Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Interaction with Infants in a Captive Troop of Cebus Apella, by K. A. Leighty, G. Byrne, & S. J. Suomi...... 1

Optimizing the Laboratory Environment for Studying Animal Cognition, by A. R. Dickinson...... 4

The Monkey Cave: The Dark Lower-Row Cage, by V. & A. Reinhardt...... 8

Collaboration Between Field Primatologists and Biomedical Researchers, by J. E. Phillips-Conroy & C. J. Jolly...... 10

Forming a Bachelor Group of Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), by C. Asvestas & Michelle Reininger...... 14

News, Information, and Announcements

Awards Granted...... 4
Primate Center Scientists Win Pediatric AIDS Award; Sabin Heroes of Science

Resources Wanted and Available...... 11
. . . Chimpanzee Breeding Colony; Reminder: WRPRC Audiovisual Archives; More Photos on CD-ROM; ABS Media Library; Gall Bladders and Bile; Hominidae Prostate Tissue or RNA

New Films on Macaques...... 13

Budongo Forest Project...... 15

Grants Available...... 16
. . . High Impact Research: Feasibility Studies; NIA Pilot Research Grant Program; NIAMS Small Grant Program for New Investigators; Vaccine Immunology Basic Research Centers; Research Supplements: Underrepresented Minorities; Reentry into Research Careers

Editors’ Notes...... 18
. . . Mailing, E-mailing, and the Web; Five More Years!

Primates de las Américas...La Página...... 19

Information Requested or Available...... 20
. . . Knowing How to Practice Safe Science; Primates-Online Gets New Web Home; Live Primate Chat; WHO Library Digest for Africa; LOCATORplus; More Interesting Web Sites

Workshop Announcements...... 21
. . . Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act; Case Reports – Association of Primate Veterinarians

Research and Educational Opportunities...... 24
. . . Postdoc in Behavioral Psychopharmacology; Lincoln Park Zoo Funds Support Field Research; Bushbabies in Kenya; Animal Behavior

Meeting Announcements...... 25

Latin American Society of Animal Welfare...... 25

News Briefs...... 26
. . . 3.6 Million-Year-Old Hominid Find in South Africa; Souvenir Trade Threatens Rare Monkeys; Supreme Court Denies Review of Challenge; Multipurpose Retirement Home for Aged Primates; Monkeys Spread Terror in Abkhazia; Chimpanzee Biomedical Research Program; Gorilla Haven Hires Peter Halliday; Bayne Appointed to AVMA Committee; L.A. Monkeys To Get Paternity Tests; Ribbon Cutting at Retirement Reserve; Proposed Baboon Abbatoir, South Africa

Risk for Ebola Virus Infection in Côte d’Ivoire...... 36


Address Changes...... 13

Positions Available...... 22
. . . Animal Facility Supervisors, Georgia; Predoctoral Intramural Research Training Award; Postdoctoral Training in Comparative Medicine, MIT; Wildlife Waystation, California; Laboratory Animal Veterinarian, Minnesota; Animal Research Facility Manager, Washington, DC; Training and Development Officer, Georgia; Clinical Laboratory Animal Veterinarian, Duke

Recent Books and Articles...... 29

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Interaction with Infants in a Captive Troop of Cebus Apella

Katherine A. Leighty, Gayle Byrne, and Stephen J. Suomi
Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH

For years researchers have examined the social relationships present in nonhuman primate species in order to provide insight into the origins of human social behavior. Past research has shown that many nonhuman primate species, including Cebus apella, a New World monkey, engage in a significant level of allomaternal care of their infants (Fragaszy, Baer & Adams-Curtis, 1991; Robinson & Janson, 1987). In addition, investigators have also begun to examine more closely the specific relationships that different troop members develop with infants.

Christian Welker established a captive troop of Cebus apella in 1974 and began one of the first long-term studies on the stability of social relationships, including development of infant relationships. Cebus apella typically produce single births after approximately 150 days of gestation; weaning occurs around two years of age or following the birth of a subsequent infant to that mother, whichever comes first (Robinson & Janson, 1987). Welker characterized the first six months of an infant’s life as the "kin phase" (Welker et al., 1987), with the mother as the main social partner of this phase. During the first month, sisters and the next oldest brother were found to be significant social partners. In the second month, other older brothers began to approach the infant, and in the third month, infants first attempted to make contact with brothers and sisters. During the fourth month, infants became attractive to older juveniles born within the same year. In the fifth month, infants contacted these older juveniles and adult males began to interact with infants. Finally, in the sixth month, Welker states that infants began to move toward adult males and juveniles one year older. Overall, Welker states that this "kin phase" is marked by the high level of interest demonstrated by the infant’s brothers and sisters followed by non-kin born within the same year as the newborn (Welker et al., 1987).

Welker classified the second half-year of life as the "peer phase" because, while maintaining close contact with their families, infants began to increase their interactions with those in their peer group (Welker, et al., 1990). Welker states that during this phase the mother is still the most important social partner of the infant. Other significant social partners continue to be siblings of the infant, others born in the same year, and juveniles one year older (Welker et al., 1990).

In recent years, several researchers have continued to examine the social development of Cebus apella infants. Many of these researchers have noted significant differences in the time frame of relationship development and quantity of interaction from that suggested by Welker. Many cite a greater role for the alpha male or other troop members early in an infant’s development (e.g., Byrne & Suomi, 1995; Escobar-Paramo, 1989; Fragaszy et al., 1991; Robinson & Janson, 1987;). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the development of social relations in Cebus apella infants by searching for age, sex, and kinship differences in troop members’ level of directing social contact toward infants. Frequency of interaction and specific behaviors occurring during these interactions were recorded. Interactions of troop members with two different infants at three different periods of development (birth to 5 weeks, 5 weeks to 10 weeks, and 52-57 weeks) were examined.


Animals: At the onset of this study in 1997, the social group of Cebus apella observed consisted of 20 animals (two adult males, four adult females, seven juvenile males, three juvenile females, two infant males, two infant females). By the completion of data collection in 1998, the troop contained a total of 22 members (two adult males, four adult females, nine juvenile males, three juvenile females, two infant males, and two infant females; see Table I). This troop was obtained by the National Institutes of Health’s Laboratory of Comparative Ethology in June of 1990 and was reported to have been formed 15 years previously. Two infants were observed in this study: Lyla, the female infant of Lee, was observed from birth to five weeks and 52 to 57 weeks of age; and Luther, the male infant of Lucy, was observed from five to 10 weeks of age.

-Othello - alpha male                     -Hamlet - adult male
-Lucy - adult female                      -Creepshow - juvenile male
   -Lee - adult female                    -Shinade - adult female
       -Lyla  infant female                -Shasta - juvenile male
               for Luther 5-10               -Squeak - juvenile male
   -Little Ricky – juvenile male             -Sagan - infant female
   -Liddy - juvenile male                 -Isabella - adult female
   -Lorena - juvenile female                 -Iko - juvenile male
   -Lexis - infant male for Lyla 0-5         -Ito - infant male for Lyla 0-5
            juvenile for Luther 5-10                juvenile for Luther 5-10
            and Lyla 52-57                          and Lyla 52-57 
   -Luther - infant male for                 -Isuzu - juvenile male
             Lyla 52-57                      -Ian - infant male for Luther 5-10
                                          -Mocha - juvenile female
                                          -Magic - juvenile female 
Table I: Group Composition. Note: Offspring of adult females are indented below their names. Othello is presumed to be the father of Lee and all infants and juveniles.

Housing: The animals are housed at the NIH Animal Center in Poolesville, MD, and are under the supervision of the Laboratory of Comparative Ethology. This troop lives in an outdoor corncrib (5 m in diameter, 4.2 m high), from May to October, and in indoor/outdoor runs during the winter. All observations were conducted while the animals were housed in the outdoor corncrib. Purina monkey chow was provided twice daily, and fruit was given three times per week. Water was available ad lib.

Observational Procedures: Observation sessions were conducted three times per week by a single researcher. Five weeks of observation were conducted with Lee’s infant Lyla from birth to five weeks of age and 52-57 weeks of age. Five weeks of observations were also conducted when Luther, a subsequent infant born to Lee’s mother Lucy, was five to 10 weeks of age. Each observation session lasted for 30 minutes and scores were recorded every 20 seconds, resulting in 90 interval scores per session.

Social proximity               Animal is within the social space of the infant.
                               "Social space" is approximately 15 cm, or an arm’s
                               length of the animal.
Grooming Mother                Animal is grooming the focal infant’s mother 
                               while the infant is present.
Grooming Infant                Animal is grooming the infant.
Observing Infant               Animal is within the social space of the infant
                               and is peering at the infant.
Reaching for the Infant        Animal is within the social space of the infant
                               and is attempting to touch or grab the infant.
Touching the Infant            Animal is in physical contact with the infant,
                               but is not grooming, carrying, or engaging in 
                               playing behaviors.
Lip-smacking                   Animal is within the infant’s social space and
                               has its face within the infant’s line of sight,
                               but not in direct contact, and engages in a 
                               "kissing" behavior.
Carrying Infant                Animal is carrying the infant.  
Playing with the Infant        Animal is within the infant’s social space and is
                               engaging in species-typical play behavior (mock
                               fighting, wrestling, chasing, tumbling).

Table II: Behavioral Definitions. Note: When recording behaviors, only one score was given per animal per interval. Thus, if an animal was observed touching the infant, only a touch was recorded, not a touch and a proximity score. Proximity scores were only given when the animal was within the infant’s social space and not engaging in any other defined behavior.

During observation sessions, the researcher recorded which animals were in social proximity to the infant. In addition to these proximity scores, the researcher scored the following behaviors directed toward the infant or mother: · Grooming Mother, · Grooming Infant, · Observing Infant, · Reaching for Infant, · Touching Infant, · Lip-smacking, · Carrying Infant, and · Playing with Infant (Table II). If a behavior was recorded, the simultaneous proximity score was discarded.

Data Analysis: Three variables were investigated when examining the level of interaction with the infant: age, sex, and kin relationship. Age was classified as adult, juvenile, and infant. Adults were those animals who had reached sexual maturity at the time of the observation period (age 9 for males, age 6 for females). Infants were those animals that were not yet weaned and/or were still riding their mothers under periods of stress. Juveniles were defined as those animals falling between the adult and infant categories. Kin relationship was separated into two categories, kin and non-kin. Kin was defined as those animals within the infant’s matriline (excluding the infants’ mothers) and the alpha male of the troop. Although paternity was not tested, the alpha male was the only male observed in copulation, and was the only male solicited by females during this period. Non-kin was defined as all other troop members.

In order to determine which group (Adult Kin, Adult Non-kin, Juvenile Kin, Juvenile Non-kin, Infant Kin, Infant Non-kin) contacted the infants with significant frequency, all social scores directed to the infants were added to create a total interaction score for each day of data collection. These scores were then divided by the number of troop members to obtain an expected value for interactions if they were distributed randomly. Observed and expected values were then compared for each of the groups of animals using one-tailed Wilcoxon tests. Groups were said to be preferential partners for the infants if their observed scores were significantly greater than the expected values (p £ .05).

Incidences of individual behaviors other than "proximity" were so low that average values for age/kinship groups were extremely small. Therefore, scores for individual animals, rather than groups, were compared to expected values for those behaviors in Wilcoxon tests. We also divided the maximum observed score into thirds to create low, medium and high ranges of interaction, to better describe subtle differences between the groups.


Preliminary ANOVAs investigating the effects of sex on frequency of interaction with infants showed no significant effect; thus, sex effects were not included in subsequent analyses.

For the infant Lyla at 0 to 5 weeks, adult kin and infant kin interacted significantly more than expected (Z from 3.294 to 3.408, p £ .05); all other groups were in the low range. For Lyla at 52 to 57 weeks, adult kin and infant kin were again the only groups to interact significantly more than expected (Z from 2.726 to 2.897, p £ .05). Infant non-kin interactions were in the medium range and all other groups were again in the low range. For the infant Luther at 5 to 10 weeks, all kin groups interacted significantly more than expected (Z from 2.926 to 3.408, p £ .05). Although the juvenile kin did interact significantly more than expected, they fell into the medium range of interaction. All non-kin were in the low range.

Specific behaviors of each individual during interactions were also compared to an expected value for that behavior. All behaviors other than "proximity" were quite rare and only a handful of animals performed these behaviors significantly more than expected. For the infant Lyla at 0 to 5 weeks, Lucy (Lyla’s grandmother) groomed Lyla’s mother, and groomed and lip-smacked to Lyla significantly more than expected (Z from -2.848 to -2.216, p £ .05). Lorena (Lyla’s juvenile aunt) touched and lip-smacked to Lyla significantly more than expected (Z from -2.159 to -1.819, p £ .05). Lexis (an infant uncle) observed, reached for, and touched Lyla significantly more than expected (Z from -3.239 to -2.556, p £ .05). Finally, Ito (an unrelated infant) observed Lyla significantly more than expected (Z £ -1.818, p £ .05). When Lyla was 52-57 weeks of age, no animal directed any of the specific behaviors to her significantly more than expected.

For the infant Luther at 5 to 10 weeks of age, Lorena (a juvenile sister) was the only animal to perform any of the behaviors significantly more than expected. Significant behaviors were grooming the mother Lucy, and grooming, touching and lip-smacking to Luther (Z from -2.431 to -1.886, p £ .05).


The results of this study point to some interesting differences and noteworthy similarities to past research in the development of infant relationships in Cebus apella. In the present study sex did not appear to be a significant factor in determining which animals interacted with infants. This finding contrasts sharply with the belief that females, especially juveniles, take a special interest in infants which may offer them the opportunity to gain experience in maternal care (Nicholson, 1987).

As Welker observed, animals related to the infant, at any age, were more likely to interact than those that were not. During these interactions, very few individuals directed behaviors to the infants at levels greater than expected other than simply being within their social space. Of those related animals, adults and infants were observed to interact with infants more than did juveniles. Cebus apella are well known for considerable social tolerance of young infants (Fragaszy, et al., 1997; Robinson & Janson, 1987), and the mothers in this study (especially Lee, who was primiparous), may have allowed other infants to approach their own while resisting approaches by juveniles. Both mothers were members of the group’s dominant matriline, and were thus theoretically able to control access by most group members if they chose to do so. Infants of the same matriline were granted the greatest level of access to newborn infants. However, for Lyla at 52 to 57 weeks of age, even non-kin infants were seen to interact in the medium range.

In Welker’s studies, infants did not become attractive to unrelated juveniles until the sixth month, whereas during the first few months of life, infants were most attractive to their siblings. Here, related juveniles were significant social partners for Luther, but not for Lyla. In this study, Lyla was the first surviving infant born to Lee. Having no siblings with whom to interact, Lyla interacted with juvenile aunts and uncles instead. The lower level of interactions involving juvenile kin in Lyla’s data suggests support for Welker’s observations that a special relationship may apply among juvenile siblings.

The high level of interaction found with adult kin may be related to the fact that both infants observed in this study were of the same matriline. The mothers, Lee and Lucy, were observed to interact frequently with each other as well as with each other’s infants. Othello, the alpha male of the troop, was noted to be quite tolerant of even very young infants. This is a point of variation from Welker’s findings, which stated that adults, especially males, are not interested in very young infants. He claimed that adult males do not begin to interact with infants until the fifth month of life. In the present study Othello was a significant social partner from birth through the infants’ first year. This observation lends support to past research that suggests that alpha males play a significant role in infant social development (Byrne & Suomi, 1995; Escobar-Paramo, 1989; Fragaszy, et al., 1991; Rob-inson & Janson, 1987).

Interpretation of the results of this study is limited by the small number of subjects involved, and confounded by Lyla’s lack of juvenile siblings and the sex difference of the two infants (although past research has found few significant sex differences in infant interactions: see Byrne & Suomi, 1995). However, the findings of this study support several generalizations about the development of infant social relationships. First, kin are more likely to interact with infants than non-kin. Of these kin, adults and infants showed the highest level of interaction at all phases of development observed. No sex differences were found in the level of interaction with the infant, lending strength to the argument that the alpha male interacts with infants as frequently as adult female kin. Finally, when examining behaviors occurring during interactions with the infant, it was found that intimate behaviors, other than being within the infant’s social space, were quite rare. When these behaviors did occur, they were most likely to be performed by closely related kin, and in one case, another non-kin infant.

All Cebus apella infants develop social relationships differently, much as we see in human infants. Although some trends in development are present, the detailed schedule of social development presented by Welker does not generalize to all cases, at least not in the present colony. All infants have different temperaments, and interactions with troop members can be influenced by several factors. For example, protectiveness of the mother, the number of infants within the troop, the presence or absence of siblings, and the overall tension of the living environment may all influence the amount of social interaction with infants. Dominance of the infant’s matriline may also affect interaction, in that low-dominance animals may not be allowed to interact with those of higher dominance. It is suggested that future research in this area examine more closely the relationship of the alpha male with infants, as well as the effect of the infant’s position in the dominance hierarchy on the identity of their social partners.


Byrne, G., & Suomi, S. (1995). Development of activity patterns, social interactions, and exploratory behavior in infant tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). American Journal of Primatology, 35, 255-270.

Escobar-Paramo, P. (1989). Social relations between infants and other group members in the wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella). Field Studies of New World Monkeys, 2, 57-63.

Fragaszy, D., Baer, J., & Adams-Curtis, L. (1991). Behavioral development and maternal care in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) from birth through seven months. Developmental Psychobiology, 24, 375-393.

Fragaszy, D., Feuerstein, J., & Devjani, M. (1997). Transfers of food from adults to infants in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111, 194-200.

Nicholson, N. (1987). Infants, mothers, and other females. In B. Smuts, D. Cheney, R. Seyfarth, R. Wrangham, & T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies (pp. 330-342). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Robinson, J., & Janson, C. (1987). Capuchins, squirrel monkeys, and atelines: Socioecological convergence with Old World primates. In B. Smuts, D. Cheney, R. Seyfarth, R. Wrangham, & T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies (pp. 330-342). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Welker, C., Becker, P., Hohmann, H., & Schafer-Witt, C. (1987). Social relations in groups of the black-capped capuchin Cebus apella in captivity: Interactions of group-born infants during their first 6 months of life. Folia Primatologica, 49, 33-47.

Welker, C., Becker, P., Hohmann, H., & Schafer-Witt, C. (1990). Social relations in groups of the black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella) in captivity: Interactions of group-born infants during their second half-year of life. Folia Primatologica, 54, 16-33.

First author's address: Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3013 [e-mail:].

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Awards Granted

Primate Center Scientists Win Pediatric AIDS Award

R. Paul Johnson and Julie Overbaugh, affiliate scientists at, respectively, Harvard Medical School and the University of Washington, were among four recipients of the 1999 Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award, which recognizes outstanding, cutting-edge studies of pediatric HIV/AIDS.

Dr. Johnson is working to better understand and ultimately enhance immune system defenses in HIV-infected children. In studies conducted at the New England RPRC, he and his colleagues are observing cellular immune responses to live-attenuated SIV vaccines that protect macaques against pathogenic strains of the simian immunodeficiency virus.

Dr. Overbaugh will use the grant to continue her research on mother-to-infant HIV transmission, especially during breast feeding. Her studies at the Washington RPRC helped to shed light on the pathogenicity of various strains of SIV. – From the NCRR Reporter, Spring, 1999

Sabin Heroes of Science

On January 14, over 120 people braved an ice storm in Washington, D.C., to attend the presentation of the 1999 Albert B. Sabin Heroes of Science Awards by Americans for Medical Progress (AMP). The reception, held in the historic Cosmos Club, was attended by many public officials and entertainers as well as representatives of health advocacy organizations, the research and medical communities, and the pharmaceutical industry. Among the 1999 Albert B. Sabin Heroes of Science is Thomas B. Clarkson, DVM, Wake Forest University Bowman-Gray School of Medicine. For further information about the Albert B. Sabin Heroes of Science Awards, please contact AMP [703 836-9595; e-mail:].

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Optimizing the Laboratory Environment for Studying Animal Cognition

A. R. Dickinson
University of Edinburgh

At the XVIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society (1998) held in Antananarivo, Madagascar, a paper reporting the very first extended classification and control of extended serial order productions in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was given in a session concerned with laboratory primate learning and cognition (McGonigle & Dickinson, 1998). During that presentation, we claimed that any cognitive program of research would require a novel long-term study environment conducive to the production of rich, individual monkey behavior graphs extending over long periods of time (years rather than months). Results to date have shown the first consistent and unambiguous demonstrations with nine-item size-seriation (akin to the standard Piagetian task in which the human child is required to arrange items of a random array in order of increasing size). These demonstrations not only reflect the success of Brendan McGonigle’s experimental research paradigm, but are also the result of the husbandry protocols and experimental procedures used in our laboratory. Indeed, the present paper claims that the colony management and husbandry procedures which have been used in the Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience have contributed greatly to an environment made optimal for demonstrating consistently high levels of cognitive functioning of a kind never before recorded for the nonhuman primate (Dickinson, 1997; McGonigle & Dickinson, 1994, 1998).

Background to the Comparative Program

The Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Intelligent Systems is situated in the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, under the supervision of its founder and director, Dr. Brendan McGonigle. The Laboratory features converging comparative, developmental, and robotics approaches, with the specific objective of understanding the core design features of complex intelligent systems. Based on extended learning-to-learn episodes spanning many years, our program has radically extended the pioneering work of Harlow (1949). Eschewing the blitzkrieg studies which Harlow so rightly criticized, our experiments have tracked nonhuman primate subjects for over seven years with a series of tasks which are progressive in difficulty, enabling us to assess the cumulative effects of learning in novel ways. In doing so, we have had to develop entirely new methods of experimentation, first adapting paradigms from human cognition (McGonigle & Chalmers, 1977; McGonigle, 1987). Currently, in concert with Herb Terrace and his group at Columbia University, we have evolved touch-screen-based procedures, which enable us to devise explicit ordering tasks of a sort which have been previously impossible to implement using standard discrimination learning methods. Just as crucially, we have been able to provide an objective metric of task difficulty – based on the length of the sequence which subjects must learn. In short, the longer the sequence, the harder the task (although this is non-linear: see McGonigle & Chalmers, 1996).

This new task hierarchy enables us to evaluate the upward momentum of learning and "learning to learn" in tasks of a new order of difficulty (as Harlow once claimed the Learning Set conferred). And, in a further development of the traditional Learning Set methodology, we have explicitly allowed for the possibility of an important form of relational learning by induction, more powerful and more generative than associative learning (Chomsky, 1995; Fodor & Pylyshyn, 1988; Gazzaniga et. al., 1998). This is a key development in supporting a type of learning mechanism that can be taken seriously as a possible basis for language and high-level cognitive capabilities in humans (McGonigle and Chalmers,1996, 1998).

With long-term experiments based on the life history of the animal now the objective of our Laboratory, it was clear to us that the choice of primates and their living and testing conditions were going to be crucial factors. In the first phase of the primate laboratory (1969-1986) we had used squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciurius; McGonigle and Chalmers, 1977, 1992), then housed in much smaller quarters, and with no possibility of supporting a breeding colony. With new facilities, we had the opportunity to establish our own breeding program. With the squirrel monkeys coming to the end of their life span, McGonigle decided to switch to Cebus apella, reputed for physical vigor and intelligence. However, accommodating these animals demanded a major rethinking of the conditions under which they would thrive, both physically and mentally. These are crucial factors in experiments which last years, and many behavioral problems, which seriously compromise behavior-based evaluations, emerge in monkeys housed under less than optimal conditions. The decision was therefore made to house all Cebus in family groups.

The Cebus Colony

Our Cebus apella colony derives from an initial group of six feral-born sub-adults (two male and four female), estimated from body weight, color, and dentition to have been between three and four years of age upon their arrival at the Laboratory. They were transported directly here from the south-east littoral of Brazil in 1988, specifically for the purpose of establishing an in-house breeding facility for longitudinal research work in comparative and developmental cognition. Following six months of strict veterinary quarantine, the females were quick to conceive, and have so far produced fifteen healthy youngsters, all of whom have survived. One advantage of establishing a colony in this way was that many of the environmental variables, which might otherwise confuse the interpretation of any behavior changes observed during the animal’s later development would be known. Such a personal history is rarely compiled for individual laboratory primates, and often the detailed hereditary, social, and circumstantial background of individual subjects remains unknown in many institutions. Health records are widely and routinely kept, but these do not offer enough detail to explain the occasional performance change which might be unrelated to difficulty of the experimental task. Such detailed information is especially important when interpreting failure with a given task. As might be the case with human developmental studies, such knowledge may reveal issues associated with social and family politics which might otherwise be missed and, indeed, prove to be of much explanatory value.

Laboratory Environment

As long ago as the 1930s, Heinrich Kluver often attributed his experimental (and somewhat unusual breeding) successes with New World primates to his day-to-day husbandry and dietary practices (Kluver, 1933). Again, as with the human child, one should not expect isolated subjects living in sterile, featureless environments to be capable of demonstrating any normal developmental processes. Indeed, the ideal situation would be one in which observed changes in cognitive growth were solely the result of some experimental variable as determined in advance by the research design. For these reasons, among many others, every member of the monkey colony resident in our Laboratory enjoys what we suggest are the optimal conditions for high levels of individual physical and mental health, collective social welfare, and comfort. Such attention to the husbandry environment has, I believe, paid dividends, as seen by the high degree of co-operation seen with our monkeys: their voluntarily presenting for work daily (monkeys are not caught in nets or "crush-cages") and their consistent attention and orientation to tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity. Most important of all, changes reflecting the effect of traumas (e.g., deteriorating health, social withdrawal, lack of motivation or stimulation) will not go undetected. Such factors might otherwise confound our explanations of performance changes during the monkeys’ behavioral development. This is especially relevant in cases which might involve the interpretation of experimental performance stability or sudden failure with a novel task. This latter scenario is typically interpreted as an animal’s reaching a "ceiling limit" of performance and has resulted in fewer subjects being reported upon than were actually used from the outset of many animal learning programs.

Each of our current 21 monkeys lives in a family group enclosure within one of three colony rooms. The rooms have 1 enclosure of 4 Cebus; 2 enclosures with 7 Cebus; and 3 enclosures with 10 Cebus, respectively. Each colony room is adjacent to, or near, their daily experimental testing-room. Every monkey has continuous free movement within its group’s enclosure, and may indulge in continuous tactile stimulation with other members of its family. Each can hear and smell all of the other family groups in the room, and may also make visual contact with members of another family at any time. Grooming and group play are common throughout the daylight hours and at no time is an animal housed alone, except when veterinary attention is needed. All monkeys (together with their own Laboratory-born offspring) are free to forage and play together both day and night in densely branched and activity-rich "home-ranges".

Every enclosure contains frequently laundered deep-litter flooring and each has its own "off-exhibit" private areas. A typical colony room contains a variety of environmental features, including natural branches at various heights, rope swings, deep-litter forage, and various "hideouts". The colony rooms are serviced by one part-time and two full-time animal technicians seven days each week, providing each room with at least a weekly all-surface washing and daily shelf and floor-litter cleaning as required.

Unlike so many of the more traditional animal learning laboratories of both the past and the present, we find no need to employ any food deprivation or weight-control schedule in order to ensure the monkeys’ motivation towards their experimental task. Indeed, we have found instead that feeding an RDA-balanced-diet (Mizuri nut staple supplemented with fresh fruit and vegetables) in no way interferes with the monkeys’ motivation for experimental rewards of a maximum of fifty single peanuts (a preferred food) during their single daily session. Regardless of any animal’s performance, at the end of each working week (i.e., Friday) each family group receives extra fresh fruit forage scattered within their enclosure, individual mineral and vitamin supplements, and then takes the weekend off. Other, less frequent "treats" might include whole nuts, hard-boiled eggs, chilies, and ice cubes (the latter two appearing to be treated as extra "toys" as much as food!). Water is provided ad lib. and monitored throughout the day for both freshness and sufficiency. Regular veterinary inspections are carried out for all monkeys, during which their dental and manicure needs are attended to (the latter important for efficient operation of the touch-screen apparatus). This is the only time that our monkeys are directly handled or held, although they are all tame to the touch of Laboratory staff.

Experimental Environment

For their daily transfer to the experimental test-room (and for weekly weighing), the monkeys voluntarily enter a wheeled transit-enclosure directly from their adjacent home colony room. In keeping with our Laboratory philosophy of optimizing performance, the monkeys work at their tasks simultaneously in pairs, side by side, in an attempt to simulate their natural social foraging habits. As seen by the absence of the tics and stereotypies so often seen in singly housed monkeys, the social aspect of our working environment during testing appears to enhance the monkeys’ comfort. As is typical of the experimental environments set up for working with the human child, this arrangement provides a supportive environment which promotes continued motivation and engagement with the increasing cognitive challenges of the experimental tasks. The female monkeys will typically work with their nursing offspring when they have them, and auditory contact with their family group is maintained throughout the experimental session. After each animal’s experimental session has ended (a maximum of one hour per day), attention may be given to the needs of any individual monkey before its otherwise immediate return to its colony room. Indeed, apart from voluntary attendance at the daily experimental session, a monkey very rarely leaves its family environment.

Conclusions: Emergent Concepts and Payoff

So far, the program has had an interesting yield. First, we have been able to study ordering and seriation behavior in prelinguistic primates. In the past, such capabilities have only been expressed via the use of language (in the case of human subjects), or by lifting and rearranging objects and placing them in a series, using the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (Dickinson, 1997; Dickinson & McGonigle, 1996; McGonigle & Dickinson, 1996, 1998; McGonigle et. al., 1994). Second, this has revealed seriation capabilities which converge on those shown by children aged 6 or more (McGonigle and Chalmers, 1996, 1998; McGonigle, 1999). However, as with children, such ordering capabilities are not learned overnight; instead, the course of their emergence is very similar in the years of learning required (4 to 5 years). Third, the strong forms of relationally based "learning to learn" which we can now evaluate (see McGonigle and Chalmers, 1998, p. 522, fig. 22.9) suggest that there is no "glass ceiling" on the Cebus monkeys’ ability to learn yet more complex tasks. Instead, the more experienced the subject, the quicker the learning of tasks of greatly increased complexity. This accelerating "learning to learn" process is the most powerful indicator yet that learning studied in the primate laboratory may reveal some of the core inductive mechanisms which signal both a distinctive shift in learning mechanisms in evolution, and provide the basis for both language learning and high level cognitive adaptive capabilities in man (McGonigle, 1999).


Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dickinson A. R. (1997). Hierarchical Organisation in Serial Search Tasks by Cebus apella Monkeys. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Edinburgh.

Dickinson, A. R., & McGonigle, B. O. (1996). The serial order effect in seriation by Cebus apella. Abstracts of the XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Madison, Wisconsin.

Fodor, J., & Pylyshyn, Z. (1988) Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis. Cognition, 28, 3-71.

Gazzaniga, M., Irvy, R. B., & Mangun, G. R. (1998). Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind. New York: W. W. Norton.

Harlow, H. (1949) The formation of learning sets. Psychological Review, 56, 51-65.

Kluver, H. (1933). Behavior Mechanisms in Monkey and Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

McGonigle, B. O. (1987). Non-verbal thinking by animals. Nature, 425, 110-112.

McGonigle, B. O. (in press). Spatial representation as cause and effect: Circular causality comes to cognition. In M. Gattis (Ed.), Spatial Schemas and Abstract Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McGonigle, B. O., & Chalmers, M. (1977). Are monkeys logical? Nature, 267, 694-696.

McGonigle, B. O., & Chalmers, M. (1996). The ontology of order. In L. Smith (Ed.), Critical Readings on Piaget. London: Routledge.

McGonigle, B., & Chalmers, M. (1997). Cognitive learning in monkeys and man. In S. Fountain (Ed.), Cognition in Relation to the Biomedical Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

McGonigle, B. O., & Chalmers, M. (1998). Rationality as optimised self-regulation. In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (Eds.), Rational Models of Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McGonigle, B. O., de Lillo, C., & Dickinson, A. R. (1994). Classification to order: A comparative analysis of categorical seriation in monkey and man. Abstracts of the XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia.

McGonigle, B. O., & Dickinson, A. R. (1994). Classification to order: A comparative analysis of categorical seriation in monkey and man. Abstracts of the XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia.

McGonigle, B.O. & Dickinson, A.R. (1996). Multiple classification within a seriation task by Cebus apella: Evidence for cognitive hierarchical organisation. Abstracts of the XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Madison, Wisconsin.

McGonigle, B. O. & Dickinson, A. R. (1998). An evaluation of the cognitive utility of hierarchical and linear organisation in serial learning by Cebus apella. Abstracts of the XVIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Author's address: Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Intelligent Systems, Dept of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ Scotland [e-mail:].

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The Monkey Cave: The Dark Lower-Row Cage

Viktor and Annie Reinhardt
Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, DC


Small and medium-sized primates are commonly kept in double-tier cages to minimize the space necessary for their housing. The financial benefits of this caging system are very attractive, but are counterbalanced by serious shortcomings for the caged monkey.

Figure 1: The typical lower-row cage provides a cave-like housing environment which may impair well-being, invalidate research data, and undermine good housekeeping.

The Problems

Most species of monkeys are not ground-dwellers. When they are housed in stacked cages, those in the lower rows are restricted to a terrestrial life style – cage floor approximately 30 cm above the floor of the room (Figure 1) – for which they are biologically not adapted. They are unable to withdraw in alarming situations and retreat to a safe place above the human "predator", who periodically catches them for procedures that may be painful or life-threatening. Monkeys "might perceive the presence of humans above them as particularly threatening" (National Research Council, 1998). It is perhaps not a coincidence that they exhibit more stereotypical behaviors in low than in high cages (Draper & Bernstein, 1963; Watson & Shively, 1994). Upper-row animals live high enough to show a vertical flight response when being approached by a person. For them, elevated resting surfaces are less important than for lower-row animals, who need such structures to get at least a short distance away from the "unsafe" horizontal dimension of the room. This may be one reason why lower-row monkeys use perches more than upper-row monkeys when personnel are present (Reinhardt, 1989).

2.Monkeys are not crepuscular animals. When housed in lower rows, monkeys live in a relatively dark environment (e.g., King & Norwood, 1989, Fig. 1; Scott, 1991, Fig. 2; Reinhardt, 1997, Fig. 1). Their cages are not only farther away from the light source, but they are also in the shade of the upper-row. The light they receive is reflected from walls and is often so dim that caretakers have to use flashlights to identify and adequately inspect them (Reinhardt, 1997; cf. Figure 1). Needless to say, this situation does not "aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and...the well-being of the animals" (USDA, 1991). Upper-row caged animals are directly exposed to the light, and the distance to its source is considerably smaller. Their cages are, therefore, much better illuminated than those underneath them. This stands in sharp contrast with sound scientific methodology requiring "uniform" illumination (International Primatological Society, 1989) in order to control data variability.

3.It is less convenient for personnel to bend or kneel down to inspect monkeys who are caged in lower rows than to stand upright while checking monkeys in upper rows. Consequently, lower-row caged animals tend to receive less attention by care personnel than upper-row caged animals (Ross & Everitt, 1988).

How can housing conditions for lower-row caged monkeys be improved?

Rotating animals from lower rows with those from upper rows (Ross & Everitt, 1988). This strategy alleviates the situation for lower-row subjects, but aggravates it for the same number of upper-row subjects. At the same time it also introduces the additional stress associated with cage transfer (Crockett et al., 1993; Schapiro et al., 1997).

Improving lighting conditions for lower-row caged animals (Reinhardt, 1997). Even if techniques can be developed to assure uniform illumination, lower-row caged subjects will continue to experience the stress of an enforced terrestrial lifestyle.

Placing high perches or shelves in lower-row cages (Reinhardt, 1989). Elevated structures provide the animals access to the vertical dimension of the cage and the choice of sitting a little bit closer to the light source. However, these benefits are insufficient because they do not make it possible to live outside of the upper row’s shade area and to retreat above the human "predator".

Interconnecting top and bottom cages (Salzen, 1989). This arrangement permits a singly caged monkey to choose a preferred height according to circumstances. However, if two or more animals are housed together, dominant partners may monopolize the higher areas, restricting subordinates to the lower section of the cage (cf. Williams et al., 1988; Salzen, 1989; Kurth & Bryant, 1998).

Caging monkeys in a single row (National Research Council, 1998). This alternative assures that: · All animals receive the same quantity and quality of light. · All cages can be so high that their occupants are able to retreat to a relatively safe place – for example a shelf or a perch – above animal care personnel. · All animals in a room can be adequately inspected in a comfortable, standing position.


Box, H. O., & Röhrhuber, B. (1993). Differences in behaviour among adult male/female pairs of cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in different conditions of housing. Animal Technology, 44, 19-30.

Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Sackett, G. P., & Bowden, D. M. (1993). Urinary cortisol responses of longtailed macaques to five cage sizes, tethering, sedation, and room change. American Journal of Primatology, 30, 55-74.

Draper, W. A., & Bernstein, I. S. (1963). Stereotyped behavior and cage size. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 16, 231-234.

Heger, W., Merker, H-J., & Neubert, D. (1986). Low light intensity decreases the fertility of Callithrix jacchus. Primate Report, 14, 260 (Abstract).

International Primatological Society (1989). IPS International guidelines for the acquisition, care and breeding of nonhuman primates. Primate Report, 25, 3-27.

King, J. E., & Norwood, V. R. (1989). Free-environment rooms as alternative housing for squirrel monkeys. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Well-Being of Captive and Laboratory Primates (pp. 102-114). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.

Kurth, B., & Bryant, D. (1998). Pairing female Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 37[4], 4.

National Research Council (1998). The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Reinhardt, V. (1989). Evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques. Lab Animal, 18[6], 31-33.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Lighting conditions for laboratory monkeys: Are they adequate? Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, 8[2], 3-6.

Ross, W. R., & Everitt, J. I. (1988). A nylon ball device for primate environmental enrichment. Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 481-483.

Salzen, E. A. (1989). A closed colony of squirrel monkeys for laboratory studies. In E. F. Segal (Ed.), Housing, Care and Psychological Well-Being of Captive and Laboratory Primates (115-134). Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.

Schapiro, S. J., Nehete, P. N., Perlman, J. E., & Sastry, K. J. (1997). A change in housing condition leads to relatively long-term changes in cell-mediated immune responses in adult rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 42, 146 (Abstract).

Scott, L. (1991). Environmental enrichment for single housed common marmosets. In H. O. Box (Ed.), Primate Responses to Environmental Change (pp. 265-274). London: Chapman and Hall.

United States Department of Agriculture (1991). Title 9, CFR (Code of Federal Register), Part 3. Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6426-6505.

Watson, S. L., & Shively, C. A. (1996). Effects of cage configuration on behavior in cynomolgus macaques. XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society/XIXth Congress of the American Society of Primatologists, Abstract No. 674.

Williams, L. E., Abee, C. R., Barnes, S. R., & Ricker, R. B. (1988). Cage design and configuration for an arboreal species of primate. Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 289-291.

Authors' address: 4605 Crescent Rd, Madison, WI 53711 [e-mail:].

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Collaboration Between Field Primatologists and Biomedical Researchers

Jane E. Phillips-Conroy and Clifford J. Jolly
Washington University School of Medicine and New York University

The recent report that HIV-1 can be traced to a particular subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) has prompted a call for closer communication between biomedical scientists and field-workers in primatology. The call for fundamental epidemiological research on retroviruses in natural populations of nonhuman primates resonates with us. As primatologists, our research focus has been long-term study of two primate populations which live sympatrically in central Ethiopia: hybridizing olive and hamadryas baboons and grivet monkeys. We have been following these populations intermittently for more than 25 years. Each year when we conduct our fieldwork, we capture the animals and routinely take blood, body measurements and weights, dental casts, fecal samples and other useful biomedical and genetic information.

In the late 1980s we began to collaborate on the question of SIV in natural primate populations with Ron Desrosiers of the New England RPRC. Our initial paper surveyed the baboons of Awash (Ethiopia) – our principal study site – and yellow baboons of Mikumi (Tanzania) for SIV. We found two animals infected in Tanzania, and none in Ethiopia, a very low infection rate confirming the finding from laboratory studies that baboons are resistant to infection with most strains of SIV (Kodama et al., 1989). Subsequent work with Beatrice Hahn demonstrated that the virus in one of the two seropositive animals was a vervet SIV – thus revealing the first evidence of cross-species transmission in the wild (Jin et al., 1994).

In collaboration with Jon Allan of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, we then began to assay for SIV in sera from the Ethiopian green monkeys (grivets) captured in 1990 and 1991. Since we collect body weight, dental casts, and testicle measurements as well as blood, we were able to break down the incidence of seropositivity by sex and age, and make some epidemiological inferences. We found distinct differences between the sexes: females became seropositive as sub-adults – when their second molar teeth were erupting – but males didn’t become seropositive until they were full grown. This is in accord with what we know about grivet mating behavior: females start to breed as subadults, but males generally don’t breed until a) all teeth are in; b) they reach maximal body size; c) their testicles are large (and the scrotum aquamarine!); and, most importantly, d) they have migrated from the group into which they were born. We found no evidence for vertical transmission at all, an observation which conflicted somewhat with findings from captive studies. (Phillips-Conroy et al., 1994 ).

Since we also had archived serum samples from grivets captured in 1973 as part of a population genetic study, we collaborated with Jon Allan in exploring longitudinal aspects of SIV serostatus within this population. (Jolly et al., 1996). This study showed that the incidence of SIV had remained virtually unchanged and confirmed both the signature of sexual transmission and the rarity of vertical transmission. There were a few cases that deviated from the expected pattern – perhaps because of increased feeding competition and decreased mating, brought about by the extreme drought conditions in Ethiopia at the time.

These productive collaborations between our team and the AIDS researchers Desrosiers, Hahn, and Allan might serve as a prototype for anticipated collaborations for studing the chimp-to-human transmission of SIV-HIV. Such studies require intimate knowledge of the biology and social behavior of the target primate species, and long-term observation to permit individual animals to be recognized and their life histories charted. Such data are hard-won by field primatologists, and cannot be replaced by materials collected in a rapid capture event, or even by less invasive procedures such as collection of fecal samples for viral extraction.

Field primatologists have traditionally worked under arduous conditions with relatively little financial support. Most long-term studies, such as our Awash primate project, have to scramble for funding from disparate (and often unusual) sources. The survival of primate populations is all too often threatened, and meager funding often limits the ability of primatologists to document the basic facts of primate biology and demography. Even limited support for field operations can make an enormous difference to their success. Some small fraction of the vast budget now directed toward laboratory research could make a significant contribution towards funding studies with the requisite time depth to be useful for such epidemiological studies.

Perhaps future collaborations between primatologists and biomedical researchers could be designed so as to accomplish the remarkable: benefiting the primate species as well as the primatologist who conducts research on that species, and providing unique – and critical – data to the biomedical researcher.


Jin, M. J., Rogers, J., Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Allan, J. S., Desrosiers, R. C., Shaw, G. M., Sharp, P. M., & Hahn, B. H. (1994). Infection of a yellow baboon with SIV from African green monkeys: Evidence for cross-species transmission in the wild. Journal of Virology, 68, 8454-8460.

Jolly, C. J., Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Turner, T. R., Broussard, S. & Allan, J. (1996). SIVagm incidence over two decades in a natural population of Ethiopian grivet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops). Journal of Medical Primatology, 25, 78-83.

Kodama, T., Silva, D. P., Daniel, M. D., Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Jolly, C. J., Rogers, J., & Desrosiers, R. C. (1989). Prevalence of antibodies to SIV in baboons in their native habitat. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 5, 337-343.

Phillips-Conroy, J. E., Jolly, C. J., Petros, B., Allan, J. S., & Desrosiers, R. C. (1994). First longitudinal study of SIVagm in the wild suggests a predominantly sexual mode of transmission. Journal of Medical Primatology, 23, 9-15.

First author's address: Dept of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Washington Univ. School of Medicine, Box 8108, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis MO 63110 [e-mail:].
This article appeared as "HIV & SIV research" in the IPS Bulletin, 26[1], 4-5. A brief version appeared as a letter in Science, 1999, 284, 50.

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Resources Wanted and Available

Chimpanzee Breeding Colony

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Division of Intramural Research, seeks Capability Statements from qualified sources for the purpose of providing on loan to the NIAID approximately ten hepatitis- and respiratory syncytial virus-free infant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) annually for hepatitis, respiratory virus, and other infectious disease research and vaccine development. It is expected that the operation of a chimpanzee breeding colony will be necessary for this provision of infant chimpanzees.

Any Offeror shall possess, or be able to acquire, all necessary personnel, housing, facilities, and equipment to adequately care for the breeding chimpanzees and progeny. The animal facilities provided must be of such design to insure isolation from other animals known or suspected to be infected with any hepatitis virus or other infectious agent or any other common primate infection such as tuberculosis. Upon termination of studies utilizing chimpanzees, the Government will return same to Any Offeror. Any Offeror will be responsible for the health and daily care of these chimpanzees for the remainder of the chimpanzees’ lives. Any Offeror should have the capability to isolate or appropriately separate most returned chimpanzees from the rest of their colony since many animals will have been exposed to hepatitis C virus. The Government shall establish a one-time loan fee schedule for the Government’s use of the chimpanzees, and a return fee schedule for the endowment that will be paid to any Offeror, depending on the age and use history of the chimpanzee being returned. Any successful contractor will be free to seek additional sources of income or support for the chimpanzees once they are returned to their facility by the NIAID.

Any Offeror must have an Office for Protection from Research Risks Assurance Number and a United States Department of Agriculture R Registration. Any Offeror must have or be able to obtain a Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International file number. The facility in which the animals are housed shall be operated in compliance with: · The Animal Welfare Act (P.L. 89-544, as amended) Rules and Regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Chapter 1, Subchapter A (Animal Welfare), Parts 1, 2, and 3. · Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, updated 1996. · The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, revised 1996. · Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (CDC-NIH 1993). · Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (NRC 1997). In addition, any Offeror must be able to document the experience and capabilities of professional and technical personnel assigned to this project for providing animal care. The professional and technical personnel shall have extensive experience in nonhuman primate medicine and surgery and infectious disease research. The professional staff will also be evaluated with respect to specialty board certification by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, advanced degrees, and residency training in laboratory animal medicine. The technical staff will also be evaluated with respect to American Association for Laboratory Animal Science technician certification.

Additional information can be obtained from Ms. Karin Eddy, Contracting Officer, Acquisitions Management Operations Branch, NIAID, 6003 Executive Blvd, Rm 1C-38, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-3878].

Reminder: WRPRC Audiovisual Archives

With support from the National Center for Research Resources, NIH, the Library of the Wisconsin RPRC manages an archive of audiovisual materials related to nonhuman primates. The WRPRC’s Audiovisual Service collects, and makes available for loan, audiovisual materials that support scientific research, teaching, and conservation. The collection includes a variety of formats, although the emphasis is on videotapes, audiotapes, and slides. Currently, the collection consists of over 820 videotapes, 100 audiocassettes, 68 slide sets and 6100 individual slides.

Within the scope of the collection are audiovisual materials on living and fossil primates, primatologists, primate facilities, veterinary medicine and animal husbandry, research methodologies, and zoo design. The long-range goals of this project are to provide a scientific base for new studies, to assist in the preservation of the vocal and behavioral repertoire of nonhuman primates, and to serve as a depository for archival materials.

This collection has benefited greatly from contributions by many primatologists worldwide. New contributions to the collection are most welcome.

For information about contributing or borrowing audiovisual materials, contact Ray Hamel, Special Collection Librarian, Primate Center Library, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715 [608-263-8316; e-mail:]. A catalog of videotapes available from the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive is available at: <>. Samples from the slide collection can be viewed at: <>.

More Photos on CD-ROM

Paul Flecknell reports that he and members of the British Laboratory Animal Veterinary Association have "finally managed to put together the next two discs" in their image collection. (See this Newsletter, 1998, 37[2], 20, for details). The two new collections are : · Disc 3 – Handling, husbandry and minor procedures: A collection of 200 images showing methods of restraint, caging systems and methods for injection and blood sampling. · Disc 4 – Surgery images from the original BLAVA set plus over 100 more (150 in total) illustrating gowning/gloving/instruments, etc., plus postscript images (and an explanation) of how to tie an Aberdeen knot.

"Very many thanks to the contributors – in the spirit of this co-operative venture, the price has been reduced for those who purchased discs 1 and 2, with a larger discount for contributors (to any of the sets). I am about halfway to getting enough material for Anesthesia disc 2, Normal Biology disc 1, and a second Health and Welfare disc. Don’t forget to look through your slide collection and send us a few images. I’d particularly like some images of less common lab species (armadillos anyone?) – please send a copied 35 mm slide, as we scan at high resolution so that the discs can be used to make new slides, not simply on-screen presentations. Full details at <>."

Pricing: · Option 1: Image CD (including MAC and Windows shareware programs for slide viewing, and Filemaker Pro database) only: Contributors: £15 (US$30) per disc, including p&h; Non-contributors: £30 (US$60) per disc, including p&h; · Option 2: Image CD (including MAC and Windows shareware programs for slide viewing and Filemaker Pro database) plus color printout (low res) of the images: Contributors: £20 (US$40) per disc, including p&h; Non-contributors: £35 (US$70) per disc, including p&h. Special Offer – If you have already purchased discs 1 and 2, then you can purchase the new discs at a £5/disc discount. Alternatively, purchase all 4 now, and obtain a similar discount. – Posted to CompMed

ABS Media Library

The Education Committee of the Animal Behavior Society is beginning to establish a Media Library for use in teaching animal behavior. They are soliciting submission of high-quality photographs, line drawings, and data graphs illustrating important principles in animal behavior for use in teaching about animal behavior, and for which the submitter can grant copyright to ABS.

To submit an image for the library, send the following: 1. Publication-quality photograph, line drawing, or data graph, or a digital file in some standard format (i.e., GIF or JPEG). 2. A statement saying that you are the owner of the image, and that you grant its copyright to ABS. 3. A descriptive caption, identifying the relevant species, principle, and appropriate teaching use(s) of the image. 4. Reference to one published source (e.g., article or book) providing more information about the topic addressed in the image. 5. How to give credit to the person(s) who provided the materials.

Materials may be submitted to Michael J. Renner, Chair, ABS Education Committee, Department of Psychology, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383-2112 [e-mail:]. To submit materials electronically, contact him first for instructions.

Gall Bladders and Bile

Lee Hagey (Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, San Diego Zoo) and Jim Moore (UC, San Diego) are looking at the composition of bile across primates, and would greatly appreciate samples from species Lee hasn’t been able to obtain locally. The best samples would be postmortem gall bladders, but all that is really needed is a small (can be < 1 ml) sample of bile. It can be preserved in any alcohol (95% isopropyl is marginally preferred, but 80% or better of ethanol or methanol is fine), and should be placed in a glass (not plastic) vial. Samples should be sent to Dr. Lee Hagey, CRES, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551. "Bile donors will be gratefully acknowledged and we will be happy to pay for shipping."

Here is a list of the taxa they are most interested in: it’s something of a long shopping list but hopefully with your cooperation, over time it will be whittled down. Particularly desired taxa are marked with *. Prosimians: Arctocebus calabarensis, Cheirogaleus major, * Euoticus elegantulus, * Galago sp (esp. alleni, demidovii, or senegalensis), Hapalemur griseus, Indri indri, * Lepilemur leucopus, * L. mustelinus, Microcebus murinus, * Perodicticus potto, * Phaner furcifer. New World monkeys: * Alouatta belzebul, Cacajao sp., Callicebus moloch, * Cebus sp., Chiropotes satanas, Leontopithecus rosalia, Pithecia albicans, Saguinus sp. (except oedipus). Old World Monkeys: * Cercopithecus neglectus, * C. nictitans, Erythrocebus patas, Mandrillus sphinx, Miopithecus talapoin, Colobus polykomos,* C. guereza, * Procolobus sp., * Presbytis sp (except entellus and francoisi), * Nasalis larvatus. Apes: * Hylobates lar, H. pileatus, * H. syndactylus.

They are also interested in samples from the following non-primates: * golden moles Chrysochloridae (any) * moon rat Echinosorex gymnurus, shrews Soricidae (any), moles Talpidae (any).

For more information, contact Jim Moore, Anthropology Dept, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093-0532 [858-534-5572; fax: 858 534-5946; e-mail:].

Hominidae Prostate Tissue or RNA

Dr. Gerald Verhaegh is studying prostate-specific gene expression in humans and nonhuman primates. He needs tissue of the prostate (as fresh as possible, at least 5 cubic mm) to isolate RNA from the following species: Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), Bonobo (Pan paniscus), Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and, if possible also Gibbon (Hylobates sp.). He would like the tissue to be preserved in liquid N2 (-196°C) or on dry ice (CO2 , -80°C) within 30 minutes after death of the animal. However, tissue which is collected and preserved a few hours after the death of the animal is still suitable to isolate RNA and is also very welcome. Please contact Dr. Verhaegh at the Urology Research Laboratory, University Hospital Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands [+31-24-3614908; fax +31-24-3541222; e-mail:] if you can help him. – Posted to CompMed, June 2

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New Films on Macaques

We are exploring the possibility of a film session at the ASP meeting to be held in June, 2000. This would be exclusively dedicated to films on macaques. With this in mind, we would like to know about new films made (completed and in progress) concerning species within this genus, especially films on lesser known and threatened species such as Tibetan, Barbary, stump-tailed, lion-tailed, pig-tailed, Formosan and Sulawesi macaques. Any information concerning such films would be appreciated. Please respond to Dr. Charles Weisbard, 31-31 29th St, Apt. 3F, Astoria, NY 11106 [e-mail:].

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Address Changes

Janet D. Gahagen-Thomas, 99 E. Middlefield Rd, #34, Mountain View, CA 94043.

View Point, 7 bis, rue des Aulnes, F-69410 Champagne au Mont D’or, France.

Carrie L. Conte, NIEHS, MD CO-01, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.

John J. Ely, Division of Neurobiology & Behavior, Bioqual, Inc. 9600 Medical Center Dr., Suite 200, Rockville, MD 20850.

Phillip A. Farber, Box 92, Mifflinville, PA 18631-0092.

Bill Ferner, Director, Lab Animal Program, Purdue Univ., 1071 S. Campus Courts Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Keith Gordon, 266 Newport Ave, Long Beach, CA 90803.

James "Buster" Hawkins, NHLBI – NIH, Building 10, Room 5N101, 10 Center Dr., MSC 1425, Bethesda, MD 20892-1425.

Robert M. Letscher, Tulane Regional Primate Center, Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433.

Kim Linsenbardt, 3019 W. Gentry Pkwy, Tyler, TX 75702-1642.

National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Stephanie W. Parrish, 13002-C Mink Farm Rd, Thurmont, MD 21788.

Primate Conservation Inc., 1411 Shannock Rd, Charles-town, RI 02813-3726.

Jan Ramer, Indianapolis Zoo, P.O. Box 22309, Indianapolis, IN 46222-5153.

Shelly L. Williams, 2338 Goodwood Blvd., Smyrna, GA 30080.

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Forming a Bachelor Group of Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

Carol Asvestas and Michelle Reininger
Wild Animal Orphanage

In a previous issue of this Newsletter [1998, 37(3), 5], Carol Asvestas documented the successful pairing of 24 male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). These macaques were all adults except for one 5-year-old juvenile. None of them were vasectomized or castrated, and none had their teeth blunted. Pairing was done according to behaviors exhibited by the macaques while they were singly housed. After careful observation of their aggressiveness or submissiveness, they were paired in such a way as to make the establishment of dominance/subord-inance relationships easier.

When the males were paired in cages measuring 5 ft x 5 ft x 8 ft, very little fighting occurred and rank relationships were immediately established. They remained paired in side-by-side cages for approximately nine months. In this time, only one pair had a change in rank relationship. All of the others remained comfortable in their status – in fact, they flourished. Each male’s body size increased as his muscle tone improved. Those that had exhibited stereotypic behavior by hair-pulling now occupied their time by grooming their partners. Left on their own with minimal human involvement, they became stronger and more confident.

In the meantime, a large (40 ft x 50 ft x 25 ft) enclosure was erected to house the entire group. The new area contained numerous large trees and various climbing apparatuses, as well as large rocks and shelter boxes for escape areas. The shelter boxes were placed in separate areas of the cage and were fitted with heating devices to provide warmth, if needed, during the winter.

In order to move the macaques with minimal difficulty and stress, each monkey was given a 1 cc dose of ketamine. One by one, they were placed inside the new area. Males who had been paired were placed near one another to provide some familiarity upon recovery from the ketamine.

The process of tranquilizing and moving the 24 macaques took about two hours. Because they were all tranquilized within a relatively short period of time, all began to recover from the effects of the ketamine around the same time. As they became aware of their surroundings, they began to explore.

Their beginning explorations were completely terrestrial. Somewhat groggy, they moved about sniffing trees, eating leaves, and playing with the dirt. Everything was a new experience. When encountering another animal, they lip-smacked while clutching one another’s shoulders.

The largest male was one of the first to become completely alert. He marched about the enclosure lifting tails and sniffing hindquarters. He devoted the most attention to the male he had been paired with, but didn’t stop with him. He made a complete circle of the perimeter, inspecting each monkey in turn.

As the others became more alert, they began to explore higher areas. Each male scaled a tree to the very top, then found a comfortable limb to rest upon. At this point, four of the males began lip-smacking and soliciting the attentions of the largest male. This group would eventually become a "gang" of sorts. They established their rule over the others with a series of attacks and ambushes to assert their dominance. It should be noted, at this point, that despite this aggressive establishment of a hierarchy associated with grouping, injuries were minor. (In fact, the worst injuries were a split lip and a bite to the leg, both of which healed up quickly and cleanly.)

Only one pair remained together after the move. The pair consisted of a 24-year-old male and his former cage-mate, the 5-year-old juvenile. The juvenile had asserted himself as dominant over the 24-year-old in the double cage. When confronted with a group of larger, older males, the juvenile became submissive and clung to the back of his cage-mate as if he were his mother.

This proved to be beneficial to the older male. When challenged by another male, the 24-year-old reciprocated the threat. The juvenile backed him up and the challenging male decided to "seek entertainment" elsewhere. This happened a few more times and then the 24-year-old gained the confidence to initiate his own attacks. His rank within the troop rose rapidly. In fact, he has been accepted by the "gang" and often joins them in disciplining those of lower rank. Having the protection of the older male, the juvenile benefits as well.

The higher-ranking males occupy the front area of the enclosure for most of the day. At feeding time, it is this area that is provisioned first. Also, this area gives a better view of the compound. From here, they can see the activities of other animals and the movements of the staff.

The back area of the enclosure belongs to the lower-ranking members of the troop. This area has many trees and provides more places to hide from unwanted attention. This is also the last area to be provisioned.

Amazingly, the trees have remained relatively undamaged by the macaques. Although the animals repeatedly shake them in displays, they have not stripped them of bark, as has happened with other macaque groups, most notably a large group of stump-tails (Macaca arctoides). In fact, there has been almost no destruction of their new habitat, other than the loss of some leaves and grass, which they consume.

The males now appear comfortable in their new surroundings. They are quite active throughout the day, both in groups and on their own. They enjoy perching in the trees, munching on leaves, or sitting in pairs, grooming one another. Occasionally, a few will band together and chase or threaten another. However, this usually ends when the monkey who is the focus of the attack reacts with submissive gestures, or somehow interests the attackers in going after another animal. No one has ever been harmed in such an "attack".

Authors' address: Wild Animal Orphanage, P.O. Box 690422, San Antonio, TX 78269 [e-mail:].

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Budongo Forest Project

The Budongo Forest Project (BFP) was founded by Vernon Reynolds in 1990. At that time the objective was to protect the chimpanzees of this forest, which Reynolds had studied in 1962 (see his book, now long out of print, called Budongo: a Forest and its Chimpanzees [London: Metheun, 1965]). ). The New Vision, Uganda’s main newspaper, ran a front page feature in 1989 with the banner headline "CHIMP RACKET BLOWN", in which the smuggling of baby chimps from Uganda, in this case to Dubai, was exposed. Budongo Forest was mentioned as the source of the chimps. Shirley McGreal of IPPL contacted Vernon about this and he decided there and then to try and do something about it. The initial support that enabled BFP to get off the ground came from the Jane Goodall Institute, via Richard Wrangham. The funding was for a Ugandan director for the project. The first director was Christopher Bakuneeta, who continued until 1997. Today that post is filled by Fred Babweteera.

The project has run continuously since 1990. In 1991 it became a forestry/conservation project and was funded by ODA (now DFID) – a British aid agency. In 1997 NORAD, a Norwegian aid agency, took it over; they are funding it at the present time. As a result of agency interest, BFP has become a medium-sized project with a staff of 25. It conducts forestry research in conjunction with the Forest Department of the Ugandan Government and the Department of Forestry at Makerere University. BFP is currently discussing with Makerere University the possibility of turning the project into a proper field station for the new Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation.

Current studies on Budongo Forest primates are:
· Katie Fawcett – ranging behavior of female chimps (writing up at Edinburgh University)
· Clea Assersohn – development of foraging behavior in chimps (writing up at St Andrews University)
· Emma Stokes – feeding skills and effects of injuries on chimps (writing up at St Andrews University)
· Lucy Beresford-Stooke – effects of recent logging on three forest monkey species (writing up, Oxford University)
· Jim Paterson – phytochemistry of bark eaten by baboons (writing up at University of Calgary)
· Donna Sheppard – ecology of redtails in logged and unlogged forest (writing up at University of Calgary)
· Janette Wallis and Vernon Reynolds – seasonality of sexual cycling and reproductive behavior of chimps (Universities of Oklahoma and Oxford)
· Duane Quiatt, Emma Stokes and Vernon Reynolds – survey of snare-induced injuries to chimps at sites across Africa (Universities of Colorado, St. Andrews, and Oxford)
· Duane Quiatt – leaf-sponging by Budongo chimps (University of Colorado)
· Paula Pebsworth and Mike Huffman – parasite loads and use of medicinal plants by chimps (writing up, Colorado and Kyoto Universities)
· Kate Arnold – social relationships among male chimps (St. Andrews University)
· Hugh Notman – pant-hoot vocalizations of chimps (University of Calgary)
· Nick Newton-Fisher, Andy Plumptre and Vernon Reynolds – relationship between party size and food supply in chimps (Cambridge University; Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), New York; and Oxford University)
· Lucilla Spini – growth characteristics and behavior of juvenile chimps (Oxford University)
· Christophe Boesch, Linda Vigilant and Vernon Reynolds – non-invasive studies of genetics of chimps (Max Planck Institute; Leipzig and Oxford Universities.)
· Andrew Brownlow, Andy Plumptre, Ryk Ward and Vernon Reynolds – nesting characteristics of male and female chimps (Oxford University and the Wildlife Conservation Society, New York).

For further information please contact Vernon Reynolds, 58 Banbury Rd, Oxford OX2 6QS, U.K., or see <> – Part of this article was posted to Alloprimate, May 7, 1999

* * *

Grants Available

High Impact Research: Feasibility Studies

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) invites grant applications from basic and clinical investigators who are interested in pursuing feasibility studies of high impact (HI) research focused on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, or language related to the specific mission of the NIDCD. HI research involves pilot/feasibility studies in which the technological, methodological, or theoretical approach to the problem lacks a traditional historical basis or pilot data, but which could have a major impact on a scientific area or field. Descriptions for the characteristics of HI research have included "groundbreaking," "revolutionary," and "paradigm shifting" (High Risk/Innovative Research Identification in NIH Peer Review Notes, Division of Research Grants, June 1993). This research program will be supported through Exploratory/Developmental (R21) Grants restricted in level of support and in time. These grants provide support for the development of a basis for more extensive traditional research projects.

The purpose of this program announcement is to encourage the submission of feasibility studies by basic and clinical investigators who are interested in pursuing HI research that has the potential for leading to a technological, methodological, or conceptual breakthrough or major contribution in biomedical or behavioral research. Studies that enhance the significance and innovativeness of the research by bridging one line of investigation with another are encouraged. The research must be focused on one or more areas within the scientific mission of the NIDCD: hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues, including eligibility and responsiveness, to: Hearing: Amy Donahue [301-402-3458; e-mail:] or Lynn Luethke [301-402-3461; e-mail:]; Balance/Vestibular: Daniel Sklare [301-496-1804; e-mail:]; Chemical Senses: Rochelle Small [301-402-3464; e-mail:]; Voice/Speech: Beth Ansel [301-402-3461; e-mail:]; or Language: Judith Cooper [301-496-5061; e-mail:]. The address and fax number for all are: Division of Human Communication, NIDOCD, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 400-C, MSC-7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [fax: 301-402-6251]. Application receipt date is August 24, 1999.

NIA Pilot Research Grant Program

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is seeking small grant applications in specific areas to: · stimulate and facilitate the entry of promising new investigators into aging research and · encourage established investigators to enter newly targeted, high priority areas in this research field. This Small Grant Program provides support for pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant and/or a significant advancement of aging research.

Investigators may apply for a small grant in one of the following areas: · Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular aging; · Glial cells in aging and neurodegeneration; · Neural modeling; · Sensory and motor processing; · Amyloid precursor protein; · Sleep and circadian processes; · Extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton; · Genetic, cellular and biochemical basis of functional senescence; · Nutrient modulation (mechanisms that underlie nutrient modulation of cellular, tissue and organ integrity during the aging process); · Basic underlying mechanisms of musculoskeletal aging (muscle, bone, cartilage, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, and motor neuron); · Animal models of aging (develop new and informative mammalian models for aging research, including genetically defined and/or genetically altered animals).

NIA will modify the selected topic areas annually by reissuing the program announcement. Information on other initiatives supported by NIA may be found at <>.

Inquiries are encouraged. For applications contact: David B. Finkelstein, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 2C231, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail:]; Judy Finkelstein, Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 3C307, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9350; fax: 301-496-1494; e-mail:]; or Wanda Solomon, Geriatrics Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 3E327 MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-435-3046; fax: 301-402-1784; e-mail:]. Application receipt dates are July 16 and November 17, 1999.

NIAMS Small Grant Program for New Investigators

The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) is seeking small grant (R03) applications to stimulate and facilitate the entry of promising new investigators into areas of research supported by the NIAMS. Applications are especially encouraged from new investigators who hold a faculty position at an HBCU (Historically Black College or University) or at other institutions that have student populations consisting predominantly of individuals from racial or ethnic groups that are underrepresented in science. This solicitation will provide support for pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant (R01).

Appropriate research areas may include, but are not limited to, the following: · Manifestations of rheumatic, connective tissue, and skin diseases, including animal models; · rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, immune and non-immune inflammation of the skin (including irritant and allergic contact dermatitis), autoimmune diseases of skin, atopic dermatitis, and wound healing; · Skin, connective tissues, bone, and muscle; · Interactions of bone and connective tissue with materials of orthopedic instruments, implants and prostheses.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to one of the following persons, according to scientific area: Orthopedics & Bioengineering: James S. Panagis, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37K, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-594-4543; e-mail:]; Rheumatic Diseases: Susana A. Serrate-Sztein, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37G, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5032; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:]; Cartilage & Connective Tissue: Bernadette Tyree, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-37J, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5032; fax: 301-594-4543; e-mail:]; Muscle Biology: Richard W. Lymn, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-49E, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5128; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:]; Skin Diseases: Dr. Alan N. Moshell, 45 Center Dr., Rom 5AS-25L, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5017; fax: (301) 480-4543; e-mail:]; Bone Biology: William J. Sharrock, 45 Center Drive, Room 5AS-37A, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:]; or Bone Diseases: Joan McGowan, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AS-43E, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5055; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:]. Additional information, including sample budget narratives and biographical sketch, may be found at: <>. Application receipt dates are October 19, 1999, and February 22, June 21, and October 18, 2000.

Vaccine Immunology Basic Research Centers

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, invites applications for program project grants that address fundamental immune mechanisms as a basis for effective human vaccine development. Each program project should focus on a specific human infectious disease of public health importance, excluding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its sequelae. Project teams should include expertise in basic immunology, clinical research, and the biology of the pathogenic organism. This program seeks to support interdisciplinary approaches to discover, define, and analyze protective immune mechanisms in humans. Utilization of insights and approaches from recent advances in basic immunobiology in order to analyze immune responses to vaccination and infection should facilitate the identification of new targets and strategies for effective vaccines. Studies are intended to focus on human immune responses and to make use of human clinical materials wherever possible. Projects that incorporate clinically relevant animal models into a complementary framework of human studies may be proposed, if adequate justification regarding their significance for human vaccine design is provided. Assembling a group of collaborators with expertise in basic immunology, clinical research, and the biology of the infectious agent is essential. Applications may be submitted by single institutions or consortia of institutions as may be appropriate to provide the requisite types of expertise. Applications must also demonstrate that effective research collaborations can be carried out.

Requests for the NIAID brochure "Instructions for Applications for Multi-Project Awards," as well as inquiries regarding eligibility and research scope issues, may be directed to Charles J. Hackett, Division of Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation, NIAID, 6700-B Rockledge Drive, Room 5145, MSC 7640, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-7551; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail:]. The letter of intent receipt date is July 16 and the application receipt date is November 24, 1999.

Research Supplements: Underrepresented Minorities

The NIH hereby notifies all Principal Investigators holding NIH research grants that funds are available for administrative supplements to existing grants for the support and recruitment of underrepresented minority investigators and students. The aim of these supplements is to attract and encourage minority individuals to enter and pursue biomedical and behavioral research careers in areas within the missions of all the awarding components of the NIH by providing supplemental funds to certain ongoing research grants. For the purpose of this announcement, underrepresented minority students and investigators are defined as individuals belonging to a particular ethnic or racial group that has been determined by the grantee institution to be underrepresented in biomedical or behavioral research. Awards will be limited to citizens or noncitizen nationals of the United States or to individuals who have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence (i.e., in possession of an Alien Registration Receipt Card) at the time of application. Before submitting an application for a research supplement, applicants are encouraged to call their program administrator at the NIH to discuss any aspects of this program that need clarification.

This program will support minority high school students who have expressed an interest in biomedical or behavioral sciences; minority undergraduate students who have demonstrated an interest in biomedical or behavioral sciences and wish to pursue graduate-level training in these areas; minority predoctoral students who wish to develop research capabilities in the biomedical and behavioral sciences; minority individuals who wish to participate as postdoctoral researchers in ongoing research projects in preparation for independent careers in biomedical or behavioral research; and short- and long-term opportunities for minority staff and faculty who wish to participate in ongoing research projects while further developing their own independent research potential.

Similar programs, through which individuals with disabilities are encouraged to pursue biomedical research careers, is also in progress. Principal Investigators interested in participating in these programs are encouraged to contact NIH staff administering the parent grant.

Reentry into Research Careers

NIH again announces a program for administrative supplements to research grants to support individuals with high potential to reenter an active research career after taking time off to care for children or parents or to attend to other family responsibilities. The aim of these supplements is to encourage fully trained individuals to reenter research careers within the missions of all the program areas of NIH. This program will provide administrative supplements to existing NIH research grants for the purpose of supporting full-time or part-time research by these individuals in a program geared to bring their existing research skills and knowledge up to date. It is anticipated that at the completion of the supplement, the reentry scientist will be in a position to apply for a career development award or for a research award.

Principal Investigators on eligible awards are invited to submit a request for an administrative supplement to the awarding component of the parent grant to support an eligible candidate interested in reestablishing a research career. The parent grant should have at least two years of support remaining at the time of the proposed beginning date of the supplemental funding. A maximum of three years of supplemental support can be awarded under this program. Usually, a parent grant would support only one administrative supplement (Research Supplements for Underrepresented Minorities, Research Supplements for Individuals with Disabilities, or Research Supplements to Promote Reentry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers).

Candidates must have a doctoral degree or equivalent; at least two years of postdoctoral research experience; and must have had sufficient prior research experience to have qualified for a faculty appointment at the assistant professor or equivalent level at the time of their leaving active research.

For general information about the reentry supplements, candidates and Principal Investigators should contact the program official of the appropriate awarding Institute or Center. Candidates who have not yet made contact with a Principal Investigator are encouraged to contact the program official whose institute or center is specific to the research interest.

* * *

Editors’ Notes

Mailing, E-mailing, and the Web

We would like to thank the many readers who returned the card enclosed with the last issue. About 120 people agreed to read the e-mail or Web versions instead of paper; about 70 people told Us that they could not yet access the electronic versions; and about 90 people sent checks for $10 or more, saying that they just didn’t enjoy reading the LPN on a computer screen. Special thanks to those who sent more than $10!

A few people asked if We would send an e-mail notice when a new issue was put onto the Web. We have begun to do that; however, at least two people asked for a notice but didn’t send their e-mail address – We won’t mention any names, but – please send the address and next time We’ll let you know!

And that leaves nearly 800 people who didn’t return the cards (or send Us e-mail). We are left assuming that they are going to use the electronic versions, although We fear that We are going to receive a larger or smaller barrage of "Where is our July issue?" letters in the next few months. We have printed enough issues to cover at least some of these possible laggards, but next time we won’t!

We would also like to clarify the situation for our foreign subscribers, who for a good many years have been asked to pay mailing charges. We did send the cards along to them. However, We are not going to change the rules in mid-subscription. If they have already paid mailing charges, We will assume that they cannot get the electronic editions and will keep sending the paper. When their mailing charges are due again, We will ask them to decide if they can use e-mail or the Web, and to send us extra money if they can, but prefer not to.

Five More Years!

We are very pleased to announce that the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, NIH, has again funded the LPN for another five years of publication. Thank you, NCRR! thank you, Friends and Helpers! and thank you, Loyal Readers!

* * *

Primates de las Américas...La Página

En esta edición se presentan los avances en la investigación primatológica de dos colegas en dos distintas áreas: la veterinaria y la taxonomía. Por un lado, mediante un análisis de una población cautiva de monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi), se ofrecen datos de los valores hemáticos de esta especie, lo cual contribuye a conocer algo mas de los aspectos fisiológicos de esta especie tan compleja en su taxonomía. Por otra parte, se comentan algunos detalles de las labores de curatoría en un instituto de investigación colombiano que encuentra en los primates motivo de arduo trabajo. Agradecemos la participación de estos colegas y seguimos invitando a participar en esta columna. Estamos a sus órdenes. Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen (Editores). Depto de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. km. 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, ap 6 cp 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail:].

Valores hematológicos normales de Ateles geoffroyi en Yucatán, México. Dra. Rosalía Pastor Nieto, Jefa de la División Académica, CEDESU, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche [e-mail:].

En 1996, veintitrés individuos de la especie Ateles geoffroyi tanto machos como hembras fueron muestreados en el Parque Zoológico del Centenario de Mérida, Yucatán, México durante un estudio de ecología conductual para evaluar el efecto de la familiaridad y parentesco sobre la conducta cooperativa en esta especie. Durante este estudio se realizaron análisis de sangre con el objeto de obtener información relativa al kariotipo de los animales estudiados mediante la técnica, así como la determinación de parentesco a través de pruebas de paternidad.

Se tomaron las muestras de sangre de vena femoral de 23 individuos (N=23) que fueron procesadas en el Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Hideyo Noguchi, de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Las muestras fueron procesadas contando los diferentes componentes sanguíneos como: Hemoglobina (g/dl), Hematocrito (g/dl), C.M.H.B. (g/dl), Reticulocitos (%), Plaquetas (/m ), Leucocites (/m ), Linfocitos (%), Monocitos (%), Eosinofilos (%), Basofilos (%), Segmentados (%), Bandas (%), Metamielocitos (%), Promielocitos (%), Blastos (%).

Con el objetivo de obtener el promedio y rango de máximos y mínimos del género Ateles en esta región geográfica, los datos obtenidos fueron procesados utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS para Windows (versión 6.0), sección Estadística Descriptiva. Los resultados obtenidos están a la derecha.

                           promedio         mínimo      máximo

Hemoglobina (g/dl)           14.29           11.7       17.9
Hematocrito (g/dl)           43.52           35         55
CMHB (g/dl en eritrocitos)   32.84           31.96      33.86
Reticulocitos (%)             1.32            0          2.4
Plaquetas (/m)          396,391         298,000    535,000
Leucocitos (/m)            8776.08        4200     13,600
Lifocitos (%)                27.60           12         58
Monocitos (%)                 0.17            0          3
Eosinofilos (%)               0.95            0          7
Basofilos (%)                 3.47            0         68
Segmentados (%)              67.47            0         88
Banda (%)                     0.21            0          2
Metamielocitos (%)            0.08            0          1
Mielocitos (%)                0               0          0
Promielocitos (%)             0               0          0
Blastos (%)                   0               0          0

G/dl - gramos por decilitro; /m - número por microlitro; % - porcentaje en la muestra

Tabla 1. Valores hemáticos obtenidos en los 23 ejemplares de Ateles geoffroyi en Mérida, Yucatán mostrando promedios y rangos de máximos y mínimos.

Quehaceres en la Primatología Colombiana. Biol. Carolina Ramírez. Curador de la colección Prima-tológica del Instituto de Recursos Biológicos Alexander Von Humboldt, Colombia [e-mail:].

Colombia es reconocida como uno de los países del mundo más rico en primates, con 26 especies y 33 sub-especies agrupadas en tres familias (Hernández & Defler, 1985; Defler et al., en prensa). Sin embargo, la taxonomía y sistemática de primates es una disciplina incipiente. En primer lugar desconocemos el estado actual de nuestras colecciones a partir de información básica como: ¿Qué y cuanto tenemos? ¿En dónde y qué debemos colectar? Y ¿cuáles son los problemas de origen taxonómico y sistemático más comunes? que nos permitan señalar hacia donde deben apuntar nuestros esfuerzos para obtener una excelente colección primatológica de referencia. Abordar este conocimiento nos permitiría evaluar concreta y cuantitativamente el grado de representatividad de nuestras colecciones con respecto al número de especies confirmadas para el país, así como nos indicaría cuáles son las prioridades de investigación en torno a la solución de controversias de origen taxonómico, sistemático, ecológico y de conservación que prevalecen en el campo de la primatología colombiana.

Un primer paso para alcanzar este conocimiento, lo constituye la evaluación cuidadosa y detallada de la Colección Primatológica que posee el Instituto de Recursos Biológicos Alexander Von Humboldt, cuya misión es promover, coordinar y realizar investigación que contribuya a la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad en Colombia. Desde hace cinco meses se están realizando labores de curatoría sobre los especímenes depositados en la colección, que incluyen actividades de revisión, actualización y sistematización en una base de datos diseñada para tal fin. A partir de esta información se están realizando mapas de distribución geográfica de las especies y subespecies de primates, se identifican que especies y/o subespecies no están representadas en el Instituto Humboldt según región biogeográfica, y se trazan lineamientos conducentes a determinar qué material debe colectarse y las observaciones que deben realizarse en campo para determinar y/o confirmar sus límites de distribución. Cualquier información más detallada de las actividades arriba descritas estaremos en la mejor disposición de profundizarlas con los interesados.

* * *

Information Requested or Available

Knowing How to Practice Safe Science

Acid spills, fires, and other hazards are everyday concerns in a modern laboratory. Learning how to react in the face of these situations is the purpose of a new laboratory training Web site, "Knowing How to Practice Safe Science." This new site, <>, shows students, teachers, and research scientists how to act safely in a laboratory, and then challenges them to react quickly when problems arise. The site can be easily adapted to assist an individual’s interest and research, and includes an interactive quiz that rates the user’s knowledge of safe practices. The site was created for Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers with the intent of making it available as a public service to all laboratory researchers.

Primates-Online Gets New Web Home

Primates-Online, <>, includes a Bookstore and Gift Shop; Primate Conservation Grants, funded by donations and an on-line auction; a Kids’ Club, including a page of appropriate links; a monthly "Feature Conservationist"; as well as news, links, and other features. For more information contact Hope Walker [e-mail:].

Live Primate Chat

There is now an area for live chat for Alloprimate subscribers. It is a beta version meaning that it may not always work properly. The chat area is found by going to <>. In the left column of the site, click the underlined "Chat". This will automatically take you to the chat area. Someone will be there off and on throughout the evening. The chat room will be unmoderated.

WHO Library Digest for Africa

WHO Library Digest for Africa provides bibliographical and factual information relevant to Africa. Every two months, the Digest is compiled from World Health Organization (WHO) publications, documents, periodical articles, press releases, and newsletters emanating from WHO. The Digest is first sent electronically by Healthnet, using satellite communications to ground stations in Africa. It is then prepared in printed form for African recipients who do not have e-mail access. It is also available at <>.

Colleagues in Africa can use this electronic information to develop their own information services and combine it with other local current awareness products.


The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has a new Web catalog, called LOCATORplus, which allows anyone with Internet access to find out what books, journals, audiovisuals, manuscripts, and other items are contained in the world’s largest medical library. NLM, a part of the National Institutes of Health, has more than 5.3 million books, journals, artworks, and other materials in its collection. Users can search by author, subject, title, conference name, keyword, and many other specific fields, then e-mail the results to themselves. Hotlinks to on-line journals are available from many records. Direct access to a variety of other resources is available from LOCATORplus including MEDLINE, MEDLINEplus, Images of the History of Medicine, TOXNET, HSTAT, and other U.S. medical library catalogs. LOCATORplus is at: <>.

More Interesting Web Sites

· AALAS resource for IACUC members and staff:

· AWIC’s Selected Web Sites for Biomedical, Pharmaceutical, Veterinary, and Animal Sciences:

· AWIC’s Selected Databases for Biomedical, Pharmaceutical, Veterinary and Animal Science Resources:

· abstracts from Veterinary Parasitology:

· African Ape Study Sites:

· American Federation for Aging Research:

· Association of Teachers of Vet. Public Health & Preventive Med. Newsletter:

· BiblioFil, a bibliographic database on filariasis:

· Brain & Mind magazine:

· Brain Atlas Website:

· C. L. Davis Zoo and Wildlife Pathology Program:

· California Regional Primate Research Center:

· College and University Rankings:

· David Gibson’s Parasitology URLs:

· Howard Hughes Medical Institute Grants and Education Programs:

· Infectious Disease Web-link:

· Internet History of Science Sourcebook:

· Lab Animal Buyers’ Guide:

· Laboratory Animal Welfare Training Exchange:

· Massachusetts SPCA’s Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare:

· NSF Grants database:

· Rare and Unusual Scientific & Technical Books:

· Royal Perth Hospital’s Malaria "Test & Teach" page:

· Swiss Tropical Institute:

· Teaching of evolutionary game theory: kprestwi/behavior/ESS/ESS_index_frmset.html

· The Medical Journal Finder:

· Tropical Disease Research Newsletter:

· Trypanosomiasis News:

· WHO Library: Virtual Reference Desk:

· WHO’s Tropical Disease Research workplans:

· World Wildlife Fund’s "Saving the Amazon":

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Workshop Announcements

Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) of the USDA’s National Agricultural Library (NAL) has a one-and-a-half day workshop for individuals who are responsible for providing information to meet the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act.

Areas covered include: · Legislation. Describes the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act and focuses on the information requirements including IACUC roles and the search for alternatives. · Alternatives. Defines alternatives as reduction, replacement, and refinement. Gives examples and emphasizes that alternatives are not just non-animal methods. · AWIC. Describes the services AWIC and other information resources (including Web sites), useful in the alternatives search and improving animal care and use, can provide to researchers. · Databases. Selection of databases is contingent on the nature of the research protocol. There is no single database that adequately addresses the needs of all protocols. This section highlights the similarities and differences among databases (including MEDLINE) and how they can be accessed. · Searching. How to develop search strategies, online exercises using the DIALOG search engine, search evaluation, and documentation.

A USDA/APHIS animal care staff member is also present to update participants on new developments in Animal Care and to answer questions regarding inspections and searching for alternatives.

The free workshop is held in Beltsville, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C. The last workshop for 1999 is October 14 and 15. Registration forms and background and lodging information are available at <>. For additional information, contact AWIC, NAL, 10301 Baltimore Ave. Beltsville, MD 20705 [301-504-6212; fax: 301-504-7125; e-mail:].

Case Reports – Association of Primate Veterinarians

The Association of Primate Veterinarians’ (APV) annual workshop will be held in Indianapolis, Indiana, November 5-7, 1999. Presentation of clinical case reports is a long-standing tradition at the workshop, and member participation is the cornerstone of this forum. The workshop is an opportunity to communicate with colleagues in the primate medicine community and take advantage of a great educational program. Last year APV initiated a program of awarding free annual workshop registration and $500 to fund travel expenses for five laboratory animal medicine trainees, and we are pleased to announce that APV will again sponsor this program for the 1999 workshop. The candidates must submit a credentials package and a case report for review to the APV Education Committee, with the expectation that awardees will make a presentation of their case reports at the annual meeting. This is a great way for veterinarians in training programs to be welcomed into the APV family, so please spread the word of this opportunity to your colleagues. If you would like to present a case report, or if you need more information about the travel grant process, please contact John Fanton, DVM [503-690-5362; e-mail:].

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Positions Available

Animal Facility Supervisors, Georgia

The University of Georgia College of Arts & Sciences Animal Resources (CASAR) Department has two Animal Facility Supervisor (AFS) positions open. Responsibilities in the centralized animal facilities of the College of Arts & Sciences Animal Resources (CASAR) will include: administrative supervision of facilities housing rodents, rabbits, amphibians, and nonhuman primates in accordance with laws and regulations pertaining to laboratory animal care; training, scheduling, directing, and documenting the work activities of 12 technicians; directing husbandry and sanitation schedules of animal rooms and support areas; coordinating utilization of equipment as needed between facilities in CASAR; coordinating acquisition of animals and investigator space with CASAR Manager; rodent breeding colony maintenance; husbandry and monitoring of barrier-housed animals; animal health and environmental monitoring; technical service for research investigators; overseeing the environmental enrichment program; administering injections, blood collection and serum processing for rabbits, rodents, and nonhuman primates; participation in continuing education programs including giving presentations at meetings and teaching technician certification training classes; familiarity with and ability to provide simple maintenance for various equipment including HEPA-filtered isolation units, individually ventilated cage systems, cage washers, and autoclaves; communicating effectively with other team members using e-mail and other tools; writing and revising standard operating procedures using software such as WordPerfect or other desk-top publishing programs; and inventory control.

The CASAR program consists of three separate facilities, under one Manager. The AFS is trained at all facilities and can be rotated between facilities as needs arise. Teamwork is essential. Interested candidates must be AALAS LAT-certified, and have had at least one year of supervisory experience. Salary will range from $22,500 to $28,000.

To inquire or apply for these positions, contact Robin M. Kavanaugh, Franklin College of Arts & Sciences, Univ. of Georgia, B021 Life Science Bldg, Athens, GA 30602 [706-542-6083; e-mail:].

Predoctoral Intramural Research Training Award

The Primate Unit of the Laboratory of Clinical Studies, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), NIH, invites applicants for predoctoral research training. The Unit focuses primarily on investigation of the neurobiological basis of individual differences in behavior. Animal models are used to study various features of normative development and psychopathology. Daily systematic sampling of behavior using objective behavior coding systems allows the laboratory to link inter-individual differences in biological activity and neurotransmitter functioning with the phenotypic expression of behavior traits.

The trainee will join a research team of postdocs, technicians, and other students in researching behavior and neurobiology. The primary laboratory is located in Poolesville, Md., at the NIH Animal Center. A stipend is available and is competitive with similar fellowships. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, statement of research interests, and three letters of reference to Dr. J. Dee Higley, NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Bldg 112, Poolesville, MD, 20837. Address queries to Dr. Higley [e-mail:].

Postdoctoral Training in Comparative Medicine, MIT

The Division of Comparative Medicine at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is seeking veterinarians for its NIH-supported training program in Comparative Medicine. The program incorporates a year of clinical training followed by three years of research training. The clinical experience and didactic training in laboratory animal medicine, laboratory animal pathology, and research prepare candidates for the ACLAM board examinations and for careers in research. Clinical training will entail daily rounds at the Division’s state-of-the-art, AAALAC-approved animal facilities that include extensive surgical resources and fully equipped transgenic laboratories. Training also occurs in the Division’s diagnostic laboratory, at Harvard’s Regional Primate Research Center, and at other Boston biomedical research institutions. Candidates have the option of pursuing a master’s degree or doctorate through MIT’s Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health. For details see: <>.

Requirements: DVM from an AVMA-accredited institution, a strong interest in research, and U.S. citizenship or permanent residency. Interested candidates should send a cover letter, curriculum vitae, and three letters of support to Dr. James G. Fox, MIT Div. of Comparative Med., 16-825, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139. MIT is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Wildlife Waystation, California

The Wildlife Waystation, a sanctuary for a multitude of species (e.g., big cats, chimps, birds of prey, bears), has an immediate opening for a primate behaviorist, primarily to assist in the daily care and environmental enrichment of a colony of 67 chimps, as well as other nonhuman primates. The Waystation is located in the mountains approximately 20 minutes from downtown Los Angeles. Salary is negotiable, and living accommodations can be provided on site. Previous experience with behavior and enrichment of chimps is preferred. Send resumes, salary requirements, and date of availability to: Wildlife Waystation, 14831 Little Tujunga Canyon Rd, Angeles National Forest, CA 91342-5999.

Laboratory Animal Veterinarian, Minnesota

The University of Minnesota is seeking a veterinarian with training, experience, and/or interest in laboratory animal medicine for the position of Assistant Clinical Specialist with Research Animal Resources. Candidates must have a DVM/VMD degree and U.S. veterinary licensure. This is an entry-level position.

Principal responsibilities include participation in comprehensive veterinary medical care and husbandry programs for laboratory animals (rodents, rabbits, farm animals, dogs/cats, nonhuman primates, and more), departmental educational programs, and review of research protocols. Salary will be regionally commensurate with the experience and credentials of the candidate. Applications will be received until the position is filled; start date to be negotiated.

Send resume, including professional goals, relevant experience, and names and addresses of three professional references, to Research Animal Resources, Search Committee, Box 351 Mayo, 420 Delaware St SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 [612-624-9100]. The University of Minnesota is an Equal Opportunity Educator and Employer.

Animal Research Facility Manager, Washington, DC

The Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM), Georgetown University, is seeking an individual with strong supervisory skills and technical experience to serve as Manager of the Research Resources Facility (RRF). This individual will be expected to provide daily management of the RRF’s husbandry/facility operations and animal care staff. The RRF is a 50,000 ft2 AAALAC-accredited facility which supports basic research by medical school faculty. The types of animals used in the RRF are diverse and range from rodents to nonhuman primates. The RRF Manager, who answers to the Director of the DCM, is expected to help ensure and maintain regulatory compliance with all federal and District laws concerning animal research.

Qualifications for this position include LATG certification by AALAS, at least five years’ experience in animal care and supervision, and strong interpersonal and computer skills. A college degree is preferred. Send a resume and salary requirements to Dr. Stephen P. Schiffer, Director, Div. of Comp. Med., Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, 3950 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007 [202-687-2488; fax: 202-687-6256]. Georgetown University is an equal opportunity employer.

Training and Development Officer, Georgia

Yerkes Primate Research Center at Emory University is seeking a person for the following duties: · Trains animal care staff in standard operating procedures and coordinates or conducts continuing education activities. · Assists in managing an animal care program that maintains proper housing, sanitation, nourishment, and humane handling for a large and diverse population of laboratory animals. · Supervises animal care staff.

Qualifications include a bachelor’s degree and six years of related experience, including four years of laboratory animal care experience and three years of supervisory or training experience. The candidate should have education and/or experience in a biomedical or behavioral research environment, ideally including the primate as a research model. This person should possess a high degree of demonstrated proficiency in computerized training methodology. The salary range is $37,000-$60,000.

Please send resume to Emory University Human Resources, 1762 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-7611; TDD: 404-727-2075; fax: 404-727-1922]. For more information, see <>.

Clinical Laboratory Animal Veterinarian, Duke

The Division of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR) of the Duke University Medical Center is seeking applications for the position of Clinical Veterinarian. The individual will report to the Director and will assist in the management of the University’s animal care program. Responsibilities are to provide clinical care to laboratory animals, to provide surgical and technical assistance to investigators, and to assure compliance with animal welfare regulations. The DLAR maintains 21 species of animals including primates. Duke University’s animal care program is accredited by AAALAC. Applicants must have completed a recognized training program in laboratory animal medicine, be experienced in the care and management of laboratory animals, and be licensed in at least one state. Send a curriculum vitae and the names and addresses of three references to Dr. Richard J. Rahija, Director, DLAR, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3180, Durham, NC 27710. Duke University is an Equal Opportunity Employer. – Posted to CompMedMime-Version: 1.0

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Research and Educational Opportunities

Postdoc in Behavioral Psychopharmacology

Applicants are invited for a postdoctoral position in behavioral psychopharmacology in the Primate Unit of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Projects are within an established program assessing genetic and environmental contributions to the neurobiology of addiction and psychopathology. Neuroimaging and molecular genetic investigations are ongoing. Candidates must be willing to work as a team member, while developing an independent program. Applicants should submit a C.V., statement of research interests, and three letters of reference to Dr. J. Dee Higley, NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Bldg 112, Poolesville, MD 20837. Salary will be commensurate with experience. Address queries to Dr. Higley [e-mail:].

Lincoln Park Zoo Funds Support Field Research

The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic and Africa/Asia Funds support field research in conservation biology around the world. · The Scott Neotropic Fund focuses on projects undertaken in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Fund emphasizes the support of graduate students and other young researchers, particularly those from Latin America. Since 1986, the Fund has awarded over 126 grants in 19 countries. · The Africa/Asia Fund, launched in 1997, focuses on projects throughout Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. Each Fund supports projects of young conservation biologists; between five and 15 projects for each Fund are supported each year. Most awards are in the range of $3000-$6000. Initial support is for up to 12 months from the date of award; the maximum duration of support is two years. The current deadline for receipt of Scott Neotropic proposals is September 1, while Africa/Asia proposals have no deadline for 1999. For information and application procedures write to: Lincoln Park Zoo SNF/AA Funds, c/o Director of Conservation & Science, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL 60614 [e-mail:]; or see <>.

Bushbabies in Kenya

Kunga Ngece, a primate researcher based in Nairobi, Kenya, and attached to the Institute of Primate Research and the National Museums of Kenya, writes that he is interested in the population distribution, status, and conservation status of the bushbaby (Galago spp. and Otolemur spp.) in the Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya. This is a thick tropical rain forest with a diverse animal population, especially primates. He is looking for scientific data, or even anecdotes, from anyone who has done bushbaby research, especially in the Kakamega forest.

"I am also interested in finding a partner to do this research with – mainly graduate students and other nature lovers." He has some funding, but it is insufficient, so such persons should have sponsorship, or be willing to pay their own way. He hopes to form a research group to visit the forest, stay for some time, and produce reports. "Perhaps this could be a thesis for an interested student."

Mr. Ngece is also hoping for help in obtaining research funds and materials. You can contact him at the Institute of Primate Research, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya [e-mail:]. – posted to Alloprimate, June 7

Animal Behavior

The Konrad Lorenz-Institut für Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung (KLIVV), part of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, invites applications for a research position (four years, tenure possible) and a postdoctoral fellowship (one year) in behavioral sciences. A PhD and a strong background in either behavioral ecology, behavioral physiology, or ethology are required. KLIVV mainly investigates reproductive systems (co-operation, brood parasitism, sexual selection, and sperm competition), foraging and habitat use (sensory ecology, ecomorphology), and cognitive behavior (exploration, tool use). Applicants should be experienced in these or closely related fields. Practice in, and a good working knowledge of, molecular methods are particularly welcome.

Both jobs will start in October, 1999. Send CV, statement of current research interests, copies of significant publications and at least two letters of recommendation before July 1 to Prof. Dr. H. Winkler, KLIVV, Savoyenstrasse 1a, A-1160 Wien, Austria [e-mail:]. For more information, see <>.

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Meeting Announcements

La Asociación Mexicana de Primatología will hold a National Symposium September 6-9, 1999, in Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The major theme will be "Study and conservation of neotropical primates". For more information, contact Dr. Jorge Martínez, Depto. de Filosofía, UAM-Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-536, 09340 México D.F., Mexico [5 724 47 85; fax: 5 724 4778; e-mail:].

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, and the Center for Animal Welfare, at the University of California, Davis, will hold a conference, "Animal Research: Where Does The Buck Stop? Ethics, Economics, and Responsibility," on October 2-5, 1999. The conference organizing committee members are John Gluck, Lynette Hart, Joy Mench, Barbara Orlans, Jerrold Tannenbaum, and Philip Tillman. The conference will be held at the Granlibakken Resort Conference Center in Lake Tahoe, California. Further details can be obtained by contacting Sue Pounds Heekin, Center for Animal Welfare, Center for Special Programs, Meyer Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 [530-754-8564; fax 530-752-4508; e-mail:].

The next Chimpanzoo Conference will be held October 19-23, 1999 at Sunset Zoo, Manhattan, Kansas. The focus will be on "Approaching a more humane ethic toward captive chimpanzees". Guest speakers will be Dawn Prince-Hughes and Anne Pusey. Contact: Virgina Landau [520-621-4785; e-mail:].

An International Symposium on Endocrinology of Aging will be held October 27-30, 1999, in Tempe, Arizona. Contact Leslie Nies, Endocrinology of Aging, Serono Symposia USA, Inc., 100 Longwater Circle, Norwell, MA 02061 [fax: 1-781-982-9481].

The British Veterinary Zoological Society presents "Zoo and exotic animal anaesthesia and surgery" November 20-21, 1999, at the Meeting Rooms, Zoological Society of London. This two-day meeting will concentrate on modern approaches and advances within the fields of anesthesia and surgery in birds, reptiles, small mammals, zoo animals, fish, etc. For registration details please contact Derek Lyon, Brackenwood, 67 Wynnstay Lane, Marford, Wrexham LL12 8LH, UK [fax: 44 (0)1978 852065; e-mail:]. Anyone wishing to present a paper should contact Steve Divers, Exotic Animal Centre, 12 Fitzilian Ave, Harold Wood, Romford, Essex RM3 0QS, UK [44 (0)1708 384444; fax: 44 (0)1708 344318; e-mail:]. Student papers, reviews, new techniques and procedures, as well as original research, are all very welcome.

The Australasian Primate Society will hold its XVIIIth Annual Conference December 3-5, 1999, at Taronga Park Zoo, Sydney, New South Wales. Contact Graeme A. Crook, P.O. Box 500, One Tree Hill, South Australia 5114, Australia [e-mail:].

The 2000 Workshop of the European Marmoset Research Group (EMRG) will be held in Paris, April 16-19, 2000, at the Cite des Sciences. Paper sessions and roundtable discussion sessions will be held on behavior, conservation, ecology, genetics, immunology, laboratory management, neurobiology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, and toxicology. For more information, contact Dr. Christopher Pryce, Behavioural Biology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Schorenstr. 16, CH-8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland [+41 1 825 7386; fax: +41 1 825 7417; e-mail:]; or see <>.

* * *

Latin American Society of Animal Welfare

During the II Brazilian Congress of Animal Welfare and I Latin American Congress of Animal Welfare, in October, 1998, the Latin American Society of Animal Welfare was founded. A book for signatures of persons who would like to be considered founders of the Society was circulating during the Congress and is still receiving signatures. There are now about 600 signatures from Brazil, other Latin American countries, the U.S., and Europe. A professional Board was elected with Prof. Dr. Leopoldo Estol as President and Prof. Milton Thiago de Mello as Vice President. Professor Thiago de Mello is an Honorary Member and former Vice President of the World Veterinary Association (WVA) and a former member of the first WVA Committee on Animal Welfare, Well-being and Ethology, as well as a well-known primatologist.

For more information, or to join the Society, contact Dr. Estol, Director, Carrera Veterinaria, Universidad del Salvador, Campus Nuestra Sra. del Pilar, 1629 C.C. 198, Pilar, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina [+54 2 322 4 31260/63]; or Prof. Milton, SHIN QL 4, conj. 2, casa 19, Brasilia, DF Brazil CEP 71510-225 [+55-61-468-2808].

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News Briefs

3.6 Million-Year-Old Hominid Find in South Africa

Johannesburg – South African researchers said Wednesday they had discovered the almost complete skeleton of an ape-man estimated to be 3.6 million years old which could provide long-sought-after clues to human evolution. The four-foot-tall fossil was discovered at Sterkfontein on the outskirts of Johannesburg, which was also the site of the discovery of South Africa’s first hominid or ape-man skull in 1924. – from Reuters, December 9, 1998

Souvenir Trade Threatens Rare Monkeys

Australian tourists heading off to Asia have been warned not to come home with souvenir monkey skulls. Federal Environment Minister Robert Hill says Australian customs officers are now finding the unusual holiday keepsakes on a regular basis.

"Australians buying monkey skulls as souvenirs are contributing to the demand for these endangered species which are being taken from the wild. The Australian Customs Service has seized 33 souvenir monkey skulls and many other skeletal parts from Australian tourists over the past two years," Senator Hill said. "The skulls come from species such as the crab-eating macaque and the pig-tailed macaque." Senator Hill says Australian tourists have a responsibility to respect and protect their neighbors’ endangered and vulnerable species. "The international trade in souvenirs made from wildlife or containing wildlife products occurs around the world, often to the detriment of endangered plants and animals," he said. "Without the appropriate permits, wildlife products, including souvenirs, will be seized by the Australian Customs Service."

Travelers wanting more information on permits or the international wildlife trade should ask their travel agent for a copy of Environment Australia’s Tips for Travellers brochure. – a press release from the Australian Ministry for Environment and Heritage, posted on April 16, 1999, to Primfocus by Lynette Shanley of Primates for Primates

Supreme Court Denies Review of Challenge

The U.S. Supreme Court declined to review the decision rendered in Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Glickman and NABR that recognized the legal standing of one individual to challenge the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulations for enrichment of nonhuman primate environments. NABR President Frankie L. Trull said of the news, "We are disappointed but also recognize that the Supreme Court reviews very few cases." NABR had petitioned the highest court to consider whether Marc Jurnove had established Article III standing on a claim of aesthetic injury derived from the emotional distress he claimed to have suffered upon seeing primates exhibited in zoo housing that he thought was inhumane. By a 7-to-4 vote last September, the District of Columbia Circuit Court of Appeals sitting en banc concluded that he did. The U.S. Solicitor General and Department of Justice agreed that the appeals court was in error but declined to join NABR’s petition because there has been no court ruling on the merits of Jurnove’s claims.

The Supreme Court’s action, taken without comment, clears the way for further consideration by another appeals panel yet to be appointed by the Circuit Court. The new panel will decide whether the current nonhuman primate environmental enrichment standards that apply to zoos, research facilities and others are unlawful and should be revised by the USDA. At this time, the schedule for appeal on the merits is not known. – National Association for Biomedical Research Update, 1999, 20[9]

Multipurpose Retirement Home for Aged Primates

The Foundation for Comparative and Conservation Biology, an independent nonprofit corporation, was established this April in Maryland by Joseph Erwin and John C. Landon, of Diagnon Corp., and Thomas August, of Johns Hopkins University. The purposes of the Foundation include: · to promote science education as it relates to conservation of biological diversity, comparative biology, public health, and animal welfare; · to foster communication regarding science in the service of conservation and health; · to operate databases and tissue repositories in support of conservation and health; · to create a facility to provide care and comfortable quarters for primates and to serve as a geriatric care center; · to monitor the health and behavior of primates to promote their well-being and provide information on age-related disorders in order to prevent or treat them; · to provide support services to wildlife conservation projects; and · to provide training in methods of primate conservation and care.

One activity of the Foundation will be to develop a facility in which elderly chimpanzees and other primates that are surplus to biomedical research needs can spend their remaining years in secure and comfortable circumstances. The facility will encourage noninvasive scientific and educational studies of behavior, cognition, and health, intended to promote the well-being of the individuals studied and to benefit other members of their species. Most studies are also expected to provide knowledge beneficial to humans. Following natural death, detailed pathology assessments will be conducted. Innovative studies of various species should advance evolutionary biology, brain evolution, functional neurobiology, gene expression, and comparative genomics.

Joe Erwin was a founder of the American Society of Primatologists and Founding Editor of the American Journal of Primatology. He is currently Principal Investigator on "The Great Ape Aging Project: A Comparative Neurobiology of Aging Resource" supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging.

The Board of Directors will be expanded and an Advisory Board is being assembled, to include zoo and animal welfare professionals, primatologists, behavioral ecologists, gerontologists, wildlife conservation biologists, psychologists, physical anthropologists, veterinarians, and science educators. Funding will be sought from foundations, agencies such as NIH and NSF, and private donors. Those interested in participating in the project as advisors, affiliated scientists, or donors should contact Dr. Erwin, Foundation for Comparative and Conservation Biology, 301 Braddock Rd, Frostburg, MD 21532-2307 [phone is not yet in...please be aware that the project has just begun and Dr. Erwin is not yet quitting his day job].

Monkeys Spread Terror in Abkhazia

Soukhoumi, Georgia – (Agence France Presse) – For the residents of Soukhoumi, capital of Georgia’s breakaway region of Abkhazia on the Black Sea, monkeys have been unwelcome neighbors ever since the civil war of 1992-93. Until then Soukhoumi had housed the largest experimental breeding center in the former Soviet Union, containing more than 7,000 animals. But during the fighting artillery fire hit the enclosures, enabling the inmates to escape.

"After the war only 270 primates remained," said the center’s director, Sergei Ardzimba. "The rest escaped, were killed or simply stolen. The soldiers used to shoot at the monkeys to amuse themselves."

Many of the animals had been used for scientific experiments, Ardzimba said, while Alik Alia, a keeper at the center at the beginning of the war, recalled that some cages bore the notice "Beware AIDS." Experts do not rule out that some of the monkeys carry viruses dangerous to humans, but no one knows how many are still at large in Abkhazia. But everyone says they are bold and aggressive, driven by hunger and an unfamiliar habitat.

But it’s an ill wind... The Abkhazians, who are usually badly paid, are capturing the monkeys and selling them to Turkish dealers. "I can sell a monkey for around $20, which is enough to meet my needs for at least a month," said one resident. "My wife doesn’t work and I must feed my five-year-old son. In Soviet times it was already difficult to find a good job here, and since the war it has become impossible, but if I can catch five monkeys a year we are saved. The Turks don’t haggle because they know that they can sell the monkeys for at least $100 each at home. And the people here thank me for it, because these creatures have brought us nothing but trouble." European Internet Network, March 22, 1999

Chimpanzee Biomedical Research Program

The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) is requesting cooperative agreement applications from the five current participating institutions in the NCRR-supported Chimpanzee Biomedical Research Program (CBRP) to provide continued support for the Program. The existing CBRP was established in 1986. The recipient organizations have a responsibility to maintain colonies of chimpanzees that are, have been, or may be used in NIH-sponsored research.

The success in producing chimpanzees exceeds the anticipated research need for these animals. Programmatic and financial factors have indicated the need to consolidate the existing program. The demonstrated capabilities of the currently supported institutions make them uniquely qualified to compete for this continuation support. The funded sites will coordinate with a separately funded institution responsible for the development and maintenance of the chimpanzee database and will help ensure the continued appropriate use of chimpanzees in biomedical research.

The funded sites will be coordinated by the Chimpanzee Management Plan Office based in the Comparative Medicine area of the NCRR. The proposed initial period of support is for five years. The level of currently available annual funding is approximately $4.2 million. For further information, contact Dr. John D. Strandberg, Comp. Med. Area, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6030, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0744; fax: 301-480-3819; e-mail:]. – a notice posted by NIH on May, 14, 1999

Gorilla Haven Hires Peter Halliday

"Gorilla Haven (GH) announces the arrival of Peter Halliday of Canterbury, England, who has been hired as Project Manager/Director of Animal Care. Peter’s responsibilities will include heading the design and construction of our facilities, as GH continues towards our goal of housing gorillas by the end of 2000. Once gorillas are here, he’ll be in charge of their daily routines and all the husbandry issues, making sure all gorillas receive the best in care and attention.

"Peter managed the world’s largest collection of gorillas at John Aspinall’s Howletts and at Port Lympne zoos in England. In March, 1997, Peter decided it was time to move on from Howletts. He returned to school, receiving a MSc degree (with distinction) in Conservation Biology from the University of Kent in Canterbury.

"Gorilla Haven, on 275 acres in northern Georgia, is privately funded by the Dewar Wildlife Trust, a 501(c)(3) and Georgia nonprofit corporation. It will provide holding facilities for gorillas which owner institutions may otherwise house off-display. The intention is to build a world class facility, not open to the public, which will focus on research into building bachelor groups in conjunction with evaluating and meeting individual animals’ specific needs. GH will accept any gorilla, regardless of gender, age, behavior or disability. The Gorilla SSP and zoos will still control/own any gorilla at GH, which will simply be an adjunct to the zoo world, helping to ensure that all gorillas in captivity are in the best possible situation. Particular emphasis will be placed on enrichment, with gorillas having choice and control over their environment. GH invites comments and suggestions from all caregivers or people working with or studying gorillas. For more information, contact the Dewars [fax: 706-374-4491; e-mail:] or see <>." – From a press release by Jane Dewar, May 4, 1999

Bayne Appointed to AVMA Committee

Kathryn A. Bayne, Associate Director for AAALAC International, was recently appointed to represent Laboratory Animal Medicine on the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Animal Welfare Committee. Dr. Bayne’s experience with lab animal issues is extensive. Prior to her position with AAALAC, she worked at NIH leading a research program on nonhuman primate psychological well-being and on environmental enrichment programs for primates, dogs, cats, and swine.

L.A. Monkeys To Get Paternity Tests

There’s some monkey business going on at the Los Angeles Zoo. The chimpanzees keep getting pregnant, even though all the males thought capable of breeding have had vasectomies. No one is quite sure why it’s happening, but – "The zoo has never had this much publicity about anything," zookeeper Vicki Bingaman said. In the past three months, two chimps have given birth and a third is pregnant. DNA tests to determine the father – or fathers – cannot be done for months, until the babies are old enough to be separated from their mothers.

The real mystery is this: three of the four adult males had vasectomies in 1996. And Toto, who is 45, has never shown sexual interest in anyone but himself. As for 2-year-old Ripley and 4-year-old Glenn, they were considered too young to breed. Ms. Bingaman thinks the vasectomies may have failed. Vasectomies are known to have a 1 percent failure rate in humans. "Chimps are very resilient. It wouldn’t surprise me if they found some way around" their vasectomies, Ms. Bingaman said.

Charles Sedgwick, the zoo’s Director of Animal Health Sciences, thinks she’s wrong. "Vasectomies in chimps are the same as vasectomies in people, except that chimps are much more prodigiously endowed," Sedgwick said. In both humans and chimps, the tubes that carry semen are severed, and "there’s not much chance they would spontaneously reattach." Sedgwick thinks Toto or perhaps the youngsters are the fathers. He said there have been rare cases of young chimps impregnating a female.

The zoo started trying to curb its chimp population about eight years ago because the enclosure was getting too crowded and zoos have all the chimps they need. First, zookeepers distributed birth control pills. But the females passed them around. Babies ate them. So did males. Then Ms. Bingaman tried contraceptive implants. They weren’t strong enough. "So we vasectomized the males and we still had babies," she said. The newest, a four-pound girl, was born last week and brings the chimp population to 15. Ms. Bingaman thinks the problem is finally under control. A new, more naturalistic enclosure gives zookeepers more room to walk around and make sure only the adult females are swallowing birth control pills. – Ó The Associated Press, by Deborah Hastings, posted to Alloprimate, May 14, 1999, by Susan Skeans

Ribbon Cutting at Retirement Reserve

On May 1st, a ribbon-cutting ceremony was held at the new National Center for Retired Research Primates (NCRRP) in northwest Bexar County, Texas. The 50-acre secluded, heavily forested, facility is well under construction and will receive 60 sooty mangabeys and 36 stump-tailed macaques from Yerkes RPRC (at Emory University) in June. Ninety-four stump-tailed macaques and over 100 other primates will be transferred to the new facility from the Wild Animal Orphanage mid-summer. With the advice and assistance of experts in the field, NCRRP hopes to become a model facility, allowing many research primates the opportunity to live out the remainder of their lives in large naturalistic habitats.

Proposed Baboon Abbatoir, South Africa

Johannesburg – The Department of Agriculture on Saturday effectively put the brakes on plans for a baboon abattoir outside Warmbaths, saying it would withhold the necessary permits to move and slaughter the animals. Department consultant Dr. Hym Ebedes said that the abattoir would most probably not be able to get off the ground as it was strongly recommended that the departments not issue the permits. The developer of the controversial abattoir had not obtained approval from, or presented any protocols to, either the Department of Agriculture or Nature Conservation. Ebedes believed the abattoir would also not be able to obtain the necessary import and export permits for the meat and other products that were intended to be sent to Europe and Asia.

"One of the problems that I foresee is that this abattoir may not be able to be operated on a sustainable basis and could lead to the baboons becoming an endangered species, although they are currently considered vermin," he added. "At present there are no inspectors who could certify whether the meat is fit for animal consumption and the baboon in not considered to be a slaughter animal covered in the Public Health Act," he added. He pointed out that little research has been done on the types of diseases that could be passed from baboons to humans, but a study conducted on 100 baboons in the Kruger National Park discovered a number of potentially dangerous illnesses, that had until then been unknown. from, May 24

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


· Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Human Beings. A. F. Dixson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. [Price: $60 (paper); $145 (cloth)]
. . . Chapters: Darwin and friends; Primate classification and evolution; Mating systems; Mating tactics and reproductive success; Sexual behaviour and sexual response; Sociosexual behaviour and homosexuality; Sexual selection and sexually dimorphic traits; Sperm competition; Sexual selection and genitalic evolution; Sexual differential of the brain and behaviour; The ovarian cycle and sexual behaviour; The neuroendocrine regulation of sexual behaviour; Hormones and sexual behaviour in the adult male.

· Brutal Kinship. M. Nichols. New York: Aperture, 1999. 127 pp. [Price: U.S. $25; U.K. £15.95]
. . . "It is obvious that I use photography as a tool of advocacy. As soon as I became aware of the plight of the chimpanzee at the hand of Homo sapiens I felt I had to make a strong statement and effect change by photographing and publicizing this obvious violation of rights." The book includes a long essay by Jane Goodall.

· A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Gray Lesser Mouse Lemur Brain (Microcebus murinus). N. Bons, S. Silhol, V. Barbie, N. Mestre-Frances, & D. Albe-Fessard (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1998. 184 pp. [Price: $100.50]

· Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals (8th ed.). V. Reinhardt (Ed.). Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 1997. 184 pp. [Price: $5; one copy free to scientific institutions, veterinarians, or architects]
. . . Chapters include: "The benefits of giving experimental animals the best possible environment, by M. R. A. Chance & W. M. S. Russell; Considerations for the housing and handling of New World primates in the laboratory, by H. M. Buchanan-Smith; Species-adequate housing and handling conditions for Old World nonhuman primates kept in research institutions, by V. Reinhardt; and an Appendix, Animal Welfare Institute policy on the use of vertebrate animals for experimentation and testing.


Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide. Beltsville, MD: Animal Welfare Information Center and NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks, 1999. [Free from AWIC, NAL, 10301 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705, or can be downloaded from <>]
. . . Contents include: U.S. Laws, Regulations, and Policies for Environment Enhancement for Nonhuman Primates; Organizations and Web Sites; Primate Centers and Animal Colonies; Listservers; Product suppliers; Audiovisuals; Journals and Newsletters, Bibliography of articles 1992-1998; and Books and Conference Proceedings.

Magazines and Newsletters

· Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, Enero 1999, 6[1]. [Área de Etología y Beinestar Animal, Depto. de Veterinaria, Centro Univ. San Pablo CEU, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia, Spain]
. . . Contents include an article about Wolfgang Köhler and the Primatological Station at Tenerife, by J. M. H. Castilla.

· Centerline, Spring 1999. [Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299]
. . . Contains an appreciation of Steve Eisele and a report on the Memorial Service for Robert Goy, held March 14.

· Gorilla Conservation News, May 1999, No. 13. [K. J. Stewart, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616]
. . . Reports on gorilla conservation across Africa in 1998. "While political instability is the most immediate conservation problem in eastern Africa, ...a more serious general threat to gorillas, chimpanzees and other vulnerable species [is] the commercial bushmeat trade."

· IPPL News, April 1999, 27[1]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes reports on proboscis monkeys in Indonesia, and surplus zoo animals in the U.S.

· IPS Bulletin, May, 1999, 26[1]. [D. Fragaszy, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3013]
. . . Includes nearly four pages of news on Conservation and Welfare.

· Positively Primates, 1998, 4[2-4]. [DuMond Conservancy, 14805 S.W. 216 St, Miami, FL 33170]


· Approaches to Cost Recovery for Animal Research: Implications for Science, Animals, Research Competitiveness, and Regulatory Compliance. A Report of the Committee on Cost of and Payment for Animal Research, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.
. . . This report can be read at <>.

Special Journal Issues

Bioethics of Laboratory Animal Research. ILAR Journal, 1999, 40[1].
. . . Contents: Introduction: Toward a coherent ethic of research involving laboratory animals, by C. R. McCarthy; Roots of concern with nonhuman animals in biomedical ethics, by L. Sideris, C. R. McCarthy, & D. H. Smith; Bioethics, animal research, and ethical theory, by L.-M. Russow; How and why animals matter, by S. Donnelley; Community representatives and nonscientists on the IACUC: What difference should it make? by R. Dresser; and U.S. laws and norms related to laboratory animals, by J. L. VandeBerg, S. Williams-Blangero, & T. L. Wolfle.

· Animal Models of Human Vision. ILAR Journal, 1999, 40[2].
. . . Contents include: Animal models of myopia: Learning how vision controls the size of the eye, by T. T. Norton; and Nonhuman primate models of visually based cognition, by W. T. Newsome & J. A. Stein-Aviles.

· International Symposium "Recent Trends in Primate Socioecology." Primates, 1999, 40[1].
. . . Contents: Introduction, by M. A. Huffman & J. Yamagiwa; Population density, social pathology, and behavioral ecology, by J. Moore; The evolution of "egalitarian" and "despotic" social systems among macaques, by S. Matsumura; The socioecology of infant handling in primates: Is the current model convincing? by A. Paul; The value of grooming to female primates, by S. P. Henzi & L. Barrett; Socioecological factors of male chimpanzee migration at Bossou, Guinea, by Y. Sugiyama; The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in orangutans, by C. P. van Schaik; Socioecological factors influencing population structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, by J. Yamagiwa; The effects of dominance rank and group size on female lifetime reproductive success in wild long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, by M. A. van Noordwijk & C. P. van Schaik; Predicting primate responses to "stochastic" demographic events, by K. B. Strier; Why dominants do not consistently attain high mating and reproductive success: A review of longitudinal Japanese macaque studies, by Y. Takahata, M. A. Huffman, S. Suzuki, N. Koyama, & J. Yamagiwa; A four-year study of the association between male dominance rank, residency status, and reproductive activity in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), by J. Berard; The effects of food sources on Japanese monkey home range size and location, and population dynamics, by M. Koganezawa & H. Imaki; Effects of provisioning on the social behaviour of Japanese and rhesus macaques: Implications for socioecology, by D. A. Hill; Variation in langur social organization in relation to the socioecological model, human habitat alteration, and phylogenetic constraints, by E. H. M. Sterck; Implications of small scale variation in ecological conditions for the diet and density of red colobus monkeys, by C. A. Chapman & L. J. Chapman; Tamarin polyspecific associations: Forest utilization and stability of mixed-species groups, by H. M. Buchanan-Smith; Fragmented living: Behavioural ecology of primates in a forest fragment in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon, by C. E. G. Tutin; and Physical and social diversity among nocturnal primates: A new view based on long term research, by S. K. Bearder.

· Third International Great Apes of the World Conference Issue. Pongo Quest: Newsletter of the Orangutan Foundation International, Fall/Winter 1998/99, 9[1]. [O.F.I., 822 S. Wellesley Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90049]
. . . Several abstracts from the Conference are included.

Anatomy & Physiology

A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes. Nimchinsky, E. A., Gilissen, E., Allman, J. M., Perl, D. P., Erwin, J. M., & Hof, P. R.. [P. R. H., Neurobiology of Aging Laboratories, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1639, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 1999, 96, 5268-5273.
. . . We report the existence and distribution of an unusual type of projection neuron, a large, spindle-shaped cell, in layer Vb of the anterior cingulate cortex of pongids and hominids. These spindle cells were not observed in any other primate species or any other mammalian taxa, and their volume was correlated with brain volume residuals, a measure of encephalization in higher primates. These observations are of particular interest when considering primate neocortical evolution, as they reveal possible adaptive changes and functional modifications over the last 15-20 million years in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that plays a major role in the regulation of many aspects of autonomic function and of certain cognitive processes. That in humans these unique neurons have been shown previously to be severely affected in the degenerative process of Alzheimer’s disease suggests that some of the differential neuronal susceptibility that occurs in the human brain in the course of age-related dementing illnesses may have appeared only recently during primate evolution.

· Digestive strategy of the Asian colobine genus Trachypithecus. Caton, J. M. (Dept of Geology, Australian National Univ., Canberra ACT 0200, Australia). Primates, 1999, 40, 311-325.
. . . The Asian colobines eat plant-based diets containing 50-80% leaves. The structural polysaccharides in leaves and other plant parts require microbial fermentation before they can be used as an energy source by the monkeys. The major compartments of the gastrointestinal tract of Trachypithecus are a voluminous haustrated stomach, a long small intestine, and a capacious haustrated hindgut, all of which contribute to the digestive strategy of the species. Results of digesta marker passage studies indicate there is prolonged retention of digesta for fermentation in both the stomach and haustrated colon. The digestive strategy of these colobines is defined as gastro-colic fermentation, unlike that of other forestomach fermenters in which the hindgut fermentation is of secondary importance.

Animal Models

Distinct pathogenic sequela in rhesus macaques infected with CCR5 or CXCR4 utilizing SHIVs. Harouse, J. M., Gettie, A., Rei Chin How Tan, Blanchard, J., & Cheng-Mayer, C. (Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, 455 First Ave, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016). Science, 1999, 284, 816 – 819.
. . . Infection of macaques with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) provides an excellent in vivo model for examining the influence of envelope on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Infection with a pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-specific enveloped virus, SHIVSF162P, was compared with infection with the CXCR4 (X4)-specific SHIVSF33A.2. Despite comparable levels of viral replication, animals infected with the R5 and X4 SHIV had distinct pathogenic outcomes. SHIVSF162P caused a dramatic loss of CD4+ intestinal T cells followed by a gradual depletion in peripheral CD4+ T cells, whereas infection with SHIVSF33A.2 caused a profound loss in peripheral T cells that was not paralleled in the intestine. These results suggest a critical role of co-receptor utilization in viral pathogenesis and provide a reliable in vivo model for preclinical examination of HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutic agents in the context of the HIV-1 envelope protein.

· Emerging cytopathic and antigenic simian immunodeficiency virus variants influence AIDS progression. Kimata, J. T., Kuller, L. R., Anderson, D. B., Dailey, P. & Overbaugh, J. (J. O., Program in Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N, C3-168, Seattle, Washington 98109). Nature Medicine, 1999, 5, 535-541.
. . . Genetic variants of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) that evolve during the course of infection and progression to AIDS are phenotypically and antigenically distinct from their progenitor viruses present at early stages of infection. However, it has been unclear how these late variants, which are typically T-cell tropic, cytopathic, and resistant to neutralizing antibodies, influence the development of clinical AIDS. To address this, we infected macaques with cloned SIVs representing prototype variants from early-, intermediate- and late-stage infection having biological characteristics typical of viruses found at similar stages of HIV infection in humans. These studies demonstrate that sequential, phenotypic and antigenic variants represent viruses that have become increasingly fit for replication in the host, and our data support the hypothesis that emerging variants have increased pathogenicity and drive disease progression in SIV and HIV infection.

· Viral clearance without destruction of infected cells during acute HBV infection. Guidotti, L. G., Rochford, R., Chung, J., Shapiro, M., Purcell, R., & Chisari, F. V. [F. V. C., Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037]. Science, 1999, 284, 825 – 829.
. . . Viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been thought to reflect the destruction of infected hepatocytes by CD8+ T lymphocytes. However, in this study, HBV DNA was shown to largely disappear from the liver and the blood of acutely infected chimpanzees long before the peak of T cell infiltration and most of the liver disease. These results demonstrate that noncytopathic antiviral mechanisms contribute to viral clearance during acute viral hepatitis by purging HBV replicative intermediates from the cytoplasm and covalently closed circular viral DNA from the nucleus of infected cells.

· Live attenuated, multiply deleted simian immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS in infant and adult macaques. Baba, T. W., Liska, V., Khimani, A. H., Ray, N. B., Dailey, P. J., Penninck, D., Bronson, R., Greene, M. F., McClure, H. M., Martin, L. N., & Ruprecht, (Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115). Nature Medicine, 1999, 5, 194 - 203
. . . A substantial risk in using live attenuated, multiply deleted viruses as vaccines against AIDS is their potential to induce AIDS. A mutant of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) with large deletions in nef and vpr and in the negative regulatory element induced AIDS in six of eight infant macaques vaccinated orally or intravenously. Early signs of immune dysfunction were seen in the remaining two offspring. Prolonged follow–up of sixteen vaccinated adult macaques also showed resurgence of chronic viremia in four animals: two of these developed early signs of disease and one died of AIDS. We conclude that this multiply deleted SIV is pathogenic and that human AIDS vaccines built on similar prototypes may cause AIDS.

· Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8+ lymphocytes. Schmitz, J. E., Kuroda, M. J., Santra, S., Sasseville, V. G., Simon, M. A., Lifton, M. A., Racz, P., Tenner-Racz, K., Dalesandro, M., Scallon, B. J., Ghrayeb, J., Forman, M. A., Montefiori, D. C., Rieber, E. P., Letvin, N. L., & Reimann, K. A. [Div. of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Med. School, Boston, MA 02215]. Science, 1999, 283, 857 – 860.
. . . Clinical evidence suggests that cellular immunity is involved in controlling human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication. An animal model of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to show that virus replication is not controlled in monkeys depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes during primary SIV infection. Eliminating CD8+ lymphocytes from monkeys during chronic SIV infection resulted in a rapid and marked increase in viremia that was again suppressed coincident with the reappearance of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells. These results confirm the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling HIV-1 infection and support the exploration of vaccination approaches for preventing infection that will elicit these immune responses.


Social interactions between captive adult male and infant lowland gorillas: Implications regarding kin selection and zoo management. Enciso, A. E., Calcagno, J. M., & Gold, K. C. (J. M. C., Dept of Sociology & Anthropology, Loyola University of Chicago, 6525 N. Sheridan Rd, Chicago, IL 60626). Zoo Biology, 1999, 18, 53-62.
. . . Interactions between unrelated and related silverback-infant dyads are compared in an attempt to assess the influence that kinship may have on male parental behavior. Observational data were collected on each member of two silverback-infant dyads, in two separate enclosures at the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, Ill. The silverback was the father of the infant in one dyad, and unrelated to the infant in the other. Each infant was responsible for initiating most of the encounters with its respective group silverback. However, based on the frequency and duration of interactions, there is a significantly higher degree of affiliation and tolerance within the silverback-offspring dyad. Furthermore, the unrelated infant was the recipient of more than 40% of the agonistic behaviors exhibited by the silverback, whereas no such encounters were recorded within the related dyad. Although alternative explanations must be considered, these findings are consistent with kin selection theory, are similar to observations documented for wild mountain gorillas, and provide uncommon comparative data on adult male interactions with related and unrelated infants. In addition, this study offers behavioral information relevant to the management of captive gorillas, which often requires the introduction of immatures into non-natal groups.

· Reactions of adult and immature squirrel monkeys to intergroup exposure. Aruguete, M. S., Lyons, D. M., Mason, W. A., & Mendoza, S. P. (Social and Behavioral Sciences, Lincoln University, 820 Chestnut St., Jefferson City, MO 65102-0029). Zoo Biology, 1998, 17, 519-524.
. . . Initial encounters between unfamiliar animals raise the practical problem of controlling aggression and provide the opportunity to examine changes in social structure that may occur as groups merge. Social interactions and spatial grouping patterns were examined in newly formed squirrel monkey groups, in which a subgroup of familiar adults was introduced to a subgroup of familiar immature squirrel monkeys. Yearlings (10-11 months) and subadults (20-50 months) generally remained spatially distinct from adults, and intergroup interactions often consisted of adult-initiated antagonism. Adults exhibited sexual segregation in their spatial grouping patterns and interactions, whereas yearlings and subadults generally showed sexual integration. These data suggest that there is considerable adult resistance to integration of unfamiliar immatures into established adult social groups.

· Consistency and change in the behavior of rhesus macaque abusive mothers with successive infants. Maestripieri, D., Tomaszycki, M., & Carroll, K. A. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Developmental Psychobiology, 1999, 34, 29-35.
. . . An investigation of the abusive behavior and parenting styles of seven rhesus mothers with infants born in two consecutive years. All subjects lived in captive social groups (27 to 35 adults/group) and were observed during the first 12 weeks of infant life. Except for one individual, mothers were generally consistent in the frequency with which they abused their successive infants. Similarities were also found in the temporal course of infant abuse, the use of the most common pattern of abuse, and some measures of parenting style, notably those reflecting maternal protectiveness. The findings are discussed in relation to different hypothesized relationships between infant abuse and parenting style in macaques.

· Infanticide in chimpanzees: Review of cases and a new within-group observation from the Kanyawara study group in Kibale National Park. Arcadi, A. C., & Wrangham, R. W. (Dept of Sociology/Anthropology, Hofstra Univ., 104 Heger Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549). Primates, 1999, 40, 337-351.
. . . A prolonged attack on a mother and 2-year-old infant that resulted in the death of the infant was observed. The mother was a border-area resident who was first observed associating with unit-group males six years previously. The attackers were an adult male and an adult female with a 6-week-old infant clinging ventrally to her. The attack was unusual in several respects: it is the first time a male and a female chimpanzee have been observed cooperating closely in an infanticidal attack; the female initially attempted to intervene in the victim’s behalf, but later joined in the attack after receiving aggression from the male; and the episode was longer in duration than other reported cases. In the year following the incident, the mother did not increase her association with community males, but was seen with the male who killed her infant. The relevance of these observations to sexual selection-based explanations for infanticide in chimpanzees is discussed.

· Carrying, sharing, and hand preference in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Westergaard, G. C., Haynie, M. K., Lundquist, A. L., & Suomi, S. J. (NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 153-162.
. . . An examination of the relationship among carrying, food-sharing, and hand preference in Cebus apella. The rationale was to evaluate further the use of Cebus as an alternative primate model to Pan for behavior relevant to early hominid evolution. Bipedalism and food-sharing within an established social group were examined first; then the direction and strength of hand preference for food carrying in an expanded sample. Bipedal carrying and food-sharing occurred more frequently when bulky foods, rather than smaller foods, were provided. Food-sharing was characterized by passive tolerance, rather than active giving, between subjects. Subjects shared food primarily with immatures and followed a pattern of reciprocal exchange. There was no evidence for population-level hand preference for carrying. The authors posit that an array of behavioral similarities among Cebus, Pan, and Homo evolved through convergent processes, and in this regard capuchins can be seen as an alternative primate model to chimpanzees for the evolution of early hominid behavior.


Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed chimpanzees within their enclosures. Bloomsmith, M. A., Stone, A. M., & Laule, G. E. (Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave. S.E., Atlanta, GA 30315). Zoo Biology, 1998, 17, 333-341.
. . . Positive reinforcement techniques were applied to train groups of chimpanzees to move voluntarily into the indoor portions of their enclosures at the request of trainers and to be briefly restricted to those areas. Subjects were 66 members of eight social groups, including 44 adults (14 males, 30 females) and 22 immatures (eight males, 14 females). Performance of individual animals was recorded during four experimental phases of the project: baseline, initial training, maintenance of reliable performance, and transfer of responsibility for training from the original trainers to others on staff. A mean of 16.1 training sessions was required to reach reliable performance, defined as the subjects’ complying with 90% of the requests to move indoors. Analyses of variance indicated that chimpanzee compliance was significantly increased after training. Females required significantly fewer training sessions to reach reliable performance than did males. Adult males showed the lowest level of compliance in each experimental phase. Overall, compliance was not affected by the transfer of responsibility for the procedure from the original trainer to other staff, although there was evidence of a temporary and small decrement in performance immediately following transfer. These findings indicate that training can improve the voluntary movement of captive chimpanzees. They also demonstrate that animal training can be objectively evaluated using systematic study design, data collection, and statistical analysis of data.

· Optimal foraging theory predicts effects of environmental enrichment in a group of adult golden lion tamarins. Rapaport, L. G. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131). Zoo Biology, 1998, 17, 231-244.
. . . The success of environmental enrichment programs in effecting specific changes in the behavior of captive animals has not always been uniform. Separate studies demonstrated both an increase and a decrease in food competition among captive group-living primates upon introduction of foraging devices. The objectives of this study were to measure the effects of variation in resource distribution and availability on food competition in a group of captive adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). The resource variables chosen were suggested from optimal foraging theory. The energy invested to obtain an item influenced food transfer and aggressive behaviors while food abundance did not. All individuals obtained an equivalent number of items over the course of the experiment from the foraging device, even though some tamarins obtained most of their food rewards directly from the device while others received their food rewards primarily through transfer from other group members. Because the monkeys appeared highly motivated to obtain food from the apparatus and did not habituate to it, the foraging device used in this experiment could be used as regular environmental enrichment for golden lion tamarins. One way to circumvent potentially unacceptable rates of aggression, with this or any feeding protocol that increases foraging task complexity and search time, may be to provide more than one device per group.

Development and Aging

Emmetropization in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): Birth to young adulthood. Bradley, D. V., Fernandes, A., Lynn, M., Tigges, M., & Boothe, R. G. (Div. of Visual Sciences, Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322). Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 1999, 40, 214-229.
. . . In humans and monkeys, the neonatal eye is too short for the power of its optics. Emmetropization, the process in which this hyperopia is reduced, involves the coordination of the axial elongation of the eye with the maturation of its refractive components. Relatively little is known about the co-regulation of refractive error and its primary components in a normal population. The authors collected cross-sectional and longitudinal measurements of cycloplegic retinoscopy, axial length, and corneal curvature from 237 rhesus monkeys, from birth through adolescence. These data provide a baseline for studies of eye growth and refractive developments in humans and monkeys and confirm certain "rules" that have been offered as an explanation of how various ocular parameters interact during emmetropization.


Natural and experimental oral infection of nonhuman primates by bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents. Nöelle Bons, N. Mestre-Frances, N., Belli, P., Cathala, F., Gajdusek, D. C., & Brown, P. [Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Laboratoire de Neuromorphologie Fonctionnelle, Université Montpellier II, 34095-Montpellier cedex 5, France]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 1999, 96, 4046-4051.
. . . Experimental lemurs either were infected orally with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or were maintained as uninfected control animals. Immunohistochemical examination for proteinase-resistant protein (prion protein or PrP) was performed on tissues from two infected but still asymptomatic lemurs, killed 5 months after infection, and from three uninfected control lemurs. Control tissues showed no staining, whereas PrP was detected in the infected animals in tonsil, gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphatic tissues, and spleen. In addition, PrP was detected in ventral and dorsal roots of the cervical spinal cord, and within the spinal cord PrP could be traced in nerve tracts as far as the cerebral cortex. Similar patterns of PrP immunoreactivity were seen in two symptomatic and 18 apparently healthy lemurs in three different French primate centers, all of which had been fed diets supplemented with a beef protein product manufactured by a British company that has since ceased to include beef in its veterinary nutritional products. This study of BSE-infected lemurs early in their incubation period extends previous pathogenesis studies of the distribution of infectivity and PrP in natural and experimental scrapie. The similarity of neuropathology and PrP immunostaining patterns in experimentally infected animals to those observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals in primate centers suggests that BSE contamination of zoo animals may be more widespread than is generally appreciated.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

The human genus. Wood, B., & Collard, M. [Dept of Anthropology, George Washington Univ., 2110 G St NW, Washington, DC 20052]. Science, 1999, 284, 65-71.
. . . A general problem in biology is how to incorporate information about evolutionary history and adaptation into taxonomy. The problem is exemplified in attempts to define our own genus, Homo. Here conventional criteria for allocating fossil species to Homo are reviewed and are found to be either inappropriate or inoperable. We present a revised definition, based on verifiable criteria, for Homo and conclude that two species, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, do not belong in the genus. The earliest taxon to satisfy the criteria is Homo ergaster, or early African Homo erectus, which currently appears in the fossil record at about 1.9 million years ago.

· Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. de Heinzelin, J., Clark, J. D., White, T., Hart, W., Renne, P., WoldeGabriel, G., Beyene, Y., & Vrba, E. [T. W., Lab. for Human Evolutionary Studies, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720]. Science, 1999, 284, 625-629.
. . . The Hata Member of the Bouri Formation is defined for Pliocene sedimentary outcrops in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. The Hata Member is dated to 2.5 million years ago and has produced a new species of Australopithecus and hominid postcranial remains not currently assigned to species. Spatially associated zooarchaeological remains show that hominids acquired meat and marrow by 2.5 million years ago and that they are the near contemporary of Oldowan artifacts at nearby Gona. The combined evidence suggests that behavioral changes associated with lithic technology and enhanced carnivory may have been coincident with the emergence of the Homo clade from Australopithecus afarensis in eastern Africa.

· Australopithecus garhi: A new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Asfaw, B., White, T., Lovejoy, O., Latimer, B., Simpson, S., & Suwa, G. [T. W., address same as above]. Science, 1999, 284, 629-635.
. . . The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia’s Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived human-like humeral/femoral ratio and an ape-like upper arm-to-lower arm ratio.

Mitochondrial pseudogenes and phyletic relationships of Cebuella and Callithrix (Platyrrhini, Primates). Moreira, M. A. M., & Seuánez, H. N. (Genetics Section, Serv. de Pesquisa Básica, Inst. Nac. de Câncer, Praça da Cruz Vermelha 23, 20230-130, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil). Primates, 1999, 40, 353-364.
. . . Two cytochrome b pseudogenes were isolated from PCR-amplified products of Cebuella pygmaea DNA. These sequences showed insertions and deletions when compared to paralogous mitochondrial sequence regions of several primates. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that an ancestral pseudogene originated sometime before the divergence of Cebuella and Callithrix and that this sequence was later duplicated some 5.6 million years ago. Parsimony and distance analyses indicated that C. pygmaea and Callithrix species of the argentata group were more closely related to one another than any of them was to Callithrix species of the jacchus group, in agreement with previous analyses based on nuclear genes and karyotypic data. These findings also indicated that Callithrix is a paraphyletic genus, in agreement with previous propositions that Cebuella should be included within the genus Callithrix.

· Ontogenetic patterning of skeletal fluctuating asymmetry in rhesus macaques and humans: Evolutionary and developmental implications. Hallgrímsson, B. (Dept of Anatomy, Univ. of Puerto Rico, Med. Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR 00936-5067). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 121-151.
. . . The question of how fluctuating asymmetry (FA) – the distribution of random deviations from bilateral symmetry – varies ontogenetically in the mammalian skeleton is addressed. This question is significant because of the light that such patterns can shed on the causes of variation in developmental stability in bone as well as other structures. Based on large ontogenetic skeletal series of M. mulatta and H. sapiens, the author reports that the FA variances of skeletal metric traits increase ontogenetically. Coupled with the finding that FA variances also accumulate to greater magnitudes in slower growing mammals, this result is consistent with the hypotheses that FA in bone is primarily caused by (a) cumulative effects of asymmetrical mechanical factors, (b) accumulation of variation in the (local) regulation of growth, or (c) a tendency for bone morphology to drift through undirected remodeling. The implications of these explanations for primate evolution and bone development are discussed.

Field Studies

Sociological and demographic characteristics of a recently found Arsi gelada population in Ethiopia. Mori, A., Iwamoto, T., Mori, U., & Bekele, A. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan). Primates, 1999, 40, 365-381.
. . . A new population of gelada baboons isolated from the other known gelada populations living on the opposite side of the Rift Valley was found in 1989 in the Arsi region of Ethiopia. Subsequent observations were conducted on this population in three study periods of 16 to 55 days over three consecutive years, 1994-1996. When we compare this population with other well-studied northern populations, densities were lower, band size was smaller, and the ratio of juveniles to adult females was lower. These results suggest that this population exploits the harshest environment among known gelada populations. This may be due to the severe effect of the dry season at low altitude in the study site. Association rates of units were low, and each unit behaved more independently than those of northern populations. Age-sex composition of units changed drastically between consecutive study periods, indicating unstable unit structure. More-over, there seems to be a tendency whereby several adult males easily invade and are incorporated into a unit, but the unit thereafter divides. This phenomenon can be explained by two factors: (1) Each unit fed rather independently, where units fed intensively on both plateau and the slope of the cliff; and (2) Males may be incorporated in a unit for defense against leopards.

· Tree structure and sex differences in arboreality among western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Remis, M. J. (Dept of Sociology & Anthropology, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907-1365). Primates, 1999, 40, 383-396.
. . . Data from six months of studying the effects of tree structure, relative numbers of arboreal feeding sites, and sex differences in body size on arboreal foraging. The analysis presented here also documents inter-annual variation in fruit availability and climbing by silverback gorillas by comparing 1995 results to those from earlier research. The data suggests that female gorillas maintain similar levels of arboreality in fruit-rich and fruit-poor seasons and years, but silverbacks may be more terrestrial when fruit is scarce or difficult to access. Trees of different shapes present different numbers of feeding sites to bigger males and smaller females. This study suggests that the energetics of vertical climbing and biomechanical constraints imposed by small branch feeding sites in the periphery of trees may constrain the arboreal behavior of male gorillas. Fine-tuned comparisons of food availability, tree structure, and variation in social context of behavior across habitats, will assist efforts to understand differences in ecology among populations and species of African apes.

· Vertical distribution of wild Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in the western area of Yakushima Island, Japan: Preliminary report. Yoshihiro, S., Ohtake, M., Matsubara, H., Zamma, K., Han’ya, G., Tanimura, Y., Kubota, H., Kubo, R., Arakane, T., Hirata, T., Furukawa, M., Sato, A., & Takahata, Y. (Ryukoku Univ., Fakakusa, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8577, Japan). Primates, 1999, 40, 409-415.
. . . A census of wild Yakushima macaques was carried out in a 23-km2 area of the western coast of Yakushima Island. The census data was analyzed to investigate changes in monkey distribution associated with the vertical distribution of vegetation. In the lowland coastal zone, 0-300 m above sea level (a.s.l.), 4.8 troops and 62.4-99.8 monkeys are estimated to have existed per km2. In the mountainside zones, 300-900 m a.s.l., the troop density decreased to 1.3-1.6 troops/km2. Since there was no difference in size between the coastal and mountainside troops, population density decreased with altitude to about 30-36 monkeys per km2. On the other hand, there were estimated to be 2.4 troops and about 36 monkeys per km2 in the mountain summit zone of 900-1323 m a.s.l.


Reproductive patterns and birth seasonality in a South-American breeding colony of common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Sousa, M. B. C., Peregrino, H. P. A., Cirne, M. F. C., & Mota, M. T. S. (Depto de Fisiologia, Univ. Fed. do Rio Grande do Norte, P.O. Box 1511, 59072-970, Natal, RN, Brasil). Primates, 1999, 40, 327-336.
. . . Analysis of data on captive-born and wild-caught females housed under natural conditions in a colony in northeastern Brazil showed no differences in reproductive performance. Twins were the most frequent litter size, followed by triplets and singletons. No parity effect was observed, with similar infant survival for nulliparous and multiparous females. No significant departures in sex ratio were detected for births or mortality of male and female infants. The age of the females at the time of pairing showed a negative correlation with pairing-parturition length, but did not affect infant survival. Prolongation of pairing-parturition interval (PPI) and interbirth interval (IBI) was related to birth seasonality. The births were clustered in the second half of the dry season and the beginning of the wet season (Nov.-Mar.), and the time of pairing and time of infant birth influenced the PPI and IBI, respectively. The use of outdoor cages, which allowed the animals to be aware of seasonal variations in photoperiod and rainfall, seems to be sufficient to time the reproductive activity, even when the animals are maintained on a constant food supply.

· Paternity determination in two groups of Eulemur fulvus mayottensis: Implications for understanding mating strategies. Gachot-Neveu, H., Petit, M., & Roeder, J. J. (J. J. R., Lab. d’Ethologie et Neurobiologie, URA/CNRS 1295, 7 rue de l’Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 107-119.
. . . Random amplified polymorphic DNA was used to determine paternity in two groups of brown lemurs. The results were analyzed in relation to behavioral data on observed copulations, dominance relationships among adult males, and female behavior. The association between paternity determination and behavioral sampling shows that paternity determination is a crucial tool for understanding mating strategies and reproductive success in the studied species. In brown lemurs, dominance relationships between males are correlated with reproductive success, but male social dominance could be altered by female choice, as suggested by the ability of subordinate males to sire offspring in the presence of a dominant male.

In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by the Primate Information Center, UW-RPRC, Westlake Facility, 1101 Westlake Ave N., Seattle, WA 98109-3527. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. We would also like to acknowledge Primate-Science as a source for information about new books.

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Risk for Ebola Virus Infection in Côte d’Ivoire

In Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire, where a new strain of Ebola virus was isolated, the World Health Organization is conducting a project to identify the reservoir of the virus and evaluate the risk for its emergence in local populations. In March, 1998, surveys were conducted of the villagers’ awareness of and risk for Ebola infection. In four villages close to Taï National Park (4 km to 10 km), structured interviews were carried out with 150 villagers and in-depth interviews with 17 villagers and three traditional healers.

Of the villagers participating in the structured interviews, 18.0% had heard of Ebola (90.7% had heard of yellow fever). Of those aware of Ebola, 96.3% thought it life-threatening; 65.4% thought it preventable. When ill, 81.2% of the respondents generally relied on traditional healers or herbal medicine. During in-depth interviews, traditional healers discussed their treatment practices. In one treatment, an incision is made on the skin and medicinal herbs applied to the incision. Such traditional practices were implicated in the spread of Ebola virus in Gabon, where a traditional healer and his assistant (who were infected with Ebola virus) were suspected of spreading the virus to their patients through an unsterilized blade. The same practices would seem to pose a risk for virus transmission in Côte d`Ivoire.

Even though officially Taï National Park is protected from human activities to preserve its natural ecology, 84.0% of the 150 respondents to our survey often hunted or farmed in the park, 62.2% had encountered chimpanzees, and 53.3% had eaten chimpanzee meat. According to the in-depth interviews, chimpanzee meat is available at bush meat markets and is thought safe for eating, even though primates infected with Ebola virus have been linked with human cases.

These results show that, even though no large-scale Ebola outbreaks have occurred in this area, villagers living near the park are at particularly high risk for infection because they are not aware of Ebola and do not know that their local customs and behavior may be putting them at risk. To prevent future Ebola epidemics in Africa, information, education, and communication programs should be established. Moreover, further sociocultural studies on perceptions and behavior should be conducted, as well as exploriation of the nature of the virus and its cycle in the wild . – From a letter by O. Kunii, P. Formenty, J. Diarra-Nama, & N. Nahounou in Emerging Infectious Diseases, March-April, 1999, 5[2].

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a slow loris (Nycticebus coucang bengalensis) by John Henry Drake (LABS of Virginia)

Copyright (c) 1999 by Brown University

Assistant Editor: Elva Mathiesen

Last updated: June 19, 1999