 20,000 buffalo in the park, according to park staff.

Kruger park authorities have been trying to establish the level of infection and the spread of tuberculosis because lions in the park eating infected buffalo carcasses were contracting tuberculosis. The disease reportedly had spread to cheetahs, at least one leopard, kudus, and baboons. The presence of Mycobacterium bovis has been confirmed by bacterial isolation and PCR analysis. Analysis of samples from nine lions identified the DNA patterns in the lions to be identical to the pattern found in a majority of park buffaloes. - From ProMED, reported on Alloprimate

Trypanosomiasis in Angola

UIGE, Angola - Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) has killed 13 people in the Angola province of Uige in the last quarter of 1998. The Angolan News Agency quoted the Director of the "Ango Tryp" project, Patricia Rojas Bizzaros, as saying that 558 cases were diagnosed in zones around Kitexe, Uige, Ambuila, and Bembe municipalities, where the disease is endemic.

According to Rojas Bizzaros, Ango-Tryp project specialists were currently combating the disease in two phases, the first of which consists of research while the second involves actual treatment of patients. She also mentioned the work of mobile teams that were moving around the endemic areas to treat patients, and efforts to capture tsetse flies, which are the vectors. She regretted, however, that the hospital at Kitexe had been attacked by Jonas Savimbi's Unita combatants who stole clinical and laboratory equipment, medicines, vehicles, and beds and food intended for patients. - From ProMED, posted to Alloprimate 21 Oct 1998

Cholera in Kenya under Control

Nairobi - An outbreak of cholera which killed 17 people at Kalokol on the shores of Lake Turkana has been brought under control. The Rift Valley provincial medical officer, Dr. Kenneth Chebet, said no more deaths had been reported since the week after the outbreak in September. He said 369 cases had been attended to in the last month. Of the 20 patients admitted to Kalokol health center last week, he said, only four were still at the hospital and they were improving. Staff from the African Medical and Research Foundation had airlifted medical supplies to augment government efforts in the affected areas and to give medical assistance. Chiefs' meetings have been held at Kainak, Loichar, Lodwar, Lokichoggio and Kakuma where clinical officers advised residents on how to curb the spread of the disease. This remote part of Kenya borders on Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia, and the people are nomadic herders, so the possibility of cross-border spread is high. - From ProMED, posted to Alloprimate, 26 Oct. 1998

Diarrheal Disease in Nepal

The death toll from gastroenteritis has reached 39 in Rupandehi district, western Nepal, in less than two weeks, the official Nepalese news agency reported Thursday. Twenty-six people in this district had succumbed to the disease in one week by Monday. RSS said that another 1110 people are reported to be suffering from the disease, which has assumed epidemic proportions in 13 villages of the district. Local hospitals are under growing pressure due to lack of rooms and medicine, the news agency said. It said that continued consumption of contaminated water and fish has helped spread the disease. The health ministry said that 840 people around the country had died of the disease from mid-April to October 12. - From ProMED, posted to Alloprimate, 30 Oct. 1998

Dengue Fever in Vietnam

Dengue fever has killed 321 people in Vietnam so far this year, nearly 50% more than in all of 1997. Tran Hung of the Ministry of Health said 159,449 people had contracted the disease as of Oct. 20. The 12 Mekong Delta provinces in the south were hit particularly hard by dengue, he said, as swamps and water tanks prepared by farmers for use during the five-month dry season attracted mosquitoes that carry the disease. Last year, 226 of the 107,000 people who contracted the virus died. - From ProMED, posted to Alloprimate, 2 Nov. 1998

Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania

An outbreak of Rift Valley fever has occurred in the Aioun area, in southeastern Mauritania. There have been 300-400 human cases of the febrile disease, including six deaths between 15 and 30 September (some with hemorrhage and icterus). The dead were aged 14 to 40 years, and all cases were from areas where goats, sheep, cattle and camels are raised. - From ProMED, posted to Alloprimate, 10 Nov. 1998

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Addendum to "History and Development of the Institute of Medical Primatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences"

Boris Lapin, Director

In an earlier article in the Laboratory Primate Newsletter (1998, 37[2] 5-7), I was unable, because of space limitations, to mention some additional research trends that readers of the Newsletter may find interesting.

First, I believe that our attempts to introduce baboons (Papio hamadryas) into the foothills of the Caucasian mountains are of interest, as well as our long-term studies of the behavior and social structure of baboons in an environment similar to their natural habitat. Systematic observations of several hundred baboons, living in a large but limited territory (100 km2), have enabled us to study certain features of their behavior, such as mother-infant relationships and the formation and division of harems. We found that the monkeys lived in a "core territory" of 11 km2, and although during a 24-hour period they would range over considerable distances, they always returned to their "core territory" each evening. Such studies would be much more difficult to conduct in their natural habitat.

Unfortunately, because of intense military activity in Abhazia, we were not able to rescue the baboons from their reserve.

I would also like to take this opportunity to describe the work of some extremely important departments of the Institute: its Library (E. M. Osipova, Director); its Primatological Information Center (E. P. Fridman, Director); and its Exhibition Department (V. N. Yanson, Director). A description of these departments will give readers a broader view of our Institute's research activities.

The Library of the Institute was founded in 1929 and immediately began gathering scientific literature in biology and medicine. A significant part of this collection consisted of works on primatology: monographs, journals, collections of articles, proceedings of conferences and symposia, dissertations, offprints, and reprints, published in Russian and in foreign languages (English, German, French, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Japanese, and Chinese). We even tried to obtain for the Library all works in which the word "monkey" appeared, regardless of their content.

As a result, the Library acquired a unique collection of primatological literature. On January 1, 1992, the primatological collection consisted of 65,569 items (1841 in Russian and 63,728 in foreign languages); the Library's total collection numbered 214,117 items. A special card index of all the works about research done at the Institute numbered 9737 items.

Newly published literature was displayed on exhibition stands. The Library regularly exchanged literature with the libraries of Moscow and other cities in the U.S.S.R. In addition to serving the members of the Institute, the Library was also extensively used by the doctors of Sukhumi's hospitals and by the students of Sukhumi University.

In 1967 the Information Center was founded as part of the Library. (Later it was called the Laboratory of Information Analysis and Problems of Medical Primatology.) The Center (or Laboratory) would analyze world primatological literature, revealing long-term trends in research, judging by the numbers of publications, and would also analyze the reasons for these trends. These analyses of the literature also showed which species of monkeys were preferable for various lines of research.

The Information Center also maintained annotated bibliographies with abstracts of publications in English and Russian, circulating them to scientists and departments of the Institute and to various other Soviet institutions at their request. At first the abstracts and bibliographies were kept on punched cards; later they were transferred to computers.

The Information Center carried out an extensive exchange program with many scientific institutions both at home and abroad. Especially close ties were formed with the Information Center of the University of Washington in Seattle, then under the direction of Dr. T. Ruch, who visited our Institute and was largely responsible for initiating the exchange. The relationship between our two institutions was further strengthened by Dr. D. Bowden, who visited the Institute and worked for a time in Sukhumi; later he became the Director of the Washington Regional Primate Research Center. The Information Center of the Washington RPRC, under J. Pritchard, regularly sent us its bulletin of new literature, receiving Russian and other Eastern European publications from the Sukhumi Information Center in exchange.

The Sukhumi Information Center also established an exchange relationship with the Wisconsin RPRC with the help of its Librarian, L. Jacobsen.

Unfortunately, with the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1992, it was not possible to move either the materials at the Information Center or the Library's collection to the Institute's new location in the Black Sea city of Sochi-Adler. The collections are not used by primatologists at present; they have been declared the "national property of Abhazia". These materials now have only historical interest, as the Library's collection has not been added to for seven years. Neither was it possible, unfortunately, for the Institute's members to bring the greater part of their personal libraries with them to Adler.

The Institute of Medical Primatology in Sochi-Adler began the task of collecting a research library in 1992 and by 1996 it had succeeded in collecting 3655 items.

In the previous article we mentioned the national and international conferences and symposia regularly hosted by the Institute. Since 1953 these conferences and symposia have met almost every year. Among the most important are: "The International Symposium on the Study of Human Disease by Means of Experiments with Nonhuman Primates"; "The Soviet-American Conferences on the Problem of Viral Tumors"; "The International Symposium on Comparative Research on Leukemia and Related Diseases"; "The Soviet-Italian Symposium on the Pathology of the Cardiovascular System"; and "Problems of Providing Nonhuman Primates for Biomedical Research and Principles of Using Nonhuman Primates in Experiments". These meetings are continuing in Adler.

The Institute's popularity has been promoted by the work of the Exhibition Department. Specially trained guides, in addition to showing visitors the various species of monkeys used at the Institute, inform them about the work of the Institute, the research conducted in its laboratories, the goals of the research, and its results. Visitors to the Institute now number about 800,000 a year.

The Adler Institute of Medical Primatology now continues the Sukhumi Institute's task of coordinating all research on primates conducted in scientific institutions affiliated with the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and the Ministry of Health. Since 1970 the Primate Commission of the Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences has been working at the Institute: it analyzes, both pre- and post-research, investigations using primates and is also concerned with problems of bioethics.

In conclusion, I would like to add a few important references to the list of works I gave earlier, as well as a few important publications that have appeared recently.

Selected Bibliography

Chalyan, V. G., Meishvili, N. V., & Butovskaya, M. A. (1997). The role of females in communities of P. hamadryas. 1. Dominance hierarchy of females under the conditions of Gumista Reserve. Vestnik antropologii, Almanakh, 3, 126-137.

Chalyan, V. G., Meishvili, N. V., & Butovskaya, M. A. (1997). The role of females in communities of P. hamadryas. 2. Ecological influence on mother-offspring relationships. Vestnik antropologii, Almanakh, 3, 137-146.

Cherkovich, G. M. & Lapin, B. A. (1973). Modelling of neurogenic diseases in monkeys. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), Nonhuman Primates and Medical Research (pp. 307-327). New York: Academic Press.

Chikobava, M. G., Yakovleva, L. A., Indzhiia, L. V. & Lapin, B. A. (1997). Comparative analysis of the sequenced fragment of the M. arctoides STLV-1 env gene encoding the immunodominance region gp-46 and similar fragments in the HTLV-1(ATK) and STLV-1 from various primate species. Biulleten eksperimental'noi biologii i meditsiny, 124, 92-96.

Chirkov, A. M., Chirkova, S. K., & Startsev, V. G. (1988). Emotional stress in monkeys. Moscow: Nauka.

Chirkov, A. M. & Voit, I. S. (1990). Etiological Atlas of psycho-pharmacological investigations on P. hamadryas. Sukhumi: Alashara.

Dzhikidze, E. K. (1986). Modelling of bacterial infections on monkeys. Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR, 93, 54-56.

Dzhikidze, E. K. (1996). History of the development of national medical primatology. Vestnik Russkoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk, 10, 40-47.

Fridman, E. P. (1977). Biological prerequisites and quan-titative characteristics of medical investigations on monkeys. Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR, 10, 72-80.

Fridman, E. P. & Popova, V. N. (1987). Biological and quantitative research characteristics of medical investigations on three genera of Old World monkeys: Macaca, Papio, and Cercopithecus. Vestnik akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR, 10, 32-37.

Goncharova, N. D. (1997). Hormonal function of the adrenal glands in humans and monkeys during hemoblastoses and aging. Biulleten Eksperimental'noi biologii i Meditsiny, 124, 207-210.

Korzaya, L. I., Lapin, B. A., Shevtsova, Z. V., Krilova, R. I., & Esvandzhiya, N. Ch. (1998). Characterization of experimental models of Hepatitis A in P. hamadryas. Biulleten eksperimental'noi biologii i meditsiny, 124, 67-70.

Lapin, B. A. & Cherkovich, G. M. (1972). Biological Normals. In R. N. T.-W. Fiennes (Ed.), Pathology of Simian Primates, Part 1. General Pathology (pp. 78-156). Basel: Karger.

Lapin, B. A., Krilova, R. I., Cherkovich, G. M., & Asanov, N. S. (1979). Observations from Sukhumi. In D. M. Bowden (Ed.), Aging in Nonhuman Primates (pp. 14-37). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Ruttkay-Nedecky, I. & Cherkovich, G. M. (1977). The orthogonal electrocardiogram and vectorcardiogram of baboons and macaques. Lekarske Prace, 14[2].

Startsev, V. G. (1971). Modelling of neurogenic diseases of man in experiments on monkeys. Moscow: Meditsina.

Startsev, V. G. (1972). Neurogenic ventricular achylia in monkeys. Leningrad: Nauka.

Yakovleva, L. A., Lennert, K., Chikobava, M. G., Indzhiia, L. V., Klots, I. N., & Lapin, B. A. (1993). Morphological characteristics of malignant T-cell lymphoma in baboons. Virchows Archiv. A, Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, 422, 109-120.

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Resources Wanted and Available

"18q- Syndrome"

"There is a very interesting disorder in humans accompanied by a number of anatomical phenotypic effects presumably caused by a series of small molecular deletions in the long arm (q) of chromosome 18. The 18q- syndrome, as it is known in the literature, is characterized by hearing loss, midfacial hypoplasia, growth deficiency, and deformed limbs and skeletal system. More specific features include a carp-shaped mouth, tapering fingers, and the absence of eyelids. The severity of morphological abnormalities appears to be consistent with the size of the deletion, i.e. a small deletion of the chromosome will result in a mild to moderate phenotypic effect.

"Since our laboratory has been identifying DNA markers on all of the chromosomes of the rhesus monkey, we have the capability of detecting such a deletion in rhesus even though our research might be characterized as 'looking for a needle in a haystack.' We are asking if anyone has observed any mild or striking behavioral or morphological abnormalities in rhesus monkeys in your care. If so, and if any of these monkeys are available, we would like to obtain a small (1 ml) blood sample to test. For instructions for handling and shipping blood to us, contact W. H. Stone or L. R. Ludvico, Department of Biology, Trinity University, 715 Stadium Drive, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200 [210-736-8347; fax: 210-736-7229; e-mail: lludvico@trinity.edu; or see <www.trinity.edu/~wstone/index.htm>. Be assured that your contribution will be acknowledged." - Posted to the Alloprimate mailing list

NIH Establishes Malaria Reagent Repository

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health, has awarded a seven-year contract to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for the establishment of a Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Repository (MR4). MR4 will acquire parasite, vector and relevant host cell reagents, by donation and procurement; ensure their standardization, characterization and documentation; and provide these materials to qualified investigators throughout the world at only the cost of shipping. MR4 will disseminate information about malaria reagents through print, electronic media, and attendance at major meetings. The repository will also sponsor workshops to facilitate the transfer of technology and scientific information to the malaria research community.

ATCC is a global nonprofit bioscience organization established in 1925, with the mission to acquire, authenticate, preserve, develop, and distribute biological information, technology, intellectual property, and standards for the advancement, validation, and application of scientific knowledge. Within the MR4, distribution of vector reagents will be handled by the Division of Parasitic Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ATCC will form an international MR4 advisory committee to assist with prioritization of additional reagents for acquisition by the repository. ATCC is establishing a Web site for the malaria repository that will be accessible through their homepage <www.atcc.org> and linked to other malaria Web sites.

Primagam®, a Test for Tuberculosis in Primates

Primagam®, a test for tuberculosis in primates, is the latest in a series of TB test kits based on diagnostic technology developed by CSL and CSIRO Animal Health in Australia. "We realized in the 1980s that we'd never get a good test for TB if we relied on the conventional approach of detecting antibodies. Instead we targeted certain 'killer T-cells', special white blood cells that animals produce when they're attacked by the TB bacterium," Paul Wood, leader of the team that developed the tests, said. CSL's USA subsidiary Biocor Animal Health will market Primagam® in the United States. For more information contact Paul Wood [03 9389 1252; e-mail: paulw@csl.com.au].

The Scent of a Bushbaby

"We have a colony of small-eared bushbabies and are engaged in some olfactory research. We would like to locate another colony of any species of greater bushbaby (Otolemur crassicaudatus, O. garnettii, or other) in order to obtain additional scent samples. If you have access to any of these species and would like to collaborate with us by collecting and sending scent samples that we might use in discrimination tests, please contact Jeannette P. Ward, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152." - Posted to PrimateScience, 3 Dec. 1998

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A Review of Hand Preferences in Nonhuman Primates: Some Data from Patas Monkeys

Julie A. Teichroeb
University of Calgary

Introduction

Preferential use of one hand is the most obvious behavioral manifestation of the lateralized functioning of the human nervous system (King, 1995). About 90% of the human population displays a consistent right hand preference (Annett, 1987). This population-level trend toward right-handedness is generally considered an important step in the left-hemisphere specializations of the brain displayed by humans (De Vieeschouwer et al., 1995). The hand preferences displayed by nonhuman primates may shed some light upon when and why hemisphere specialization evolved in humans.

Many inconsistencies appear within the current data for lateralization in nonhuman primates. Age and sex have been shown to influence handedness in some species (Forsythe & Ward, 1988; Westergaard & Suomi, 1993; Stafford et al, 1990; Milliken et al., 1990; McGrew & Marchant, 1992; Ward et al., 1990; Colell et al, 1995; Boesch, 1991; Milliken et al, 1989). Cross-generational similarities have also been seen in some species but not in others (Forsythe & Ward, 1988; Matoba et al., 1991; Ku-bota, 1990; Brinkman, 1984). Type of manipulation performed, posture of the animal, and proximity of the object all seem to have strong influences on hand use (Bennett et al., 1995; Anderson et al., 1996; De Vleeschouwer et al., 1995; Hopkins, 1993; Roney & King, 1993; Boesch, 1991; Sanford et al., 1984; Olson et al., 1989).

In 1987 Annet proposed a theory for the evolution of handedness which she dubbed the "right shift" theory. Working mainly with human data, she argued that handedness and cerebral asymmetries are controlled by a single gene locus. The majority of the population carry at least one copy of the dominant right-shift allele (RS+), which produces right-handedness and left-cerebral control of speech. Those homozygous for the recessive allele (RS-) display no overall trend to be right- or left-handed, or to have speech controlled primarily by one hemisphere or the other. These individuals may show handedness and cerebral dominance, but there is no prejudice favoring one side over the other (Corballis, 1989). Judging from observed phenotypes, Annett proposes that there is a heterozygote advantage in the RS gene (Annett, 1991). MacNeilage et al. (1991) have criticized this theory, saying that it can not be applied to nonhuman primates because it is based on human data and speech patterns.

In 1987, MacNeilage et al. developed their "postural origins" theory in an effort to explain inconsistencies in the nonhuman primate data on lateralization. This theory suggests that laterality first developed when early primates used one arm to support themselves in an upright position. Thus the other arm (and hand) became more specialized in reaching for food. They infer that it was most likely the right arm that was used for support, so that the left arm (and right hemisphere) became specialized in visually guided reaching (Corballis, 1989). Afterward, with the change from a vertical clinging to a quadrupedal postural mode in many primates, and with the decreasing importance of unimanual predation, a right-hand preference for more manipulative tasks may have evolved. This theory has been disputed by many researchers (e.g., Warren, 1987; Denenberg, 1988) and the evidence does not support it in every case.

The aim of the present study was to test the "postural origins" theory on a group of captive patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas), and to test for any prevalent age, sex, or familial effects on hand preference. In 1966, Hall and Mayer found that of seven patas monkeys, three had a highly significant right-hand preference, two had a less significant left-hand preference, and two were inconsistent between tests (though they were consistent within tests). All of these tests involved visually guided reaching for food, so a left-hand preference should have been displayed according to the "postural origins" theory. Hall and Mayer did not investigate any connections between hand use and sex, age, or familial background.

Methods
Adapted from Fragaszy & Mitchell, 1990)

Subjects: Five (4 female, 1 male) patas monkeys aged 12-14 years and two (1 male, 1 female) aged 6 years served as subjects for this study. The older male was the father of both younger animals. The presence of two males (unusual for a patas group) made it possible to test hand preferences between the sexes. The presence of two matrilines also made it possible to look at crossgener-ational effects on handedness. The animals were housed in an enclosure at the Calgary Zoo, containing two indoor areas and one large outdoor area. All subjects exhibited normal use of their hands and arms. Observations were done from October 27 to December 4, 1997.

Procedure: To control for the inclination of primates to use the closest hand to an object, the space in front of the animal was divided into three approximately equal quadrats (left, right, and center). Hand use was recorded for four discrete activities: feeding, searching for food on the floor, grooming others, and agonistic activities. Animals were observed continuously during each observation session and all occurrences of hand use in each quadrat were marked on a tally sheet.

Feeding acts were defined as the subject using one or both hands to grasp any food object and bring it to the mouth. Only one score was marked as long as the subject had the food item in hand. Searching acts consisted of a brush of the subject's hand across the straw or debris on the cage floor in search of food. Only the first in a series of brushes was recorded. Agonistic acts consisted of hitting, slapping, or grabbing motions directed at another monkey. These three activities are visually guided, and therefore should have elicited a left hand preference according to the "postural origins" theory (MacNeilage et al., 1987). The fourth measure, grooming, was defined as the use of one or both hands to separate the fur of another monkey and pick off small objects. It was included to provide an index of handedness in a skilled manipulative act, which should have displayed a right hand preference according to the "postural origins" theory. The hand used to brush and hold the fur aside was not marked, only the hand that performed the picking and grooming motion.

Analysis: At least 150 scorable acts were obtained per monkey and were tallied by category and by hand used. For each subject a percentage of right-hand preference was determined by dividing the total number of scored right-hand acts by the total number of acts. On the basis of these percentages, subjects were classified as right-, left-, or ambiguously handed. Subjects with percentages between 40% and 60% were considered to have ambiguous hand preference (Hopkins, 1993). The frequency scores for right- and left-hand use were pooled for acts in each quadrat. These values were then subjected to chi-square analysis, with an even split in hand usage employed as the expected values (Table 1). Chi-square analysis was also used between quadrats, age classes, sexes, and matrilines to determine whether the differences between them were significant.

Results

No population-level asymmetry in hand preferences was seen in this group of patas monkeys. Sex was not a factor in hand preference. One male had a significant left hand preference and one male was significantly right-handed. The females also varied, with one female significantly right-handed, one significantly left-handed, and three showing no hand preference. Age also did not have a significant effect on handedness (average right use between young and old group, Chi-sq = 0.532). This may be due to the fact that all of the animals in this group were adults.

There was a significant relationship between family and hand preference. Matriline 1 (two sisters and a son) tended to be right handed, and matriline 2 (two sisters and a daughter) tended toward greater left hand use. The overall differences in the average left and right hand use between the two groups were significant (right

Sex  Age (yr) % Right-use Chi-sq Hand pref. 
m  13+  2 141.2***  left 
m (a)  6  62  8.53**  right 
f (a)  13+  79 I 83.52***  right 
f (a)  13+  54  0.986 ambiguous
f (b) 12+ 49  0.026  ambiguous
f (b) 12+  42  3.498  ambiguous
f (b) 6  40  6.*  

Table 1: Individual hand preferences (a = Matriline 1; b = Matriline 2). Chi-sq is overall left use vs. overall right use (df = 1), * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.

Every monkey used the center quadrat significantly more than the other quadrats, independent of hand preference. The activities most often seen varied between mon-keys. Feeding and searching were the two most common activities. In some monkeys, agonism and grooming were not seen at all.

When the tasks were divided into visually guided tasks (feeding, searching, and agonism) and manipulative tasks (grooming) the proportion of left and right hand use was fairly even. Unfortunately, there was not enough grooming seen to provide data for a skilled, manipulative activity. The visually guided tasks should have displayed a left-hand preference according to the "postural origins" theory. However the total difference in right and left use in these tasks was not statistically significant (Chi-sq = 1.108).

Discussion

The similarities in hand preferences displayed within matrilines in this group, as well as the dissimilarities between the adult male and his offspring, suggest that hand preferences in patas monkeys may be learned. If hand use were passed genetically, one would expect the adult male to be more similar to his offspring. However, it is certainly possible that he possesses recessive genes that caused his offspring to express the genes they received from their mothers. No valid conclusions can be drawn using data from such a small group. However, maternal effects on handedness have been found previously in other primate species, including long-tailed macaques, Japanese macaques, common marmosets, chimpanzees, and humans.

In 1984 Brinkman studied the hand preferences of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). She found that of 26 offspring of parents with different hand preferences, 23 had the same preference as the female, and were different from that of the male. She also noted that within groups consisting of a female and her offspring (who were not always full siblings), the way offspring executed movements was very similar to that of the female. Kubota (1990) also found maternal effects on handedness in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Although the numbers were not statistically significant, left-hand preferent mothers tended to have left-hand preferent young. Right-hand preferent mothers did not show the same tendencies, with their young having right or left hand preferences to an equal extent. McGrew and Marchant (1997) cite Hopkins (unpublished data) who looked at hand preferences in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), comparing maternal and paternal full and half siblings that were raised by their mothers or by human surrogates. He found that regardless of rearing condition, there was a strong concordance for maternal but not paternal effects on handedness. Human infants (6-13 months of age) have also been shown to have strong maternal influences on handedness (Harkins & Michel, 1988). Infants of left-handed mothers showed more left hand use than infants of left-handed fathers or infants of right-handed parents. 64% of infants with left-handed mothers displayed significant left hand use scores whereas none of the infants in the other groups had significant left-hand use scores.

Matoba et al. (1991) also found that individual differences in hand preferences can be passed from one generation to the next through the mother in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). As in our patas group, handedness in offspring was strongly influenced by that of their mother, but not of their father. This is interesting, considering that marmoset fathers as well as mothers care for the infants. If hand preference is learned, one would expect some correlation with the father as well. Unfortunately there was no information available to Matoba et al. on the early care received by their subjects. This study leads one to question whether the learned component of handedness is sufficient to explain the high correlations between mothers and offspring.

One study has shown paternal effects on hand preference. Hopkins and Bard (1993) studied 76 captive chimpanzees and found that an offspring's hand bias was affected by both father and mother. Half-siblings also resembled one another more closely than was expected by chance. This study lends support to the genetic argument for handedness, especially since chimpanzees receive most of their early care from their mothers.

McGrew and Marchant (1997) point out that since in most primate groups paternity is questionable, most researchers have only been able to trace handedness through maternal lines. This may have led to artificially inflated correlations between mothers and offspring. It also misses any potential paternal influences that could strengthen the genetic case for hand preference. Hopkins and Bard's (1993) study lends support to this argument because they show that with a knowledge of paternity and a large sample, paternal effects on handedness are evident in chimpanzees. The most objective way to settle this point would be to study handedness in every species, in large groups where paternity for all offspring is known. This is probably impossible. It may also be the case (and most likely is) that relative effects of genetics and learned behavior on handedness differ between species.

The data from the present study do not fit into the patterns predicted by the "postural origins" theory (Mac-Neilage et al., 1987). We found a slight left-hand preference for visually guided activities, but the difference was not statistically significant. The presence of the adult male in this sample (who used his right hand only 2% of the time) may also have pushed the data towards the left. In fact, if he is removed from the sample a right-hand preference emerges for visually guided activities. We did not observe enough grooming data to gauge handedness in a skilled manipulative act. A superficial right-hand preference emerged for manipulative acts, mainly because the sample was very small and most of the data was from one right-handed monkey. More data is needed to tell whether or not patas monkeys have a right-hand preference in manipulative acts.

Conclusions: According to our results, hand preference in patas monkeys is strongly influenced by the handedness displayed on the maternal, but not the paternal, side. There is a need for further studies on handedness in patas monkeys, because individual idiosyncrasies can have a large impact on data from small groups. It would be interesting to see if other groups display the familial effects on handedness that were seen here. A left-hand preference for visually guided acts, as predicted by the "postural origins" theory, was not found in this group. However, the data was not sufficient to dismiss a right-hand preference for manipulative acts in patas monkeys.

References

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Annet, M. (1987). Handedness as chance or as species characteristic. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 263-264.

Bennett, A. J., Ward, J. P., Milliken, G. W., & Stafford, D. K. (1995). Analysis of lateralized components of feeding behavior in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 27-33.

Boesch, C. (1991). Handedness in wild chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology, 12, 541-558.

Brinkman, C. (1984). Determinants of hand preference in Macaca fascicularis. International Journal of Primatology, 5, 325.

Colell, M., Segara, M. D., & Sabater-Pi, J. (1995). Manual laterality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in complex tasks. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 298-307.

Corballis, M. C. (1989). Laterality and human evolution. Psychological Review, 96, 492-505.

De Vleeschouwer, K., Van Elsacker, L., & Verheyen, R. F. (1995). Effect of posture on hand preferences during experimental food reaching in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 203-207.

Denenberg, V. H. (1988). Handedness hangups and species snobbery. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 721-722.

Forsythe, C. & Ward, J. P. (1988). Black lemur (Lemur macaco) hand preference in food reaching. Primates, 29, 369-374.

Fragaszy, D. M. & Mitchell, S. R. (1990). Hand preference and performance on unimanual and bimanual tasks in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 104, 275-282.

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Hopkins, W. D. (1993). Posture and reaching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 107, 162-168.

Hopkins, W. D. & Bard, K. A. (1993). Hemispheric specialization in infant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for a relation with gender and arousal. Developmental Psychobiology, 26, 219-235.

King, J. E. (1995). Laterality in hand preferences and reaching accuracy of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 34-41.

Kubota, K. (1990). Preferred hand use in the Japanese macaque troop Arashiyama-R, during visually guided reaching for food pellets. Primates, 31, 393-426.

MacNeilage, P. F., Studdert-Kennedy, M. G., & Lindblom, B. (1987). Primate handedness reconsidered. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 247-303.

MacNeilage, P. F., Studdert-Kennedy, M. G. & Lindblom, B. (1991). Primate handedness:The other theory, the other hand and the other attitude (plus critical comments). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 344-349.

Matoba, M., Masataka, N., & Tanioka, Y. (1991). Cross-generational continuity of hand use preference in marmosets. Behaviour, 117, 281-286.

McGrew, W. C. & Marchant, L. F. (1992). Chimpanzees, tools, and termites: Hand preferences or handedness? Current Anthropology, 33, 114-119.

McGrew, W. C. & Marchant, L. F. (1997). On the other hand: Current issues in and meta-analysis of the behavioral laterality of hand function in nonhuman primates. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 40, 201-232.

Milliken, G. W., Forsythe, C., & Ward, J. P. (1989). Multiple measures of hand-use lateralization in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103, 262-268.

Milliken, G. W., Stafford, D. K., Dodson, D. L., Pinger, C. D., & Ward, J. P. (1991). Analyses of feeding lateralization in the small-eared bushbaby (Otolemur garnettii): A comparison with the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 105, 274-285.

Olson, D. A., Ellis, J. E., & Nadler, R. D. (1989). Hand preferences in captive gorillas, orangutans and gibbons. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 83-94.

Roney, L. S. & King, J. E. (1993). Postural effects on manual reaching laterality in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 107, 380-385.

Sanford, C., Guin, K., & Ward, J. P. (1984). Posture and laterality in the bushbaby (Galago senegalensis). Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 25, 217-224.

Stafford, D. K., Milliken, G. W., & Ward, J. P. (1990). Lateral bias in feeding and brachiation in Hylobates. Primates, 31, 407-414.

Ward, J. P., Milliken, G. W., Dodson, D. L., Stafford, D. K., & Wallace, M. (1990). Handedness as a function of sex and age in a large population of Lemur. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 104, 167-173.

Warren, J. M. (1987). Primate handedness: Inadequate analysis, invalid conclusions. Behavior and Brain Sciences, 10, 288-289.

Westergaard, G. C. & Suomi, S. J. (1993). Hand preference in capuchin monkeys varies with age. Primates, 34, 295-299.

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Author's address: 487 Whiteridge Rd N.E., Calgary, Alberta T1Y 4K4, Canada [e-mail: jateichr@acs.ucalgary.ca].

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* * *

Behavioral Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates

Leif Cocks, Christine Baker, Grant Harris, and Fleur Butcher
Perth Zoo Primate Section

At Perth Zoo, we integrate a daily and weekly schedule of behavioral enrichment for our orangutan colony, in order to maintain the animals' natural wild activity levels and therefore benefit their long-term mental health.

The correct social environment, whether a large social group, a monogamous pairing, or a solitary lifestyle, is the best way to assure well-being for captive primates. They get the best stimulation and are less stressed when their social needs are taken into consideration.

Foraging for food is the next most important factor. A large part of any primate's day in the wild is spent foraging for food; in captivity that source of activity is frequently removed by providing food once, twice, or three times a day, in large amounts.

Variety of foods, textures, and tastes is as important as presentation. Variety and presentation in as close to the natural state as possible can be an important part of behavioral enrichment for nonhuman primates.

One of the objectives of any behavioral enrichment program is to ensure that natural levels and times of activities approach the wild situation. It is critical to observe the levels and timing of activities, and to evaluate the success of any behavioral enrichment program by comparison to wild levels, if known.

There are four main types of behavioral enrichment to consider: * complex environment; * indestructible toys; * destructible toys; and * "work for food rewards". Positive reinforcement training is a separate category that can have immense benefits.

A complex environment involves functionally complex structures, using a variety of textures and diameters in climbing furniture, with vertical and horizontal components; movement of structures; platforms, nesting sites, and appropriate nesting materials; and ground covers and substrates.

Indestructible toys should be non-toxic, cheap and contain no lethal parts. To maintain their novelty, they should be rotated regularly. Examples include heavy duty plastic chairs, bin lids, crates, and boomer balls. One indestructible toy, often available free, is the industrial hard hat. Companies dispose of these regularly and, once the inner padding and strapping is removed, these are versatile toys for any type of primate, whether fixed as a hanging basket or loose.

Destructible toys should be cheap and readily available, and may often be donated. Examples include cardboard rolls, inserts, and boxes (from local stores), old telephone books (with popcorn inserted into pages and taped in), magazines (sachets removed, perfume sample pages left in), pine cones stuffed with popcorn, paper sacks rolled up and tied, and burlap sacks.

"Work for food reward" items should be low-calorie, small, and not ruin the animals' appetite for their main diet. A large variety of different treats can be alternated daily, such as raisins, popcorn, puffed wheat or rice, nuts in the shell, mixed dried fruit pieces, mixed nut kernels, sunflower seeds, and maize.

The orangutans most prefer treats presented in puzzle boxes and dip tubes. The puzzle box we use is a steel box bolted to a climbing platform, with a welded mesh top, slots on one side and a steel maze inside. Treats are placed inside before the orangutans come out in the morning. They are given a 30-cm bamboo stick, which they use for the puzzle boxes and the dip tubes. We expected them to manipulate each treat through the maze and out through the slots. However, their ability to manipulate tools and solve problems has meant that they either spear each item and lift it through the mesh at the top, or herd all of the treats into one pile and take them through the maze in one operation, rather than one by one.

The "dip tube" is a length of steel pipe welded to the orangs' climbing frame, with a padlocked screw-off cap at the base. The base holds honey, peanut butter, or a different flavor jam each day of the week. They dip for this with the bamboo stick in the same way that they dip for termites in the wild. One exhibit has a naturalistic-looking termite mound, made of sprayed-on concrete, with seven plastic tubes inserted and protruding into the internal chamber. The cap can be screwed onto a different tube each day.

The orangs' browse feed is a source of much activity, and signals the end of the midday siesta (which seems to echo their wild patterns of activity). Later in the afternoon we throw sunflower seeds into the tall grass, which keeps them busy for an hour or so.

Weekly activities include: * ice blocks in three layers: two layers of different flavored cordials, middle layer water with mixed dried fruit bits frozen within; * treat boxes: five cardboard boxes within boxes (like Russian dolls) taped up with three walnuts (or similar) inside the smallest; * giant bamboo cut into pieces, alternating one length sealed at both ends with one length open at each end (this utilizes all of the bamboo). The sealed sections have 3 or 4 holes drilled along the length and sunflower seeds poured in. The holes are plugged with dried apricots or figs. The unsealed sections are packed with a mixture of flour, water, and lots of sunflower seeds or maize kernels, which then sets very hard and must be picked out bit by bit.

One item we sometimes use when orangutans need to be kept in the night quarters (e.g., while maintenance is carried out on the exhibit) is the PVC workstation. This consists of four PVC pipes about 2.5" in diameter, suspended horizontally one above the other, separated by about 10 cm. The pipes are bolted to two brackets, which are permanently fixed to the outside of the night quarters' wall mesh. The top pipe has wide holes drilled in the side facing the enclosure for primates to reach jam with a bamboo stick; the other three are a "move along and drop" series vertical maze. The device is mounted over the feed chute, so that the treats fall into the chute once the maze has been completed. This workstation would be suitable for any indoor quarters that are made of mesh.

Positive reinforcement training is a labor-intensive activity for animal handlers and keepers, but has many positive outcomes. The relationship developed is one-on-one; it only involves positive reinforcement; the behaviors encouraged can be used for medical treatments; and it adds to the challenging environment that stimulates mental activity in primates. Behaviors we have trained include: * opening the mouth on command for inspection of teeth and gums; * presenting the shoulder or rump to accept an injection (we have used this successfully for a diabetic orangutan); * presenting a hand and accepting a lancet prick for a small amount of blood; * presenting the ear and holding still for a thermometer.

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Authors' address: Perth Zoo, P.O. Box 489, South Perth, WA 6151, Australia [e-mail: Reg.Gates@perthzoo.wa.gov.au].

This paper is based on a July, 1998, posting to Primate-Talk.

Anyone requiring further details or plans on any of these enrichment ideas are welcome to contact any of the authors.

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* * *

Awards Granted

Martha J. Galante Award - IPS

The Martha J. Galante Award is given each year by the International Primatological Society for the conservation training of professionals in primate habitat countries. Candidates are reviewed by the IPS Conservation Committee. This year it was presented to Dr. Mukesh Kumar Chalise of the Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal. Dr. Chalise is one of very few primatologists in Nepal, and is currently studying Macaca assamensis in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. For more information on this award, write to Dr. Ernesto Rodríguez-Luna, Vice President for Conservation, IPS, c/o Inst. de Neuroetología, Univ. Veracruzana, Veracruz 91000, México [52-28-12-57-48; fax: 52-28-17-65-39 or 52-28-12-57-46; e-mail: saraguat@speedy.coacade.uv.mx].

Veterinary Society Honors Whitehair

Dr. Leo Whitehair, who has served as Director of the National Center for Research Resources, NIH, for more than 11 years, was named an Honorary Diplomate of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society. The award was presented on July 29 at the Society's annual meeting. Dr. Whitehair was recognized for his outstanding contributions to both animal and human health through his expertise in veterinary epidemiology. - From the NCRR Reporter, October-December, 1998

Bayne Honored by AALAS

Kathryn A. Bayne, Associate Director for Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, was honored for her outstanding contributions to laboratory animal care at the annual meeting of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. She received the Joseph J. Garvey Award, which is based on meritorious contributions or outstanding accomplishments in administration, education, or support programs relating to the care, quality, or humane treatment of animals used in biomedical research.

$35 Million for Biodiversity Research

San Francisco (October 5, 1998. ©1998 Nando.net and Reuters News Service) - Intel Corporation co-founder Gordon Moore has announced a $35 million gift to sponsor an "early warning system" for threats to global biological diversity. Moore, Chairman Emeritus of the world's largest maker of computer chips, said the gift was to spur action as plant and animal species vanish into extinction faster than ever. Moore's bequest will fund the new Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International, a non-profit environmental group in Washington, DC.

Officials of the Center said it will work as an "early warning system" by forecasting crises in biodiversity hot spots such as tropical wilderness areas and fragile marine ecosystems. It will also create fellowships and build a global network of experts and policy-makers concerned with the threats to world biological diversity, which range from "predatory" logging and mining operations to the devastating impact of invasive alien species introduced into non-native habitats. 

* * *

"Primates de las Americas...La Página"

En esta ocasión "La Página..." ofrece información diversa sobre actividades que realizan investigadores en el área de la cognición en el Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría, en México D.F.; asimismo, se muestra información reciente sobre algunos eventos a realizarse en el próximo año en el campo de la primatología tanto en México como en España. Finalmente, para todos los relacionados con el estudio de los animales de laboratorio, se anuncia la aparición de varias publicaciones en español sobre la regulación en el uso y manejo de animales de laboratorio. Queremos agradecer los valiosos comentarios que nos han hecho al cumplirse un año de la aparición de esta columna. Esperamos fortalecerla y obtener mayor calidad día a día. Seguimos esperando sus amables contribuciones y sugerencias para esta sección. Los Editores: Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen.. Departamento de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Ap. postal 63 cp 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail: serioju@ecologia.edu.mx].

** Favor de notar el cambio de dirección electrónica

Individualidad Conductual o "Personalidad" en Primates No Humanos. Ana María Santillán Doherty, Investigadora Asociada "C", Laboratorio de Etología, División Neurociencias, Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría (IMP), Tlalpán, México, D.F. [e-mail: santild@imp.edu.mx].

Se ha considerado que el principal objetivo de la psicología evolutiva es explicar el comportamiento humano a través de su evolución fiologenética, abriéndose así una nueva concepción hacia el entendimiento del fenómeno del comportamiento. Una de las áreas que reciben primordial atención es el de la salud mental y su relación con los neurotransmisores y la genética; asimismo, otras áreas importantes alrededor de la comprensión de las interacciones sociales complejas y la cognición son el principal objetivo de mis investigaciones científicas.

Utilizando instrumentos factoriales y la metodología para la evaluación de la personalidad en primates no humanos, hemos podido localizar varias similitudes con relación a lo encontrado en humanos. Por ejemplo, una fuerte correlación entre el "factor de búsqueda de la novedad" y el gen D4DR ha sido reportado por humanos y, aunque la correlación con las características de personalidad de los primates no se ha dado, es sabido que estos animales desarrollan el gen. Con base en lo anterior, me permito proponer que en animales tan cercanos filogenéticamente a los humanos como los primates, la presencia de los receptores del genotipo D4 también confieren cierta susceptibilidad hacia el fenotipo de "búsqueda de la novedad". Si esto es así, se puede decir que es posible desarrollar un animal como modelo psicobiológico para evaluar diferentes características del temperamento. Considero que la contribución de los estudios primatológicos al conocimiento del fenómeno arriba descrito, deberán ser muy útiles en la generación (desde un punto de vista evolutivo) de modelos explicativos del comportamiento humano.

Próximo Simposio Nacional de la Asociación Mexicana de Primatología (AMP), A.C.

Por este medio se invita a proponer temas y participar en el próximo Simposio Nacional de Primatología a celebrarse en la ciudad de Catemaco, Veracruz, México durante el período comprendido del 6 al 9 de Septiembre de 1999. Asimismo, se invita a pertenecer como miembro de la Asociación a todos los interesados en la investigación o divulgación del universo primatológico. Las cuotas para 1999 son de $300.00 pesos (U.S.$30.00) para profesionales y $100.00 pesos (U.S.$10.00) para estudiantes (previa comprobación). El procedimiento para lo anterior es enviar un cheque a nombre de Jorge Ocampo Carapia (Tesorero de la AMP), adjuntando todos los datos personales e institucionales a la siguiente dirección: Depto. de Filosofía UAM-Iztapalapa, Apdo. postal 55-536, 09340, México, D.F. Finalmente, cualquier informe sobre este evento favor de dirigirse a Dr. Jorge Martínez Contreras (Presidente de la AMP) [(5) 724 47 85, (5) 7 24 47 41; fax: (5) 7 24 47 78, e-mail; amp@xanum.uam.mx] ó con MC. Francisco García Orduña (Representante de la AMP para el estado de Veracruz), [(28) 12 57 48; e-mail: garod@bugs.invest.uv.mx].

Manual en Español

El Consejo Canadiense para el Cuidado Animal (Canadian Council on Animal Care - CCAC) se complace en anunciar que se ha traducido al español la "Manual Sobre el Cuidado y Uso de los Animales de Experimentación" (Vol. 1, 2nd Edn). Esta publicación ha sido posible gracias al apoyo económico del Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en la Agricultura (IICA) y el CCAC.

Sin duda, este documento proveerá a los colegas hispanoparlantes de una referencia de primer nivel sobre el cuidado y uso de los animales de laboratorio. El CCAC y el IICA consideran que este documento fomentará un sentido de ética y responsabilidad en el uso de los animales en la investigación, asimismo, ayudará a los académicos y a los involucrados en el tema a desarrollar dentro de sus instituciones, programas de alta calidad en el cuidado animal.

Los interesados pueden adquirir copias del "Manual Sobre el Cuidado y Uso de los Animales de Experimentación" a la dirección del CCAC con un costo de U.S.$25.00. Mayor información del CCAC puede ser obtenida del sitio Web <www.ccac.ca>. Dr. Gilly Griffin, Information Officer, Canadian Council on Animal Care, Constitution Square, Tower II, 315-350 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1R 1B1, Canada [613-238-4031; fax: 613-238-2837; e-mail: ggriffin@bart.ccac.ca].

Información sobre Artículos Traducidos

La Sociedad Española para las Ciencias del Animal de Laboratorio (Spanish Society for Laboratory Animal Science - SECAL) se complace en anunciar tres artículos en el idioma español sobre la regulación en el manejo de animales de laboratorio. Estos artículos se podrán consultar en la siguiente dirección Web: <www.hulp.es/secal/secal.html>.

Asimismo, información reciente sobre la próxima reunión de la Federación de Asociaciones Europeas para el Estudio de la Ciencia del Animal de Laboratorio (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations - FELASA) puede localizarse en la siguiente página Web: <www.hulp.es/secal/meeting.html>.

En esta página Web, es posible localizar información sobre todo lo necesario para participar en tal evento, así como la posibilidad de obtener financiamiento para jóvenes científicos que quieran participar en el mismo. A los interesados favor de contactar con José M. Orellana (SECAL), Univ. de Alcalá, Centro de Experimentación Animal, España [+ 34 91 885 45 71; fax: + 34 91 885 45 44; e-mail: cea@uah.alcala.es].

* * *

Grants Available

NIH Grants Policy Statement

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has announced the publication of the NIH Grants Policy Statement (NIHGPS). The NIHGPS is effective for all NIH grants and cooperative agreements with budget periods beginning on or after October 1, 1998, and will supersede, in its entirety, previous PHS Grants Policy Statements as a standard term and condition of award.

The NIHGPS is intended to make available to NIH grantees, in a single document, up-to-date policy guidance that will serve as the terms and conditions of NIH awards. This document is also designed to be useful to those interested in NIH grants by providing information about NIH.

An electronic copy of the NIHGPS is available at <www.nih.gov/grants/policy/nihgps/>.

NSF Support for Undergraduate Mentoring

The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Divisions of Environmental Biology (DEB) and Integrative Biology and Neuroscience (IBN) in the Directorate for Biological Sciences are soliciting proposals for Undergraduate Mentoring in Environmental Biology (UMEB), an activity designed to enhance the opportunities for undergraduate students, particularly those from underrepresented groups, to participate in research in environmental biology. We particularly encourage UMEB proposals involving collaboration between research universities and predominantly undergraduate institutions with significant minority enrollment and/or a tradition of training minority students. For the purposes of this solicitation, underrepresented groups include persons with disabilities and members of racial and ethnic groups underrepresented in science and engineering: Native Americans (American Indians and Alaskan Natives), Blacks (African Americans), Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians or Micronesians), and Hispanics (Latinos).

Also for the purposes of this solicitation, "environmental biology" is broadly defined to include areas of research funded by IBN Programs in Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology, Integrative Plant Biology, Integrative Animal Biology, and Animal Behavior, as well as areas of research funded by DEB Programs in Systematic Biology, Population Biology, Biotic Surveys and Inventories, Ecology, Ecosystems, Long-term Research in Environmental Biology, and Long-term Ecological Research Sites. This activity is an extension of, and builds upon, NSF's Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. Proposals received by January 15 will be considered for awards to start in September.

The intent of this activity is to provide support for talented students to gain research experience and an enriched educational environment in environmental biology. Proposed projects should include major emphasis on direct student participation in research during the academic year and summer, with individual students continuing in the program for more than one year. Projects should emphasize factors that encourage and enable members of underrepresented groups to enter and remain in environmental biology, as broadly defined above. 

The UMEB activity will consider proposals from any institution that has at least three currently funded or recently expired (no earlier than January 15, 1997) multi-year research awards (excluding Small Grants for Exploratory Research; equipment, planning, travel, symposium, facilities, and training grants; and supplements or fellowships) from DEB and/or from the Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology, Integrative Plant Biology, Integrative Animal Biology, and/or Animal Behavior Programs in IBN. Institutions submitting collaborative proposals must have, collectively, a total of at least three such awards, and must describe logistical arrangements for coordination.

For more information about the UMEB activity and for details about proposal submission, please consult NSF 98-157, which is available at <www.nsf.gov>. For inquiries, please contact Thomas M. Frost, Program Director, Division of Environmental Biology [e-mail: tfrost@nsf.gov]; or Fred Stollnitz, Program Director, Integrative Biology and Neuroscience [e-mail: fstollni@nsf.gov] at 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230.

Research on Skeletal Growth and Development

The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHH), the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR), and the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) encourage investigator-initiated research grant applications to study axial, appendicular, and craniofacial skeletal growth and development.

Applications are encouraged to study skeletal growth and development from the perspectives of mechanisms of pattern formation, cartilage induction, endochondral ossification, intramembranous bone formation, biomechanics, and the clinical treatment of related disorders. The current Program Announcement (PA) is the direct outgrowth of a workshop on the status of, and future research directions on, Skeletal Growth and Development, held in May, 1997. A detailed description of the proceedings and suggested research topics can be found in Skeletal Growth and Development: Clinical Issues and Basic Science Advances, which can be obtained from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Chicago, IL.

Applications are encouraged in any scientifically meritorious research area related to skeletal growth and development. Research applications are encouraged from all basic science disciplines pertinent to this area, as well as the various clinical specialties providing health care services for these patients.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to: James S. Panagis, Orthopaedics Program, NIAMS, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37K, MSC 4500, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: panagisj@ep.niams.nih.gov]; A. Tyl Hewitt, Developmental Biology, Genetics and Teratology Branch, NICHH, 6100 Executive Blvd, Rm 4B01F, MSC-7510, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 [301-496-5541; fax: 301-402-4083; e-mail: th119v@nih.gov]; Norman Braveman, Inherited Diseases and Disorders, NIDR, 45 Center Dr., Room 4AN-24D, MSC 6500, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-2089; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: bravemann@de45.nidr.nih.gov]; or Ronald N. Margolis, Senior Advisor for Molecular Endocrinology, NIDDK, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AN-12J, MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8819; fax: 301-435-6047; e-mail: rm76f@nih.gov].

The NEI Scholars Program

The National Eye Institute (NEI) Scholars Program provides an opportunity for outstanding individuals to obtain laboratory or clinical research training within the NEI intramural environment and to facilitate the successful transition to continue their research career at an extramural institution as independent vision researchers. Scholars receive high quality research training for three to four years at the NEI, followed by two years at an extramural institution. It is anticipated that NEI Scholars will subsequently compete for independent funding to continue their research.

Individuals must have a research or health professional doctoral level degree or its equivalent and must have demonstrated the potential for a highly productive research career during predoctoral training and less than five years of postdoctoral training. However, clinical training does not count against the five years.

During the intramural phase, the NEI Scholar is expected to spend full time on research. During the extramural phase, the NEI Scholar must spend a minimum of 75% of a full-time professional effort conducting research and engaging in research career development activities for the two years of the award.

Before submitting an application for the NEI Scholars Program, the candidate must identify an individual in the NEI's Division of Intramural Research who will serve as the sponsor and will be committed to supervise the training and research project. The sponsor must be an active investigator in the area of the proposed research and have research training experience and the resources needed to support the NEI Scholar.

Application receipt dates are Feb. 1, June 1, and Oct. 1 of each year. Address inquiries regarding extramural programmatic issues to: Maria Y. Giovanni, Div. of Extramural Research, NEI, 6120 Executive Blvd, Suite 350, MSC 7164, Bethesda, MD 20892-7164 [301-496-0484; fax: 301-402-0528; e-mail: myg@nei.nih.gov]. Address inquires regarding intramural issues, such as selecting a sponsor, to: Frederick Ferris, Div. of Biometry & Epidemiology [301-496-6583; e-mail: flf@b31.nei.nih.gov]; Peter F. Kador, Lab. of Ocular Therapeutics [301-496-6993; e-mail: Pk1p@nei.nih.gov]; Muriel I. Kaiser, Ophthalmic Genetics & Clinical Services Branch [301-496-3577; e-mail: Kaiserm@intra.nei.nih.gov]; Robert B. Nussenblatt, Lab. of Immunology [301-496-3123; e-mail: rnq@helix.nih.gov]; Joram Piatigorsky, Lab. of Molecular & Developmental Biology [301-496-9467; e-mail: joramp@intra.nei.nih.gov]; Scott M. Whitcup, Clinical Branch [301-496-9058; e-mail: scottw@helix.nih.gov]; Robert H. Wurtz, Lab. of Sensorimotor Research [301-496-7170; e-mail: bob@lsr.nei.nih.gov]; Barbara N. Wiggert, Lab. of Retinal Cell & Molecular Biology [301-496-5809; e-mail: bnwigg@helix.nih.gov]; or J. Samuel Zigler, Lab. of Mechanisms of Ocular Diseases [301-496-6669; e-mail: szigler@helix.nih.gov].

Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award

The Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award (FIRCA) is available to facilitate collaborative research between U.S. biomedical scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health and investigators in the developing world. Central and Eastern Europe, and countries of the former Soviet Union. The FIRCA will extend and enhance the research program of both the U.S. scientist and the collaborating foreign scientist and will help to increase the research capacity of the foreign scientist and institution. Awards are made to the U.S. applicant institution to support a collaborative research project that will be carried out mainly at the foreign collaborator's research site. Eligible countries include those in the following regions: Africa, Asia (except Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), Central and Eastern Europe (Hungary, Poland, the Czech and Slovak Republics, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and the countries of the former Yugoslavia), Russia and the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the Pacific Ocean Islands (except Australia and New Zealand).

These small grants will provide up to $32,000 per year in direct costs for up to three years. Funds may be used for materials and supplies necessary to conduct the collaborative research in the foreign laboratory or site and for travel directly related to the research project. Receipt dates for completed applications are November 25, March 25, and July 25. Direct inquiries to: Dr. Kathleen Michels, Div. of International Research & Training, Fogarty International Ctr, Bldg 31, Rm B2C39, MSC 2220, Bethesda, MD 20892-2220 [301-496-1653; FAX: 301-402-0779; e-mail: FIRCA@nih.gov].

Bioengineering Research Grants

Participating Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health invite applications for Bioengineering Research Grants (BRG) to support basic bioengineering research, the outcomes of which are likely to advance health or health-related research within the mission of the NIH. BRG applications should propose to apply basic bioengineering design-directed or hypothesis-driven research to an important medical or biological research area.

The objective of this program announcement is to encourage research in basic bioengineering areas. Bioengineering is defined as follows: Bioengineering integrates physical, chemical, or mathematical sciences and engineering principles for the study of biology, medicine, behavior, or health. It advances fundamental concepts, creates knowledge from the molecular to the organ systems level, and develops innovative biologics, materials, processes, implants, devices, and informatics approaches for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, for patient rehabilitation, and for improving health.

Address inquiries to: Carol Dahl, NCI, Bldg 31, Rm 11A03, MSC 2590, Bethesda, MD 20892-2590 [301-496-1550; fax: 301-496-7807; e-mail: carol_dahl@nih.gov]; Richard Dubois, Biomedical Technology, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 61060, MSC 7965, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0755; fax: 301-480-3659; e-mail: rickard@ncrr.nih.gov]; Lore Anne McNicol, NEI, 6120 Executive Blvd, Suite 350, MSC 7164, Bethesda, MD 20892-7164 [301-496-5301; fax: 301-402-0528; e-mail: loreanne.mcnicol@nei.nih.gov]; John T. Watson, Acting Deputy Director, NHLBI, 9000 Rockville Pike, Rm 5A49, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-1078; fax: 301-402-3686; e-mail: jw53f@nih.gov]; Evan Hadley, Geriatrics, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 3E327, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-435-3044; fax: 301-402-1784; e-mail: hadleye@exmur.nia.nih.gov]; Jules Selden, Div. of Basic Research, NIAAA, 6000 Executive Blvd, Suite 402, MSC 7003, Bethesda, MD 20892-7003 [301-443-2678; fax: 301-594-0673; e-mail: js365c@nih.gov]; Vicki Seyfert, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 4A21, Rockville, MD 20852, [301-496-7551; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail: vs62y@nih.gov]; James S. Panagis, Musculoskeletal Diseases Branch, NIAMS, 6500 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37K, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: jp149d@nih.gov]; Louis A. Quatrano, National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, NICHH, Bldg 61E, Rm 2A03, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 [301-402-2242; fax: 301-402-0832; e-mail: quatranl@hd01.nichd.nih.gov]; Thomas G. Aigner, Div. of Basic Research, NIDA, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 10A-19, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-6975; fax: 301-594-6443; e-mail: ta17r@nih.gov]; Lynn E. Huerta, Div. of Human Communication, NIDOC, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 400-C, MSC 7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [301-402-3458; fax: 301-402-6251; e-mail: Lynn_ Huerta@nih.gov]; Richard Farishian, Office of Scientific Program & Policy Analysis, NIDDK, 31 Center Dr., Rm 9A07, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-6623; fax: 301-480-6741; e-mail: rf24s@nih.gov]; Eleni Kousvelari, Div. of Extramural Research, NIDR, Natcher Bldg, Rm 4AN 18A, MSC 6402, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2427; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: kousvelari@de45.nidr.nih.gov]; Warren Jones, Div. of Pharmacology, Physiology & Biological Chemistry, NIGMS, 45 Center Dr., Rm 2AS-43H, MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-5938; fax: 301-480-2802; e-mail: jonesw@nigms.nih.gov]; Michael F. Huerta, Div. of Basic & Clinical Neuroscience Research, NIMH, Parklawn Bldg, Rm 11-103, Rockville, MD 20857 [301-443-3563; fax: 301-443-1731; e-mail: mhuerta@helix.nih.gov]; William Heetderks, Div. of Stroke, Trauma, & Neurodegenerative Disorders, NINDS, Federal Bldg, Rm 8A13, Bethesda, MD 20892-9155 [301-496-9155; fax: 301-402-1501; e-mail: Heet@nih.gov]; or Peter Clepper, Program Officer, NLM, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20871 [301-594-4882; fax: 301-402-2952; e-mail: clepper@nlm.nih.gov].

Small Grant Program for the NIAMSD

The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) is seeking small grant applications to stimulate and facilitate the entry of promising new investigators into high priority areas of NIAMS research. Applications are especially encouraged from new investigators who hold a faculty position at an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) or at other institutions that have student populations consisting predominantly of individuals from racial or ethnic groups that are underrepresented in science. This one-time solicitation will provide support for pilot research likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant.

Appropriate research areas may include, but are not limited to, the following: * studies of vasculitis and vasculopathies in animal models of rheumatic diseases, with emphasis on identification of pathogenetic mechanisms and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention; * mechanisms of self-recognition in autoimmunity and design of therapies to prevent abnormal responses to self by affecting antigen processing; * stem cell biology as related to skin, cartilage, bone, and muscle; * growth and repair of connective tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, tendon, ligament, muscle, and the intervertebral disc; * response of connective tissue to repetitive stresses, including healing/repair, a better understanding of the relationship at the biological and biomechanical interface, and the development and validation of suitable animal models; * models and markers of gender and genetic factors in musculoskeletal injuries and diseases, including animal models of human disease; * pathogenesis of alopecia areata and vitiligo.

Direct inquiries to one of the following persons, according to scientific area: Susana A. Serrate-Sztein, Rheumatic Diseases, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37G, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5032; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: SzteinS@ep.niams.nih.gov]; Bernadette Tyree, Cartilage & Connective Tissue, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37J, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5032; fax: 301-594-4543; e-mail: TyreeB@ep.niams.nih.gov]; Richard W. Lymn, Muscle Biology, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-49E, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5128; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: LymnR@ep.niams.nih.gov]; James S. Panagis, Orthopedics, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37K, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-594-4543; e-mail: PanagisJ@ep.niams.nih.gov]; Alan N. Moshell, Skin Diseases, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-25L, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5017; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: MoshellA@ep.niams.nih.gov]; William J. Sharrock, Bone Biology, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37A, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: SharrocW@ep.niams.nih.gov]; Joan McGowan, Bone Diseases, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-43E, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail: McgowanJ@ep.niams.nih.gov]. Applications must be received by January 22, 1999.

ACLAM Grants Available

Request for Proposals (RFP) from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) Foundation: "On behalf of the ACLAM membership and the Foundation Committee, I am pleased to announce the solicitation of research proposals in Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine. The deadline for pre-proposals is February 2, 1999, with one-year grants awarded early in July, 1999. The ACLAM Foundation funds research projects that will expand the body of knowledge in the fields of laboratory animal science and medicine. Up to five research grants could be funded this year in the following subjects: analgesia/anesthesia; animal behavior/ well-being; diagnostics/diseases of laboratory animals; husbandry; and (refining models or techniques in) toxicology.

"While researchers in every nation are encouraged to apply, proposals must come from investigators with doctoral-level degrees. To read or print a copy of the RFP, visit the ACLAM home page <www.aclam.org>. The RFP information is listed under the title, ACLAM Foundation RFP. You can also read about the currently funded grants in ACLAM Foundation Grant News. For other questions, please contact: Dr. Martin Morin, Chairman, ACLAM Foundation, 208 Byford Dr., Chestertown, MD 21620 [410-810-1870; fax: 410-810-1869; e-mail: morinasc@skipjack.bluecrab.org]."

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities

Orangutan and Rain Forest Research

The Board of Directors of Orangutan Foundation International (OFI) has established the Lorriane P. Jenkins Memorial Fellowship, named in memory of OFI Vice President Gary Shapiro's mother, which will finance students who are ready to enter the field to conduct research on orangutan behavior or ecology. The fellowship will be competitive, and a committee will be established to evaluate merits of the submitted applications. For information, contact OFI, 822 S. Wellesley Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90049 [e-mail: redape@ns.net]; or see <www.ofi.net>].

MSc in Wild Animal Health

Applications are invited from the European Community or overseas graduates in veterinary or relevant sciences for a 12-month MSc course in wild animal health, beginning October, 1999. The course includes practical and theoretical instruction in the husbandry and nutrition of wild animals, taxonomy, population biology, conservation genetics, utilization of wildlife, welfare and ethical aspects, epidemiology, immunology, infectious and non-infectious diseases, disease investigation, therapeutics, imaging, and preventive medicine, together with an individual research project. Training will be given by staff at The Royal Veterinary College (University of London) and the Institute of Zoology (Zoological Society of London), as well as by invited speakers from other veterinary and zoological centers. Full particulars and an application form are available from the Head of Registry or Dr. M. T. Fox, The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK [+44 171 468 5000; fax: +44 171 388 2342]. - From Neotropical Primates, 1998, 6[3]

Fyssen Foundation 1999-2000 Fellowships

The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." The Fyssen Foundation awards grants of up to 120,000 FF per year for the training and support of postdoctoral researchers under 35 years of age, working on topics in keeping with the goals of the Foundation, which wishes to support, particularly, research in such fields as: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes, their embryonic and post-natal development, and their elementary mechanisms. Anthropology-Ethnology: Cognitive aspects of the representations of natural and cultural environments; analysis of their construction principles and transfer mechanisms; analysis of forms of social organization and their technological systems. Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.

Fellowships will be given to French scientists to work abroad and to foreign scientists to work in French laboratories. Application forms can be obtained from the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France. Deadline for receipt of applications is March 31, 1999.

Summer Course in Animal Behavior

Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta present a four-week field course in animal behavior from June 15th-July 11, 1999. The course takes place in Atlanta (4 days at the zoo), South Africa (2 days), and Kenya (20 days) and is worth 6 quarter-hour credits in psychology.

The priority of the course is to provide intensive instruction in animal behavior and observational methodology. In Atlanta students are taught data collection methods and the behavior of East African mammals by a vareity of zoo, academic and field scientists. Students then use this information in Africa to conduct daily observations on a variety of species. Observations are conducted in both national parks and private reserves, which permits students to compare the behavior of a single species across settings. Students also use the comparative psychology approach to examine behavior across closely-related taxa. Daily observations are supplemented by readings, discussions, and lectures by field scientists. The course also places a strong emphasis on conservation, and students read about and discuss many issues related to conservation in Africa.

Spaces are limited to 12 students. The approximate cost of the course is $6100 and applications are due by February 15, 1999. The course will be taught by Dr. Debra Fortham, Director of Field Conservation at Zoo Atlanta. There are no prerequisites, although a background in psychology, biology, or anthropology is helpful. For additional information and an application, contact Tara Stoinski, Research Dept., Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, Atlanta, GA 30315 [404-624-5826; e-mail: stoinskit@mindspring.com]. - From ABSnet, 1998, 4[38]

Biology of Aging Scholarships

The American Federation for Aging Research is offering up to 25 three-month scholarships for research on any topic related to the biology of aging. Medical and PhD students are eligible for these $5,500 scholarships. The deadline for receipt of applications is February 26, 1999. A brochure and application form are available from AFAR, 1414 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019 [212-752-2327; fax: 212-832-2298; e-mail: Amfedaging@aol.com], or see <www.afar.org>

Animal Behavior at Indiana University

The Program in Animal Behavior at Indiana University seeks outstanding candidates for training in animal behavior that combines approaches from biology, neuroscience, and psychology. Postdoctoral candidates should apply by March 1st for a one-year position with the possibility of funding for two years. Predoctoral candidates should apply by Jan. 15th for fall 1999. Inquiries to the Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior, 402 N. Park, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 [812-855-9663; fax: 812-855-0411; e-mail: lisummer@indiana.edu]; or see <www.cisab.indiana.edu>. Applications by minorities and women are encouraged. AA/EOE. U.S. citizenship is not required. - From ABSnet, November 12, 1998, 4[39]

Graduate Studies in Animal Welfare, BC, Canada

The University of British Columbia's Program in Animal Welfare is creating research and training opportunities for students interested in pursuing graduate studies in Animal Welfare. We are looking for science students, especially with backgrounds in animal behavior, to conduct behavioral or related research on farm, laboratory, companion, or wild animals directed at significant animal welfare issues.

We accept a small number of students each year, all with a strong academic background plus a proven aptitude for research. Students with an NSERC post-graduate scholarship will receive an additional $3000 Canadian/year. Science students accepted into the Animal Welfare Program without scholarship support are normally offered a competitive stipend (currently $16,500 Canadian/year). International students are also normally offered a tuition scholarship. We also encourage inquiries from post-doctoral scholars with a strong interest in animal welfare and an outstanding aptitude for research and team-work.

For more information, write to Dan Weary [e-mail: danweary@interchange.ubc.ca] or David Fraser [e-mail: fraserd@interchange.ubc.ca], or see <www.interchange.ubc.ca/agsci/animalsci/chair.html> - From ABSnet, 1998, 4[42]

AFAR Scholarships in the Biology of Aging

The American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR) and the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research announce the Glenn/AFAR Scholarships for research in the biology of aging. This program, for both M.D. and Ph.D. students, provides up to 25 grants for three-month projects related to the basic sciences and aging. The deadline for receipt of applications is February 26, 1999. For applications and more information, contact AFAR, 1414 Ave of the Americas, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10019 [212-752-2327; fax: 212-832-2298; e-mail: amfedaging@aol.com] or see <http://www.afar.org>.

* * *

Volunteer Opportunity

Primate Care Volunteer - Texas

The Texas Snow Monkey Sanctuary (TSMS) is seeking a volunteer primate keeper for a minimum of two months. Duties will include cleaning cages, feeding animals, monitoring health of animals, grounds work, and animal census work as well as occasional computer work. Housing and ground transportation will be provided. They are looking for a person who is hardworking and dedicated, with a willingness to learn and respect for the animals. Some knowledge of computer applications such as Word, Excel, and Access would also be helpful. TSMS also requires certain medical tests to ensure the health of the animals. Contact Tanya Bell - Site Manager, Texas Snow Monkey Sanctuary, P.O. Box 702, Dilley, Texas 78017 [830-378-5775; fax : 830-378-5881; e-mail: chango@vsta.net].

Note: The South Texas climate can be extreme. Volunteers should be aware that it can be extremely hot in the summer and cold in the winter. Since most of their work will be outdoors, they need to be prepared for the climate.

* * *

Address Changes

American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Executive Offices, 8403 Colesville Rd, Suite 710, Silver Spring, MD 20910

David Cappelli, Department of Periodontics, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284.

Janice Dubois, P.O. Box 1307, Charlestown, RI 02813-0905.

Jan Mabry, Bldg 15 MS F33, 4770 Buford Hwy, Chamblee, GA 30341-3717.

Preston A. Marx, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433.

Nirah Shomer, Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University, P.O. Box 208016, New Haven CT 06520.

* * *

Positions Available

Head, Division Of Veterinary Science, Louisiana

The University of Southwestern Louisiana New Iberia Research Center (USL-NIRC) is seeking applicants for the position of Head of the Division of Veterinary Science. The USL-NIRC is an AAALAC International-accredited facility housing approximately 6000 nonhuman primates of 12 different species, including great apes. It provides resources for the conduct of basic and applied research aimed at the solution of human health problems.

This is a senior level management position, reporting to the Director of USL-NIRC, responsible for overseeing three veterinarians and 15 veterinary technicians and assistant technicians. The successful candidate will be responsible for developing and implementing programs for the provision of comprehensive veterinary care in compliance with NIH guidelines and with federal, state, and accreditation requirements for preventive medicine and quarantine programs. Responsibilities include, but are not limited to, managing all phases of diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical care. The successful candidate is also expected to develop collaborative and independent research programs.

Qualifications include a DVM or equivalent degree from an AVMA-accredited school of veterinary medicine. Board eligibility or certification by ACLAM or ACVS is desirable. A minimum of 6 years of combined senior administrative and technical experience with nonhuman primates will be required. Management, interpersonal, writing, and communication skills are essential.

Candidates should submit a letter of application, a CV, and a list of three references to Thomas J. Rowell, Director, Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana New Iberia Research Center, 4401 W. Admiral Doyle, New Iberia, LA 70560.

Research Assistant, New York City

A highly motivated assistant is needed for a project investigating the cognitive abilities of rhesus macaques. Central topics include a monkey's ability to discriminate and order numerical stimuli, and to learn and recall arbitrary sequences composed of photographic stimuli. Responsibilities include running daily experiments with the help of a touch-sensitive video monitor that is positioned in front of the monkeys' cages, data analysis, preparation of digital stimuli, and record keeping. No handling of monkeys is required (or allowed). A description of the research can be found at <www.columbia.edu/cu/psych-ology/primatecognitionlab>.

Requirements are a college degree (BA, BS or equivalent), knowledge of computer operation (preferably with Macs), laboratory experience (preferably with primates), programming skills, a demonstrable interest in this type of research, and a commitment for two years. The starting salary will be commensurate with experience, plus benefits including free tuition for 8 points credit/semester.

To apply, send a resume, and any other information you think relevant, to Professor Herbert Terrace, 406 Schermerhorn Hall, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 [e-mail: terrace@columbia.edu].

Editor: Laboratory Animal Science

The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science seeks a distinguished professional to serve as editor of the Association's journal, Laboratory Animal Science (title to change to Comparative Medicine in 2000). Applicant must be currently active in the field. Additional qualifications include a significant record of published research in the field of laboratory animal science and comparative medicine, organizational and teamwork skills, tact and judgment. Editorial experience is desirable but not necessary. The editor will select an associate editor. Submit cover letter and curriculum vitae by February 16, 1999, to: Chair, LAS Editorial Board, AALAS, 70 Timber Creek Dr., Cordova, TN 38018.

Chimpanzee Caregiver, Ghana

The American-owned and operated Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Project and Sanctuary, in Ghana, West Africa, has an opening for an experienced chimpanzee caregiver. Duties include, but are not limited to, being the project curator, supervising, training, reporting, field observing, feed procurement, animal health care, enrichment, security, and caging improvements and repair. Qualifications for the position will include a required minimum two years direct care of and responsibility for chimpanzees, plus references and a time commitment. Accomodations will be in town. Write to Wallace W. Swett, Scientific Director, Friends of Animals Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Project and Sanctuary, 2600 Dull Knife Trail, San Antonio, TX 78255.

Facility Manager, Texas

Charles River Laboratories, a breeder of laboratory animals for biomedical research, is seeking a Facility Manager for their BRF/Houston site, to manage a 20-person staff and oversee a large colony of nonhuman primates. The successful candidate will have demonstrated management abilities and will be an effective communicator. Requirements include a BS in life sciences, LATG certification, and a minimum of three years experience with nonhuman primates. An in-depth knowledge of the laws and regulations pertaining to laboratory animal care is also required.

For consideration please forward resume to: Charles River Lab., Human Resources/DS-BRF, 251 Ballardvale St., Wilmington, MA 01887 [fax: 978-658-4150]. For more information, contact Patricia A. Mirley, Senior Technical Information Specialist, Charles River Labs, 251 Ballardvale St, Wilmington, MA 01887 [800-338-9680; fax: 978-658-7698; e-mail: pm@criver.com].

Charles River Laboratories, a Bausch & Lomb Company, is an Equal Opportunity Employer and offers comprehensive health benefits, competitive salaries, a 401(k) plan, and tuition reimbursement as part of our total compensation package.

Department Chair in Biological Sciences, Ohio

The College of Arts and Sciences at Ohio University invites applications for a Chairperson for the Department of Biological Sciences with research, teaching, and service credentials commensurate with the rank of full professor. The department seeks a scientist in any area of biology who meets the following criteria: * An active research program as indicated by a) a substantial and sustained history of publications and research funding from external sources and b) a consistent and productive record of directing graduate research. * The experience and ability to manage academic personnel in a manner that promotes their professional development and success. * Demonstrated ability to set and achieve specific goals for promoting instruction and research in the Department of Biological Sciences.

The Chair will have teaching obligations consistent with maintaining an active research program and providing leadership to promote the research, graduate, and undergraduate programs of the department. A competitive salary and research start-up funds are provided. Details regarding the Department of Biological Sciences can be found at <www.ohiou.edu/~biosdept/>.

Applicants should provide a curriculum vitae, a statement of research, and a statement of philosophy and goals of academic leadership. In addition to arranging to have three letters of reference sent to the Department of Biological Sciences, the applicant should provide the names, addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses of three other references. All materials should be sent to: Jean Witkowski, Department of Biological Sciences, Irvine Hall, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701. Review of applications will begin January 15, 1999. Ohio University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. - From ABSnet, 1998, 04[042]

* * *

Award Nominations

Fyssen Foundation 1999 International Prize

The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." The Foundation supports research in: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes, their embryonic and postnatal development, and their elementary mechanisms. Anthropology-Ethnology: Cognitive aspects of the representations of natural and cultural environments; analysis of their construction principles and transfer mechanisms; analysis of forms of social organization and their technological systems. Human Paleontology-Archaeology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.

An International Prize of 200,000 FF is awarded annually to a scientist who has conducted distinguished research in the areas supported by the Foundation. It has been awarded to Professors A. Leroi-Gourhan (1980), W. H. Thorpe (1981), V. B. Mountcastle (1982), H. C. Conk-lin (1983), R. W. Brown (1984), P. Buser (1985), D. Pilbeam (1986), D. Premack (1987), J. C. Gardin (1988), P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1989), J. Goody (1990), G. A. Miller (1991), P. Rakic (1992), L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1993), L. R. Gleitman (1994), W. D. Hamilton (1995), C. Renfrew (1996), and M. Jouvet (1997). The topic considered for the 1999 prize is Cognitive and Linguistic Anthropology. Nominations (along with a curriculum vitae, a list of publications, and a summary of the research of the candidate) should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France before October 30, 1999.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

The 11th National HIV/AIDS Update Conference will be held March 23-26, 1999, in San Francisco. For general inquiries and preregistration, contact KREBS Convention Management Services [415-920-7000; fax: 415-920-7001; e-mail: krebsconv@aol.com].

The Primate Society of Great Britain Spring Meeting 1999 will be held April 12-13, 1999, at Liverpool University. The theme will be "Social Complexity". For more information, or to offer a paper, contact Russell Hill, School of Biological Sciences, Nicholson Bldg, Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK [e-mail: rahill1@liv.ac.uk].

The Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine will hold its Fifth Biennial Conference June 12-16, 1999 in Key West, FL. The theme is "Tropical Diseases: Control and Prevention in the Context of 'The New World Order'". For information, contact Paul Gibbs, Conference Chair [352-392-5323; fax: 352-392-5685; e-mail: pgibbs@nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu]; or see

<www.ifas.ufl.edu/~conferweb/stvm.htm>.

The 38th Annual Symposium of the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science / L'association canadienne pour la science des animaux de laboratoire (CALAS/ACSAL) will be held June 26-30, 1999, at the Crowne Plaza Hotel, Winnipeg, Manitoba. The theme is: "Meeting the Challenges in the New Millenium: Protecting Your Animals and You". The program includes workshops, scientific sessions in laboratory animal science, a poster session, and an autotutorial section. The scientific sessions will include seminars on Occupational Health and Safety; Facility/Procedural Standards for Biosafety and Containment; Barrier/Containment Facility Design; Cage Level Containment/Isolation; and Working in Inclusion/Exclusion Facilities. Contact Dr. Don McKay, CALAS/ACSAL National Office, Biosciences Animal Service, CW 401 Bio. Sciences Bldg, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 [403-492-5193; fax: 403-492-7257; e-mail: dmckay@gpu.srv.ualberta.ca; or see <www.calas-ascal.org/>].

IX Congresso Brasileira de Primatologia, 25-29 July, 1999, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitco, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The theme of the congress is "Primate Conservation - Perspectives for the 21st Century". For further information, please contact: Sirgio Lucena Mendes, Museu de Biologia Mello Leitco, Avenida Josi Ruschi 4, 29650-000 Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil [027-259-1182; fax: 027-259-1182; e-mail: mendes@sigma.tropical.com.br].

The twenty-second meeting of The American Society of Primatologists will be held August 12-16, 1999, in New Orleans, LA, hosted by the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, as well as the Regional Primate Research Center, of Tulane University. For forms and more information, contact the local host, Margaret Clarke, Dept of Anthropology, Tulane Univ., 1021 Audubon St, New Orleans, LA 70118 [504-865-5336; fax: 504-865-5338; e-mail: mrclarke@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu]. For program information, contact Mollie Bloomsmith, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, SE, Atlanta, GA 30315-1440 [404-624-5990; fax: 404-627-7413; e-mail: mbloomsmith@mindspring.com]. Also see their Web site, <www.asp.org/asp1999/>.

The XVIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society (IPS) will be hosted by the Australasian Primate Society, President Mr. John Lemon, Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo, NSW, and held in Adelaide, Australia, 7-12 January, 2001. Mr. Graeme Crook is Chairman of the Organizing Committee. For more information, and to be put on the Congress Organizer's mailing list, write to: Conventions Worldwide, P. O. Box 44, Rundle Mall, SA 5000, Australia [+61 8 8363 0068; fax: +61 8 8363 0354; e-mail: satconv@camtech.net.au], sending your postal address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address.

The Spring C. L. Davis Symposium on the Diseases of Laboratory Animals will be held on Saturday, April 10, 1999, in cosponsorship with the Biologic Resources Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Chicago. The Biologic Resources Laboratory 2 x 2 slide collection will be available for review beginning Wednesday, April 7th at 8:30 a.m. along with 3,000 glass slides with histories and 66 videotapes of C. L. Davis lectures. The 2 x 2 collection includes 14,000 Kodachromes on laboratory animal diseases and management. Simulated Practical Examinations will be given by members of the senior staff on Friday, April 9th. For registration information contact the C. L. Davis office, 6245 Formoor Lane, Gurnee, IL 60031 [847-367-4359]; or Dr. Artwohl [312-996-1217; e-mail: Jeart@uic.edu].

1999 Primate-Related Meeting Info

The Wisconsin RPRC maintains a calendar of international primate-related meetings on its Web site, Primate Info Net (PIN) <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin>. PIN Calendar meetings are also announced on Primate-Science. To list your meeting on the Calendar, please send * meeting/organizational name * dates * location * focus, * abstract deadline, and * complete contact information, including e-mail, fax, telephone, and Web address (if any). Remember that they also list workshops, seminar series and art or educational exhibits. Please send appropriate information and contacts to Larry Jacobsen, PIN Calendar Coordinator, 1223 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI 53715 [e-mail: jacobsen@primate.wisc.edu].

* * *

Information Requested or Available

New Nonhuman Primate Well-Being Report

The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates, the report of the National Research Council/Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Committee on Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates, is now available in pre-publication form. Seventeen eminent scientists and veterinarians were on the Study Committee, representing naturalists, zoo specialists, observers of animals in the wild and in captivity, people concerned with research uses of nonhuman primates, and people who provide veterinary care for the animals. The combined experience of the Committee was nearly 450 years! The 141-page document includes an executive summary, introduction, four chapters on general issues, chapters on requirements for five specific biological groups in the Primate order, and a final chapter on research needs. There are two example primate plans in Appendix 1 which illustrate application of the principles developed in the first four chapters. The Committee recognized that absolute standards or minimums are neither possible nor desirable because of the differences in each animal's history and needs, along with the variability among the institutions holding them. The book is available from the National Academy Press for $35 plus postage and handling [800-624-6242; or see <www.nap.edu>].

Environmental Enrichment Database

Viktor and Annie Reinhardt, of the Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, DC, have prepared, and made freely available, a database of information published from 1925 to 1998 on all aspects of the field of environmental enrichment for captive nonhuman primates. The 1190 entries include published articles, abstracts, book chapters, and books, as well as published photographs, slide sets, videotapes, and Web site information. All entries have been read by the authors to guarantee their relevance, and have been briefly annotated and indexed by 284 searchable keywords. Eleven percent of the entries have links to their full text documents. This is an ongoing project: new records will be entered on a regular basis and an attempt made to link as many entries as possible to their full texts. This database is available at <www.animalwelfare.com/Lab_animals/biblio/enrich.htm>

Primate-Science

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center has announced Primate-Science, an electronic discussion forum for those in the international primatological research community. Primate-Science is open to staff at research-based primate centers and laboratories worldwide. People in academic institutions or zoological gardens who are doing primate research are also invited to apply. The purpose of this list is the factual, science-based exchange of ideas and information about nonhuman primates. As they relate to primatology, the following topics are covered by this forum: * Biomedical Research * Primate Conservation * Primate Husbandry and Enrichment * Veterinary Medicine * Zoological Garden Research * Field Work Research.

You must have an electronic mail address and access to the Internet to participate in Primate-Science. To apply, fill out the Primate-Science application form at: <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/ps/pscientry.html> or request an application form by sending the message "Subscribe Primate-Science" to <primate-science-request@primate.wisc.edu>. For more information, contact Larry Jacobsen, P-S Coordinator, Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3512; fax: 608-263-4031; e-mail: jacobsen@primate.wisc.edu].

Askprimate Lives!

Although Primate-Talk is no more, Askprimate, the Internet reference service of the Wisconsin RPRC Library and Information Service, will still attempt to find answers to your questions. Send e-mail to Larry Jacobsen, Askprimate Coordinator [jacobsen@primate.wisc.edu].

More New E-mail lists

The e-mail list "APES" (Apes and Primates, Education & Study) is for human primates whose interests lie with nonhuman primates. The main focus will be education and sharing of experiences of private primate caretakers. Signups for this list can be made from: <www.onelist.com/subscribe.cgi/APES>

primfocus discusses primate protection issues. To subscribe, send e-mail to <waste@waste.org> with the following command in the body of your e-mail message: "subscribe primfocus Your e-mail address". For more information, write to <ljhoward@erols.com> or <paulbog@jefnet.com>.

Noldus Forum, a discussion list for users of Noldus products, is available from <listserver@noldus.nl> Send the message "subscribe Noldus-Forum <your name>".

C. Cam Muir, of the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry at Simon Fraser University, has announced an e-mail discussion list set up as: "...a forum for the discussion of, and organization for, the inclusion of other apes into the Human Genome Project under the auspices of Human Genome Evolution." To subscribe, send e-mail to: <majordomo@sfu.ca> with the message "subscribe ape-genome".

Symposium on Biotelemetry

Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Biotelemetry, held in Marburg, Germany April 6-11, 1997, are available now. Information and order forms are available from Brigitte Knobl, University Clinic, Sleep Laboratory, Baldingerstr. 1, D-35033 Marburg, Germany [+49-6421-286436; FAX: +49-6421-285450; e-mail: knobl@mailer.uni-marburg.de]. The chapters correspond to the 12 sessions of the scientific program covering the following topics: Technologies for Biotelemetry; Optical Telemetry; Sensors in Telemetry; Telemedicine; Clinical Medicine; Sleep Medicine and Pneumology; Implantable Telemetry; ECG Monitoring and Processing; Blood Pressure Monitoring; Telemetry in Wildlife and Small Animals; Underwater Telemetry; Telemetry in Birds; Satellite Telemetry.

Looking for a Particular Book?

Scientific Books & Technical Books From Bree has reduced prices on many books. Included in their inventory are old and new books on science, natural history, evolution, and paleontology. They will also do free book searches and will help you sell a single book or a whole library. "We will offer a fair price and will consider consignment on large collections." Visit their Web site <www.auldbooks.com/bree/> or write to Books From Bree, 7795 SW Hall Blvd, Beaverton, OR 97008 [503-644-7218; fax: 503-641-2701; e-mail: Bree@auldbooks.com].

CRISP on the World Wide Web

Since July 1, 1998, the Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP) database has been accessible via the World Wide Web. The public is now able to access CRISP records dating from 1972 to the present through the NIH Commons at: <www-commons.dcrt.nih.gov>. The searchable CRISP database, which includes information regarding federally funded biomedical research projects conducted at universities, hospitals, and other research institutions, enables users to research scientific concepts, emerging trends and techniques, or identify specific projects and/or investigators.

Species.net

Quantum Conservation e.V. has set up a species-based information service, at <www.species.net>, intended to contain as much pertinent information as is currently available regarding captive and wildlife management of endangered species. The service will be available to all and, where necessary, will provide free Web space for people rather than just hyperlinks to existing Web sites. Richard Perron [e-mail: species.net@t-online.de] is interested in hearing your comments, suggestions and criticism. "This project is very small, but has a great potential to grow as more people and institutions submit their work. If you have something which you feel would enhance species conservation and that people should know about, then we would be delighted to hear from you."

Free Web Directory to Printed Periodicals

There is a new, easy way to search the Web for publications. <PubList.com> is a free on-line service that gives access to the most complete collection of information on the world's periodicals. It is a centralized source that links you to publisher's Web sites and numerous periodicals. You can order both current and backdated articles from this service. You can search for publication information by title, subject or keyword. There is also information on how to contact publishers, obtain rights and permissions, and receive documents. PubList.com obtains their data from R. R. Bowker's "Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory" and "Editor & Publisher International Yearbook". For more information, visit their Web site at <www.publist.com>. - Posted to CompMed by Ken Boschert

Grantmakers Electronic Proposal Processing System

The Grantmakers Electronic Proposal Processing System (GEPPS) Consortium has announced that they are now accepting grant information via the Web. The founding members of the consortium - the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) - are recommending that researchers use the system (located at <www.gepps.org>) to submit their coversheet information for proposals. The GEPPS Consortium is the first attempt by non-government research funding organizations to build a system that collects, reviews and manages scientific research proposals electronically.

"The accepting of coversheet information is the first step in the development of a system that will soon become the standard for electronic submission and dissemination of not-for-profit grant information," said Bob Beall, President of CFF. "Ultimately, the transition from a paper process to an electronic process will provide benefits not only to grantmakers such as CFF, but also to researchers and research administrators." In agreement, Dr. T. J. Koerner, Scientific Program Director at ACS, adds that "a standard electronic process significantly decreases the amount of work, time and money put in by researchers and granting organizations alike." - Posted to CompMed by Ken Boschert

Internet2 Abilene Project

Indiana University has been chosen to house the Abilene Network, which will serve as the backbone for Internet2. The Internet2's Abilene project was started by the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID). The Abilene Network will be the fastest and most advanced research and education network in the world when it begins in January, 1999, and will provide connections with other high-performance networks like the Backbone Network Service (BNS), which is the National Science Foundation's state-of-the-art system supported by MCI. Abilene will also support the Next Generation Internet (NGI), an initiative among federal research agencies. Any institution participating in the Internet2 project, through membership in UCAID, can use the Abilene network, which is funded by corporate and university sponsors, not by the government. For more information visit <www.ucaid.edu/abilene> or <www.internet2.edu>. - Posted to CompMed by Ken Boschert

Centerline on the Web

The Wisconsin RPRC's science newsletter, Centerline, including back issues, can be found at <www.primate.wisc.edu>. Just click on "About the WRPRC" and then on "Centerline." The upcoming Fall/Winter issue will feature an article on calorie restriction and aging studies. Look for it on-line in January.

USDA Readies Annual Reports for Internet

The annual reports submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture by research and other facilities regulated under the Animal Welfare Act (APHIS Forms 7023 and 7023A) will soon be available to the public on the Internet at <foia.aphis.usda.gov>. Reports for FY 1996 and 1997 were to have been up by November 1 and December 1, 1998, respectively. This year's reports will be added next summer once USDA's overall report to Congress is released. This is the second step in the Animal Care Program's efforts to make government information accessible electronically as required by Congress. Last March, summaries of animal welfare inspections were the first records available under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The actual reports for individual inspections (APHIS Form 7008) are expected to be posted next year at the earliest.

The full text of annual reports will be shown, including the written explanation for any animals reported in Category "E" (pain relief not administered for scientific reasons) and any exceptions to the regulations and standards approved by the IACUC. The database is to be searchable by institution name, registration number, and state. For technical and security purposes, the reports will be in "read-only" format, and it will not be possible to print them from the Web. However, the public can still obtain hard copies on written request as is currently possible under FOIA. In preparing the annual reports for posting, APHIS staff have attempted to identify possible proprietary information submitted in the written narratives. The National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) has heard from some research facilities that have been asked to provide justification for the exclusion of portions of their annual reports for proprietary reasons.

NABR suggests that member institutions mark any proprietary information submitted in future annual reports and alert APHIS, if such data was submitted previously, so that it will be excluded from disclosure. Other tips: fill out reports carefully - they are being scanned into the system so neatness counts. Although this is really nothing new, remember that written explanations for any Category E projects and IACUC-approved exceptions will be read by the public and should be clear and complete. Finally, it would be a good idea to check the APHIS FOIA Web site in November and December to see that your annual reports were scanned accurately. Should you have other questions or comments, please contact your Regional Director. - NABR Update Oct. 13, 1998, 19[19] 

Quote Without Comment

An exhaustive list of facilities receiving NIH dollars to conduct invasive primate research is available on-line at <www.enviroweb.org/cepe/Allthestudies.html> - From primfocus, an animal rights mailing list

ASKNIH Becomes GrantsInfo

ASKNIH, which provides information and guidance about the NIH extramural research and research training programs, has changed its name to GrantsInfo. Please update e-mail address books, publications, and other relevant materials. GrantsInfo processes voice-mail and e-mail orders for applications, other forms, and publications. Contact GrantsInfo, Office of Extramural Research, Division of Extramural Outreach and Information Resources, NIH, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Suite 6095, Bethesda, MD 20892-7910 [301-435-0714; fax: 301-480-0525; e-mail: grantsinfo@nih.gov].

New Resources from APS

The American Physiological Society (APS) has developed some new educational materials concerning animals in research. The first item is the brochure Questions People Ask about Animals in Research...With Answers from the American Physiological Society. It provides short essays answering questions such as; Why do scientists use animals in research? Do animals have rights? Are there alternatives to the use of animals? How are research animals protected? The brochure is available for viewing and downloading on the APS Web site at <www.faseb.org/aps/pubaff/animals/index.html>. APS will provide complimentary single copies of the printed brochure. Write to Alice Ra'anan, Public Affairs Officer, American Physiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814 [e-mail: araanan@aps.faseb.org]. Multiple copies of the brochure may be ordered for a nominal charge.

The second item is a new Guide to Internet Resources: Animals in Research and Education, at <www.faseb.org/aps/classroom.htm#resources>. This is a compilation of helpful Internet information sites and sources for teachers, students, and members of the general public interested in how animals are used in research and education. Among the Web sites listed are government agencies that oversee the use of animals in research; national organizations that address various aspects of animal usage; organizations providing guidelines for the use of animals in the classroom; state biomedical research societies; and a smattering of interesting and useful sites such as the Electronic Zoo. - Posted to CompMed

More Interesting Web Sites

* Professionals' Veterinary Site: www.e-vet.com

* Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments: www.frame-uk.demon.co.uk/index.htm

* "Just Another Medical Geography Page": members.xoom.com/mgdigest/medical_geography.html

* Discussion site for members of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees: www.scaw.com/forum.html

* Iowa State University Press Veterinary Medical books: www.isupress.edu/vetmed.html

* The macaques of Lopburi, Thailand users.nye.net/~macaque/lopburi1.htm

* Netherlands Centre for Alternatives to Animal Use: www.pdk.dgk.ruu.nl/nca

* Animal Law: www.animal-law.com

* Zoonotic diseases: omni.ucsb.edu/pro/policy.html

* American Committee on Laboratory Animal Diseases: www.rprc.washington.edu/aclad/index.html

* Wild Animal Rescue Foundation of Thailand: www.siam.net/war

* Annotated database on environmental enrichment: www.animalwelfare.com/Lab_animals/biblio/enrich.htm

* PSYchologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals: www.psyeta

* HMS Beagle, a Web magazine for biomedical research: biomednet.com

* Hardin Meta Directory page for Microbiology & Infectious Diseases: www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md

* International Species Information System: <www.worldzoo.org>

* Foundation for Biomedical Research: www.fbresearch.org

* Veterinary Parasitology Images Gallery: parasitology.icb2.usp.br/marcelocp/

* Walter Reed Army Institute of Research: wrair-www.army.mil

* Primate Society of Great Britain: www.ana.ed.ac.uk/PSGB

* A graphic representation of a complete primate phylogeny: skarstein.ibg.uit.no/frode/phyl.html

* Summary reports of USDA institutional animal facility inspections: foia.aphis.usda.gov/

* Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz: www.dbbm.fiocruz.br/www-mem

* Proceedings of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Training Exchange 1998 Meeting, held Aug 20-21 in St. Louis: netvet.wustl.edu/org/lawte/homepg.htm

* Malaria & Infectious Diseases in Africa (Paludisme et Maladies Infectieuses en Afrique): www.chez.com/malaria

* Primatologie (French Society of Primatologists): lnf.cnrs-mrs.fr/crnc/journals/primato/primatologie.html

* Measuring Behavior '98, Conference Proceedings: www.noldus.com/events/mb98/mb98.htm

* ProMed:www.healthnet.org/programs/promed.html

* Atlas of Medical Parasitology: www.cdfound.to.it

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Primatology Textbooks

Michelle V. Pratt, Eckerd College [e-mail: prattmv@eckerd.edu] asked the readers of Alloprimate for advice on finding a textbook for teaching primate studies to undergraduates. The following summarizes the responses she received. We will be happy to update this summary if we receive more nominees.

Alison F. Richard's Primates in Nature (1985) was suggested most often (four times). The Primate Anthology by Ciochon & Nisbett (1998), a collection of articles from Natural History on primate behavior, ecology, and conservation, was suggested twice. Linda Fedigan's Primate Paradigms, Claud Bramblett's Patterns of Primate Behavior and Introduction to Primate Behavior, Smuts et al.'s Primate Societies, and Fa & Lindberg's Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies were also suggested.

Books in publication, or in the process of being written, by Fuentes & Dolhinow (Mayfield Press, 1999?), Robert Sussman, Karen Strier, and Dean Falk were also offered as future options.

Finally, University of Chicago Press was recommended as a publisher that has a number of good books, and a search on <amazon.com> for "primate behavior textbooks" yielded 512 hits.

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News Briefs

Yerkes/Emory Settle OSHA Case

When the U.S. Labor Department's Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA, cited Emory University/Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center for ten safety violations and imposed a $105,000 civil penalty in connection with the December, 1997, death of an employee, the institution vigorously disputed the findings. Seven months later, Yerkes has negotiated a settlement with OSHA. In the settlement, OSHA dropped its charges that Yerkes willfully violated safety rules and did not have a referral system in place to assure employees prompt access to medical evaluation and care. Further, OSHA recognized that safety conditions and practices at Yerkes in no way caused or contributed to the injury or death of any individual. The civil penalty was reduced to $66,400.

"We appealed this case because OSHA cited us unjustly for safety violations, not because of money," said Yerkes Director Tom Insel. "We have now reached a settlement because the agency finally agreed to retract or amend its most serious charges. We feel that prolonging the dispute further, after two delays requested by OSHA, would serve little purpose. Yerkes takes its responsibility for safety of our employees seriously and has always worked in compliance with regulations and guidelines."

OSHA's six-month investigation began after Yerkes reported the death of a 22-year-old employee who contracted Herpes B virus when liquid from an animal she was moving splashed into her eye. Moving an animal was deemed a low-level risk activity by the CDC's biosafety working guidelines - guidelines that are followed by primate research facilities around the country. CDC did not require protective eyewear for low-risk activities. In proposing the original citations, OSHA failed to recognize that this tragic incident was the first case in which Herpes B virus was transmitted via ocular exposure. OSHA did not evaluate Yerkes' actions in accordance with the knowledge of the disease at the time of the incident. CDC will convene a working group in January, 1999, to revise the current guidelines.

In an interview with The Atlanta Constitution, the parents of the deceased employee indicated they will not sue Yerkes. They are planning to form a foundation in their daughter's name to assist graduate students working with primates. - NABR Update, 1998, 19[25]

Caribbean Center Hurricane Appeal

Hurricane Georges caused hundreds of thousands of dollars of damage to both the Cayo Santiago and Sabana Seca field stations of the Caribbean Primate Research Center. Donations are being solicited to assist with the rebuilding and restoration of research. While institutional contributions are of course welcome, individual donations are appreciated, too. For a minimum of U.S.$12, donors will receive a copy of the Cayo Santiago Macaques 1999 wall calendar, with pictures of the Cayo rhesus in action, suitable for framing.

All donations are tax-deductible and will be used to rebuild the CPRC. Send check or money order made out to Caribbean Primate Research Center - Univ. of Puerto Rico, RCM, and mail to: Caribbean Primate Research Center, Hurricane Relief, P.O. Box 1053, Sabana Seca, PR 00952-1083 [787 795 4035; fax: 787-795-8700].

Collection of Antique Prints in NYC

The American Museum of Natural History is presenting an exhibition: "Primates: The Jean Baulu Collection of Antique Prints", in New York City from December 21, 1998 to April 25, 1999.

Over the years, Jean Baulu, founder of the Barbados Primate Research Center and Wildlife Reserve, has amassed nearly 1500 prints of nonhuman primates, showing four centuries of scientific illustration. The exhibition has been organized by the Education and Public Programmes' Department of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, with funding from the Conseil des Arts de les Communauté Urbaine de Montreal and Heritage Canada.

Officers of the International Primatological Society

Two changes were made in the Officers of the Council of the International Primatological Society (IPS). A new Standing Committee for Education was created, and Dr. Sian Evans, Dumond Conservancy, Miami, FL, was appointed the first Chair, and first Vice-President for Education. Dr. Hilary O. Box, Reading University, UK, was appointed Interim Vice President and Chair of the Captive Care Committee, replacing Dr. Cobie Brinkman, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. - From Neotropical Primates, 1998, 6[3]

New Members, Officers for AAALAC-International

In July, seven officers and three new members were elected to the Council on Accreditation for the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, a private nonprofit organization promoting the responsible treatment of animals in science. The new Council officers are James F. Taylor (Director, Office of Animal Care and Use, NIH), Thomas M. Butler (Chairman, Dept of Lab. Animal Medicine, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research), Hilton J. Klein (Senior Director, Dept of Lab. Animal Resources, Merck Research Labs), Christine M. Parks (Director of Research Animal Resources, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison), Ralph B. Dell (Director, Inst. for Lab Animal Research), Douglas W. Stone (Assoc. Director, University Lab Animal Resources, Ohio State Univ.), and Robert M. Werner (Director of Lab Animal Resources, Florida State Univ.).

The new members of the Council are David DeLong (Veterinary Medical Officer & Chief of the Vet. Med. Unit, Veterans Affairs Med. Center, Minneapolis), Elizabeth A. Gard (Private Consultant), and Stephen T. Kelley (Head, Div. of Animal Resources, and Senior Veterinarian, Oregon RPRC).

Tropical Disease Research

TDR (Tropical Disease Research) has a new Director in Carlos M. Morel, a molecular biologist and until recently Head of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, of which he is a former President. Tore Godal, who has retired following 12 highly successful years as Director of TDR, is currently helping to manage the new WHO "Roll Back Malaria" initiative. - From the WHO/TDR Newsletter, October 1998, No. 57

Bonobo Birth at Apenheul

On September 17 Jill, a bonobo who came to Apenheul Primate Park, The Netherlands, from Yerkes RPRC about a year and a half ago, gave birth to a baby boy. It is Jill's first infant, the first bonobo birth at Apenheul Primate Park, and the fourth in The Netherlands. Mother Jill is doing a great job and seems to be a perfect mother. Apenheul currently houses a group of 11 bonobos. The birth took place within the group; Jill was not separated from the group at any time. - Announced on Alloprimate by Leo Hulsker

Emerging Infectious Diseases: United States

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has released the second phase of a plan to combat emerging infectious diseases. The plan, "Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century", provides a detailed description of CDC's effort to understand, detect, control, and prevent national and international emerging infectious diseases. This updated plan builds on some of the experiences, accomplishments, and knowledge gained since the implementation in 1994 of the first plan: "Addressing Emerging Infectious Disease Threats: A Prevention Strategy for the United States". The plan targets nine categories of problems that cause human suffering and place a burden on society, including antibiotic resistance, foodborne and waterborne diseases, and chronic diseases caused by infectious agents. A copy of the plan is available at <www.cdc.gov/ncidod/emergplan/>.

Animal Rights Crusader Henry Spira Dies

Henry Spira, one of the founding fathers of the American animal rights movement, died of esophageal cancer at his New York City home at the age of 71. Mr. Spira spent the last 25 years campaigning to limit the use of animals in medical testing, and advocating more humane treatment of farm animals. His campaigns against animal testing had a major impact on the scientific community by forcing the establishment of review boards to ensure that alternative testing was used when possible and that research animals were not being abused. The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) at Johns Hopkins University began with financing from the cosmetics industry that was negotiated by Mr. Spira.

While Mr. Spira will always be regarded as an animal rights activist, he clearly understood the need to work with opponents to find common ground, and he took a balanced approach to the animal rights movement. "Although we differed philosophically, Henry would engage in thoughtful, reasoned debate instead of the unscientifically based rhetoric spouted by other animal rights leaders who oppose any use of animals by humans. I viewed him as a worthy opponent, and considered him a friend whom I will miss," said National Association for Biomedical Research President Frankie Trull.

In the Jan./Feb. 1993 Foundation for Biomedical Research Newsletter, Mr. Spira said, "I think that the scientific community by and large is similar to the general population, where over 90 percent feel that it's important that we do everything we can to not harm animals."

He criticized the Animal Liberation Front's (ALF) destructive raids as counterproductive and commended Procter & Gamble for its efforts to reduce the use of animal testing. At the time of his death, Mr. Spira was mounting a campaign against McDonald's aimed at improving the conditions of the farm animals used by its suppliers. - From the NABR Newsletter, 1998, 19[17]

ISAR Founder Helen Jones Dies

Another longtime animal rights activist, Helen Jones, founder and past president of the International Society for Animal Rights (ISAR), died on August 14. According to ISAR's autumn 1998 newsletter, Helen Jones formed what is today named ISAR almost forty years ago, and from then until her retirement two-and-a-half years ago, she "... was an indefatigable fighter for the rights of all animals, opposing vivisection, factory farming, overpopulation, zoos, rodeos, circuses, hunting, and every other form of cruelty...." The ISAR article also credits and praises Ms. Jones for "articulating the difference between animal welfare and 'Animal Rights;' establishing the use of the term 'Animal Rights' through her involvement in various court cases; recognizing the role of law and lawyers in the fight for Animal Rights...and helping to establish 'standing to sue' for animals in federal and state courts." ISAR recently established a new internet Web site <www.i-s-a-r.com>. - From the NABR Newsletter, 1998, 19[17]

Arrests at Oregon RPRC

Five people were arrested on criminal trespass and disorderly conduct charges after attempting to blockade the entrance of the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center. A total of 25 protestors gathered at the Center to protest the use of animals in medical research. One of the demonstrators noted that the protest was originally scheduled for the previous week, but had been delayed to coincide with the visit of 24 scientists who were reviewing the Center and its activities for the National Institutes of Health. - From the NABR Update, 17 Sept. 1998, 29[17]

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Update on Daddy Clyde

We have received this photo of Clyde, the Fatherly Orangutan (see the LPN, 1998, 37[1]) from Betty Jo McDurfee, our San Diego orang-watcher. Clyde and his son Satu are sharing a nap.

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Top 14 Rules of the Laboratory

1. When you don't know what you are doing, do it neatly.

2. Experiments must be reproducible: they should fail the same way each time.

3. First draw your curves, then plot your data.

4. Experience is directly proportional to amount of equipment ruined.

5. A record of data is essential: it shows you were working.

6. To study a subject best, understand it thoroughly before you start.

7. To do an experiment really well, have your report done well in advance.

8. If you can't get the answer in the usual manner, start at the answer and derive the question.

9. If that doesn't work, start at both ends and try to find a common middle.

10. In case of doubt, make it sound convincing.

11. Do not believe in miracles - Rely on them !

12. Team work is essential. It allows you to blame someone else.

13. All unmarked beakers contain fast-acting, extremely toxic poisons.

14. Any delicate and expensive piece of glassware will break before any use can be made of it (Law of Spontaneous Fission). - Posted to CompMed 25 Sept. 1998, by Robert Grant

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Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)

Books

* Planning, Proposing, and Presenting Science Effectively: A Guide for Graduate Students and Researchers in the Behavioral Sciences and Biology. J. P. Hailman & K. B. Strier. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. 182 pp. [Price: $14.95, paperback]

* Minds of Their Own: Thinking and Awareness in Animals. L. J. Rogers. St. Leonards, NSW, Australia: Allen and Unwin, 1997. 224 pp. [Price: Paperback AU$17.95 (+ AU$5.00 postage & handling outside of Australia)]

* Not Only Roars and Rituals: Communication in Animals. L. J. Rogers & G. Kaplan. St. Leonards, NSW, Australia: Allen and Unwin, 1998. 240 pp. [Price: Paperback AU$19.95 (+ AU$5.00 postage & handling outside of Australia)]

* Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances. E. Strasser, J. Fleagle, A. Rosenberger, & H. McHenry (Eds.). New York: Plenum, 1998. [Price: $110 (USA and Canada), other countries add 20%]
. . . Contents: I. Naturalistic Behavior. Introduction by A. L. Rosenberger; Methodological issues in studying positional behavior: Meeting Ripley's challenge, by M. Dagosto & D. L. Gebo; Fine-grained differences within positional categories: A case study of Pithecia and Chiropotes, by S. E. Walker; Patterns of suspensory feeding in Alouatta palliara, Ateles geoffroyi, and Cebus capucinus, by D. J. Bergeson; Within- and between-site variability in moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) Positional behavior during food procurement, by P. A. Garber; Locomotion, support use, maintenance activities, and habitat structure: The case of the Tai Forest cercopithecids, by W. S. McGraw; The gorilla paradox: The effects of body size and habitat on the positional behavior of lowland and mountain gorillas, by M. J. Remis.
. . . II: Morphology and Behavior. Introduction, by J. G. Fleagle; Reconstruction of hip joint function in extant and fossil primates, by L. MacLatchy; Grasping performance in Saguinus micas and the evolution of hand prehensility in primates, by P. Lemelin & B. W. Grafton; Tail-assisted hind limb suspension as a transitional behavior in the evolution of the platyrrhine prehensile tail, by D. J. Meldrum; Unique aspects of quadrupedal locomotion in nonhuman primates, by S. G. Larson; Forelimb mechanics during arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism in Old World monkeys, by D. Schmitt.
. . . III: Data Acquisition and Analytic Techniques. Introduction, by E. Strasser; Advances in three-dimensional data acquisition and analysis, by J. Kappelman; Laser scanning and paleoanthropology: An example from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, by L. Aiello, B. Wood, C. Key, & C. Wood; Use of strain gauges in the study of primate locomotor biomechanics, by B. Demes; the information content of morphometric data in primates: Function development, and evolution, by C. E. Oxnard; Heterochronic approaches to the study of locomotion, by L. R. Godfrey, S. J. King, & M. R. Sutherland; Body size and scaling of long bone geometry, bone strength, and positional behavior in cercopithecoid primates, by W. L. Jungers, D. B. Burr, & M. S. Cole.
. . . IV: Fossils and Reconstructing the Origins and Evolution of Taxa. Introduction, by H. M. McHenry; Afropithecus, Proconsul, and the primitive hominoid skeleton, by C. V. Ward; Fossil evidence for the origins of terrestriality among Old World higher primates, by M. L. McCrossin, B. R. Benefit, S. N. Gitau, A. K. Palmer, & K. T. Blue; Ecological morphology of Australopithecus afarensis: Traveling terrestrially, eating arboreally, by K. D. Hunt; Time and energy: The ecological context for the evolution of bipedalism, by R. A. Foley & S. Elton; Heel, squat, stand, stride: Function and evolution of hominoid feet, by R. H. Tuttle, B. Hallgrimsson, & Tamara Stein; Evolution of the hominid hip, by C. Ruff.

Bibliographies

* Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates: An Annotated Bibliography for Animal Care Personnel, Second Edition. V. Reinhardt, A. Reinhardt & D. Seelig. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1998. [Free from Viktor Reinhardt, 605 Crescent Rd, Madison, WI 53711]

Bulletins

* ASP Bulletin, September 1998, 22[3]. [Janette Wallis, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73104-5020]

* Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin, Fall 1998, 9[1-2]. [National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 10301 Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351]
. . . Includes "Virtual surgery in veterinary medicine," by D. Thanki; and "Animal care: Safeguarding the welfare of America's animals," by J. Ambrosi (of APHIS).

* Comparative Pathology Bulletin, 1998, 30[3]. [Registry of Comparative Pathology, AFIP, Washington, DC 20306-0001]

Magazines and Newsletters

* Connection, September/October 1998. [AAALAC International, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
. . . Includes notes and a bibliography about facility design and renovation.

* Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1998, 1[4].

* Pongo Quest: Newsletter of the Orangutan Foundation International, Winter, 1997/98, 8[2]. [O.F.I., 822 S. Wellesley Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90049]

* PSYETA News, Spring 1998, 18. [Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Box 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297]

* Science and Animal Care, 1998, 9[2]. [WARDS, Inc., 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714]
. . . Includes "Thoughts of a working scientist: Basic ethics of animal research clear within scientific mission," by A. Morrison.

New Journals

* Primatologie, 1998, 1.
. . . Contents: The origins of the Simiiformes: Gordian knot or squaring the circle? By H. Thomas; Dating the neogene Old World anthropoid fossil record: Essential base for phylogenetic analysis, biogeography and palaeoecology, by M. Pickford; Fossil great apes and the origin of hominids: Myths and realities, by B. Senut; Vertebral column, fossil Hominoidea and orthograde posture: The prelude of bipedalism, by D. Gommery; Paleoprimatology, paleoneurology and paleophysiology: A chimera? by Jose Braga; Self-medication in the Great Apes: A multidisciplinary study of behavior, diet, and health, by M. A. Huffman, R. Elias, G. Balansard, H. Ohigashi, & P. Nansen; Learning by - and from - rhesus monkeys, by D. A. Washburn & D. M. Rumbaugh; Study of individual recognition in primates and birds with pictures as stimuli, by D. Domken & R. Zayan; Are real objects and their pictorial representation equivalent for baboons (Papio papio) ? by J. Martin-Malivel; Object categorisation and perception of abstract relationships in baboons, by D. Bovet; Comparative study of cooperation in primates, by R. Chalmeau; Preliminary study of cerebral aging in mouse lemurs by a spatial version of the delayed non-matching to sample task, by M. Dhenain, J.-L. Michot, A. Volk, C.-A. Gauthier, F. Boller, & J.-L. Picq; Age-related cognitive decline in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), by A. Lacreuse, J. G. Herndon, & M. B. Moss; Age-related effects on photoperiodic control of energy expenditure in a Malagasy prosimian, the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), by F. Aujard; Experimental approach of the therapeutics against VIH: Contribution of primate models, by R. Le Grand, B. Vaslin, & D. Dormont; The fantasy of the missing links, by R. Misslin; Presentation of the SFDP, by G. Germain; The role of zoological parks in primate conservation, by P. Moisson; Diagnosis and treatments in primates, by P. Lucciani; Primates for biomedical research: Discovery of a controlled supply of cynomolgus in Mauritius, by H. Maurin-Blanchet; and a debate by A. Kortlandt and C. Groves on "Pygmy chimpanzee, bonobo, or gracile chimpanzee: What's in a name?"

Proceedings

* Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Management of Wildlife Rescue Centers in South and Southeast Asia. Sponsored by the Republic of China's Council of Agriculture, 12-15 December, 1997. G. Agor-amoorthy, K. Pei, & V. Lin (Eds.). Zoos' Print, August, 1998, 13[8]. [Available free from G. Agoramoorthy, Pingtung Rescue Center for Endangered Wild Animals, National Pingtung Univ. of Science & Technology, P.O. Box 37-32, Pintung 91207, Taiwan, Republic of China]
. . . Contents include: The status of confiscated wild animals in Indonesia and the management of the Orangutan Rehabilitation Center in Kalimantan, by A. Susilo; Wildlife rescue and the management of Pingtung Rescue Center in Taiwan, ROC, by G. Agoramoorthy, K. Pei, & V. Lin; Management of Wildlife Rescue Center and problems associated with maintaining confiscated wild animals in the Philippines, by S. U. Toledo, J. L. De Leon, & M. S. Lim; Gibbon Rehabilitation Project of the Wild Animal Rescue Foundation of Thailand, by C. Tiyacharoensri; A new rescue center in an established zoo: The Arignar Anna Zoological Park, India, by R. P. S. Katwal; Establishment of a new zoo using rescued and confiscated wild animals: The Jungle Kingdom, a multi-dimensional conservation project, by Z. A. Shariff; Diseases, veterinary medical care and preventative medicines for wildlife in rescue centers with special reference to primates, carnivores and raptors, by S. Vellayan; Management of orangutans at wildlife rescue centers, by V. Ayathan; and Health and sanitation standards for gibbon studies, by A. Mootnik.

* Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Schistosomiasis, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 1997. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1998, 93[Suppl. 1].
. . . Available at <www.dbbm.fiocruz.br/www-mem>. There is no charge for access to the full text and illustrations of the articles.

* CHIMPANZOO: 1997 Conference Proceedings: Toward a Profile of the Aging Chimpanzee. V. Landau (Ed.). [Price: $17 plus $2 postage & handling from Chimpanzoo, Geronimo Bldg #308, 800 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 95721]
. . . Contents: Social interactions of a reintegrated hand-reared juvenile chimpanzee (P. troglodytes) at the Little Rock Zoo, by D. Brock; A model for the organization and leadership of a volunteer group, by H. Chesen; The glory and gore of going geriatric, by C. Fuller, M. Murphy, A. Morris, & M. O'Leary; Project Choice - year five - developing a symbolic communication enrichment activity, by J. E. Hamill-Strickler, P. Linder, & C. Barnett; Aging and captivity in chimpanzees: The life and times of Jodie and Kim, by M. J. Hartman; Taronga's matriarchs, by M. R. Hawkins; Parallel aging, by D. R. Iams; Profile of the aging chimpanzee: A qualitative approach to longevity in non-human primates, by E. Metelovski; Utilizing outdoor plantings for behavioral enrichment, by B. Roberts; Colonial Pipeline Co. Sphere Donation Program, by D. Roberts; Responsive care update from the Oakland Zoo, by A. Warner, J. Bitnoff, & K. McDonald; The impact of an exhibit change on the behavior of three adult chimpanzees: Part one, by G. Zuercher, H. Chesen, C. Herald, R. Hofelt, D. Woydziak, and E. Bowersox.

Reports

* Primate Report, July, 1998, 52. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . . Annual Scientific Report for the year 1997 of the German Primate Center.

Special Journal Issues

* Biology and Conservation of New World Primates. H. O. Box & H. M. Buchanan-Smith (Eds.). Folia Primatologica, 1997, 68[3-5].

* Biology and Conservation of Prosimians. C. S. Harcourt, R. H. Crompton, & A. T. C. Feistner (Eds.). Folia Primatologica, 1998, 69[Suppl. 1].
. . . International conference held at the North of England Zoological Society, Chester, September, 1995.

* Primate Seed Dispersal. Joanna E. Lambert & Paul A. Garber (Eds.). American Journal of Primatology, 1998, 45[1].
. . . Contents: Primates as seed dispersers: Ecological processes and directions for future research, by P. A. Garber & J. E. Lambert; Evolutionary and ecological implications of primate seed dispersal, by J. E. Lambert & P. A. Garber; Seed dispersal by long-tailed macaques, by P. W. Lucas & R. T. Corlett; Lowland gorillas and seed dispersal: The importance of nest sites, by M. E. Rogers, B. C. Voysey, K. E. McDonald, R. J. Parnell, & C. E. G. Tutin; Seed handling by three prosimian primates in southeastern Madagascar: Implications for seed dispersal, by D. J. Overdorff & S. G. Strait; Variation in seed handling by two species of forest monkeys in Rwanda, by B. A. Kaplin & T. C. Moermond; Seed dispersal by Neotropical seed predators, by M. A. Norconk, B. W. Grafton & N. L. Conklin-Brittain; Forests without primates: Primate/plant codependency, by C. A. Chapman & D. A. Onderdonk.

Anatomy & Physiology

* Menopause in free-ranging rhesus macaques: Estimated incidence, relation to body condition, and adaptive significance. Johnson, R. L. & Kapsalis, E. (P.O. Box 420375, Summerland Key, FL 33042-0375). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 751-765.
. . . Data from two provisioned, free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques were used to estimate the probability that a juvenile female not only will survive to the potentially postmenopausal age of 25 years, but also will cease to experience menstrual cycles between 25 and 27 years. In these populations, less than 10% of juvenile females can be expected eventually to undergo the climacteric, and being in poor condition is strongly associated with being acyclic in old age.

Animal Models

* Immune response of chimpanzees infected with human mycoplasmas. Timenetsky, J. & Barile, M. F. (9716 Kensington Pkwy, Kensington, MD 20895-3519). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 463-468.
. . . Seven chimpanzees were inoculated intra-articularly with one of three Mycoplasma species. Three chimpanzees were inoculated with clinical synovial isolate 1620, one with type strain PG-21 of M. hominis, a fifth with clinical synovial isolate 2010B, the sixth with the type strain CO of Ureaplasma urealyticum, and the seventh with clinical isolate PI-1428 of M. pneumoniae. The synovial isolates induced intense antibody responses, the antibodies recognized more antigens, and the reactive antigens were distinct from the corresponding type strains. Chimpanzees infected with synovial isolate 11620, but not type strain PG-21, recognized antigens of molecular mass 223, 208, 168, 165, 155, 150, 142, 134, 115, 105, 52, 50, 45, 39, and 36 kDa. The chimpanzee infected with synovial isolate 2010B, but not type strain CO, recognized antigens at about 277, 237, 62, 47, and 43 kDa. The major antibody reactive antigens of M. pneumoniae isolate PI-1428 migrated at about 170, 90, 56, 40, 32, and 30 kDa. The reported biologic activities of antigenic proteins derived from these Mycoplasma species are reviewed.

* Genetic galactocerebrosidase deficiency (globoid cell leukodystrophy, Krabbe disease) in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Baskin, G. B., Ratterree, M., Davison, B. B., Falkenstein, K. P., Clarke, M. R., England, J. D., Vanier, M. T., Luzi, P., Rafi, M. A., & Wenger, D. A. (Tulane RPRC, Tulane Univ., 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 476-482.
. . . Krabbe disease is a severe disorder of the peripheral and central nervous system myelin caused by deficient galactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity. This autosomal recessive disease affects humans and animals, including rhesus monkeys. Cloning of the human and animal GALC genes opened opportunities for therapeutic trials using animal models. The clinical, pathologic, and biochemical features of affected rhesus monkeys are described.

* Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in cynomolgus monkeys: Changes in carbohydrate metabolism, skin glycation, and pancreatic islets. Litwak, K. N., Cefalu, W. T., & Wagner, J. D. (J. D. W., Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest Univ., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 172-178.
. . . It has been difficult to evaluate the effect of long-term hyperglycemia in a research setting because of the disease's slow progression. This study used streptozotocin (30 mg/kg of body weight, i.v.) to induce a state of chronic hyperglycemia in eight Macaca facicularis, and compared them with a matched control group. Seven of the eight treated monkeys required insulin therapy to avoid ketosis. After disease induction, all diabetic monkeys had significantly higher preprandial plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin values, compared with their baseline values or values for control monkeys. They also had abnormal responses to an intravenous glucose tolerance test and a significant increase in skin fluorescence over the course of the six-month study. Plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increased, but not significantly so, and were not significantly different from those in controls. Six months after disease induction, the monkeys were necropsied, and immunohistochemical staining for insulin in the pancreatic islets indicated that the diabetic monkeys had a significantly decreased amount of staining for the hormone. The percentage of islet insulin staining was significantly correlated with physiological responses to the postinduction intravenous glucose tolerance test in all monkeys. Because cynomolgus monkeys are well-characterized models of atherosclerosis, this model may be useful for determining mechanisms where-by diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular disease.

* A role for carbohydrates in immune evasion in AIDS. Reitter, J. N., Means, R. E., & Desrosiers, R. C. (New England RPRC, Harvard Medical School, One Pine Hill Dr., P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772-9102). Nature Medicine, 1998, 4, 679-684.
. . . Rhesus monkeys were infected with mutant forms of simian immunodeficiency virus lacking dual combinations of the 4th, 5th and 6th sites for N-linked glycosylation in the external envelope glycoprotein of the virus. When compared with sera from monkeys infected with the parental virus, sera from monkeys infected with the mutant viruses exhibited markedly increased antibody binding to specific peptides from this region and markedly increased neutralizing activity. These results demonstrate a role for N-linked glycosylation in limiting the neutralizing antibody response to SIV and in shielding the virus from immune recognition.

* Primate renal transplants using immunotoxin. Knechtle, S. J., Fechner, J. H., Jr., Dong, Y., Stavrou, S., Neville, D. M., Jr., Oberley, T., Buckley, P., Armstrong, N., Rusterholz, K., Hong, X., Tsuchida, M., & Hamawy, M. M. (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Wisconsin Hospital, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792-7375). Surgery, 1998, 124, 438-447.
. . . Major histocompatibility-complex mismatched renal allografts were performed in rhesus monkeys. Immunotoxin was given starting on the day of transplantation, with and without prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil for 3 days. T-cell subsets and alloantibody levels were measured by flow cytometry. The ability of treated monkeys to develop antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, and xenoantibody was measured. Histology of renal transplants was read in a blinded manner. Immunotoxin started on the day of transplantation resulted in prolonged allograft survival in all treatment groups. Graft loss between days 50 and 135 was most often due to interstitial nephritis. Later graft loss was due to chronic rejection. Monkeys had intact antibody reponses to alloantigen, tetanus, diphtheria, and xenoantibody. Their CD4 cells recovered gradually over 6 months.

Behavior

* Ordering of the Numerosities 1 to 9 by Monkeys. Brannon, E. M. & Terrace, H. S. (Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027). Science, 1998, 282, 746-749.
. . . A fundamental question in cognitive science is whether animals can represent numerosity (a property of a stimulus that is defined by the number of discriminable elements it contains) and use numerical representations computationally. Here, it was shown that rhesus monkeys represent the numerosity of visual stimuli and detect their ordinal disparity. Two monkeys were first trained to respond to exemplars of the numerosities 1 to 4 in an ascending numerical order (1 2 3 4). As a control for non-numerical cues, exemplars were varied with respect to size, shape, and color. The monkeys were later tested, without reward, on their ability to order stimulus pairs composed of the novel numerosities 5 to 9. Both monkeys responded in an ascending order to the novel numerosities. These results show that rhesus monkeys represent the numerosities 1 to 9 on an ordinal scale.

* Intertroop transfer and dominance rank structure of nonnatal male Japanese macaques in Yakushima, Japan. Suzuki, S., Hill, D. A., & Sprague, D. S. (ICAPB, Univ. of Edinburgh, West Mains Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 703-722.
. . . Data collected over 15 years from a wild population of Macaca fuscata yakui showed that intertroop transfer tended to maintain a linear, stable, and age-graded dominance rank order among nonnatal males irrespective of variation in troop size or composition. The cumulative effects of male transfers produce sociodemographic variation within a troop over time and sociodemographic diversity among troops in a local population. A key feature of intertroop diversity is that larger troops have a significantly greater proportion of young males than smaller troops. This diversity also creates the potential for intertroop variation in the severity of male competition and provides a range of options for transferring males.

* Social behavior of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) reared as home pets. Anaya-Huertas, C. & Mondragón-Ceballos, R. (R. M.-C., Inst. Mexicano de Psiquiatría, Div. de Neurociencias, Camino de Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan 14370, México, D.F., México). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 767-784.
. . . A study of the interactions between and within sexes in a newly formed captive group of spider monkeys reared as pets and unacquainted with each other, as a test of whether the monkeys were able to develop species-typical social relationships and constitute a cohesive group. Results suggest that spider monkeys, despite unnatural nurturing, behave normally.

Care

* Effects of selected behavioral enrichment devices on behavior of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Rooney, M. B. & Sleeman, J. (Dept of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 W. Drake Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80526). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1998, 1, 339-351.
. . . Devices such as cardboard boxes and paper bags containing food items, burlap rags, and willow and maple browse increased foraging, social play, and solitary play. Sedentary behaviors decreased. The devices did not statistically decrease the incidence of regurgitation/reingestation or coprophagy. The effects on agonism and manipulation of environment varied with the item.

* Catheter-tract infections in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with indwelling intravenous catheters. Taylor, W. M. & Grady, A. W. (I-20 Animal Med. Center, 5820 West I-20, Arlington, TX 76017). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 448-454.
. . . Catheter-tract infections in experimental animals can have devastating consequences on animal health and the functional lifespan of surgical implants. To measure the incidence of such infections in animals with exteriorized intravenous catheters in this facility and assess the effects of these infections on mean catheter lifespan, health records of 31 M. mulatta with a total of 53 catheters were reviewed. Such infections were diagnosed in 30.2% of cases.

Development and Aging

* Comparative perspectives on bimaturism, ontogeny, and dimorphism in lemurid primates. Leigh, S. R. & Terranova, C. J. (Dept of Anthropology, 109 Davenport Hall, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 723-749.
. . . Lemurids tend to grow rapidly over a short period of time compared to anthropoid primates of similar body size. Size variation among lemurid taxa arises primarily as a consequence of differences in rates of growth. Reduced growth periods preclude the evolution of sexual dimorphism through bimaturism - a sex difference in the length of the growth period - despite high levels of intermale competition. Selective factors related to seasonal variability of lemurid habitats play important roles in limiting the potential for the evolution of bimaturism. In general, existing ontogenetic or life history adaptations appear to restrict responses to sexual selection in male lemurids.

Disease

* Wild primate populations in emerging infectious disease research: The missing link? Wolfe, N. D., Escalante, A. A., Karesh, W. B., Kilbourn, A., Spielman, A., & Lal, A. A. (A. A. L., CDC, Mail Stop F12, 4770 Buford Hwy, Chamblee, GA 30341). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 1998, 4[2].
. . . Wild primate populations, an unexplored source of information regarding emerging infectious disease, may hold valuable clues to the origins and evolution of some important pathogens. Primates can act as reservoirs for human pathogens. As members of biologically diverse habitats, they serve as sentinels for surveillance of emerging pathogens and provide models for basic research on natural transmission dynamics. Since emerging infectious diseases also pose serious threats to endangered and threatened primate species, studies of these diseases in primate populations can benefit conservation efforts and may provide the missing link between laboratory studies and the well-recognized needs of early disease detection, identification, and surveillance.

* Shedding and transmission of baboon Herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP2) in a breeding colony. Eberle, R., Black, D. H., Lehenbauer, T. W., & White, G. L. (Dept of Infectious Diseases & Physiology, College of Vet. Med., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078). Laboratory Animal Science, 1998, 48, 23-28.
. . . Baboons in a captive breeding colony were monitored twice a year, and new additions were screened on arrival for shedding of HVP2 and serologic reactivity to the agent. For 128 animals tested over 1.5 years, shedding of infective virus was detected in 13 of 342 swab specimens, each representing shedding by a different animal. None of 31 wild-caught baboons added to the colony during this period were found to be shedding infective virus, despite 93.5% of them being seropositive for HVP2. In contrast, six of 18 adult baboons (all seropositive) transferred into the colony from another breeding colony were found to be shedding HVP2 either orally (3) or genitally (3). In addition, two of eight juvenile baboons in this shipment were found to be shedding virus in the oropharynx. Results suggest that, although venereal transmission of HVP2 occurs among adult animals, oral infection of young, sexually immature baboons is not uncommon.

* Enhanced T-cell immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine regimen consisting of consecutive priming with DNA and boosting with recombinant fowlpox virus. Kent, S. J., Zhao, A., Best,S. J., Chandler,J. D., Boyle, D. B., & Ramshaw, I. A. [Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research, P.O. Box 254, Fairfield, Victoria 3078, Australia]. Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 10180-10188.
. . . The induction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific T-cell responses is widely seen as critical to the developmentof effective immunity to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Plasmid DNA and recombinantfowlpox virus (rFPV) vaccines are among the most promising safeHIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, the immunity induced by eithervaccine alone may be insufficient to provide durable protectionagainst HIV-1 infection. We evaluated a consecutive immunizationstrategy involving priming with DNA and boosting with rFPV vaccinesencoding common HIV-1 antigens. In mice, this approach inducedgreater HIV-1-specific immunity than either vector alone and protectedmice from challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressingHIV-1 antigens. In macaques, a dramatic boosting effect on DNAvaccine-primed HIV-1-specific helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocyteresponses, but a decline in HIV-1 antibody titers, was observedfollowing rFPV immunization. The vaccine regimen protected macaquesfrom an intravenous HIV-1 challenge, with the resistance mostlikely mediated by T-cell responses. These studies suggest a safestrategy for the enhanced generation of T-cell-mediated protectiveimmunity to HIV-1.

* Vaccine protection against a heterologous, non-syncytium-inducing, primary human immunodeficiency virus. Robert-Guroff,M., Kaur, H., Patterson, L. J., Leno, M., Conley, A. J., McKenna, P. M., Markham, P. D.,Richardson, E., Aldrich, K.,Arora, K., Murty, L., Carter, L., Zolla-Pazner, S., &Sinangil, F. [Basic Research Laboratory, NCI, NIH,Bldg 37, Rm 6B03, Bethesda, MD 20892-4255]. Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 10275-10280.
. . . A demonstration of vaccine-induced protection of chimpanzees against laboratory-adapted and syncytium-inducing, multiply-passaged primary humanimmunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates, but not againstnon-syncytium-inducing, minimally passaged ones. Following challenge with such an isolate, HIV-15016, we obtainedcomplete protection in one of three chimpanzees previously protectedagainst low- and high-dose HIV-1SF2 exposures after immunizationwith an adenovirus-HIV-1MN gp160 priming-HIV-1SF2 gp120 boostingregimen. At challenge, the protected chimpanzee exhibited broadhumoral immunity, including neutralizing antibody activity. Theseresults demonstrate the potential of this combination vaccinestrategy and suggest that vaccine protection against an HIV isolateinfective to people isfeasible.

* A novel simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVdrl) pol sequence from the drill monkey, Mandrillus leucophaeus. Clewley, J. P., Lewis, J. C. M., Brown, D. W. G., & Gadsby, E. L. [Virus Reference Div., Central Public Health Lab., 61 Colindale Ave., LondonNW9 5HT, UK]. Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 10305-10309.
. . . The drill monkey has been shown by serology and PCR to harbor a unique simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVdrl). A pol sequence,amplified from uncultured peripheral blood cells, is most closelyrelated to the equivalent SIV sequences from the red-capped mangabey(SIVrcm), the sabaeus African green monkey (SIV-agmSAB), and thechimpanzee (SIVcpz) and to the human immunodeficiency virus type1 (HIV-1) sequence of humans. It is as yet unclear whether SIVdrlhas a mosaic genome like SIVrcm and SIVagmSAB, is a member ofthe SIVcpz/HIV-1 lineage, or represents a novel primate lentiviruslineage.

* Simian immunodeficiency virus replicates to high levels in sooty mangabeys without inducing disease. Rey-Cuillé, M.-A.,Berthier, J.-L., Bomsel-Demontoy, M.-C., Chaduc, Y., Montagnier, L., Hovanessian, A. G., & Chakrabarti, L. A. [L. A. C., Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, 455 First Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016]. Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 3872-3886.
. . . A serologic survey of primates living in a French zoo allowed identification of three cases of infection with simian immunodeficiencyvirus in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) (SIVsm). Viral isolates,which were designated SIVsmFr66, SIVsmFr74, and SIVsmFr85, wereobtained after short-term culture of mangabey lymphoid cells. Phylogenetic analysis of gag and env sequences amplified directlyfrom mangabey tissues showed that the three SIVsmFr were geneticallyclose and that they constituted a new subtype within the diverseSIVsm-SIVmac-human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) group. We could reconstruct the transmission events that likely occurredin 1986 between the three animals and evaluate the divergenceof SIVsmFr sequences since transmission. The estimated rate of mutation fixation was 6 103 substitutions per site per year, which was as high as the rate found for SIVmac infection in macaques. These data indicated that SIVsmFr replicated at a high rate in mangabeys, despite the nonpathogenic character of infection in this host. The viral load evaluated by competitive PCR reached 20,000 viral DNA copies per 106 lymph node cells. In addition, productively infected cells were readily detected in mangabey lymphoid tissues by in situ hybridization. The amounts of viral RNA in plasma ranged from 105 to 107 copies per ml. The cell-associated and plasma viral loads were as high as those seen in susceptible hosts (humans or macaques) during the asymptomatic stage of HIV or SIVmac infections. Thus, the lack of pathogenicity of SIVsm for its natural host cannot be explained by limited viral replication or by tight containment of viral production.

* Natural infection of a household pet red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) with a new simian immunodeficiency virus. Georges-Courbot, M. C., Lu, C. Y., Makuwa, M.,Telfer, P.,Onanga, R., Dubreuil, G., Chen, Z., Smith, S. M., Georges, A., Gao, F.,Hahn, B. H.,& Marx, P. A. [P. A. M., address same as above]. Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 600-608.
. . . A seroprevalence survey was conducted for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antibody in household pet monkeys in Gabon. Twenty-nine monkeys representing seven species were analyzed. By using human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)/SIVsm, SIVmnd,and SIVagm antigens, one red-capped mangabey (RCM) (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) was identified as harboring SIV-cross-reactive antibodies. A virus isolate, termed SIVrcm, was subsequently established from this seropositive RCM by cocultivation of its peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with PBMC from seronegative humans or RCMs. SIVrcm was also isolated by cocultivation of CD8-depleted RCM PBMC with Molt 4 clone 8 cells but not with CEMx174 cells. The lack of growth in CEMx174 cells distinguished this new SIVfrom all previously reported sooty mangabey-derived viruses (SIVsm), which grow well in this cell line. SIVrcm was also successfully transmitted (cell free) to human and rhesus PBMC as well as to Molt 4 clone 8 cells. To determine the evolutionary origins of this newly identified virus, subgenomic pol (475 bp) and gag (954bp) gene fragments were amplified from infected cell culture DNA and sequenced. The position of SIVrcm relative to those of members of the other primate lentivirus lineages was then examined in evolutionary trees constructed from deduced protein sequences. This analysis revealed significantly discordant phylogenetic positions of SIVrcm in the two genomic regions. In trees derived from partial gag sequences, SIVrcm clustered independently from all other HIVand SIV strains, consistent with a new primate lentivirus lineage. However, in trees derived from pol sequences, SIVrcm grouped with the HIV-1/SIVcpz lineage. These findings suggest that the SIVrcm genome is mosaic and possibly is the result of a recombination event involving divergent lentiviruses in the distant past. Further analysis of this and other SIVrcm isolates may shed new light on the origin of HIV-1.

* Shortening of the symptom-free period in rhesus macaques is associated with decreasing nonsynonymous variation in the env variable regions of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm during passage. Valli, P. J. S.,Lukashov,V. V., Heeney, J. L., & Goudsmit, J. [Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam,Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands]. Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 7494-7500.
. . . During six blood passages of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm in rhesus macaques, the asymptomatic period shortened from 18 months to 1 month. To study SIVsm envelope gene (env) evolution during passage in rhesus macaques, the C1 to CD4 binding regions of multiple clones were sequenced at seroconversion and again at death. The env variation found during adaptation was almost completely confined to the variable regions. Intrasample sequence variation among clones at seroconversion was lower than the variation among clones at death. Intrasample variation among clones from a single point in time as well as intersample variation decreased during the passage. In the variable regions, the mean number of intrasample nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions decreased from the first passage (5.26 102 0.6 102 per site) to the fifth passage (2.24 102 0.4 102 per site), whereas in the constant regions, the mean number of intrasample nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions differed less between the first and fifth passages (1.14 102 0.27 102 and 0.80 102 0.24 102 per site). Shortening of the asymptomatic period coincided with a rise in the Ks/Ka ratio (ratio between the number of synonymous [Ks] and the number of nonsynonymous [Ka] substitutions) from1.080 in passage one to 1.428  in passage five, and mimicked the difference seen in the intrahost evolution between asymptomatic and fast-progressing individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The distribution of nonsynonymous substitutions was biphasic, with most of the adaptation of env variable regions occurring in the first three passages. This phase, in which the symptom-free period fell to four months, was followed by a plateau phase of apparently reduced adaptation. Analysis of codon usage revealed decreased codon redundancy in the variable regions. Overall, the results suggested a biphasic pattern of adaptation and evolution, with extremely rapid selection in the first three passages followed by an equilibrium or stabilization of the variation between envclones at different time points in passages four to six.

* Characterization of simian-human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies from infected monkeys. Etemad-Moghadam, B., Karlsson, G. B., Halloran, M., Ying Sun, Schenten, D., Fernandes, M., Letvin, N. L., & Sodroski, J. [J. S., JFB 824, Dana-Farber Cancer Inst., 44 Binney St., Boston, MA 02115].  Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 8437-8445.
. . . We characterized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodiesfrom monkeys recently infected by molecularly cloned simian-humanimmunodeficiency virus (SHIV) variants. The early neutralizingantibody response in each infected animal was directed mainlyagainst a single epitope. This primary neutralizing epitope, however, differed among individual monkeys infected by identical viruses. Two such neutralization epitopes were determined by sequences in the V2 and V3 loops of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein, while a third neutralization epitope, apparently discontinuous, was determined by both V2 and V3 sequences. These results indicate that the early neutralizing antibody response in SHIV-infected monkeys is monospecific and directed against epitopes composed of the gp120 V2 and V3 variable loops.

* Diverse host responses and outcomes following simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 infection in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques. Kaur, A.,Grant, R. M.,Means, R. E.,McClure, H., Feinberg, M., Johnson, R. P. [R. P. J., NERPRC, Harvard Medical School, One Pine HillDr., P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772]. Journal of Virology, 1998, 72, 9597-9611.
. . . Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop immunodeficiency despite the presence of viral loads of 105 to 107 RNA copies/ml. To investigate the basis of apathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, three sooty mangabeys and three rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 and evaluated longitudinally for 1 year. SIVmac239 infection of sooty mangabeys resulted in 2- to 4-log-lower viral loads than in macaques and did not reproduce the high viral loads observed in natural SIVsmm infection. During acute SIV infection, polyclonal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity coincident with decline in peak plasma viremia was observed in both macaques and mangabeys; 8 to 20 weeks later, CTL activity declined in the macaques but was sustained and broadly directed in the mangabeys. Neutralizing antibodies to SIVmac239 were detected in the macaques but not the mangabeys. Differences in expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes or in the percentage of naive phenotype T cells expressing CD45RA and CD62L-selection did not correlate with development of AIDS in rhesus macaques. In macaques, the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 declined during SIV infection,while in mangabeys, they increased. Longitudinal evaluation of cytokine secretion by flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated lymphocytes revealed elevation of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon in a macaque and only interleukin-10 in a concurrently infected mangabey during acute SIV infection.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* What capuchin monkeys can tell us about the origins of hominid material culture. Westergaard, G. C. (NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). Journal of Material Culture, 1998, 3, 5-19.
. . . Capuchin monkeys are well-known for their extensive manipulative propensities, which rival those of chimpanzees. This report examines the production and use of tools by capuchins, with the aim of gaining insight into the origins of hominid material culture. It is proposed that research examining tool making and tool using in extant nonhuman primates can facilitate greater understanding of the mental life of Homo habilis and other early hominid species.

Field Studies

* Long-term habitat use by mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). 1. Consistency, variation, and home range size and stability. Watts, D. P. (Dept of Anthropology, Yale Univ., P.O. Box 208277, New Haven, CT 06520). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 651-680.
. . . Long-term data on habitat use by multiple mountain gorilla social units and extensive data on variation in food distribution confirm that food distribution influences occupation densities across groups and over time. These data also confirm the group/solitary male distinction and show that food distribution became more important for one male once he acquired females. Annual home range and core area size varied considerably within groups and across years, bearing no simple relationship to group size and estimated group biomass.

* Long-term habitat use by mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). 2. Reuse of foraging areas in relation to resource abundance, quality, and depletion. Watts, D. P. (Address same as above). International Journal of Primatology, 1998, 19, 681-702.
. . . Long-term data on habitat use by six mountain gorilla social units show that revisit intervals vary in association with variation in the extent of previous use and in plant productivity. However, areas with higher biomass and better nutritional quality of food are revisited more often. These data are generally consistent with the hypothesis that the gorillas crop resources on a sustained-yield basis, though more precise data on areal revisits and complementary long-term data on vegetation composition would be needed to test this hypothesis.

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Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address: Judith_Schrier@brown.edu

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a slow loris (Nycticebus coucang bengalensis) by John Henry Drake (LABS of Virginia)

Copyright (c) 1999 by Brown University

Assistant Editor: Elva Mathiesen


Last updated: December 19, 1998