Laboratory Primate Newsletter

VOLUME 39 NUMBER 1 JANUARY 2000

CONTENTS

Articles and Notes

The Role of Human Caregivers in the Post-Conflict Interactions of Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), by N. Malone, L. Vaughan, & A. Fuentes......1

The Lower-Row Cage May Be Dark, but Behavior Does Not Appear to Be Affected, by S. J. Schapiro, R. Stavisky, & M. Hook......4

Meeting the "Social Space" Requirements of Pair-Housed Primates, by V. & A. Reinhardt......7

An Introduction to Ebola: The Virus and the Disease, by C. J. Peters & J. W. LeDuc&......8

Primate Enrichment: A Room With a View......12

News, Information, and Announcements

Grants Available......12
. . . Deep Brain Stimulation for Neurological Disorders; Spinal Cord Injury; ACLAM Grants; Underrepresented Minority Scientists

Awards Granted......14
. . . ASP Conservation Award Winners for 1999; ASP Student Prize Award Winners

Award Nominations......14
. . . E. O. Wilson Naturalist Award; ASP Recognition Awards

Primates de las Américas...La Página......15

Information Requested or Available......17
. . . Request for Information; Animal Diversity Web; Primates-Online Has a New Name; Primate Info Net: A Reminder; E-mail Lists; More Interesting Web Sites

Announcements from Publications......18
. . . Science and Animal Care; Tess Lemmon Memorial Library; Primate Eye

Research and Educational Opportunities......18
. . . Postdocs in Comparative Medicine, Missouri; Postdoctoral Training in Laboratory Animal Medicine; Animal Behavior Summer Field Course in Kenya; Teaching and Research, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Residency/Graduate Training, Texas; Field Methods in Primate Ecology, Panama; Socioendocrinology and Cooperative Breeding; Postdoc in Primate Conservation, New York; Summer Apprentice Program, Washington State

News Briefs......21
. . . Southwest Foundation Houses Newest Primate Center; Ramon Rhine; Insel Leaves Yerkes; Varmus Leaves NIH; FDA Report on Coulston Foundation; Some Ex-Space Chimps Leaving TCF; Gorilla Born in Captivity Turns 40; Zoo Mystery Solved; Utah Gorilla Dies at 50; Aggressive Baboons "Eliminated"; Herpes B Virus in Macaques - Indiana; Baboon Liver Passes Virus to Man

Resources Wanted and Available......27
. . . Louse Samples Wanted; ABS Media Library; Primate Vocalizations Web Page; Nonhuman Primate Physiological Data Needed

Meeting Announcements......28

Newspaper Clipping......28

Letter: The Baboon Colony at Monteviedo's Zoo, Uruguay......36

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (2000)......37

Departments

Address Change......6

Positions Available......24
. . . Animal Care Positions at Yerkes, Georgia; Summer Teaching Positions, Panama; Comparative Veterinary Pathologist, Michigan; Research Assistant, Columbia University; Clinical Veterinarian, Tulane RPRC; Clinical Lab Animal Veterinarian, Harvard; Psychology Assistant Professor, Central Washington, Laboratory Animal Veterinarian, Baylor

Recent Books and Articles......29

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The Role of Human Caregivers in the Post-Conflict Interactions of Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

N. Malone, L. Vaughan, and A. Fuentes
Central Washington University

Introduction

The physical and psychological well-being of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is dependent upon a complex relationship between animal and environment. Given the dynamic social structure of chimpanzees (Boesch, 1996; Goodall, 1986, pp. 147-148), naturalistic grouping opportunities are extremely important in stimulating species-specific behavior in a captive situation (Fouts et al., 1989; Maple, 1979). Of equal importance, although less emphasized in the literature, are the effects of human caregivers and researchers on captive chimpanzee behavior. Examination of behavior in captivity should be extended to include the interactions between nonhuman research subjects and the human members of their social sphere (Estep & Hetts, 1992). This extension may provide a more complete understanding of social behavior and expression within various captive settings.

Reducing the frequency and/or severity of aggression and wounding in socially housed chimpanzees is a major concern of human caregivers (de Waal, 1986). Exploring the effects of human presence on the behavior of captive chimpanzees, Lambeth, et al. (1997) examined an archival database of wounding incidents among 88 adult and adolescent members of eight social groups of chimpanzees housed at the University of Texas. Their study attempted to determine whether variable levels of human activity (higher weekday versus lower weekend activity levels) are associated with changes in wounding patterns among chimpanzees. Higher weekday human activity levels were positively correlated with chimpanzee-to-chimpanzee agonism and frequency of wounding.

The recent interest in post-conflict interactions in nonhuman primates has provided new opportunities and methodologies to study conflict in these highly social animals. Post-conflict attraction of former opponents (reconciliation), consolation, complex triadic affiliative interactions, and kin-biased redirection of aggression are all behaviors that have been identified and examined in recent studies (Aureli & Smucny, 1998; Cheney & Seyfarth, 1989; de Waal, 1996). The benefits of these post-conflict behaviors may include balancing of physiological stress levels, cessation of current conflict, and restoration of peaceful social cohesion. Recipients of peaceful post-conflict signals exhibit a reduced rate of anxiety and self-directed behaviors such as self-scratching (Aureli & Smucny, 1998). Silk (1996) suggests that peaceful post-conflict signals may reflect the conflict participant's intent to end the agonistic interaction and behave in a non-aggressive manner.

The ability of human caregivers to not only understand these signals, but convey their own messages about the stability of the social environment, may help to reassure recent conflict participants, reduce future aggression and wounding, and provide a nonthreatening outlet for agonistic stress within the captive environment.

Methods

The Post-Conflict Interaction Study at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University began in the summer of 1997, and is ongoing. This report is based on data collected then, in the summer of 1998, winter of 1998/99, and summer of 1999. Data were collected for six-week periods in each season, yielding a total of 552 hours of observation. The participants in this study include the five captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) residing at the CHCI in Ellensburg, Washington, and the humans who work and study there. The chimpanzee group consists of three adult females and two adult males. Although the chimpanzees are not related, all five chimpanzees have lived together in a closely bonded and stable social group, in which the oldest female is the highest-ranking individual, since 1981. Four of the chimpanzees (Washoe, Tatu, Moja, and Dar) were subjects in a cross-fostering experiment, exploring the acquisition of American Sign Language (ASL) (Gardner & Gardner, 1989), while the youngest male (Loulis) was not cross-fostered (Fouts & Fouts, 1989).

A conflict was defined as "agonistic contact between individuals, or three or more threat behaviors simultaneously directed toward another chimpanzee". Data collectors recorded the conflict participants, conflict location and duration, and the level of intensity of the conflict (level 1= directed threat, no contact; level 2 = aggressive hits or kicks delivered in passing; level 3 = repeated hits or kicks, dragging and grappling; level 4 = agonistic encounter resulting in serious injury). Post-conflict (PC) data sessions began immediately after the conflict, and matched control data were collected on the conflict participants at the same time on the following day. The PC and matched control sessions recorded data for 10 minutes. During these 10-minute periods, data were collected on proximity, behavioral context (both social and self-directed behaviors), partners (chimpanzees and humans), and any ASL signs used.

Comparing the PC and matched control data for each conflict enables us to establish and correct for baseline levels of behaviors. Corrected measures for all post-conflict interactions were calculated using a comparison method of PC and matched control observations to establish attracted, dispersed, or neutral pairs. Interactions that occur only in the PC, or earlier in the PC than in the matched control, are considered to indicate attracted pairs; interactions that occur only in the matched control, or earlier in the matched control than in the PC period ,are considered to indicate dispersed pairs. The PC/matched control correction methodology has evolved to include the subtraction of the dispersed pairs from the attracted pairs, to produce a corrected measure of behavioral tendency (Veneema, Das, & Aureli, 1994).

Here we report on two specific aspects of this study: the analysis of affiliative social interactions with a human and with a conflict participant, and "redirection of aggression" by a conflict participant towards a human. Affiliative social interactions between chimpanzees and humans include social enrichment such as play and signed conversations, which take place through protective glass or caging. Redirection of aggression towards humans is defined as threats and displays directed at humans through observation windows or caging. Although human caregivers at the CHCI work in close proximity to the chimpanzees, direct physical contact during threats and displays is prevented by the boundaries of the enclosure. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were performed to determine whether these interactions occurred significantly more during the PC or the matched control period.

Results

A total of 156 conflicts have been recorded as of August, 1999; post-conflict and matched control data were collected for each. The results presented here emphasize the chimpanzee and human interactions. See Fuentes & Sanz (in preparation) for an in-depth analysis of the chimpanzee-to-chimpanzee post-conflict interactions.

Redirection of aggression towards humans did not achieve statistical significance for any of the individual years; however, a combined total of redirected aggression towards humans throughout the duration of the study does in fact attain a measure of significance [c 2 (df=1, N = 44) = 13.091, p < .01]. The percentage of total redirection of aggression that was directed towards humans (attracted pairs: occurring earlier in the PC than in the matched control, or only in the PC) fluctuated between 44% (winter '98/99) and 80% (summer '98), with a combined percentage for all three years of 63% (see Table 1).

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Behavior      |   Totals    |Chi-square|  Percent of Total . . .
              | 1997-1999   |Analysis  |
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Redirection of| 34 in PC    |          |63% of all redirected 
Aggression    |10 in matched|   p<.01  |aggression was directed 
Towards Humans| control     |          |towards humans
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Affiliative   | 35 in PC    |          |49% of all affiliative
 Social       |24 in matched|          |aggression involved
Interactions  |  control    |    NS    |human partners
with Humans   |             |          |
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Table 1 : Analysis of chimpanzee/human interactions in post-conflict (PC) and matched control periods. Percentages are calculated using only attracted pairs (interactions occurring earlier in the PC than in the matched control, or only in the PC).

Affiliative social interactions with humans during the post-conflict period were not significant when corrected with the matched matched control data sets, both by year and for the combined total from '97 through '99. However, the percentage of attracted affiliative interactions that involved a human partner is substantial and includes 49% of all affiliative interactions (attracted pairs) across all three data collection periods (see Table 1).

Discussion

Human caregivers and researchers not only observe and record the post-conflict behavior of the captive chimpanzees at the CHCI, but may also present a viable social option during the complex post-conflict negotiation period. The data presented here suggest that chimpanzees include humans in various interactions occurring after conflicts. During these interactions, humans can either play an active or a passive role. Humans can become either a partner in an affiliative social interaction with a recent conflict participant, or a recipient of redirected aggression. Redirected threats towards humans never involve physical contact, but do provide a safe outlet for the release of aggression. The human use of submissive chimpanzee postures, vocalizations, and ASL signs during these unstable times may reassure a recent conflict participant of the consistently submissive role that the human caregivers maintain in the social hierarchy.

The chimpanzees at the CHCI directed threats and displays towards humans more than towards other chimpanzees during the post-conflict period. They threatened and displayed towards humans significantly more often in the post-conflict than in the matched control observation sessions. This finding may reflect the reliably submissive role that humans maintain throughout the care, enrichment, and observation of the chimpanzees' lives. It is presumably less risky for the chimpanzees to redirect aggression towards an individual who will not retaliate directly or form a coalition against the aggressor.

Although affiliative social interactions with humans do not occur significantly more during either the post-conflict or matched control periods, they do constitute a notable percentage (49%) of all affiliative interactions. While affiliative interactions with humans do not increase dramatically in number during the post-conflict period, continued investigation may reveal trends in their variety and in ASL use within these interactions. Improved methodological design will facilitate more accurate recording of such interactions. The data being collected in the summer of 1999 and beyond will benefit from the addition of a second observer during the PC and matched control periods, who will record the occurrence of human-chimpanzee and chimpanzee-chimpanzee affiliative social interactions and redirection of aggression.

An examination of the role of human caregivers in the conflict negotiation of captive chimpanzees reveals a connection between behavior and environment. Certain aspects of the captive environment and caregiver philosophy may stimulate this relationship. Further research, especially in the area of redirected aggression, may prove beneficial for relieving some of the stress inherent to captive nonhuman primate groups (see Aureli & Smucny, 1998). The use of this methodology also provides a unique opportunity for post-conflict comparisons between captive groups of chimpanzees, as well as interspecies comparisons. Finally, future results may lead to the development of mutually beneficial husbandry strategies.

References

Aureli, F. & Smucny, D. (1998). New directions in conflict resolution research. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6 (4), 115-119.

Boesch, C. (1996). Social grouping in Tai chimpanzees. In W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant, & T. Nishida (Eds.), Great Ape Societies (pp. 101-114). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1989). Redirected aggression and reconciliation among vervet monkeys, (Cercopithecus aethiops). Behaviour, 110 (1-4), 258-275.

de Waal, F. B. M. (1986). The brutal elimination of a rival among captive male chimpanzees. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7, 237-251.

de Waal, F. B. M. (1988). Reconciliation among primates: A review of empirical evidence and unresolved issues. In W. A. Mason & S. P. Mendoza (Eds.), Primate Social Conflict (pp. 111-141). Albany: State University of New York Press.

de Waal, F. B. M. (1996). Conflict as negotiation. In W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant, & T. Nishida (Eds.), Great Ape Societies (pp. 159-172). New York: Cambridge University Press.

de Waal, F. B. M., & van Roosmalen, A. (1979). Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 5, 55-66.

Estep, D. Q. & Hetts, S. (1992). Interactions, relationships, and bonds: The conceptual basis for scientist-animal relations. In H. Davis & D. A. Balfour (Eds.), The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions (pp. 6-25). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H., & Van Cantfort, T. E. (1989). The infant Loulis learns signs from cross-fostered chimpanzees. In R. A. Gardner, B. T. Gardner, & T. E. Van Cantfort (Eds.), Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees (pp. 280-292). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Fuentes, A. & Sanz, C. (in preparation). Conflict and post-conflict behavior in a small group of chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Gardner, R. A., & Gardner, B. T. (1989). A cross-fostering laboratory. In R. A. Gardner, B. T. Gardner, & T. E. Van Cantfort (Eds.), Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees (pp. 1-28). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Lambeth, S. P., Bloomsmith, M. A., & Alford, P. L. (1997). Effects of human activity on chimpanzee wounding. Zoo Biology, 16, 327-333.

Maple, T. L. (1979). Great apes in captivity: The good, the bad, and the ugly. In J. Erwin, T. L. Maple, & G. Mitchell (Eds.), Captivity and Behavior: Primates in Breeding Colonies, Laboratories and Zoos (pp. 239-272). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Silk, J. B. (1997). Why do primates reconcile? Evolutionary Anthropology, 5 (2), 39-45.

Veneema, H. C., Das, M., & Aureli, F. (1994). Methodological improvements for the study of reconciliation. Behavioural Processes, 31, 29-38.

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First author's address: Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI), 400 E. 8th Ave, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573 [e-mail: nicgwar@hotmail.com].

This paper was originally presented at a meeting of the Human Behavior & Evolution Society, June, 1999.

The authors would like to thank the co-directors of the CHCI, Roger and Deborah Fouts, for their continued support of the Post-Conflict Interaction Study, and the students who participate in this research. The data from this long-term project could not have been collected without the patience and efforts of many graduate students, interns, and apprentices. Furthermore, this research would not have been possible without the chimpanzees at the CHCI: Washoe, Moja, Tatu, Dar, and Loulis.

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The Lower-Row Cage May Be Dark, but Behavior Does Not Appear to Be Affected

Steven J. Schapiro, Ronda Stavisky, and Michelle Hook
Department of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

Introduction

Many laboratory primates are kept in double-tier cages for various reasons, including financial constraints, convenience, and tradition. In recent reports, Reinhardt (1997) and Reinhardt and Reinhardt (1999) have referred to lower-row cages as "monkey caves", suggesting that primates housed in darker, lower-row cages suffer compared to primates housed in brighter, upper-row cages. Their contention makes considerable sense, although there is little empirical data to directly support their position at present. The goal of this brief report is to provide some empirical data necessary to determine whether lower-row cages are actually darker than upper-row cages; and, more importantly, to determine whether the darkness, the proximity to the ground, the lack of a "safe" place to escape a human "threat", and/or the diminished attention potentially received (Reinhardt & Reinhardt, 1999) adversely affect the behavior and thus the psychological well-being of monkeys housed on the lower-row.

Our previous studies (Schapiro and Bloomsmith, 1994; 1995; Schapiro et al., 1996) have examined rhesus macaque behavior as a function of enrichment and/or social housing condition. We have typically presented behavioral data to assess psychological well-being, with relative increases in abnormal behavior, self-directed grooming, and inactivity taken as indicators of diminished well-being, and relative increases in more species-typical activities taken as indicators of enhanced well-being. A similar approach will be followed in this report.

Methods

Subjects and housing: Nine female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) ranging in age from 2.5 to 14 years were studied while housed singly in one indoor room. Six of the monkeys were housed in either 4.3 sq. ft. or 8.2 sq. ft. cages on the bottom row of two-tiered racks. The other three monkeys were housed in 4.3 or 6.2 sq. ft. cages on the top row. Differences in cage size within this range have been shown to have no effect on cynomolgus behavior (Crockett et al., 1995). Monkeys in both rows were fed, watered, enriched, and handled similarly. All monkeys spent the entire study period in either lower-row or upper-row housing. No monkeys were moved during the course of the study.

Data Collection: Two types of data were collected. Ambient light levels were measured in nine different locations within each of 11 cages (there were two empty cages) in the room housing the monkeys and within 20 cages in three other rooms at our facility that usually house singly caged rhesus, using a Greenlee Model 93-1065F digital light meter. Light readings were taken from each of the eight interior corners and in the middle of each cage. For comparative purposes, light levels were also recorded in the eight corners and in the middle of the room as a whole. Light levels were measured in the three additional rooms to make certain that the lighting in the study room was not atypical for our facility.

Behavioral data were collected for a total of 135 hours as part of another study (Stavisky et al., in preparation). Each of the 9 females was observed for 60 15-minute focal animal samples over a three-month period, using our standard macaque ethogram (Schapiro et al., 1995). There were 41 mutually exclusive behaviors on the ethogram which were grouped into a number of composite categories for analysis.

Analysis: Light level data comparing upper-row to lower-row cages were analyzed using separate t-tests for each of the 9 locations within the cage. Since there were only 3 subjects in the upper-row group, behavioral data were analyzed using a series of nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests.

Results

Light levels: Light levels were significantly lower in lower-row cages at all nine sites within the cage (see Table 1), confirming Reinhardt and Reinhardt's (1999) hypothesis that lower-row cages are darker than upper-row cages. Not only did light levels differ significantly, but less than 8% of light readings in lower-row cages were higher than the lowest light level readings at the same position in the upper-row cages.

As one would expect, light readings in the front of the cage were significantly higher than light readings in the back of the cage. There was therefore considerable within-cage variation in light levels.

Behavior: There were no statistically significant differences in behavior between the small numbers of subjects housed in lower-row cages (n=6) and upper-row cages (n=3; see Table 2). This encompassed both normal and abnormal behavior patterns. Of particular interest are the findings that abnormal behavior, inactivity, and self-grooming, all potential indicators of stress and/or a lack of psychological well-being (Schapiro & Bloomsmith, 1994; 1995), did not differ significantly by cage location.

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Position   Back   Back   Back   Back   Front   Front   Front   Front
           Left   Right  Left   Right  Left    Right   Left    Right  Middle
Location   Top    Top   Bottom  Bottom Top     Top    Bottom  Bottom
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Upper-row  21.4   21.9   22.9    23.0   64.0    62.4    27.9    31.5   47.6
Cages     (10-60)(6-66) (8-35)  (6-35)(10-108)(21-118) (10-38) (10-48)(16-82)
(n=16)
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Lower-row   1.9     2.1   3.8     3.7   25.0    22.7    13.9    14.4    8.1
Cages      (1-5)   (1-4) (2-7)   (2-6) (7-59)  (5-55)  (3-25)  (5-24) (5-15)
(n=15)
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Room        22.7  21.2    17.6    27.0  12.8    15.4    14.3    26.7   78.4
(n=4)     (18-25)(11-40) (5-40)  (5-39)(5-24)  (9-28)  (3-45)  (6-42) (74-85) 
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Table 1: Mean Light Levels at 9 different positions within the cage or room (in foot candles). All t-tests comparing upper-row to bottom-row cages were statistically significant with p < .001.

While none of the comparisons reached statistical significance in this small sample, the data do indicate that additional analyses of larger data sets are warranted. With such a small sample size, interindividual variations in time spent in particular behaviors influenced the values presented in Table 2. Two specific examples are appropriate to mention. Two of three upper-row inhabitants and four of six lower-row inhabitants all spent less than 0.1% of their time behaving abnormally. In a similar vein, one upper-row monkey spent 16.1% of her time drinking (she is not diabetic), while no other monkey spent more than 3.5% of the time drinking. We are in the process of reanalyzing our rhesus monkey single cage and pair cage data sets (Schapiro & Bloomsmith, 1994; 1995; Schapiro et al., 1996b) for lower-row vs. upper-row effects. These data sets include over 120 yearling and two-year-old monkeys, approximately half of which were housed in lower-row cages.

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Behaviors Abnormal Inac-   Groom   Drink   Feed   Explore   Lip 
                   tivity                                  Smack
Location
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Upper-row   0.7     2.3     22.9     5.9    14.9    22.9     3.4
Cages     (+/-1.2)(+/-2.3)(+/-12.3)(+/-8.8)(+/-1.2)(+/-7.7)(+/-1.7)
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Lower-row   1.6     0.4     14.6     1.6    13.9    14.6     2.1
Cages     (+/-1.2)(+/-1.2)(+/-1.2) (+/-1.2)(+/-1.2)(+/-1.2)(+/-1.2)  
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Table 2: Mean percent time spent in selected categories of behavior. Values in () represent the standard deviation.

Discussion

This report was prepared to provide some empirical data necessary to confirm or refute the contention that laboratory primates housed in lower-row cages suffer in comparison to conspecifics housed in upper-row cages. While the contention of Reinhardt and Reinhardt (1999) that lower-row cages are darker than upper-row cages has been empirically confirmed in four typical monkey rooms at our facility, their assertion that lower-row housed primates suffer behaviorally was not supported. Female cynomolgus macaques housed in lower-row cages displayed no statistically significant differences in a variety of abnormal and normal behaviors compared to upper-row inhabitants. Similar results have been found for pigtailed (Crockett et al., unpublished data) and rhesus (Schapiro et al., submitted) macaques as well.

The goal of this study was simply to determine whether cage location (upper- vs. lower-row) affected light levels and/or behavior profiles. We were not specifically interested in the effects of light levels on behavior, except as a subsidiary influence of cage location. Out of curiosity, we correlated abnormal behavior, self-grooming, exploration, and feeding for all nine subjects with light levels in either the darkest (back left top corner) or the brightest (front left top corner) position in the cage. We found no significant relationships between any behavior and brightness or darkness, suggesting that, for our subjects, amount of light, by itself, does not influence behavior. However, it was obvious that light levels varied greatly within the room as others have suggested (Clough, 1982; Reinhardt, 1997).

The data are interesting, because they were collected on a sample of macaques that were infrequently observed and fairly poorly habituated, prior to the beginning of the study. These are the types of subjects that one would expect to be particularly affected by an environmental manipulation. Since this group of macaques was not affected by the lower-row/upper-row manipulation, it is unlikely that cage location is a behaviorally important variable for this group of monkeys.

While our lower-row cages were clearly darker than the upper-row cages, they were by no means too dark for personnel to conduct their husbandry and observational duties. Personnel rarely have to bend or kneel to see our lower-row monkeys. While the additional light and escape height available in upper-row cages may have some advantages, housing monkeys above human shoulder level presents handling problems. Personnel must often stand on stools to safely handle monkeys on the upper-row, increasing the potential for accidents.

In all of our cages, there was considerable within-cage variation in light levels. This has several important implications. The first is that there are positions in some upper-row cages that are darker than some positions in some lower-row cages. Thus, cage location alone guarantees neither consistency nor differences in light exposure. Similarly, given the considerable within-cage variation in light levels even among only upper-row cages, "uniform illumination", an appropriate concept to strive for in attempting to limit the effects of uncontrolled variables, is virtually impossible to achieve. Clearly, however, using monkeys in both upper-row and lower-row cages increases the potential effect of such an uncontrolled variable, although the behavioral data from this study, and behavioral and immunological data from one of our other studies (Schapiro et al., submitted), suggest that the effects would not be significant. Thirdly, within-cage variations in light levels present an interesting potential opportunity for captive monkeys to "control" this aspect of their environment as recommended in the USDA's recent draft policy. Monkeys in single cages in our rooms can regulate the light levels they experience simply by moving about the cage. Obviously, this is more applicable and potentially beneficial to monkeys living on the upper row where light levels vary within cages from as low as 6 foot candles in the back top left corner to as high as 118 foot candles in the front right top corner. Within-cage variability in light levels is considerably smaller in lower-row cages (from 1 to as few as 10 or as many as 55 foot candles, depending on cage and position), and may, in fact, be trivial.

The data in this brief report support the contention that lower-row cages are darker than upper-row cages, but there appear to be no behavioral consequences of this difference. While lower- and upper-row cages differ in more than just light levels (they also differ in height above the floor and the monkeys' ability to escape threatening human stimuli by getting above human eye level), these differences do not affect behavior. Therefore, some of the potentially costly "solutions" to the "monkey cave problem" as delineated by Reinhardt (1997) and Reinhardt and Reinhardt (1999) do not appear to be warranted by the empirical data at present.

References

Clough, C. (1982). Environmental effects on animals used in biomedical research. Biological Reviews 57, 487-523.

Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Shimoji, M., Leu, M., Bowden, D. M., & Sackett, G. P. (1995). Behavioral responses of longtailed macaques to different cage sizes and common laboratory experiences. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 368-383.

Reinhardt, V. (1997) Lighting conditions for laboratory monkeys: Are they adequate? Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter 8(2), 3-6.

Reinhardt, V. & Reinhardt, A. (1999). The monkey cave: The dark lower-row cage. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 38(3), 8-9.

Schapiro, S. J. & Bloomsmith, M. A. (1994). Behavioral effects of enrichment on pair-housed juvenile rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 32, 159-170.

Schapiro, S. J & Bloomsmith, M. A. (1995). Behavioral effects of enrichment on singly-housed, yearling rhesus monkeys: An analysis including three enrichment conditions and a control group. American Journal of Primatology, 35, 89-101.

Schapiro, S. J., Porter, L. M., Suarez, S. A., & Bloomsmith, M. A. (1995). The behavior of singly-caged yearling rhesus monkeys is affected by the environment outside of the cage. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 45, 151-166.

Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Porter, L. M., & Suarez, S. A. (1996a). Enrichment effects on rhesus monkeys successively housed singly, in pairs, and in groups. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 48, 159-171.

Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Suarez, S. A., & Porter, L. M. (1996b). Effects of social and inanimate enrichment on the behavior of yearling rhesus monkeys, American Journal of Primatology, 40, 247-260.

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Authors' address: Department of Veterinary Sciences, UTMDACC, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602-9733 [e-mail: sschapir@mdanderson.org].

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Address Changes

Dario T. Cappucci, Jr., 7577 Old Corpus Christi Rd, #707, San Antonio, TX 78223-4333.

Tony Dickinson, Dept of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8108, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110.

National Cancer Institute, Div. of Extramural Activities, 6116 Executive Blvd, Rm 8062, MSC 8329, Bethesda, MD 20892-8329.

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2501 M Street NW, Suite 200, Washington DC 20037.

Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Blvd, Bronx, NY 10460. (Was the New York Zoological Park, commonly called the Bronx Zoo)

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IMPORTANT NOTICE: The address for LPN-L, the e-mail edition of the LPN, has been changed to <lpn-l@listserv.brown.edu>. Subscribe, or send other commands, to <listserv@listserv.brown.edu>.

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Meeting the "Social Space" Requirements of Pair-Housed Primates

Viktor and Annie Reinhardt
Animal Welfare Institute, Washington, DC

The compatibility of pair-housed primates is founded on clear-cut dominance-subordination relationships (Reinhardt et al., 1995). Dominant partners have certain privileges which subordinates must respect to avoid punishment. To do this, subordinates depend upon a certain amount of "social space".

Social space is the space required by a subordinate partner to buffer potential social tension, by increasing the distance to a dominant counterpart. A subordinate male rhesus macaque, for example, will need some extra room so that he can move out of the way if his dominant cage companion approaches with the intention of occupying his place at the food box or on the perch. Failure to do so would provoke the dominant partner to reenforce his rank superiority by threatening gestures or overt aggressive actions. In the research laboratory, this must be avoided in order to guarantee the animals' safety. The spatial restrictions of standard primate laboratory cages, however, are conducive to triggering such agonistic conflicts. Partners are near each other all the time, and the subordinate has to be extremely alert in order to adjust the distance to his dominant cagemate, depending on circumstances. Normally, it may be sufficient to simply move a few inches away to satisfy the dominant partner's claim. But, during general disturbances - such as feeding, cage cleaning, animal transfers, inspection of animals, alarm response to personnel, fear responses to personnel - the subordinate will need more social space in order to avoid becoming the target of the dominant partner's aroused excitability. This situation can be particularly problematic for the subordinate animal when there is no option of moving out of the dominant partner's visual field.

To eliminate unnecessary reasons for social conflict and the attendant risk of wounding, the social space requirements of subordinate partners should be considered when designing nonhuman primate cages. The inherent constraints of cage confinement makes it impossible to provide ideal conditions. At a minimum, however, pair-housed animals should be allocated at least twice the cage space that is legally required for single-housing. There is no scientifically legitimate reason for saving cage space when transferring single-caged animals to permanent pair-housing conditions in compliance with federal law. Double cages can be created by simply removing the dividing panels of twin modules or by interconnecting two adjacent cages with a short tunnel (e.g., Bellinger et al., 1992).

A horizontally arranged double cage allows appropriate placement of two feeders and proper installation of two perches, minimizing the risk of disputes arising from competition over access to food and elevated resting sites (Reinhardt et al., 1991). A cage divider with a passage hole close to the back (not front!) wall further diminishes the risk of squabbles over food, because the two animals can collect food at the front of the cage without seeing - and begrudging - one another. The privacy panel also reduces the subordinate animal's needs for social space by making it possible to quickly get out of the dominant's sight. This avoids antagonism while fostering affiliation (Reinhardt & Reinhardt, 1991; cf. Maninger et al., 1998). It should be emphasized that the vertically arranged double cage does not offer suitable housing conditions because the dominant animal is likely to monopolize the brighter environment of the upper half, forcing the subordinate to spend most of the time in the dimmer environment of the bottom half (own unpublished observation; cf., Williams et al., 1988).

References

Bellinger, L. L., Hill, E. G., & Wiggs, R. B. (1992). Inexpensive modifications to nonhuman primate cages that allow social groupings. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 31[3], 10-12.

Maninger, N., Kim, J. H., & Ruppenthal, G. C. (1998). The presence of visual barriers decreases agonism in group housed pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). American Journal of Primatology, 45, 193-194 (Abstract).

Reinhardt, V. & Reinhardt, A. (1991). Impact of a privacy panel on the behavior of caged female rhesus monkeys living in pairs. Journal of Experimental Animal Science, 34, 55-58.

Reinhardt, V., Pape, R., & Zweifel, D. (1991). Multifunctional cage for macaques housed in pairs or in small groups. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Bulletin [Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science], 30[5], 14-15.

Reinhardt, V., Liss, C., & Stevens, C. (1995). Social-housing of previously single-caged macaques: What are the options and the risks? Animal Welfare, 4, 307-328.

Williams, L. E., Abee, C. R., Barnes, S. R., & Ricker, R. B. (1988). Cage design and configuration for an arboreal species of primate. Laboratory Animal Science, 38, 289-291.

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Authors' address: 4605 Crescent Rd, Madison, WI 53711 [e-mail: viktor@animalwelfare.com].

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An Introduction to Ebola: The Virus and the Disease

C. J. Peters and J. W. LeDuc

Filoviridae is the only known virus family about which we have such profound ignorance. We do not even understand the maintenance strategies employed in nature by the agents, and we know much less about the resulting diseases, their pathogenesis, and detailed virology. The information gathered during control efforts directed toward recent epidemics has provided considerable fundamental information about filoviruses.

Marburg, the First Known Filovirus

Biomedical science first encountered the virus family Filoviridae when Marburg virus appeared in 1967. At that time, commercial laboratory workers with a severe and unusual disease were admitted to a hospital in Marburg, Germany. The attending physician recognized the distinctive clinical picture as additional cases appeared, and an investigation led to the isolation and identification of the immediate source of the virus as green monkeys imported from Africa for use in research and vaccine production. The monkeys, some of which had been shipped to Frankfurt, Germany, and Belgrade, Yugoslavia, were euthanized, and the epidemic was contained with 31 human cases and one generation of secondary transmission to health care workers and family members. Nevertheless, the bizarre morphology of the virions, the 23% human mortality, and the failure to identify the natural history of the virus left fear among many who were concerned with the role of viruses in human economy. Quarantine procedures were put in place in many countries to prevent the recurrence of disease introduced by imported monkeys, and tests were instituted to exclude Marburg virus from vaccine substrates. Fortunately, there have been only three detected recurrences of Marburg virus, all in humans traveling in rural Africa, and none of these has led to extensive transmission. This brief history of Marburg virus presages the very similar course of events with Ebola virus.

Ebola, the Second Known Filovirus: Africa, 1976

In the late 1970s, the international community was again startled, this time by the discovery of Ebola virus as the causative agent of major outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Sudan. International scientific teams that arrived to deal with these highly virulent epidemics found that transmission had largely ceased; however, they could reconstruct considerable data from the survivors. Medical facilities had been closed because of the high death toll among the staff, thus eliminating major centers for dissemination of infection through the use of unsterilized needles and syringes and the lack of barrier-nursing techniques. In contrast, patients in the affected villages were segregated through traditional methods of quarantine, a step that controlled the situation outside the clinics.

The international alarm and research efforts that arose in response to these outbreaks quickly dwindled when the only convincing evidence that Ebola virus infections were continuing among humans consisted of a small outbreak in the Sudan in 1979 and one case in Tandala, DRC, in 1977.

Ebola Virus in the U.S.: The Virus Family Grows

In 1989, Ebola surprised us once more when it appeared in monkeys imported into a Reston, Virginia, primate facility outside of Washington, DC. Epidemics in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) occurred in this facility and others through 1992 and recurred in 1996. Epidemiologic studies that were conducted in connection with both epidemics traced the virus introductions to one Philippine exporter but failed to detect the actual source of the virus. Attempts to work in the remote areas where the monkeys were captured have been too dangerous due to political instability. We do know that this virus strain (EBO-R) has an apparent Asian origin and lesser pathogenicity than other Ebola subtypes for both macaques and humans, but we are not certain of its real origin. Nevertheless, current quarantine procedures for imported primates and vaccine requirements have protected the public.

The control of these introduced virus outbreaks in 1989 and the 1990s stimulated laboratory studies to improve diagnosis of nonhuman primate infections. However, the materials necessary to definitively confirm the utility of these techniques for humans were lacking.

The African Ebola Epidemics of 1994-l996

After Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) appeared in Africa in 1976-1979, it was not seen again until 1994. Was it "gone" during those 15 years? In one sense, certainly not - it was circulating in its natural reservoir. Was the virus causing sporadic human infections that remained undetected because the patients never contaminated hospitals to produce the savage nosocomial epidemics that brought Ebola virus to medical attention? During 1981-1985, Ebola virus surveillance was carried out concurrently with intensified efforts to understand monkeypox. This surveillance may have identified several cases and estimated the seroprevalence among the population; however, the findings are subject to caveats because of problems with the validity of laboratory tests. Serosurveillance in 1995 also suggested that human infections may have occurred from time to time.

During 1994-1996, no less than five independent active sites of Ebola virus transmission were identified: Cote d'Ivoire in 1994; DRC in 1995; and Gabon in 1994, 1995, and 1996. The previously known Zaïre subtype of Ebola virus (EBO-Z) and the newly discovered Côte d'Ivoire subtype (EBO-CI) were both involved and, as in previous African Ebola virus transmissions, the sites were in or near tropical forests, such as along riverine forests. Whether this hiatus after 1976-1979, which was followed by renewed human transmission, reflects actual Ebola virus activity or rather publicity combined with fortuitous entry of the virus into medical facilities (leading to recognition) is unknown; we believe the renewed quiescence of reported Ebola activity since 1996 argues for the former.

EBO-CI was discovered when ethologists in the Tai forest of Côte d'Ivoire noted that members of a chimpanzee troop began to experience an unusually high mortality. One of the study group scientists became infected and was transferred to Basel, Switzerland, for definitive care. The clinical information derived from her hospitalization provides the best studied clinical case of any Ebola virus infection. Furthermore, the circulation of virus in the well-defined region of the Tai forest reserve provided an excellent opportunity to study the Ebola reservoir question.

EBO-Z was also circulating in Gabon, and at least three separate outbreaks in humans and nonhuman primates occurred. Thus, Gabon may well provide another site where the search for risk factors of human infection and the natural reservoir could be carried out. Notable among the epidemics were features such as the important role of a dead, naturally infected, chimpanzee in bridging the virus to humans, the rapid control of human transmission when barrier-nursing measures were instituted and the continued circulation of virus without these precautions, and the deep forest exposures of index cases.

EBO-Z, Kikwit, DRC, 1995

The description of the large African EHF outbreaks in 1976 was largely based on retrospective information, so the Kikwit epidemic provided an opportunity for more detailed investigations while the epidemic was in progress. Other differences were also present: in 1995, the press and tabloid response in Kikwit was extraordinary and unanticipated. The last weeks of this epidemic took place in an unprecedented atmosphere of legitimate news reporting and tabloid exploitation. Largely because of the popular success of Richard Preston's book, The Hot Zone, there was tremendous public interest in both the information and misinformation spread by the media. Fortunately, careful mainstream journalists were accurate in relaying the best scientific information, and the World Health Organization (WHO) became a highly capable center for the dissemination of reliable facts about the epidemic. Large donations flowed into WHO and directly to the DRC; however, there were difficulties with the disbursement of relief supplies and resources, acquisition of appropriate materials, and triage of the contributions.

Clinical Disease: The clinical syndrome seen among patients in Kikwit resembled that seen in 1976, but bleeding was less common and other significant findings were identified. As the epidemic progressed, mortality progressively declined from virtually 100% to 69%.

We assume that filoviruses, like other viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, can latently or chronically infect their natural reservoir hosts. Primates seem to be susceptible hosts, and nonhuman primates may even provide a frequent link to humans. They are unlikely, however, to be the true reservoir hosts, given the high pathogenicity of filoviruses for African monkeys, macaques, chimpanzees, and perhaps other apes. Furthermore, a direct search for chronic, persistent, or latent infection in monkeys was unsuccessful.

Marburg virus has been cultured 1-3 months after acute disease. In the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, late transmission of disease was not detected in follow-up of contacts of several survivors. There was, however, evidence for Ebola virus RNA shed in semen and vaginal secretions for months, although it was not possible to isolate virus. Although the question is not settled, persistence of virus or viral antigen or genomes for weeks into convalescence seems common, but long-term infection is apparently not likely.

IgG and IgM ELISAs were used to evaluate the possibility of subclinical infections among family contacts, contacts of convalescent patients, medical staff, and local residents; evidence suggested that a very low level of subclinical transmission occurred during the outbreak. Of interest, there was an appreciable seroprevalence among the residents of Kikwit and of surrounding villages, which was thought to represent temporally distant infections.

Epidemiology and Surveillance: The presence of international teams allied with several organizations from the DRC during the end of the epidemic provided an opportunity for several studies to better define the transmission of Ebola virus among humans. Details of transmission in households showed the important role of close contact and exposure to body fluids, particularly to caregivers, who suffered the major burden of secondary infections. Touching cadavers at funerals was also an independent risk factor for disease and may well be related to the extensive skin involvement of Ebola virus.

There is considerable misunderstanding concerning the potential for aerosol transmission of filoviruses. Ebola and Marburg viruses are stable and infectious in small-particle aerosols; experience of transmission between experimental animals in the laboratory supports this. During the 1989-1990 epizootic of the Reston subtype of Ebola, there was circumstantial evidence of airborne spread of the virus, and supporting observations included patterns of spread within rooms and between rooms in the quarantine facility, high concentrations of virus in nasal and oropharyngeal secretions, and ultrastructural visualization of abundant virus particles in alveoli. However, this is far from saying that Ebola viruses are transmitted in the clinical setting by small-particle aerosols generated from an index patient. Indeed, patients without any direct exposure to a known EHF case were carefully sought but uncommonly found. The conclusion is that if this mode of spread occurred, it was very minor.

What then were the major routes of transmission? Nonhuman primate studies found conjunctival and oral routes to be possible. It seems likely that the increased risk from late-stage patients reflects increased virus excretion as the disease progresses, similar to that seen in monkey models. Thus, mucous-membrane exposure, pharyngeal contamination during swallowing, inoculation via small skin breaks, or even infection from swallowed infectious material may all contribute to transmission.

Ecology and natural history: The epidemic also provided an opportunity to search for the elusive reservoir of Ebola virus. In Kikwit, investigators were faced with multiple dilemmas, particularly timing and selection strategy. The first problem was that the outbreak began in January during the rainy season, but because of the delay in recognition and other factors, no research effort was mounted until several months later during the dry season. At that time, there was no guarantee that the virus would still be present in its natural habitat. Several international teams began the search as soon as possible and made a broad general collection. A decision was made to throw a wide net and capture arthropods and vertebrates from several biotopes, recognizing that the diversity of tropical species would be a limiting factor. Unfortunately, no evidence of Ebola or antibodies reactive with the virus were found in vertebrates, and Ebola genomes were not amplified from the extensive arthropod collections.

A second problem was the choice of how to select the species sampled. There are several hypotheses concerning the most likely reservoirs for filoviruses, but each of these involves implicit assumptions about the nature of the reservoir. It was known in 1995 that arthropod cells and arthropods themselves were not readily infected with filoviruses, and these observations have been extended; however, one must ask if the correct arthropod has been tested.

Virology and pathogenesis: The most important finding has been that acutely ill patients are intensely viremic and that ELISA determination of viral antigens in serum provides a sensitive and specific way to quickly screen large numbers of suspect human samples. Antibodies appear as patients recover.

Since 1976, indirect fluorescent antibody tests have been used for acute diagnosis and seroepidemiology, but their limitations were recognized early on. During the Reston epidemics, the situation became more difficult. Monkeys with no likelihood of Ebola infection had positive titers - the titers could rise from negative to high levels, such as 1:256, in an animal under observation - and application of Western blots failed to resolve the problem. The virus is not readily neutralized by convalescent sera, and no hemagglutinin has been detected, eliminating two of the common confirmatory tests. An ELISA test appears to eliminate the false-positive results widely seen in normal monkeys and shows positive reactions with every monkey serum from a confirmed infection and with sera obtained from a small number of human Ebola survivors available at the time of test development. This outbreak provided an opportunity to apply the test to humans with acute infection. The use of the test in such sera was satisfactory and provides an improved measure of Ebola antibodies, but more experience is indicated.

Experimental therapy: Fortunately, there are examples of provocative new findings that may provide therapy for filovirus infections. High-titered hyperimmune horse anti-Ebola serum has been produced and been found protective in baboons challenged with Ebola virus. This product has been confirmed to be efficacious in guinea pigs, but it is not as useful in rhesus monkeys or the mouse model of Ebola virus infection. The production of human monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus surface protein from mRNA extracted from bone marrow of Kikwit survivors raises the possibility that an improved, standardized, safe, and replenishable source of therapeutic antibodies could be developed.

Although there is no obvious role for an Ebola virus vaccine today, there are promising efforts toward experimental filovirus vaccines. It is important to continue these studies to be sure we have the technology to produce a vaccine should it be needed and to elucidate mechanisms of protection to help us in the search for effective immunotherapeutic agents.

Antiviral drugs also show promise in experimental infections. The thrust of the effort is a collaborative approach among the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH, Bethesda, MD), and other partners to identify drugs efficacious against viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), another negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with some similarities to Ebola. The expense of preclinical and early clinical work would be justified by the potential commercial use of the drug against RSV, while the efficacy against Ebola virus would provide an alternate model to demonstrate broad-spectrum preclinical efficacy.

Control, response, and prevention: The epidemic in Kikwit posed certain serious problems. The medical infrastructure was poor to begin with and suffered greatly from the epidemic. Hospitals were closed, and 30% of the physicians and 10% of the nurses contracted EHF. Because of fear and fear of stigmatization, new cases were cared for at home and often in secrecy. It became urgent to rehabilitate the medical infrastructure and to convince patients to come to the hospital, where they could be isolated and their families could be observed. This contrasts with the 1976 outbreaks, which occurred in villages where leaders enforced quarantine in homes. This action, combined with the collapse of the medical care system, effectively ended those epidemics. The importance of the medical care facility in amplifying the spread of Ebola virus is emphasized by the fact that only the hospitals in Kikwit and Mosango, DRC, had extensive transmission: ~7% of patients left for small villages, and no transmission was noted there. Would Ebola virus transmission have continued indefinitely, burrowed into the mass of people in the city, if measures to begin hospital use had not succeeded? In any case, the infection of health care workers ended with the arrival of proper patient-isolation supplies and training in barrier-nursing techniques. Coordination of medical logistics and plans for rational triage of patients were keys in the effort.

The lesson is obvious: the hospital is the link that must be strengthened. This will require both money and training, but the improvements will be useful in preventing many other infections. How this might occur without marked economic and cultural changes is not clear; despite intensive training, health care workers in Kikwit abandoned most of the improvements in medical hygiene within three months of the end of the epidemic, due in part to a lack of supplies and a reversion to previous practices. Unfortunately, the massive aid that comes with emergencies does not continue in reduced form to help prevent future emergencies.

Surveillance is also a problem. The finding of copious amounts of Ebola virus antigen in skin opened the way to confirm cases by taking simple skin biopsies, which could be placed in formalin and analyzed later by immunohistochemistry. One could argue that Ebola diagnostics should be placed at many sites in the potentially endemic areas, but this may be unrealistic given the small number of expected cases and the economics. It would seem that laboratory capability for diagnosing common diseases, such as shigellosis or typhoid, would be much more practical as a first step. This would also make it easier to sort out which patients to suspect for Ebola virus infection, remembering that the initial diagnosis of the epidemic in Kikwit was bloody diarrhea until clinicians suspected otherwise weeks later.

The best algorithm proposed calls for early recognition of suspect cases by the clinician and then institution of simple, inexpensive barrier-nursing precautions. If a patient dies, as the majority of humans infected with EBO-Z do, a skin biopsy is obtained and sent for analysis. Today, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are the main site for analysis but, as demand builds, the technology can be transferred to regional centers. The delay in definitive diagnosis is not the problem one might anticipate. The protocol calls for barrier nursing to begin at once, decreasing the chance of spread. In the Kikwit outbreak, almost five months passed from the beginning of the outbreak until the first samples were obtained. The ability to obtain a skin sample safely should encourage more use of this technique and may well give an earlier warning.

Information for the Future

What information is needed to deal with Ebola virus? The major questions are tied to important issues in biology: how will we be able to elucidate the natural reservoir without intensive studies of the many animals resident in the tropical forest? Do we really have a viable hypothesis as to the true reservoir? Very little is known about the virology of Ebola: this agent has less than a dozen genes, compared with the expansive genomes of poxviruses or herpesviruses. How does it accomplish its task of natural maintenance and also cause disease in humans? The virus appears to be relatively refractory to the antiviral effects of interferon, but the mechanism is unknown. We have no structural studies of the virus to explain the function of some of the unmapped genes. The clinical description of the disease is still incomplete, due in part to the lack of infrastructure during epidemics and the difficult and dangerous circumstances. Much additional work on the virology and immunology remains.

Finally, we need a pre-planned response team that is already integrated, prepared to execute selected functions, and equipped. This team may have to wait 20 years for the next epidemic - however, its chance to respond may come much sooner.

Information for Now

Most of the known information on filoviruses can be found in Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini & R. Siegert, Eds., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971), Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, Ed., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1978), and this supplement to The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Marburg and Ebola Viruses (H. D. Klenk, Ed., Current Topics in Microbiological Immunology, 1999, 235) has just been published and contains, but is not limited to, particularly good summaries of recent work on the molecular biology of filoviruses.

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Adapted from the introduction to a special issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases (1999, 179[Suppl. 1]), on "Ebola: The Virus and the Disease." The original includes an extensive bibliography and more detailed information and descriptions.

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Primate Enrichment: A Room With a View

Richard Lynch and Daniel Baker
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals USA

In an attempt to keep improving our primate enrichment programs, we are always looking for new ideas to enhance our existing programs. Last year it became necessary to relocate our Macaca fascicularis to a different section of the building. One of the available rooms (approximately 13' x 15') had two windows measuring 45" wide x 24" high. We proposed positioning a resting perch near the windows, to enable the monkeys to look out of the windows during their activity time. We approached our Director to see if we could utilize this room with a view. The Director's main concern and fear was that the monkeys could potentially break the windows. We assured him there would be no hard objects placed in the room that could be thrown to break the thick glass. We followed the protocol of our existing exercise room (see Lynch & Baker, 1998). We moved to the new area in June, 1998.

Most of the primate pairs were nervous when first introduced to the new exercise room. Some monkeys would not come out of the transfer cage. Those pairs were left in the room (in the cage) to come out when they were ready. Once the monkeys were out, the cage was removed from the room. After being put in the room a few times, the monkeys came out of the cage right away.

As with the previous exercise room, the primates are allowed to roam freely in the room for 11/2 hours every ten days. There are tubs with water, fruit, large mirrors, climbing devices, and hay (so they can forage for mealworms) in the room. During this past year, we have observed that the primates spend about an hour of their time looking out the windows. The monkeys have seen birds, the sunrise, rain, clouds, people, cars, trees, and (probably for the first time) snow. Since captive-housed primates cannot go outside, at least they can see the outside world. Next to being pair-housed, a room with a view might be the best enrichment we can provide.

Reference

Lynch, R. & Baker, D. (1998). Enrichment and exercise room for free roaming. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 37[1], 6.

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Authors' address: Veterinary Medicine Dept, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, P.O. Box 15437, Wilmington, DE 19850-5437.

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Grants Available

Deep Brain Stimulation for Neurological Disorders

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA) invite qualified investigators to submit grant applications for a broad range of studies aimed at improving the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a therapy. The purpose is to encourage additional basic and clinical studies into the mechanisms of a potentially reversible, adjustable, and long-term electrical treatment of neurological disorders. It is expected that this research will produce a greater understanding of the circuitry involved in movement and related disorders, the development of improved electrodes for use in deep brain stimulation, and improved treatment.

A consortium of research programs in deep brain stimulation that will serve as a focal point for collaboration and expansion of the field will be created. Investigators in the consortium will conduct research within their areas of expertise and will also collaborate with other consortium members to develop interdisciplinary projects that pool results and expertise available in the individual projects.

Suggestions for further work include: * Studies, including the development of models, to further refine the understanding of the functional organization of basal ganglia and their circuits, and their role in the control of behavior, including planned movement. * Studies of the mechanisms of action of DBS, including local and distant alterations such as, respectively, micro-physiological changes occurring at the electrode tip and changes in the neural networks. * Studies of the effect of short and long-term stimulation on motor control circuitry. * The design of better methods of placing electrodes that reduce placement time, expense, and morbidity, and increase accuracy. * The development of improved animal models showing progressive degeneration that allow the study of the physiology of brain stimulation in the normal and diseased or injured brain and the changes chronic stimulation evokes in cells and circuits, including plasticity of synaptic connections, modulation of gene expression, and the influences of activity on trophic factor release and sensitivity. * Studies of the purported neuroprotective effect of long-term DBS. * Studies to compare DBS with surgical ablation in earlier stage Parkinson's disease patients and in less compromised Parkinsonian animal models. * Clinical and basic studies to determine the effect of DBS on symptoms that are resistant to treatment with levodopa or dopaminergic drugs.

Direct inquiries to: Eugene J. Oliver, Prog. Director, NINDS, NIH Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., Rm 2203, Bethesda, MD 20892-9525 [301-496-5680; fax: 301-480-1080; e-mail: eollc@nih.gov]; William Heetderks, Prog. Director, NINDS, NIH Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., Rm 2207, Bethesda, MD 20892-9525 [301/496-1447; fax: 301-480-1080; e-mail: heet@nih.gov]; or Judith A. Finkelstein, Sensory/Motor Disorders of Aging Program, Neuroscience & Neuropsychology of Aging, NIA, Gateway Bldg, Suite 3C307, 7210 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9350; fax: 301-496-1494; e-mail: jf119k@nih.gov]. Application receipt date is February 16, 2000.

Spinal Cord Injury

Research from a variety of animal models has shown that various spinal circuits, with appropriate ascending and descending input, are critical for coordinated voluntary and reflex movements including not only standing and walking, but also control of bladder, bowel, and sexual functions. Since many spinal cord injuries leave much of the spinal cord intact, reactivation of the "spinal pattern generators" to control at least some of these lost functions seems possible. Fundamental research, in mammalian systems, on the anatomy and physiology of intrinsic spinal circuits that are involved in volitional movements will play a key role in unlocking the potential to restore function after injury.

This announcement seeks basic science applications for research in a mammalian system aimed at identification of the interneuronal circuits involved in the coordination and expression of voluntary limb movements and of bladder, bowel, and sexual functions. More research is needed to explore the physiological characteristics, neurotransmitters, and connectivity of this essential component of the spinal circuitry underlying complex functions.

Research interests include, but are not limited to: * Identification of spinal cord circuitry involved in voluntary movement by methods such as electrophysiology, functional imaging, activity-dependent and trans-synaptic labeling of interneurons, and/or optical recording using voltage-sensitive or ion-sensitive dyes. * Identification of the spinal cord circuitry involved in the coordination of smooth and striated muscles subserving bladder, bowel or sexual functions using activity-dependent or trans-synaptic labeling of interneurons, electrophysiology, and/or functional imaging. * Identification of the role of interneurons in the coordination of activities from afferent, descending, and reflex pathways; the involvement of interneurons, or groups of interneurons, in more than one functional circuit; and the anatomical/physiological characteristics of these interneurons. * In mammalian models of spinal cord injury: Identification of anatomical and functional plasticity in spinal cord circuitry that occurs rostral and caudal to an injury; identification of anatomical and functional plasticity following spinal cord injury resulting from activation, inhibition or other modulation of sensory afferents; and development of specific blocking or stimulation paradigms to eliminate or activate components of a pattern-generating circuit.

Direct inquiries to William J. Heetderks (address above). Application receipt date is February 16, 2000.

ACLAM Grants

The American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) Foundation announces the solicitation of research proposals in Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine. The deadline for pre-proposals is February 2, 2000, with one-year grants awarded early in July, 2000. The ACLAM Foundation funds research projects that will expand the body of knowledge in the fields of laboratory animal science and medicine. Up to six research grants could be funded this year in the following subjects: * analgesia and anesthesia; * animal behavior/well-being; * diagnostics/diseases of laboratory animals; * husbandry; and * refining models or techniques in toxicology.

While researchers in every nation are encouraged to apply, proposals must come from investigators with doctoral-level degrees. For information, contact Dr. Martin Morin, Chairman, ACLAM Foundation, 208 Byford Dr., Chestertown, MD 21620 [410-810-1870; fax: 410-810-1869; e-mail: morinasc@skipjack.bluecrab.org]; or see <www.aclam.org>.

Underrepresented Minority Scientists

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) recognizes the need to increase the number of individuals from underrepresented minority groups committed to scientific careers in research areas served by the NIDDK. This program is aimed primarily at recently trained MD and/or PhD minority investigators. The program will enable the applicant to accept a tenure-earning position, gain additional research experience, and obtain preliminary data on which to base a subsequent research grant application in an area of diabetes, endocrinology, metabolism, digestive diseases and nutrition, kidney, urology or hematology.

Direct inquiries to: Charles H. Rodgers, Div. of Kidney, Urologic & Hematologic Diseases, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., Rm 6AS 19J, MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-7717; e-mail: rodgersc@extra.niddk.nih.gov]; Judith M. Podskalny, Div. of Digestive Diseases & Nutrition, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., Rm 6AN 12E, MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8876; e-mail: podskalnyj@extra.niddk.nih.gov]; or Ronald Margolis, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., Rm 5AN 12J, MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-8819; e-mail: margolisr@extra.niddk.nih.gov]. Applications must be received by March 22, 2000.

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Awards Granted

ASP Conservation Award Winners for 1999

Subscription Awards for the American Journal of Primatology went to: * Michael Abedi-Lartey of the Ankasa Resource Reserve, Ghana * Junus Daniel of Sam Ratulangi University, Indonesia * Edem A. Eniang of the University of Uyo, Nigeria * Gabriel Ramos-Fernández of Universidad Nacional Autónoma, Mexico.

The Conservation Award of $750 was given to Rondang Siregar of Indonesia for her work with orangutan rehabilitation and reintroduction and her commitment to primate conservation.

Small Grants of $500 to $1500 each went to:
* Alex Degan of the University of Chicago for "The behavior of extinction: Predicting biogeographic patterns of lemur responses to habitat fragmentation in southeast Madagascar": $750.
* Kaberi Kar Gupta of Arizona State University for "Ecology and conservation of slender loris in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India": $1000.
* Joanna E. Lambert of the University of Oregon for "The influence of habitat conversion and hunting on primate populations in the Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon": $900.
* Sahdin B. Lias of Kinabatangan Orang-Utan Conservation Project, Malaysia, for "Solving orang-utan conflicts with local communities in the Kinabatangan flood plain, Sabah, Malaysia": $750.
* Alecia A. Lilly of the Center of Orangutan and Chimpanzee Conservation and SUNY at Stony Brook for "The effects of increasing human population density on intestinal parasite loads in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and indigenous human populations in and around the Mondika Research Center, Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic": $750.
* Barita O. Manullang of the Wildlife Foundation of Indonesia for "Preliminary survey on population status and distribution of primate species in disturbed habitats after forest-fires in central Kalimantan, Indonesia": $750.
* Joseph A. Ntui of the Federal University of Technology, Nigeria, for "A preliminary investigation of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Oban Hills Forest Reserve, Nigeria": $750.
* R. Ethan Pride of Princeton University for "Population density, social behavior, and physiological stress in Lemur catta": $900.
* Saúl Juan Solano of Universidad Nacional Autónoma, Mexico, for "A comparative study of resource use by groups of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in isolated rain forest fragments in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico": $500.
* Sandra S. Suarez of New York University for "Paternity, relatedness, and male socio-reproductive behavior in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus labiatus) in Bolivia: Training local investigators in field techniques": $500.
* Elizabeth B. Yaap of Harvard University for "An orangutan conservation education program for the Gun-ung Palung area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia": $950.

ASP Student Prize Award Winners

The ASP Student Prize Awards are awarded annually by the Society's Education Committee for oral paper and poster paper presentations.

Oral Paper Award: * Fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama, by C. J. Campbell of UC Berkeley. Honorable Mentions: * A new "founder effect" - Establishment of dominance in wild golden lion tamarin groups, by K. Bales and J. M. Dietz of the Univ. of Maryland; and * An evolutionary perspective on dental development in the Siamang (Sympalangus Syndactylus) from histology and radiography, by W. Dirks of New York University.

Poster Paper Award: * The impact of infant care on sleep in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii): Is less or disrupted sleep an additional cost of providing care to infants? by J. E. Fite and J. A. French, Univ. of Nebraska. Honorable Mention: * A novel method for measuring animal coloration, by Melissa S. Gerald, John Bernstein, and Roystone Hinkson of UCLA and the Univ. of West Indies.

* * *

Award Nominations

E. O. Wilson Naturalist Award

In recognition of his lifetime of outstanding contributions in the areas of ecology and evolutionary biology, including the study of social insects, biodiversity, and biophilia, the E. O. Wilson Naturalist Award was established in the year of Professor Wilson's retirement from Harvard University. The award will be given to an active investigator in mid-career who has made significant contributions to the knowledge of a particular ecosystem or group of organisms. Individuals whose research and writing illuminate principles of evolutionary biology and an enhanced aesthetic appreciation of natural history will merit special consideration. Nominations for the award will be solicited on an annual basis, and a committee appointed by the president of the American Society of Naturalists will select recipients of the award. The award will consist of an especially appropriate work of art and a prize of $2,000, presented at the annual meeting. Three copies of the nomination packet, each of which must include a letter of nomination, curriculum vitae including a publication list, and three key publications, should be sent by March 1, 2000, to Jonathan Losos, Chair, E. O. Wilson Naturalist Award, Department of Biology, Campus Box 1137, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 [e-mail: Losos@biology.wustl.edu].

Previous E. O. Wilson Naturalist Award Winners are B. Rosemary Grant and Peter R. Grant (1998) and May R. Berenbaum (1999). - From ABSnet, 5[30]

ASP Recognition Awards

The Awards and Recognition Committee of the American Society of Primatologists is soliciting nominations for three awards for members' consideration:
* The Distinguished Primatologist Award, which honors a primatologist who has had an outstanding career and made significant contributions the the field. Five individuals have been presented this most prestigious honor by the Society. The recipient of this year's award will be invited to deliver the Distinguished Primatologist Address (Featured Speaker) to the Society at the 2001 meeting. Nominations should be in writing and must include a vitae and a narrative that describes the nature and extent of the nominee's contribution to primatology. Nominations must also include at least two letters of support submitted on behalf of the nominee.
* The Distinguished Service Award, which is not presented on any regular basis, but is presented to deserving individuals who have contributed long-time service to the Society. Nominations should include at least one letter of support in addition to the nomination letter describing the individual's contributions.
* The Senior Research Award, which replaces the Senior Biology and Conservation award formerly administered by the Conservation Committee. This award honors individuals who, because of their dedication to their profession and their productivity, have made significant contributions to research activities supporting or enhancing knowledge relevant to primatology. Such contributions could take place in laboratories, the field, or in zoological gardens. The award is reserved for those who have not received the highest degree offered in their field (e.g., PhD, MD, DVM) but are deserving of the Society's recognition for their achievements. Nominations should include a nominating letter and two supporting letters indicating the contributions of the individual along with narrative indicating impact on the field. Nominees need not be a member of the ASP to be considered.

Send nominations by May 25, 2000, to Gerald C. Ruppenthal, Chair, Awards and Recognition Committee, CHDD Box 357920, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [206-543-3707; fax: 206-616-9774; e-mail: gerry@u.washington.edu]. Awards will be announced at the ASP's 2000 meeting in Boulder, Colorado.

* * *

Primates de las Américas...La Página

Una de las principales controversias en la publicación de los resultados de una investigación se da en momento de determinar los créditos en las publicaciones científicas. En el presente número de "La Página" inclu-imos una sinopsis de un interesante artículo original del colega Eduardo Santana, quien reflexiona sobre este im-portante tema que se involucra directamente con todas las disciplinas científicas en Latinoamérica y el resto de los países del mundo. Agradecemos la recomendación de incluir este artículo en esta columna. Estamos a sus órdenes. Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen (Editores). Departamento de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. km. 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, ap 63 cp 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail: serioju@ecologia.edu.mx].

Extracto del artículo "Consideraciones éticas sobre la determinación de autores y el otorgamiento de créditos en publicaciones científicas", por Eduardo Santana (Universidad de Guadalajara, México).
El establecimiento de mecanismos justos para otorgar créditos de autor y evaluar los trabajos de investigación son extremadamente importantes en el desarrollo de la ciencia. La deshonestidad intelectual se encuentra en toda la gama de actividades humanas, y los científicos no son inmunes a ella. Por lo tanto el prevenir los fraudes y robos de créditos debe ser prioritario en los programas de formación de investigadores. Existe una concepción idealizada del científico como un ser altruista que realiza investigaciones para resolver los problemas de la sociedad o por satisfacer una curiosidad innata. Aunque éstas todavía son cualidades de los científicos, las motivaciones y estímulos han cambiado mucho en los últimos años. Al publicar sus trabajos, los investigadores logran intercambiar experiencias, pero también obtienen reconocimiento profesional, prestigio, fama, premios, honores, viajes al extranjero y puestos en comités de asesoría que les otorgan cierto grado de poder. Las publicaciones son utilizadas por las instituciones para tomar decisiones sobre el otorgamiento de becas, contratos, aumentos salariales, promociones laborales, y financiamiento de proyectos. En este contexto, la actividad de investigación pierde su objetivo de generar conocimientos útiles para la sociedad y se convierte en un mecanismo para producir publicaciones que le sirvan al investigador para elevar su nivel de vida o posición social. La presión sobre el investigador para publicar también genera el problema de la producción de datos fraudulentos y deshonestidad intelectual. A pesar de la mistificación de que son objeto, los científicos no tienen cualidades morales superiores a las de cualquier otro ciudadano común. Sin embargo, la actividad científica está basada en la confianza mutua y en la fe de que la información que reporta un colega es veraz. Se asume que las distancias, las cantidades y los tiempos se midieron correctamente con la precisión debida, que los sucesos y las entrevistas reportadas son verídicas, y que los cálculos matemáticos y estadísticos presentados son correctos. Bajo este sistema, es posible producir publicaciones utilizando datos falsos. Aunque en muchos casos en el proceso de revisión de artículos se detectan a tiempo estas irregularidades, se desconoce la frecuencia de fraudes en este nuevo ambiente tan competitivo.

Muchos investigadores colaboran en estudios con el único propósito de aparecer como coautores del trabajo, y para aparentar mayor producción, algunos investigadores publican los resultados de sus trabajos en varios artículos cortos en vez de publicar un solo artículo más largo y coherente. El producir "refritos" de artículos viejos es una práctica conocida, así como el hecho de que profesores o directores de instituciones o laboratorios les "pirateen" los trabajos a sus estudiantes o les exijan ser coautores en todas las publicaciones generadas por la institución aun cuando ellos no contribuyeron al diseño, la realización, el análisis o la redacción del trabajo.

Para evaluar la participación de un investigador en un proyecto de investigación es necesario reconocer que el proceso de investigación y publicación de un trabajo es dinámico y pasa por varias etapas.
Concepción del estudio. Se refiere a la identificación de un tema o problema de investigación relevante en el desarrollo de una disciplina y su justificación en forma coherente.
Diseño del estudio. Se refiere al proceso de escoger o elaborar la metodología y diseños experimentales adecuados para intentar invalidar las hipótesis planteadas o recabar la información de manera sistemática.
Ejecución del trabajo. Se refiere a la obtención de los datos de campo o laboratorio siguiendo las directrices generadas en las primeras dos etapas.
Procesamiento y análisis de los datos. Se refiere a la tabulación y ordenación de los datos y a la aplicación de análisis estadísticos.
Redacción del manuscrito. Se refiere a todo lo relacionado con la preparación del manuscrito, así como la preparación de cuadros, figuras y apéndices.

Créditos con Base en la Participación en la Investigación
Para evitar conflictos sobre la autoría entre científicos (los que a veces llevan hasta el rompimiento de una larga amistad), se deben definir las responsabilidades de todos los integrantes del grupo de trabajo con relación a cada una de las etapas mencionadas, antes del inicio de la investigación. Existe un consenso de que los autores son responsables del contenido del artículo y que para tener derecho de ser autor el investigador debe haber contribuído significativamente a dos o más de las cinco etapas de la investigación. Un profesor-investigador universitario merece ser coautor en los trabajos de tesis de sus estudiantes únicamente si contribuye al desarrollo de varias etapas del estudio. No es ético exigir ser coautor automáticamente en todos los trabajos de los estudiantes, ni aceptar (u ofrecer) autorías "honoríficas" por ser experto en la materia, por haber revisado el manuscrito o por haber financiado la investigación. Usualmente, si la formación del estudiante fue correcta, esta debe ser primer autor ya que debió haber realizado la mayor parte del trabajo en las cinco etapas de la investigación. Esto es válido aún cuando en la mayor parte de los casos el profesor acaba por reescribir casi en su totalidad los primeros manuscritos del joven estudiante. La práctica de que el estudiante es autor de su tesis y el profesor es autor del artículo ya esta desacreditada.

Podemos tomar como ejemplo el caso de un estudiante que desarrolla con la ayuda de su profesor un estudio de diseño sencillo y realiza en forma independiente el trabajo de campo o laboratorio. Posteriormente le enseña los resultados a su profesor para que este le ayude a interpretarlos. Si la aportación del profesor se restringe a la asesoría en el análisis e interpretación de los datos y a una revisión del manuscrito, al profesor sólo se le debe mencionar en los agradecimientos. Sin embargo, si el diseño es muy complejo y el estudiante acuerda con el profesor analizar conjuntamente los datos y compartir la redacción del manuscrito, entonces el estudiante debe ser el primer autor y el profesor segundo autor. Si el estudiante le entrega los datos en bruto o mal analizados y le pide al profesor que se encargue del análisis y la redacción entonces el profesor debe ser el primer autor y el estudiante el segundo. Un auxiliar de investigación cuyas obligaciones se limitan a realizar el trabajo de campo o laboratorio siguiendo las indicaciones del investigador principal, no tiene derecho a ser coautor; pero se debe reconocer a su labor en los agradecimientos. Sin embargo, el argumento de que el auxiliar, porque recibe un salario no tiene derecho a ser coautor, no es válido. Siguiendo esta lógica errónea, se pudiera concluir que un profesor que recibe un salario tampoco merece ser coautor. Las decisiones sobre autoría se toman según las aportaciones en las cinco etapas de la investigación y no con base en las remuneraciones recibidas, como tampoco al financiamiento del estudio. El derecho a ser autor no se compra.

Como se observa, el proceso desde la concepción de una investigación hasta la publicación y la aplicación de sus resultados es complejo. El la actualidad son las publicaciones técnicas el indicador principal de la producción de un investigador pero los procesos de evaluación simplistas basados únicamente en el número de publicaciones generadas promoverán la deshonestidad y el fraude en la ciencia.

El original de este interesante artículo fue publicado en Tiempos de Ciencia, (Octubre - Diciembre 1989), No. 17, 15-19. Si alguien esta interesado en este documento con gusto le podremos enviar una copia a la dirección que nos remitan.

* * *

Information Requested or Available

Request for Information

Bryan Warnick is seeking any research that has been done on how animals react to the birth of disabled offspring. He is particularly interested in ape research, but anything would be helpful. He and his colleagues are working on a book dealing with ethical issues having to do with human prenatal genetic testing and the termination of abnormal pregnancies. "Any help, including names of people or organizations that might know, would be highly appreciated." Contact Bryan Warnick, Research Associate, Div. of Medical Ethics, 3045 Primary Children's Medical Center, 100 N. Medical Dr., Salt Lake City, Utah 84113 [801-487-4176; e-mail: bryan.warnick@hsc.utah.edu]. - From ABSnet, Sept. 17, 1999, 5[22]

Animal Diversity Web

The Animal Diversity Web (ADW) <animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu> was originally developed to support an introductory animal diversity course at the University of Michigan. In addition to information written by professors, this free Web site includes a searchable, rapidly expanding database of student-written accounts about the life history and conservation status of many animal species. These are supplemented by thousands of images and audio clips, including 3-D images of skeletal material. The site is now also used by advanced mammalogy and herpetology courses as well as by secondary schools and the general public worldwide. We invite you to consider using and contributing to ADW. If you use video in your research and would be willing to collaborate on such a project, please contact Cynthia Sims Parr <csparr@umich.edu>. - from ABSnet, 5[25]

Primates-Online Has a New Name

"Primates-Online" has announced that its name is changing to the "Primate Conservation and Welfare Society", which "reflects that what was once Primates-Online is more than just a Website. We are in the process of establishing ourselves as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, and are committed to the conservation of wild populations of nonhuman primates, educating the public about the plight of nonhuman primates in the wild and in captivity, and protecting the welfare of nonhuman primates in captivity, including, but not limited to, creating a sanctuary for ex-entertainment and ex-pet nonhuman primates. The officers of the Primate Conservation and Welfare Society are Hope Walker, Vivian Shuri, and Jennifer Feuerstein. For the time being, our Web site address will remain <www.primates-online.com>, but when that changes to reflect our name change we will be sure to let you know."

Primate Info Net: A Reminder

The Wisconsin RPRC Library reminds us of the resources available on the Web at the Primate Info Net (PIN) <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin>. Recent additions or new links include: * Eight sections through a monkey brain * University of Chicago's Neuroanatomy Collection (includes images of macaque spinal cord and atlas of squirrel monkey brain) * Handbook for the Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research * Central African Gorilla Habitat (satellite view) * National Center for Import and Export Products' Guidelines for Importation of Human and Non-Human Primate Material * Sign Language Dictionary Online.

For more information, contact the Primate Center Library [608-263-3512; fax: 1-608-263-4031; e-mail: library@primate.wisc.edu].

E-mail Lists

PrimCare is a new e-mail list for professional primate caregivers. For more information please visit <www.egroups.com/group/primcare/info.html>.

More Interesting Web Sites

* "All the Virology on the WWW": www.virology.net

* Americans for Medical Progress: www.AMProgress.org

* Ape language resources on the Internet: <www.brown.edu/Departments/Anthropology/apelang.html>

* Bulletin of the World Health Organization: www.who.int/bulletin

* European Primate Information System (EPIS): www.epis.gwdg.de/

* Kelly Scientific Resources' Science Learning Center: www.sciencelearning.com

* Listservice devoted to animal research infusion issues: www.instechlabs.com/infusiontalk.html

* Phil Tillman's risk analysis tools: clueless.ucdavis.edu/risk/

* Science and the AAAS Career Development Center: nextwave.sciencemag.org/feature/careercenter.shtml

* Teaching resources for evolution, ecology, and animal behavior: instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/taresources/

* Tropical Disease Research link collection: www.who.int/tdr/kh/res_link.html

* University of Pavia's Primatology Links: www.unipv.it/webbio/dfprimat.htm

* World Wildlife Fund: www.worldwildlife.org

* * *

Announcements from Publications

Science and Animal Care

Working for Animals used in Research, Drugs and Surgery (WARDS) seeks articles of interest to humane and research professionals. Science and Animal Care welcomes opinions from the spectrum of views on animal welfare and animal care in research. Like its sponsoring organization, Science and Animal Care seeks to raise the level of principled debate on animal issues before science and to explore - and hopefully diffuse - the tension between the pro-animal and pro-science factions. WARDS believes that these positions are not mutually exclusive, and that the constructive exchange of ideas can produce a consensus which will benefit the quality of both research and of care for the animals involved.

Science and Animal Care plans to focus on the following topics in the upcoming months: * Animal research contributions to veterinary medicine * Improvements, enhancements and commentary on the function and role of IACUCs, with particular focus on the non-affiliated member * Important developments in Reduction, Replacement, and Refinement techniques * Comments and experiences promoting the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates.

Please send your comments to the Editor, Science and Animal Care, 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714 [e-mail: oawards@erols.com].

Tess Lemmon Memorial Library

This isn't an announcement from a publication, but rather to publications: The Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) maintains the Tess Lemmon Memorial Library at Oxford Brookes University. The catalog is at <www.psgb.org/Library/CurrentHolding.txt>. The largest part of the Library is probably its collection of newsletters and occasional publications from a variety of other primate-related organizations. The PSGB encourages publishers of such items to check the list of missing issues at <www.psgb.org/Library/MissingVolumes.txt> and perhaps help them to fill in the gaps.

Primate Eye

Bill Sellers, the Editor of Primate Eye, the PSGB's own publication, announces that they are interested in publishing on their Web site articles that would be of interest not only to their members, but also to casual readers and journalists. Contact him at the Dept of Biomedical Science (Anatomy Sect.), Univ. of Edinburgh, Med. School, Teviot Pl., Edinburgh, Scotland, EH8 9AG [0131-650-3110; fax: 1031-650-6545; e-mail: Bill.Sellers@ed.ac.uk].

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities

Postdocs in Comparative Medicine, Missouri

The University of Missouri is now accepting applications for postdoctoral training positions in Comparative Medicine. Comparative Medicine and Laboratory Animal Medicine offer many unique and exciting challenges. Individuals in these fields are involved in state-of-the-art research that fosters improvement of human and animal health; the care of many diverse animal species; administration of animal resources; and diagnosis of diseases, including many previously unrecognized ones. The program combines one year of residency training in clinical, administrative, and diagnostic laboratory animal medicine with two or more years of research training. Training is designed to prepare individuals for a variety of careers including collaborative or independent comparative biomedicine research, clinical and administrative laboratory animal medicine, and diagnostic laboratory animal pathology. Training also prepares students for board certification in the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. Research program strengths include infectious disease, pathology, molecular biology, mouse biology, and cardiovascular physiology. Both MS and PhD programs are offered. Candidates must have a DVM or equivalent degree. Applicants should send CV, a statement of goals and interests, transcripts, GRE scores (if available), and the addresses and telephone numbers of three references to Dr. Craig Franklin, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 [573-882-6823; fax: 573-884-7521; e-mail: franklinc@missouri.edu]. The University of Missouri is an AA/EO employer.

Postdoctoral Training in Laboratory Animal Medicine

The Department of Comparative Medicine at Penn State University's Hershey Medical Center is inviting applications for postdoctoral training positions in Laboratory Animal Medicine which begin July 1, 2000. The two-year training program leads to a Master of Science degree in Laboratory Animal Medicine and provides preparation for board certification in the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. The department also offers an advanced research training program for graduate veterinarians who have successfully completed one year of postdoctoral training in laboratory animal medicine, demonstrated research competence, and have plans for a research-oriented career. The training is expected to lead to a PhD degree in one of many graduate programs that are available within the College of Medicine. Stipend support is in accordance with NIH guidelines. More information is available at our web site: <www.collmed.psu.edu/cmed/>; or request a brochure containing additional information about the program and an application from Ms. Anne Robbins Aregood, Penn State University, Hershey Medical Center, Dept of Comp. Med., 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033 [e-mail: ALR4@psu.edu].

Animal Behavior Summer Field Course in Kenya

A four-week field course in animal behavior will be offered in the summer of 2000 by the Psychology Department at the Georgia Institute of Technology and by Zoo Atlanta. This intensive course takes place at Zoo Atlanta and at field sites in Kenya and is designed to teach students how to conduct behavioral observations in a field setting.

As the priority of the course is to develop the observational skills of students, the focus is on observational data collection. In Atlanta, students are taught data collection methods and the behavior of East African mammals by zoo, academic, and field scientists. Students then use this information in Africa to conduct daily observations on a variety of species in both national parks and private reserves. This permits students to compare the behavior of a single species across settings. Students also use the comparative psychology approach to examine behavior across closely related taxa. Daily observations are supplemented by readings, discussions, and lectures by field scientists. The course also emphasizes conservation, and students read and discuss many of the issues related to conservation in Kenya.

Recommended prerequisites are introductory psychology or biology, or animal behavior. The course will run from June 27 to July 21, be worth six semester hours, and cost about $6000. Dates and cost are subject to change. For more information contact Tara Stoinski, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, Atlanta, GA 30315 [404-624 5826; fax: 404-627-7514; e-mail: stoinskit@mindspring.com]. - from ABSnet, 5[29]

Teaching and Research, Nicaragua and Costa Rica

La Suerte Biological Research Station, Costa Rica, and Ometepe Biological Research Station, Nicaragua, offer teaching and research opportunities for university professors committed to tropical forest conservation, education, and the study of animal and plant interactions. We have openings for qualified PhDs to teach college-level courses in ecology, biology, primatology, botany, ornithology, animal behavior, herpetology, and related fields during winter break, spring break, and over the summer. Courses are generally 26 days in length during the summer and 23 days during the winter break. Courses can be designed to utilize both our Costa Rican and Nicaraguan field sites, or to concentrate all activities at one of them. Professors who teach our classes can remain at either field site to conduct long-term research projects. The Field Stations provide transportation for the professor from the U.S. or Canada to Central America, and free lodging at the site for the professor and family members. Our field stations are equipped with electricity, classrooms, a small library, slide projectors, overhead projectors, showers, and flush toilets. Meals are provided by our kitchen staff. Faculty and students sleep on bunk beds in cabins. Professors are provided with a salary, equipment budget, and a graduate teaching assistant (depending on enrollment). Although we encourage professors to advertise and recruit students for their classes, we also utilize our resources and staff to market each course. If you are interested in teaching one of our existing courses or developing a new course, please provide us with a course description, course objectives, and your CV. Once interested students are identified for a course, the professor is responsible for answering student questions via e-mail, providing the students with specific course information (e.g. syllabus, course itinerary), and assisting us in recruitment. We are also happy to work with professors in developing an international course or field school program at their home university. You can determine the length of the course(s), course dates, course size, and possible trips within Costa Rica and/or Nicaragua.

For additional information, contact Álvaro Molina, P.O. Box 55-7519, Miami, FL 33255-7519 [e-mail: lasuerte@safari.net]; or see <www.studyabroad.com/lasuerte>. - from ABSnet, 5[29]

Residency/Graduate Training, Texas

The College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, invites applications for postdoctoral residency/graduate training positions in laboratory animal medicine. The 2- to 3-year postdoctoral training program is designed to support preparation toward ACLAM board certification and to provide individuals with a broad foundation in laboratory animal medicine. Residency training includes clinical laboratory animal medicine, laboratory animal resources and facilities management, comparative and diagnostic laboratory animal pathology, and methods and practice of biomedical research. Residents are centered in the institutionally administered Laboratory Animal Resources and Research facility and rotate through the Veterinary Medical Park and Texas A&M University System Health Science Center facilities (Institute of Biosciences and Technology in Houston and Health Science Center hospitals in Temple). Clinical rotations will also be possible at Texas Medical Center facilities in Houston (Baylor College of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center). Graduate training will consist of a combination of graduate course work, seminars, journal club, instruction of biomedical sciences undergraduate and veterinary medical students, and scholarly research leading to a Master of Science degree in Laboratory Animal Medicine. Graduate work is centered in the College of Veterinary Medicine and administered in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology. Candidates should have a DVM/VMD or equivalent degree, and a license to practice in at least one of the 50 states. The starting salary is $30,000 per year. Interested applicants should forward a CV, statement of goals and interests, complete transcripts from veterinary school(s), GRE scores (if available), and three letters of recommendation to Dr. Richard W. Ermel, Dept of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Vet. Med., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843-4467. For further information contact Dr. Ermel. Texas A&M is an EO employer committed to excellence through diversity.

Field Methods in Primate Ecology, Panama

The University of Colorado at Boulder offers the opportunity to study tropical primate ecology in western Panama with Michelle Sauther, University of Colorado Professor of Anthropology. You will be exposed to important issues in primate ecology and trained in primate field techniques. The program will be housed at the Bocas del Toro Biological Station operated by the Institute for Tropical Ecology and Conservation (ITEC). The field station is on the beach between tropical rainforests and coral reefs on the Caribbean side of Panama within the Bocas del Toro Archipelago. Primate species on the island include mantled howler monkeys, white-faced capuchins, and owl monkeys.

The centerpiece of the program is a six-credit Anthropology course, Field Methods in Primate Ecology (ANTH 4360/5360), which has five emphases: formal classroom lectures, informal field lectures, readings and critiques, group projects, and an individual field research project. The four field projects are habitat profiles, plant phenology and productivity, primate census and demography, and primate observation techniques. With the help of the program director, you will develop and carry out your own field research project.

For further information, contact the CU-Boulder Study Abroad Programs, Office of International Education, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0123 [303-492-7741; fax: 303-492-5185]; or Professor Sauther, Anthropology Dept, [303-492-1712]; or see <www.Colorado.EDU/OIE/StudyAbroad/brochures/Panama.html>.

Socioendocrinology and Cooperative Breeding

Jeffrey A. French, of the Departments of Psychology and Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, anticipates two or more openings for graduate students in the fall of 2000. "Current work in my laboratory is broadly in the area of integrative behavioral endocrinology, and includes studies of social and environmental influences on reproductive function, endocrine and experiential determinants of parental and alloparental behavior, and individual differences in sociality and stress-reactivity. See <cricket.unl.edu/French.html> for further information. Students can apply to the MA/PhD program in Psychobiology (see <www.unomaha.edu/~psychweb/grad.htm>) or to the MA program in Biology (see <www.unomaha.edu/~wwwbio/programs.html>). A variety of mechanisms for financial support are available, including an NSF-funded research assistantship, Rhoden Fellowship, and graduate teaching assistantships." - from ABSnet, 5[30]

Postdoc in Primate Conservation, New York

The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) seeks a Postdoctoral Candidate to work with one or more members of its staff for one year beginning March, 2000. This position, offered under the auspices of the New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP, see p. 40), is funded by an NSF Research Training Grant. WCS, dedicated to preserving the earth's wildlife and wildlands, operates an international conservation program with over 250 field projects in 52 countries, as well as 4 conservation parks in NYC (including the Bronx Zoo), with a collection of over 30 primate species. Applications are encouraged from those interested in issues of primate conservation, both in the field and captivity. The position will be located, for at least six months of the year, in New York to allow interaction with WCS staff, NYCEP faculty, and students. Applications should include a full CV, names of three references (with telephone numbers), and a one-page statement of proposed research for the year. NSF limits eligibility to U.S. citizens, nationals and permanent residents; minority candidates are especially encouraged to apply. Dissertation must be completed by the start date. Send applications to Dr. C. McCann, Chair Search Committee, Mammal Dept, WCS, Bronx, NY 10460. For additional information about the NYCEP program or related questions contact Dr. C. McCann [e-mail: cmccann@wcs.org]. WCS and NYCEP are EO/AAE.

Summer Apprentice Program - Washington State

The Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University is currently taking applications for its 10-week (June 18-August 25, 2000) Summer Apprentice Program. Students from various academic backgrounds (e.g., Anthropology, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Philosophy) are encouraged to apply.

The research involves a group of five chimpanzees who use the signs of American Sign Language (ASL). Four of the five were part of the cross-fostering research that began with Drs. R. A. & B. T. Gardner. Each chimpanzee was raised in an enriched environment in which their human family members used only ASL, much like the environment in which a deaf child grows up. The fifth chimpanzee was adopted by Washoe in 1978 and learned to sign from other chimpanzees as a focus of research done by the co-directors of CHCI, Dr. Roger and Deborah Fouts. Currently the chimpanzees reside at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington, in a large state-of-the-art facility.

Apprentices are at the Institute daily, cleaning enclosures, preparing meals and enrichment, making observations of the chimpanzees, and participating in a research project. The first week consists of intensive training in laboratory jobs and chimpanzee behaviors. The philosophy of CHCI is that the needs of the chimpanzees come first. Apprentices are trained in humane care and research techniques. Graduate and undergraduate students are encouraged to apply. Non-students also may apply. A course in American Sign Language is highly recommended.

The program fee is $1600, which does not include housing and transportation. A limited number of partial scholarships are available. Inexpensive housing is available on campus. The application deadline is March 17, 2000. For more information and the application see <www.cwu.edu/~cwuchci/apprentice.html>; or contact Mary Lee A. Jensvold, CHCI, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573 [509-963-2215; fax: 509-963-2234; e-mail: jensvold@cwu.edu].

* * *

News Briefs

Southwest Foundation Houses Newest Primate Center

A new, NCRR-supported Regional Primate Research Center has been established at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio, Texas, becoming the nation's eighth RPRC. The Southwest RPRC, directed by Dr. John L. VandeBerg, will focus on studies of common chronic and infectious diseases and will also examine the contributing effects of genetics and the environment. The Center houses the world's largest baboon colony for biomedical research, as well as chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, and several other primate species.

The Southwest Foundation has a long and successful history of studying the baboon as a model for human health and disease. A high-frequency ventilator first evaluated in baboons at the Foundation is now routinely used in clinics to treat preterm human infants, and recent studies of endogenous retroviruses in baboons have highlighted the potential risks of transplanting animal organs into humans. The Foundation is also home to a new full-scale biosafety level-4 laboratory for the study of highly contagious and dangerous pathogens. - From the NCRR Reporter, Fall 1999

Ramon Rhine

Professor Emeritus Ramon Rhine of the Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside (UCR), died on November 9. Ray earned his BA in psychology from UC Berkeley in 1950, his MS in psychology from the University of Oregon in 1952, and his PhD from Stanford University in 1955. Prior to joining the UCR faculty, he taught at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, for one year and was a Systems Scientist Manager at RAND Corporation for nine years.

Ray's research addressed social attitudes, impression formation, social cognition, primate socialization, and baboon reproductive success. He established and managed a colony of stumptailed macaque monkeys at UCR and a long-term baboon field station at Mikumi National Park in East Africa. His colony research focused on social dynamics and development and his field research on problems in behavioral ecology. Among his many fellowships and appointments, Ray received a Guggenheim Fellowship, and was a Life Member of Clare Hall College at Cambridge University, a Visiting Scholar in the Zoology Department at Cambridge, and an Honorary Research Associate in the Psychology Department at Witwatersrand University, South Africa.

A memorial service was held on Friday, November 12, in the UCR Botanic Gardens. Gifts in Ray's memory are being accepted through the Department of Psychology for the American Society of Primatologists' Conservation Fund. Checks may be sent to Ms. Dianne Fewkes, Department of Psychology, UCR, for forwarding to the American Society of Primatologists, Conservation Fund.

Insel Leaves Yerkes

On October 15, 1999, Thomas Insel announced his resignation as Director of the Yerkes RPRC, "so that I can devote full-time to the recently funded NSF Center for Behavioral Neuroscience. That Center, which will begin officially November 1, 1999, with over 70 faculty at 8 colleges and universities, is the largest inter-disciplinary effort of this kind in the nation. As Director, I need to give this new program my undivided attention during its formative years. As you know, if you are directing a primate center, it's not easy to run anything else.

"When I arrived at Yerkes in 1994, I accepted this position with the agreement that I would stay no more than five years. In the end, the decision to leave after five years has been more difficult than I had expected, partly because of the fun I have had in this job, but mostly because of my loyalty to some wonderful colleagues here as well as my affection for the group of RPRC directors. On the other hand, I have accomplished virtually all of my goals here, so I am ready for a new challenge. Yerkes has been transformed over the past few years and I am confident that it will continue to thrive scientifically in the future. Tom Gordon will be serving as interim director as Dr. Michael Johns, Emory's EVP for Health Sciences, organizes a search committee for a new director." - From a letter to the Yerkes staff

Varmus Leaves NIH

Nobel Prize-winning cancer researcher Dr. Harold Varmus announced on October 7, 1999, that he was leaving as director of the National Institutes of Health to head the world's largest cancer center in New York. Varmus said at a news conference that he would leave NIH at the end of 1999 and start work as President and Chief Executive Officer of the private Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center on January 1, 2000.

"My departure has nothing to do with any disenchantment with what's going on in government or at NIH, but with the feeling that it is time to make a change and to seize an opportunity to come to a truly extraordinary place and help it shape its ability to diminish the burden of cancer,'' Varmus told reporters and colleagues at the Center in Manhattan. He succeeds Dr Paul Marks, head of the Center since 1980. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center was established in 1884 and is the world's oldest and largest private institution devoted to prevention, patient care, research, and education in cancer.

Varmus has been director for six years at NIH. He fought hard for increases in the NIH budget, arguing that basic scientific research can benefit a range of patients. Most recently, he established an AIDS vaccine research center on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland.

Varmus and his collaborator, J. Michael Bishop, won the 1989 Nobel Prize in medicine for work showing that genes involved in cancer, known as oncogenes, can arise from normal genes called proto-oncogenes. A mutation in an oncogene may lead to the uncontrolled growth characteristic of cancer. - from a Reuters article by Grant McCool, posted from Yahoo.com to CompMed

FDA Report on Coulston Foundation

A 31-page FDA documentation of violations at the Coulston Foundation (TCF) of Alamogordo, New Mexico, is available as fd99040.pdf at <www.iwpextra.com>.

According to the FDA document, TCF study directors were cited for failing to have standard operating procedures to ensure quality and integrity of data; failing to ensure that all experimental data was recorded and verified accurately; failing to follow protocols; failing to ensure that good laboratory practices regulations were followed; and amending some protocols without proper authorization. Examples of violations cited by FDA include keeping laboratory records on scrap paper; erasing original observations; conflicting dates between handwritten notes and computer data; missing records; and records missing dates and signatures. Other failures include not having pathologists to take tissue, blood and urine samples and failing to conduct physical and neurological exams of the test subjects. In one case reported, three animals in a study lost approximately 20% of their body weight in a matter of weeks and another died. Despite this, the report states, no animals were removed from the study for medical reasons.

A Coulston spokesperson said that TCF, one of only a handful of primate testing labs in the country, is already taking steps to address the problems FDA noted in its August observations. The spokesperson said that while the report is long, it mainly raises record-keeping issues. The Foundation has already issued its response to FDA and is working to improve record keeping.

Some Ex-Space Chimps Leaving TCF

Under a court settlement with the Air Force, 21 chimpanzee veterans of the space program will be moved from The Coulston Foundation to a sanctuary that the Center for Captive Chimpanzee Care will build in Florida. They are among 111 chimps that the Air Force turned over to TCF last year over the protests of animal rights groups. In September, the Agriculture Department accused the Alamogordo facility of mistreating its 650 chimpanzees and forced it to give up 300 of them.

The 111 chimps are descendants or companions of Ham, the first chimpanzee to fly in space, and of Enos, the first chimp to orbit the Earth. Some were used in early jet airplane research, including the development of ejection seats. In more recent years, more than half of the animals have been used in AIDS and hepatitis experiments. However, none of the chimps bound for Florida is infected with AIDS virus or hepatitis.. - From an AP report by Philip Brasher, reported at <dailynews.yahoo.com>

Gorilla Born in Captivity Turns 40

The first gorilla born in captivity in Europe has celebrated her 40th birthday. Goma was born at the Basel (Switzerland) Zoo in 1959 and was raised for her first two years by the zoo director and his family amid wide public interest. Goma gave birth to her own son, Tamtam, in 1971, and raised him herself.

In the wild, gorillas are not known to live more than 35 years. In 1997 a western lowland gorilla called Bulbul died in Tokyo's Ueno Zoo at the estimated age of 44. A statement from Basel Zoo said Goma was now a "respected grandmother'' in the zoo's gorilla colony, and often helped out as a substitute mother when other females grew tired. - Associated Press article, posted to AlloPrimate, Sept. 23, 1999

Zoo Mystery Solved

Los Angeles - After months of DNA testing, veterinarians at the Los Angeles Zoo have identified the mysterious Don Juan who fathered three baby chimpanzees, even after all of its males of breeding age had had vasectomies. The cheeky chimp turns out to be eleven-year-old Shaun, according to the zoo. All the male chimps of breeding age, including Shaun, underwent vasectomies in 1996 when the zoo decided to stop propagating their chimpanzee troop. Then female chimp Yoshi gave birth to Toshi January 31, 1999, Gracie gave birth to Jean, now five months old, and Regina had Jake, now four months. Charles Sedgwick, the zoo's head of veterinary medicine, said Shaun had been suspected as the father because, despite the vasectomy, recent tests showed he had viable sperm. - from Yahoo.com posted to AlloPrimate

Utah Gorilla Dies at 50

Gorgeous, believed to be the oldest living gorilla in captivity until her death at age 50 at Hogle Zoo, Salt Lake City, on October 9, was remembered as a "feisty old lady" with a fondness for peach yogurt. The lowland gorilla had undergone surgery five days earlier to remove her remaining three teeth, but veterinarian Doug Folland said the surgery, which was necessitated by infections, had nothing to do with her death. Folland, who conducted a necropsy, said death probably was caused by one of two problems: a ruptured intestine or a condition known as acute gastric dilation, or a severe bloating in the stomach that restricts blood flow to vital organs such as the heart and kidneys. - from the Salt Lake Tribune, posted to Alloprimate

Aggressive Baboons "Eliminated"

Cape Town, South Africa (PANA) - As a result of repeated baboon attacks on visitors to Cape Point, one of South Africa's most popular tourist attractions, the management of the Cape Peninsula National Park has destroyed three "problem animals." "It was not a decision we took lightly, but the attacks have been becoming increasingly serious, and it was only a matter of time before someone was really badly hurt," the park's section ranger, Gavin Bell, said.

"The tragedy is that the baboons have become problems because visitors feel that they are doing them a kindness by feeding them," Bell said. "We have tried every other means at our disposal to prevent them from attacking visitors, but we have run out of options," he added. "Destroying the three problem males will not permanently solve the problem, but it should reduce the frequency of attacks for some time." - from Panafrican News Agency, posted to Alloprimate, September 28, 1999

Herpes B Virus in Macaques - Indiana

Two macaque monkeys at Mesker Park Zoo & Botanic Garden have tested positive for Herpes B virus. The tests were conducted after one of the monkeys bit a visitor who poked an index finger into the lion-tailed macaque exhibit on Oct. 3. The family then notified the zoo. The macaques have been taken off exhibit. As a precaution, zookeepers will wear masks, safety goggles, and gloves while working with them. Zoo director Ron Young said that veterinarians have since told him the virus can remain dormant in the animals for 20 years or more. - from an October 20 ProMED posting <www.healthnet.org/programs/promed.html>

Baboon Liver Passes Virus to Man

A man who received a baboon liver in an experimental transplant became infected with a virus from the animal, throwing another obstacle in the way of efforts to make animal-to-human transplants possible, researchers said September 29. The man, a 35-year-old HIV patient, died of his liver disease just over two months after the transplant, which took place in 1992 amid great publicity. But recent tests of his tissues show he became infected with a virus from the baboon whose organ he received, Marian Michaels of the University of Pittsburgh said.

"This was the first time that a virus has actually been cultured from a person who received an animal transplant," Michaels told a meeting sponsored by the American Society for Microbiology.

The patient was suffering from liver damage caused by the hepatitis B virus, and had had his spleen removed after a car accident a few years before, so he was very ill. He received the baboon liver in an experimental procedure. He was given a full load of antibiotics, plus the antiviral drug ganciclovir. He and the baboon were also infected with a herpes virus known as cytomegalovirus (CMV). Baboons are known to carry CMV - about 98 percent of all animals in the wild and in the laboratory are infected. It does them no harm. But CMV, which also infects many humans, was believed to be species-specific. That is, the strain that infects one species such as baboons, was not believed to be able to infect humans.

The patient took ganciclovir for the first 18 days after the transplant, but had to stop it because of side-effects. Samples taken 28 days after the transplant showed he was clearly infected with the baboon's CMV. He had been put back on the ganciclovir and tests showed that the patient was clear of the virus after 35 days. Michaels said the finding strikes a blow to the idea that primates can be used for animal-to-human transplants, although she described the case of a 25-year-old AIDS patient who got a bone marrow transplant from a baboon who had been quarantined from birth and who was thus free of CMV. Michaels said it would be possible to raise animals in totally sterile conditions for use in transplants, but doing this with primates would raise ethical issues.

Because of the risk of unknown infections, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have put a moratorium on animal-to-human transplants. - From a Reuters report by Maggie Fox, reported at <dailynews.yahoo.com>, September 30

* * *

Positions Available

Animal Care Positions at Yerkes, Georgia

Yerkes Regional Primate Center is seeking an Animal Care Superintendent, who will be responsible for the day-to-day management of the animal care unit, physical plant, maintenance shop, office staff, and night security personnel. The Superintendent maintains animal facilities and programs in compliance with organizational and federal regulations; participates in inspections by regulatory agencies; coordinates animal care activities; plans, consults and oversees new construction and repairs; meets with and orders from vendors; develops and administers budgets; generates reports; maintains inventory; and monitors the security system. This person will have significant interaction with the veterinary and scientific staff and will be responsible for supervising fifty animal care personnel, as well as being responsible for technical training programs. Qualifications include a bachelor's degree; five years' laboratory animal experience, with at least two years in a supervisory capacity; a valid Georgia driver's license; and an insurable driving record. AALAS certification as Animal Technologist is preferred. Must have knowledge of facilities design and maintenance, familiarity with computerized animal records, and a thorough understanding of laboratory animal husbandry policies and procedures. The colony is diverse, including great apes, Old World and New World primates. The salary range is $39,000 - $51,000. Refer to Position 123696fl.

Yerkes is also seeking an Animal Facility Manager to supervise and oversee the operation of an animal care facility, including planning, controlling, and organizing daily and specialized animal care activities; supervising staff; and providing support for investigative and veterinary staff. Duties will include supervising the housing, husbandry, and health status of the animals used in research; supervising the application of local SOPs or IACUC procedures and giving feedback to improve it if necessary; and preparing and suggesting evaluation of new equipment required, under the supervision of the health and safety officer. This person also uses personal protective equipment as required under the supervision of the health and safety officer, and assesses and/or orders products necessary for the vivarium operations. Requirements include a bachelor's degree and two years of supervisory experience, of which one must include animal care. The salary range is $26,000 - $35,000. Refer to Position 124687fl.

The Center is also seeking a Supervisor of Animal Care to supervise the daily operation of one large animal care facility or multiple small facilities. This person assists investigative and veterinary staff; observes animals for signs of illness, trauma, or social instability and reports abnormalities to the appropriate veterinary staff; monitors the administration of special diets and medication; supervises the maintenance of research animals, their cages, and facilities; ensures that the facility complies with federal animal and research regulations; collects medical specimens; trains and supervises staff; and performs related responsibilities as required. Requirements include a high school diploma or equivalent plus four years of animal husbandry or related animal care experience, which must include one year of laboratory animal experience and one year in a lead or supervisory capacity, as well as the ability to lift up to 75 pounds. The Supervisor must be willing to work within an indoor/outdoor work environment in inclement weather conditions and will have exposure to biohazards and potentially dangerous animals. This person must be certified by AALAS and be computer literate. Experience with lab animal management, as well as experience with primates and leadership ability, preferred. The salary range is $22,000 - $30,000. Refer to Position 123494fl.

They are also seeking several Animal Care Technicians. These persons will perform routine duties associated with animal care in a research setting; prepare food and feed animals; maintain sanitary conditions; observe animal conditions and behavior; and collect animal specimens. They may also assist in animal restraint, maintain animal housing, and perform minor cage maintenance. Qualifications include a high school diploma or equivalent; one year of animal husbandry or related animal care experience; and the ability to lift up to 75 pounds. Positions in this classification may require a valid Georgia driver's license and an insurable driving record. They must be willing to work in inclement weather conditions in an indoor/outdoor work environment, and will have exposure to biohazards and potentially dangerous animals. The salary range is $16,000 - $22,000, but positions at the Field Station in Lawrenceville will pay an additional $0.50 per hour. Refer to 123149f.

For more information about, or to apply for, any of these positions, contact Frank Leist, 1762 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-7611; fax: 404-727-7108; e-mail: fleist@emory.edu]; or see <www.emory.edu>.

Summer Teaching Positions, Panama

The Institute for Tropical Ecology and Conservation (ITEC) has three temporary senior teaching positions (instructor) available during the summer of 2000. These are four-week field courses that will be taught at our field station in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The fields of study will be (A) Neotropical Entomology, (B) Tropical Animal Behavior, and (C) Tropical Conservation Biology. The instructors are responsible for designing college-level field courses that emphasize field research techniques as applied to a tropical lowland rain forest environment. Students should spend the first two weeks learning these techniques, and the second two weeks using these new skills to design and execute individual research projects.

All positions require the PhD and some teaching experience. Previous experience teaching field courses is an exceptional asset. There is some scheduling flexibility, but the dates given are preferred.
* Candidates for Position A should have an ecological research focus, but individuals with a focus in insect behavior or systematics are also encouraged to apply. This class will meet June 15-July 12.
* Candidates for Position B may have a research interests in any aspect of animal behavior or focus on any animal group. This class will meet July 17-Aug. 15.
* Candidates for position C may have a research interests in any aspect of tropical conservation biology including resource management, sustainable land-use practices, forest regeneration, etc. This class will meet May 15-June 11.

Remuneration depends on the level of enrollment in the course. Instructors receive a minimum of $1000 (3-5 students) to a maximum of $2500 (15 students). ITEC also pays for all national and international airfare to and from the station, all local transportation costs, and all lodging and meals. Two graduate teaching assistants are provided with a full course.

These positions are ideal for professors with nine-month appointments, or postdocs searching for a permanent position. Contact Dr. Peter N. Lahanas, Inst. for Tropical Ecology and Conservation, 1023 SW 2nd Ave., Gaines-ville, FL 32601 [352-367-9128; fax: 352-367-9128; e-mail: lahanas@itec-edu.org].

Comparative Veterinary Pathologist, Michigan

The Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, invites applications for a full-time comparative veterinary pathologist. Duties will include: veterinary pathology support for a large and diverse research animal population and for the Unit's research activities; active involvement in independent or collaborative research; and participation in training of graduate students and veterinary postdoctoral fellows. The Unit provides clinical care, diagnostic services, and animal husbandry for research animals campus-wide. The Unit faculty also conducts externally funded research and has an NIH-funded training program in biomedical research and laboratory animal medicine. The pathologist will have a primary role in the Unit's diagnostic, research, and training activities. Qualifications include: DVM or VMD from an AVMA-accredited institution plus 2-4 years of pathology training; a research-oriented ACVP diplomate is preferred; board-eligible pathologists will also be considered; a PhD degree and research experience are also preferred. Research interests and activities should include development or use of animal models of human biology or investigation of diseases of laboratory animals. Research emphasis in the Medical School includes inflammation, microbial pathogenesis, cellular and molecular biology, aging, organogenesis, signal transduction, genetics, gene therapy, hearing, integrative physiology, neuropharmacology, cancer biology, neurosciences, and diabetes mellitus. Rank and salary are commensurate with training and experience. Send cover letter, curriculum vitae, and names of at least three references to: Daniel H. Ringler, DVM, Director, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0614 [734-764-0277; e-mail: dringler@umich.edu]. The University of Michigan is an AA/EO employer.

Research Assistant, Columbia University

A full-time assistant is needed for nonhuman primate research using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a new noninvasive technique for studying brain function and treating psychiatric disorders. TMS induces electrical current flow in the brain via alternating magnetic fields applied to the scalp. We are conducting a rich variety of clinical trials in psychiatric and neurological patients, as well as parallel animal studies, to gather basic information about the neurophysiological effects and safety of this intervention to support the use of this technique as a novel therapeutic agent in humans. Responsibilities include daily behavioral training of rhesus monkeys, participation in surgical procedures, collecting electrophysiological data, and data analysis. Training in animal handling, electroencephalography (EEG), and electromyography (EMG) will be provided.

Requirements include a BA or BS in neuroscience, psychology, or a related field; a demonstrated interest in animal research; computer expertise (both PC and Mac); and a commitment for at least two years. Experience with laboratory animals, especially rhesus monkeys, is desirable. Salary will be commensurate with experience. This project is funded through federal grants. Contact Dr. Holly Lisanby by e-mail <SHL24@columbia.edu> or fax [212-543-5854].

Clinical Veterinarian, Tulane RPRC

The Tulane Regional Primate Research Center (TRPRC) is seeking applications for the position of clinical veterinarian within the Department of Veterinary Sciences. The TRPRC is an AAALAC International-accredited facility housing approximately 5000 nonhuman primates (NHP) of 9 different species. The large research program involves infectious disease research concentrating on the study of AIDS. Other areas of research involve gene therapy, reproduction, vaccine studies, malaria, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, antiviral therapy, and clinical NHP medicine and surgery.

Responsibilities include general medical and surgical care of breeding colony and research animals, provision of research support, and training of investigators, veterinary students and technicians. The successful candidate will be provided opportunities to participate in the conduct of independent or collaborative clinical research directed toward nonhuman primate medicine and surgery.

The candidate must hold a DVM/VMD degree from an AVMA-accredited college of veterinary medicine and be licensed to practice veterinary medicine in one of the 50 states. ACLAM, ACVIM, or ACVECC board certification or eligibility is desirable. The candidate should have good verbal and written communication skills and the ability to interact positively with others.

Interested persons should submit a letter of interest, curriculum vitae, and a list of three references to: Rudolf P. Bohm, Jr., DVM, Senior Veterinarian, Head, Unit of Clinical and Research Medicine, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433 [504-871-6279; e-mail: bohm@tpc.tulane.edu]. Tulane University is an AA/EO employer and encourages applications from women and members of minority groups.

Clinical Lab Animal Veterinarian, Harvard

Harvard Medical School seeks a Clinical Laboratory Animal Veterinarian to provide veterinary support for the biomedical research laboratories at McLean Hospital, in Belmont, Massachusetts. The Hospital Veterinarian will provide veterinary care for research animals, perform minor surgical procedures, serve on the McLean Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and interface with both consulting veterinarians and regulatory agencies. The ideal candidate will have a DVM and will be enthusiastic about working in a laboratory environment. ACLAM certification is not required. The salary is competitive, and McLean Hospital offers excellent benefits, including comprehensive health care coverage and tuition support for continuing education. Interested applicants should send a resume to: Dr. Steve Negus, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill St., Belmont, MA 02178 [e-mail: negus@zippy.mclean.org].

Psychology Assistant Professor, Central Washington

The Psychology Department at Central Washington University (CWU) invites applications for a tenure track position as an Assistant Professor with an emphasis in Primatology, to begin September, 2000. The position will require the appointee to teach undergraduate and graduate courses in experimental psychology, serve on thesis committees for masters' students, and conduct active research involving both undergraduate and graduate students. Applicants are expected to have an earned doctorate in psychology with an emphasis in primate behavior, and to have the ability to teach and develop high quality undergraduate and graduate courses in experimental psychology. We are particularly interested in applicants who are prepared for or show an interest in conducting non-invasive research on chimpanzee behavior at CWU's Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (see <www.cwu.edu/~cwuchci/>). Furthermore, preference will be given to applicants with a demonstrated ability to teach a variety of undergraduate and graduate courses in experimental psychology (specifically research methods appropriate to field and laboratory settings), and a willingness to seek extramural funding. Experience with grant writing will strengthen the application. Screening of applications will begin on January 10 and will continue until the position is filled. Applicants should submit * a curriculum vitae; * a statement of teaching interests and philosophy; * a statement of research interests and minimum laboratory needs; * official transcripts; and * three letters of reference. All materials should be sent to Dr. Wendy A. Williams, Search Committee Chair, Dept. of Psychology, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7575 [509-963-2205; fax: 509-963-2307; TDD: 509 963-2207]. The Department is a participant, along with the Departments of Anthropology and Biology, in an interdisciplinary undergraduate BS program in Primate Behavior and Ecology, and has a strong commitment to increasing the diversity of its faculty and student body. CWU is an AA/EO, Title IX institution. For more information, contact Dr. Williams or see <www.cwu.edu/~psych/>.

Laboratory Animal Veterinarian, Baylor

The Center for Comparative Medicine of Baylor College of Medicine is seeking a clinical veterinarian. Qualifications include a DVM degree from an AVMA-accredited veterinary school and licensure to practice veterinary medicine in the United States. Postdoctoral training in Laboratory Animal Medicine or commensurate experience leading to ACLAM board eligibility is preferred but not required. Experience in an academic research environment is desirable. The individual chosen will have primary responsibility for veterinary care of laboratory animals and implementation of institutional policy in a large research program. He/she is also expected to have highly developed interpersonal skills to interact with investigators and to participate in departmental services such as teaching and protocol review. The incumbent will be allowed to develop collaborative or independent research programs and to engage in other scholarly activities mutually beneficial to his/her growth and to the institution. Salary will be commensurate with the applicant's experience and qualifications.

Interested individuals should submit a letter of application accompanied by a current CV and the names of three references to W. John Durfee, Assistant Director, Center for Comparative Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030.

* * *

Resources Wanted and Available

Louse Samples Wanted

Ondrej Hlinka, a PhD student in microbiology and parasitology, is studying the evolution of lice on higher primates. He is looking for samples of lice from nonhuman primates - mostly gorillas, chimpanzees (including bonobos), orangutans, and howler monkeys. "In fact, lice from any monkey would be appreciated."

Ondrej writes: "Morphologically, two separate studies have been done - with different results. I will be trying the molecular approach in hopes of resolving the issue. There are three species of lice in the genus Pediculus: P. humanus on us and only us, P. schaeffi on chimps and bonobos, and P. mjobergi on howler monkeys in South America. Gorillas and orangutans don't have any species of Pediculus.

"Another genus of lice, Pthirus, has only two species which are found on primates: Pt. pubis - crab louse - and Pt. gorillae on gorillas and nothing else. The rest of the primates seem to have Pedicinus spp.

"If anyone has any samples from these three genera (Pediculus, Pthirus, or Pedicinus) they would like to send in my direction, that also would be appreciated very much. There should be no problems with customs etc. - just label as fixed specimens in 75% or 100% ethanol and send to Ondrej Hlinka, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 4072 [e-mail: s336189@student.uq.edu.au]."

ABS Media Library

The Education Committee of the Animal Behavior Society (ABS) has established a Media Library for use in teaching animal behavior. We are now soliciting submission of high-quality photographs, line drawings, and data graphs illustrating important principles in animal behavior for use in teaching about animal behavior, and for which the submitter can grant copyright to ABS.

To submit an image for the library, send:
* Publication-quality photograph, line drawing, or data graph, or a digital file in some standard format (i.e., GIF or JPEG)
* A statement that you are the owner of the image, and that you grant its copyright to ABS
* A descriptive caption, identifying the relevant species, principle, and appropriate teaching use(s) of the image
* Reference to one published source (e.g., article or book) providing more information about the topic addressed in the image
* How to give credit to the person(s) who provided the materials.

To submit materials electronically, contact Michael Renner [mrenner@wcupa.edu] for instructions, or submit by regular mail to Michael J. Renner, Chair, ABS Education Committee, Department of Psychology, West Chester University, West Chester, PA [19383-2112] - From ABSnet, 5[23]

Primate Vocalizations Web Page

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center Web site has opened a new page on primate vocalizations. "While this is still in development, it already provides links to over fifty nonhuman primate vocalizations available via the Internet. This page can be found at: <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/vocals/>. This site is set up similarly to the WRPRC slide collection page: i.e., the four major groups of primates (apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and prosimians) link to genus and species listings. Some digitized slides from this collection can be found at: <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/images/>.

In addition, the WRPRC also has close to 900 videotapes which are available for loan, and cataloged at <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/av/>. Instructions for borrowing materials and copyright information are found at all pages.

These collections have been built from many generous contibutions of primatologists worldwide. If you have vocalizations, slides or videotape materials not found in the WRPRC Archive, please contact Ray Hamel, WRPRC, Special Collections Librarian: hamel@primate.wisc.edu - Posted to Primate-Science by Larry Jacobsen

Nonhuman Primate Physiological Data Needed

The National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), and the Wisconsin Regional Primate Center are involved in a joint effort to establish and expand a computerized database (Primate Aging Database) for biomarkers of aging in nonhuman primates. To expand the current database (containing over 148,000 data points for several nonhuman primate species), we hope to utilize existing primate resources (e.g., regional primate research centers, primate laboratories, and other primate facilities) to discover and to validate candidate biomarkers of aging. The Primate Aging Database will be a useful resource to primate researchers and veterinarians for aging research, as well as for clinical applications (e.g., establishing blood normative values with age). We wish to locate researchers at various primate research centers who may have useful, available data to contribute to the database. At the present time, we are interested in obtaining hematology and blood chemistry measures on healthy, "normal" (i.e., control), aging animals. We are currently concentrating our efforts on blood measures, since previous work in our laboratory at NIA has suggested the potential utility of several hematology and blood chemistry markers as biomarkers of aging in rhesus macaques. We are seeking data particularly on shorter-lived primate species. If you have physiological data on aging primates which may contribute to the Primate Aging Database, please contact Dr. Mark Lane or Dr. Darlene Smucny at the National Institute on Aging, NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 56, Bldg 103/1B04, Poolesville, MD 20837 [301-496-9416; fax: 301-480-0504; e-mail: mlane@vms.grc.nia.nih.gov or smucnyd@vms.grc.nia.nih.gov].

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Meeting Announcements

The 48th Annual Nebraska Symposium on Motivation will be held March 30-31, 2000, on the campus of the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. The general topic of the Symposium will be Evolutionary Psychology and Motivation. Six invited talks will be given over the two days; posters will be scheduled for the afternoon of March 30. The Symposium editors are Jeffrey French, Alan Kamil, and Daniel Leger. The invited speakers include Robert Seyfarth and Dorothy Cheney, of the University of Pennsylvania, who will speak on "Signal design and the evolution of primate vocalizations." Posters are invited on any topic related to evolutionary psychology and motivation. Proposals should be sent to Daniel Leger, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0308 [e-mail: dleger1@unl.edu] by February 25. The Symposium is free and open to the public. However, for planning purposes, please preregister by contacting Claudia Price-Decker at the address above [or by e-mail: cpriced@unlnotes.unl.edu] by March 17. For additional information contact Dr. Leger. - from ABSnet, 5[29]

The Primate Society of Great Britain's "Millenium Meeting" will be held April 1, 2000, at the Natural History Museum in London. The title of the meeting is "Primates: Our Past, Their Future." For information, contact Mark Collard, Dept of Anthropology, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, U.K. [0171-380-7842; fax: 0171-380-7728; e-mail: m.collard@ucl.ac.uk].

Representing Animals at the End of the Century: a conference at the Center for Twentieth Century Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, will take place April 13-15, 2000. This conference "will explore the connections between our understandings of animals and the historical and cultural conditions in which those understandings have been formed, by tracing how animals have been represented in different contexts, in different practices, and by different disciplines over the course of the last hundred years. Speakers will include Jane Goodall, as well as representatives of Departments of English, History, Philosophy, Law, Geography, and Art History. For more information, contact Nigel Rothfels and Andrew Isenberg, Conference Organizers, Center for Twentieth Century Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 [414-229-4141; fax: 414-229-5964; e-mail: ctr20cs@uwm.edu].

The International Society for Comparative Psychology announces its Tenth International Conference, July 19-21, 2000, at the University of Warsaw, Poland. To receive more details, registration and accommodation forms, please send a message including name, position or title, mailing address (including e-mail, if any) to Wojciech Pisula, Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Podlesna 61, 01-673 Warsaw, Poland [e-mail: zpz@sci.psych.uw.edu.pl].

The next Congress of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology will be August 8-12, 2000, in Zürich. For information, see <www.unizh.ch/zoolmus/>, or contact Paul Ward, Zoologisches Museum der Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland [{+41} (0)1 / 635 49 70; fax: {+41} (0)1 / 635 68 26; e-mail: pward@zoolmus.unizh.ch].

The American Veterinary Medical Association will hold its annual meeting August 22-26, 2000, in Salt Lake City, Utah. For more information, call 1-847-925-8070.

The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science will meet November 5-9, 2000, in San Diego, California. For more information, call 1-901-754-8620.

The European Federation of Primatology will meet November 27-29, 2000, at the Zoological Society of London in Regent's Park. The program includes a day of workshops and two days of talks. For information, contact Hilary Box, Dept of Psychology, University of Reading, 3 Earley Gate, Whiteknights Rd, Reading RG6 2AL, U.K. [0118-9316-668; fax: 0118-931-6604; e-mail: h.box@reading.ac.uk].

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Gibbons sworn in as acting Warwick mayor

Warwick, RI - Hundreds of beaming Democrats celebrated the end yesterday of a seven-year dry spell in Warwick with the swearing in, as acting mayor, of Council President Gerry Gibbons. - From the Providence Journal

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Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)

Books

* Resources for Crisis Management in Zoos and Other Animal Care Facilities. American Association of Zookeepers, 1999. 424 pp. [Price: $45.00 for AAZK members; $60.00 for nonmembers, plus $10 postage outside the continental United States; from AAZK Inc., 3601 S.W. 29th Street, Suite 133, Topeka, KS 66614]
An anthology of articles by 56 authors, including zoo keepers, veterinarians, zoo directors, and public relations specialists.

* Origins of Intelligence: The Evolution of Cognitive Development in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. S. T. Parker & M. L. McKinney. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. [Price: $55]

* Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. C. Boehm. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. 292 pp. [Price: $39.95]

* The Mentalities of Gorillas and Orangutans: Comparative Perspectives. S. T. Parker, R. W. Mitchell, & H. L. Miles (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 420 pp. [Price: $85.00]
. . . Contents: Comparative Evolutionary and Developmental Perspectives on Gorillas and Orangutans: Hominid family values: Morphological and molecular data on relations among the great apes and humans, by D. R. Begun; The life history and development of great apes in comparative perspective, by S. T. Parker; The frontal lobes of the great apes with a focus on the gorilla and the orangutan, by K. Semendeferi. Cognition and Tool Use in Gorillas and Orangutans: Intelligent tool use in wild Sumatran orangutans, by E. A. Fox, A. F. Sitompul, & C. P. Van Schaik; Orangutans' imitation of tool use: A cognitive interpretation, by A. E. Russon; Object manipulation and skill organization in the complex food preparation of mountain gorillas, by R. W. Byrne; Development of sensorimotor intelligence in infant gorillas: The manipulation of objects in problem-solving and exploration, by J. C. Gomez; Tool use in captive gorillas, by S. T. Boysen, V. A. Kuhlmeier, P. Halliday & Y. M. Halliday; A survey of tool use in zoo gorillas, by S. T. Parker, M. Kerr, H. Markowitz, & J. Gould. Communication in Gorillas and Orangutans: Symbolic communication with and by great apes, by H. L. Miles; The development of spontaneous gestural communication in a group of zoo-living lowland gorillas, by J. E. Tanner & R. W. Byrne; Early sign-language acquisition: Comparisons between children and gorillas, by J. B. Bonvillian & F. G. P. Patterson; Early sign performance in a free-ranging, adult orangutan, by G. L. Shapiro & B. M. F. Galdikas. Social Cognition in Gorillas and Orangutans: Comparative aspects of mirror self-recognition in great apes, by K. B. Swartz, D. Sarauw, & S. Evans; Deception and concealment as strategic script violation in great apes and humans, by R. W. Mitchell; Levels of imitation and cognitive mechanisms in orangutans, by J. Call; Parental encouragement in gorillas in comparative perspective: Implications for social cognition and the evolution of teaching, by A. Whiten; The development of social roles in the play of an infant gorilla and its relationship to sensorimotor intellectual development, by S. T. Parker. Epilogue: The mentalities of gorillas and orangutans in phylogenetic perspective, by S. T. Parker & R. Mitchell.

* Primate Behavioral Ecology. K. B. Strier. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2000. 390 pp. [Price: $36 plus $4 S&H USA]
. . . Sections include: Introduction to Primate Studies; Traits, Trends, and Taxonomy; Primates Past to Present; Evolution and Social Behavior; Evolution and Sex; Food and Females; Female Strategies; Male Strategies; Developmental Stages; Communication and Cognition; Community Ecology; and Conservation.

* The Care and Feeding of an IACUC: How To Organize and Manage an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. V. Lukas & M. L. Podolsky (Eds.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999. [Price: $59.95].

Bibliographies

* Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide: January 1992-February 1999. M. D. Kreger (Ed.). Beltsville, MD: USDA, l999. [Price: Free from M. Kreger, AWIC, NAL, 10301 Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, MD 20705; also available at <www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/primates/primate.htm>.]
. . . Contents include a copy of U.S. Laws, Regulations, and Policies for Environmental Enhancement for Nonhuman Primates; listings of "Organizations and Websites", "Primate Centers and Animal Colonies", "Listservers", "Product Suppliers", "Audiovisuals", and "Journals and Newsletters"; as well as a Bibliography and the USDA's Final Rule on Environment Enhancement to Promote Psychological Well Being.

Directories

* Comparative Medicine Resources: 1999 Directory. National Center for Research Resources, NIH. [Office of Science Policy & Public Liason, NCRR/NIH, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 5046, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965]
. . . This publication is designed to help scientists take advantage of the cost-saving, idea-generating resources supported by the NCRR, which include clinical research and career development; biomedical technologies and instrumentation; mammalian and nonmammalian models for human disease; research infrastructure, including science education, facility construction and renovation; and support to increase research competitiveness of minority institutions and states with limited NIH funding.

Magazines and Newsletters

* African Primates: The Newsletter of the Africa Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, 1997-1998, 3[1-2]. [T. M. Butynski, Zoo Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Program, P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya]
. . . Includes: Conservation in Central Africa: Time for a more business like approach?! by K. Ammann; Growing commerce in bushmeat destroys great apes and threatens humanity, by A. L. Rose; The drill - Integrated in situ and ex situ conservation, by E. L. Gadsby & P. D. Jenkins, Jr.; De Brazza's monkeys Cercopithecus neglectus in the Kisere National Reserve, Kenya, by J. Chism & M. Cords; Survey of endangered primates in the forest reserves of eastern Côte d'Ivoire, by W. S. McGraw, I. T. Monah, & M. Abedi-Lartey; Demography of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Budongo Forest, Uganda, by V. Reynolds; Pygmy chimpanzee, bonobo, or gracile chimpanzee: What's in a name, by A. Kortlandt; Current problems with Papio taxonomies, by E. Sarmiento; and a supplement, A review of the commercial bushmeat trade with emphasis on Central/West Africa and the great apes, by E. Bowen-Jones, reporting for the Ape Alliance.

* Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin, Summer 1999, 10[1-2]. [National Agricultural Library, AWIC, 10301 Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351]

* Connection, Summer, 1999. [AAALAC International, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
. . . Includes "Can flexibility and consistency coexist? Assessing the application of performance standards in diverse programs," by T. M. Butler & J. G. Miller.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, September, 1999, 7[3]. [Conservation International, Ave. Antônio Abrahão Caram 820/302, 31275-000, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil]\
. . . Contents include: Potential competitors for exudates eaten by saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and moustached (Saguinus mystax) tamarins, by A. C. Smith; An observation of carnivory by a captive pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea), by W. R. Townsend & R. B. Wallace; A northeastern extension of the distribution of Aotus infulatus in Maranhão, Brazil, by J. de Sousa e Silva, Jr., & M. E. B. Fernandes; Patrones de actividad de Alouatta palliata en un fragmento de selva en Los Tuxtlas, México, by T. de Jesús Ortíz Martínez, S. J. Solano, A. Estrada, & R. Coates-Estrada; Preliminary study of the effects of ecotourism and human traffic on the howling behavior of red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, in Ecuadorian Amazonia, by S. de la Torre, C. T. Snowdon, & M. Bejarano; and Disappearance of infants following male takeovers in the Belizean black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra).

* Primate Eye, October, 1999, No. 69. [Bill Sellers, Primate Society of Great Britain, Dept of Biomed. Sci (Anatomy Sect.), Univ. of Edinburgh Medical School, Teviot Pl., Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Scotland]

* PrimeApes, Fall 1999, 4[1]. [Center for Orangutan and Chimpanzee Conservation, P.O. Box 488, Wauchula, FL 33873]
. . . Contents include descriptions of the Center's new facility, and biographies of some of the apes living there.

Proceedings

* Genetic Engineering and Animal Welfare: Preparing for the 21st Century. J. C. Gonder, E. D. Prentice, & L.-M. Russow (Eds.). Greenbelt, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 1999. 127 pp.
. . . Proceedings of the conference of the same name, held September 5-6, 1996, in Chicago. It includes chapters on animal well-being and xenotransplantation; and ethical considerations related to animal use in genetic engineering.

Reports

* Primate Report, July, 1999, 54. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . . The German Primate Center's Annual Report for 1998.

* Housing and Exhibiting Mixed Species of Neotropical Primates. V. Sodaro. [Available from V. Sodaro, Brookfield Zoo Primate House, 3300 Golf Rd, Brookfield, IL 60513].
. . . A compilation of responses to a short questionnaire, which was distributed in April, 1995, to approximately 70 AZA-accredited institutions listed on ISIS as holding Neotropical primates. The institutions were asked to describe mixed-species introductions, involving different primates, and also primates and other species of animals.

Special Journal Issues

* Animal models of inflammation. ILAR Journal, 1999, 40[4]. [2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418]
. . . Contents include: New frontiers in cytokine involvement during experimental sepsis, by M. L. Steinhauser, S. L. Kunkel, & C. M. Hogaboam.

* Ebola: The virus and the disease. C. J. Peters & James W. LeDuc (Guest Eds.). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1999, 179[Suppl. 1].
. . . A number of scientists, both in the laboratory and in the field, have prepared reports reflecting recent research. This provides a single source for substantial, new, peer-reviewed information about Ebola viruses and disease.

Anatomy and Physiology

* Body temperature changes in free-ranging baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Namib Desert, Namibia. Brain, C. & Mitchell, D. (Etosha Ecological Inst., P.O. Okaukeujo via Outjo, Namibia 9000) International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 585-598.
. . . The authors surgically implanted temperature-sensitive telemeters intraperitoneally in free-ranging baboons. Thereafter, they recorded body temperature changes while the baboons were free-ranging and under visual observation. Two distinct patterns of daily body temperature fluctuations occurred, and were related to the availability of drinking water. Core body temperature fluctuated by as much as 5.3C. Behavioral adaptations of the baboons, notably sandbathing, appeared to be associated with regulation of body temperature.

Animal Models

* Rapid infection of oral mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue with simian immunodeficiency virus. Stahl-Hennig, C., Steinman, R. M., Tenner-Racz, K., Pope, M., Stolte, N., Mätz-Rensing, K., Grobschupff, G., Raschdorff, B., Hunsmann, G., & Racz, P. (German Primate Center, 37077 Göttingen, Germany). Science, 1999, 285, 1261-1265.
. . . The early events during infection with an immunodeficiency virus were studied by application of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus atraumatically to the tonsils of macaques. Analyses by virologic assays and in situ hybridization revealed that the infection started locally in the tonsils, a mucosal-associated lymphoid organ, and quickly spread to other lymphoid tissues. At day 3, there were few infected cells, but then the number increased rapidly, reaching a high plateau between days 4 and 7. The infection was not detected in the dendritic cell-rich squamous epithelium to which the virus was applied; instead, it was primarily in CD4+ tonsillar T cells, close to the specialized antigen-transporting epithelium of the tonsillar crypts. Transport of the virus and immune-activating stimuli across this epithelium would allow mucosal lymphoid tissue to function in the atraumatic transmission of immunodeficiency viruses.

* A cyclic antimicrobial peptide produced in primate leukocytes by the ligation of two truncated a-defensins. Tang, Y.-Q., Yuan, J., Ösapay, G., Ösapay, K., Tran, D., Miller, C. J., Ouellette, A. J., & Selsted, M. E. (M. E. S., (Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697). Science, 1999, 286, 498-502.
. . . Analysis of rhesus macaque leukocytes disclosed the presence of an 18-residue macrocyclic, tridisulfide antibiotic peptide in granules of neutrophils and monocytes. The peptide, termed rhesus theta defensin-1 (RTD-1), is microbicidal for bacteria and fungi at low micromolar concentrations. Antibacterial activity of the cyclic peptide was threefold greater than that of an open-chain analog, and the cyclic conformation was required for antimicrobial activity in the presence of 150 millimolar sodium chloride. Biosynthesis of RTD-1 involves the head-to-tail ligation of two a-defensin-related nonapeptides, requiring the formation of two new peptide bonds. Thus, host defense cells possess mechanisms for synthesis and granular packaging of macrocyclic antibiotic peptides that are components of the phagocyte antimicrobial armamentarium.

* Performance norms for a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery: Acquisition and long-term performance. Weed, M. R., Taffe, M. A., Polis, I., Roberts, A. C., Robbins, T. W., Koob, G. F., Bloom, F. E., & Gold, L. H. (L. H. G., Dept of Neuropharmacology, Scripps Res. Inst., La Jolla, CA 92037). Cognitive Brain Research, 1999, 8, 135-201.
. . . A computerized behavioral battery based on human neuropsychological tests (CANTAB, CeNeS, Cambridge, U.K.) has been developed to assess cognitive behaviors of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys reliably performed multiple tasks, providing long-term assessment of changes in a number of behaviors for a given animal. The goal of the test battery is to characterize changes in cognitive behaviors following central nervous system manipulations. The battery addresses memory (delayed non-matching to sample; spatial working memory using a self-ordered spatial search task), attention (intra-/extra-dimensional shift), motivation (progressive-ratio), reaction time, and motor coordination (bimanual task). As with human neuropsychological batteries, different tasks are thought to involve different neural substrates, and therefore performance profiles should assess function in particular brain regions. Data from this study represent performance of a population of healthy, normal monkeys that will be used for comparison in subsequent studies of performance following manipulations such as infection with SIV or drug administration.

Behavior

* Inversion effect in perception of human faces in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Tomonaga, M. (Dept of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan). Primates, 1999, 40, 417-438.
. . . Three experiments investigated the inversion effect in face perception by a chimpanzee under the matching-to-sample paradigm. In Experiment 1, the subject received identity-matching problems using 104 photographs of faces and houses presented in four different orientations. The chimpanzee showed better accuracy when the faces were presented upright than when they were inverted. The inversion effect was not found for photos of houses. In Experiment 2, the subject received rotational-matching problems in which the sample and comparisons differed in orientation. The subject showed a clear inversion effect for faces but not for houses. Experiment 3 explored the hemispheric specialization of the face-inversion effect with artificially composed faces. The subject showed no visual-field preference when the composed faces were presented as samples under nonreinforced probe testing, while the inversion effect was evident when the discrimination was based on the left part of the sample, suggesting that the face-inversion was specific to the left visual field (i.e., right hemispheric processing). In general, these results were consistent with those found in humans in similar testing situations.

* Laterality of hand use pays off in foraging success for wild chimpanzees. McGrew, W. C. & Marchant, L. F. (Dept of Zoology, Miami Univ., Oxford, OH 45056). Primates, 1999, 40, 509-513.
. . . Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii at Gombe, Tanzania, were observed while fishing for termites (Macrotermes spp.), an extractive foraging task using elementary technology. Apes who were completely lateralized, using only one hand or the other for the task, were compared with those who used either hand. Exclusively lateralized individuals were more efficient, i.e., gathered more prey per unit effort, but were no different in success or error rate from incompletely lateralized apes.

* Spontaneous use of sticks as tools by captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Nakamichi, M. (Lab. of Ethological Studies, Fac. of Human Sciences, Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka 454-0871, Japan). Primates, 1999, 40, 509-513.
. . . Three 8-year-old gorillas (one female and two males) at San Diego Wild Animal Park threw sticks into the foliage of trees, which the gorillas could not climb due to electric wire, to knock down leaves and seeds. They looked up at the foliage before throwing, and grasped the stick at one end, a position appropriate for throwing. They were more likely to throw sticks when particular adult group members were not nearby.

* The effect of inter-opponent distance on the occurrence of reconciliation in stumptail (Macaca arctoides) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), Call, J. (Max-Planck-Inst. for Evolutionary Anthropology, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany). Primates, 1999, 40, 515-523.
. . . Both species were represented by multi-male, multi-female groups housed in large outdoor compounds. Ten-minute focal animal observations during post-conflict (PC) and matched control (MC) samples were collected in which affiliative interactions and the inter-opponent distance at the beginning of each sample were recorded. A total of 251 and 561 PC-MC opponent pairs were obtained for stumptail and rhesus macaques, respectively. Inter-opponent distance was smaller in PC than in MC observations for both species. Conciliatory tendency varied as a function of the initial PC-MC inter-opponent distance. In particular, the closer opponents were in PC compared to MC periods, the more likely they were to reconcile.

* The problem of adult play fighting: A comparative analysis of play and courtship in primates. Pellis, S. M. & Iwaniuk, A. N. (Dept of Psychology & Neuroscience, Univ. of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, P.A., Canada T1K 3M4). Ethology, 1999, 105, 783-806.
. . . By contrasting the presence and degree of play fighting during courtship with the degree of male-female familiarity, the hypothesis that the former is influenced by the latter was tested. Data on 35 species of primates, from 15 families, were compiled from the literature and compared using a method of independent contrasts that incorporates information on phylogenetic relationships. A significant regression was found, with the degree of male-female familiarity accounting for 40% of the variance in courtship play, supporting the hypothesis that play fighting in courtship is influenced by male-female patterns of association. However, the data also indicate that other factors must influence the occurrence of play fighting among adults, not only during courtship, but also in nonsexual contexts. The broader context of adult-adult play in mammals is discussed.

* Allogrooming behavior and grooming site preferences in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus): Association with female dominance. Franz, C. (Inst. für Zoologie II, Universitätplatz 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria) International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 525-546.
. . . A test of Seyfarth's model of rank-related attractiveness among captive bonobos showed that high-ranking adult females, as predicted, received most allogrooming within each of the four investigated groups. Among adult female-adult female dyads, however, allogrooming was not clearly associated with dominance rank. Contrary to predictions of the model, the highest-ranking females were responsible for most displacements over allogrooming, and grooming competition is positively correlated with dominance rank. Bonobos direct significantly most allogrooming to the face, and individuals differ significantly in their preferences for certain allogrooming sites. Subordinates and males tended to avoid facial grooming and preferred the back and anogenital region, while high-ranking individuals and females directed most allogrooming to the face and head of grooming partners.

* Low-status monkeys "play dumb" when learning in mixed social groups. Drea, C. M. & Wallen, K. (Dept of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy, Duke Univ., Box 90383, Durham, NC 27708). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1999, 96, 12965-12969.
. . . Primate learning studies typically test single animals in limited laboratory settings where the important effects of social interactions and relationships cannot be studied. To investigate the impact of sociality on associative learning, we compared the individual performances of group-tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across various social contexts. We used a traditional discrimination paradigm that measures an animal's ability to form associations between cues and the obtaining of food in choice situations; but we adapted the task for group testing. After training a 55-member colony to separate on command into two subgroups, composed of either high- or low-status families, we exposed animals to two color discrimination problems, one with all monkeys present (combined condition), the other in their "dominant" and "subordinate" cohorts (split condition). Next, we manipulated learning history by testing animals on the same problems, but with the social contexts reversed. Monkeys from dominant families excelled in all conditions, but subordinates performed well in the split condition only, regardless of learning history. Subordinate animals had learned the associations, but expressed their knowledge only when segregated from higher-ranking animals. Because aggressive behavior was rare, performance deficits probably reflected voluntary inhibition. This experimental evidence of rank-related, social modulation of performance calls for greater consideration of social factors when assessing learning and may also have relevance for the evaluation of human scholastic achievement.

Care

* Chimpanzees. Fritz, J., Wolfle, T. L., & Howell, S. In T. Poole (Ed.), The Federation for Animal Welfare Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals (7th ed.): Vol. 1. Terrestrial Vertebrates (pp. 643-658). Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1999. [Price: $269.95]
. . . Sections are: Biological overview (General biology, Social organization, Reproduction, Biological data, Species and subspecies); Sources of supply - conservation status; Uses in the laboratory; Laboratory management and breeding (General husbandry, Breeding); Feeding, Water; Laboratory procedures (Handling and training, Physiological monitoring, Administration of medicines); Common welfare problems (Disease, Abnormal behavior, Reproductive problems); Further reading.

Conservation

* Status and conservation of douc langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus) in Laos. Timmins, R. J. & Duckworth, J. W. (J. W. D., East Redham Farm, Pilning, Bristol BS35 4JG, U.K.) International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 469-489.
. . . Douc langurs are threatened in Laos by habitat fragmentation increasing their vulnerability to the existing high hunting levels. They are a favored target for local consumption and for local and Vietnamese hunters and traders. Protective measures should center around implementing habitat conservation and antihunting measures in the recently-declared National Biodiversity Conservation Areas.

Development and Aging

* Adolescent growth and development in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Punctuated adolescent growth spurt by season. Hamada, Y., Hayakawa, S., Suzuki, J., & Ohkura, S. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan). Primates, 1999, 40, 439-452.
. . . Adolescent growth of Japanese macaques is composed both of a seasonal cycle of acceleration and deceleration and of linear increases. There is a major growth spurt in both linear dimension and body weight at the beginning of the breeding season of the third (in females) and fourth (in males) year of life, when they mature reproductively. They show additional accelerated growth in the following year(s). These growth spurts, in total, are considered to correspond with the adolescent growth spurt in humans. Rapid growth punctuated by slower growth periods is considered to be the result of adaptation to a strongly seasonal environment.

* Gene expression profile of aging and its retardation by caloric restriction. Lee, C.-K., Klopp, R. G., Weindruch, R., & Prolla, T. A. (R. W., Dept of Med., VA Hospital (GRECC 4D), 2500 Overlook Terrace, Madison, WI 53705). Science, 1999, 285, 1390-1393.
. . . The gene expression profile of the aging process was analyzed in skeletal muscle of mice. Use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays representing 6347 genes revealed that aging resulted in a differential gene expression pattern indicative of a marked stress response and lower expression of metabolic and biosynthetic genes. Most alterations were either completely or partially prevented by caloric restriction, the only intervention known to retard aging in mammals. Transcriptional patterns of calorie-restricted animals suggest that caloric restriction retards the aging process by causing a metabolic shift toward increased protein turnover and decreased macromolecular damage.

* Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates. Gould, E., Reeves, A. J., Graziano, M. S. A., & Gross, C. G. (Dept of Psychology, Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544). Science, 1999, 286, 548-552.
. . . In primates, prefrontal, inferior temporal, and posterior parietal cortex are important for cognitive function. It is shown that in adult macaques, new neurons are added to these three neocortical association areas, but not to a primary sensory area (striate cortex). The new neurons appear to originate in the subventricular zone and to migrate through the white matter to the neocortex, where they extend axons. These new neurons, which are continually added in adulthood, may play a role in the functions of association neocortex.

Disease

* Morphologic and molecular characterization of new Cyclospora species from Ethiopian monkeys: C. cercopitheci sp.n., C. colobi sp.n., and C. papionis sp.n. Eberhard, M. L., da Silva, A. J., Lilley, B. G., & Pieniazek, N. J. (Div. of Parasitic Diseases, Mail Stop F13, CDC, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 1999, 5, available from <www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm>.
. . . In recent years, human cyclosporiasis has emerged as an important infection, with large outbreaks in the United States and Canada. Understanding the biology and epidemiology of Cyclospora has been difficult and slow and has been complicated by not knowing the pathogen's origins, animal reservoirs (if any), and relationship to other coccidian parasites. This report provides morphologic and molecular characterization of three parasites isolated from primates and names each isolate: Cyclospora cercopitheci sp.n. for a species recovered from green monkeys, C. colobi sp.n. for a parasite from colobus monkeys, and C. papionis sp.n. for a species infecting baboons. These species, plus C. cayetanensis, which infects humans, increase to four the recognized species of Cyclospora infecting primates. These four species group homogeneously as a single branch intermediate between avian and mammalian Eimeria. Results of our analysis contribute toward clarification of the taxonomic position of Cyclospora and its relationship to other coccidian parasites.

* Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya. Linthicum, K. J., Anyamba, A., Tucker, C. J., Kelley, P. W., Myers, M. F., & Peters, C. J. (Dept of Defense, Global Emerging Infections System, Div. of Preventive Medicine, Walter Reed Army Inst. of Research, Washington, DC 20307-5100). Science, 1999, 285, 397-400.
. . . All known Rift Valley fever virus outbreaks in East Africa from 1950 to May 1998, and probably earlier, followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. Analysis of this record and Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies, coupled with vegetation data from satellites, shows that prediction of Rift Valley fever outbreaks may be made up to 5 months in advance of outbreaks in East Africa.

* Sexual transmission and propagation of SIV and HIV in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Zhang, Z.-Q., Schuler, T., Zupancic, M., Wietgrefe, S., Staskus, K. A., Reimann, K. A., Reinhart, T. A., Rogan, M., Cavert, W., Miller, C. J., Veazey, R. S., Notermans, D., Little, S., Danner, S. A., Richman, D. D., Havlir, D., Wong, J., Jordan, H. L., Schacker, T. W., Racz, P., Tenner-Racz, K., Letvin, N. L., Wolinsky, S., & Haase, A. T. (A. T. H., Dept of Microbiology, Univ. of Minnesota Med. School, Minneapolis, MN 55455). Science, 1999, 286, 1353-1357.
. . . In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4+ T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in resting T cells. The infected proliferating cells correspond to the short-lived population that produces the bulk of HIV-1. Most of the HIV-1-infected resting T cells persisted after antiretroviral therapy. Latently and chronically infected cells that may be derived from this population pose challenges to eradicating infection and developing an effective vaccine.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* Equatorius: A new hominoid genus from the Middle Miocene of Kenya. Ward, S., Brown, B., Hill, A., Kelley, J., & Downs, W. (Department of Anatomy, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Med., P.O. Box 95, Roots-town, OH 44272). Science, 1999, 285, 1382-1386.
. . . A partial hominoid skeleton just older than 15 million years from sediments in the Tugen Hills of north central Kenya mandates a revision of the hominoid genus Kenyapithecus, a possible early member of the great ape-human clade. The Tugen Hills specimen represents a new genus, which also incorporates all material previously referable to Kenyapithecus africanus. The new taxon is derived with respect to earlier Miocene hominoids, but is primitive with respect to the younger species Kenyapithecus wickeri, and therefore is a late member of the stem hominoid radiation in the East African Miocene.

* A new primate from the middle Eocene of Myanmar and the Asian early origin of anthropoids. Jaeger, J.-J., Tin Thein, Benammi, M., Chaimanee, Y., Aung Naing Soe, Thit Lwin, Than Tun, San Wai, & Ducrocq, S. (S. D., Institut des Science de l'Evolution, Université Montpellier-II, case 064, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France). Science, 1999, 286, 528-530.
. . . A new genus and species of anthropoid primate, Bahinia pondaungensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Yashe Kyitchaung locality in the Late Middle Eocene Pondaung Formation (Myanmar). It is related to Eosimias, but it is represented by more complete remains, including upper dentition with an associated lower jaw fragment. It is interpreted as a new representative of the family Eosimiidae, which corresponds to the sister group of the Amphipithecidae and of all other anthropoids. Eosimiidae are now recorded from three distinct Middle Eocene localities in Asia, giving support to the hypothesis of an Asian origin of anthropoids.

* Extensive nuclear DNA sequence diversity among chimpanzees. Kaessmann, H., Wiebe, V., & Pääbo, S. (Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany). Science, 1999, 286, 1159-1162.
. . . Although data on nucleotide sequence variation in the human nuclear genome have begun to accumulate, little is known about genomic diversity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). A 10,154-base pair sequence on the chimpanzee X chromosome is reported, representing all major subspecies and bonobos. Comparison to humans shows the diversity of the chimpanzee sequences to be almost four times as high and the age of the most recent common ancestor three times as great as the corresponding values for humans. Phylogenetic analyses show the sequences from the different chimpanzee subspecies to be intermixed and the distance between some chimpanzee sequences to be greater than the distance between them and the bonobo sequences.

* The use of hand morphology in the taxonomy of galagos. Anderson, M. J. (Sub-dept of Animal Behaviour, Madingley, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge, England). Primates, 1999, 40, 469-478.
. . . Measurements of volar (hand) pad area were made for 244 specimens, representing 12 species and 4 genera of galagos. When corrected for body weight, statistically significant differences were identified, at both the genus and species levels in the areas of the pads. Most informative in terms of taxonomic differences, were measurements of two of the five pads: interdigital pad number 4 and thenar pad number 5. Closely related species were distinguishable on the basis of these measurements. The thick-tailed galago (Otolemur crassicaudatus) was separate from Garnett's galago (O. garnetti) and the specific status of the silver greater galago (O. argentatus) was supported. Likewise, the two needle-clawed galagos (Euoticus elegantulus and E. pallidus), recently separated on mitochodrial DNA grounds, were found to differ significantly in volar pad morphology.

* A new species of titi monkey in northeast Brazil. Kobayashi, S. & Langguth, A. (Dept of Asian Studies, Chukyo Women's Univ., Nadakayama 55, Yokone-cho, Aichi 474-0011, Japan). Neotropical Primates, 1999, 7, 88-89.
. . . A new species of titi monkey has been described from the Atlantic forest along the coast of the state of Sergipe, and has been named Callicebus coimbrai, in honor of Adelmar F. Coimbra-Filho, in recognition of his research on, and valuable contributions to, the biology and conservation of Brazilian primates.

Field Studies

* Group composition, home range size, and diet of three sympatric bamboo lemur species (genus Hapalemur) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Tan, C. L. (Doctoral Program in Anthropological Science, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364.) International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 547-566.
. . . Hapalemur griseus has flexible group sizes, varying from 3 to 9 individuals, with an average home range of 15 ha. H. aureus forms family groups of at least four individuals, with an average home range of 26 ha. The single group of H. simus is composed of one or three adult males, two adult females, and their offspring; they occupy 62 ha. The diet of all three species is more than 88% bamboo and grass, including the cyanogenic parts - young leaf bases, young pseudopetioles, and young shoots - of the giant bamboo, Cathariostachys madagascariensis, which comprises 72-95% of their diets.

Instruments and Techniques

* Establishing the presence of a body temperature rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using a tympanic membrane thermometer. Fowler, L. A., Hopkins, W. D., Albers, H. E., Morris, R. D., & Hyatt, C. W. (Dept of Psychology, Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT 84408-1016). Primates, 1999, 40, 499-508.
. . . Seven chimpanzees were trained to present their ears so that a tympanic membrane thermometer could be inserted. Temperatures were collected from both ears of each subject every 3 hours for 72 consecutive hours. The presence of a body temperature rhythm, well documented in other mammals, was established. Similarities in the temperature rhythms of cagemates were found.

Nutrition

* Food selection of semifree common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for optimal foraging. Ahlborn, S. & Rothe, H. (Inst. für Zool. & Anthro., Ethologische Station Anthropol. Einrichtungen, Univ. Göttingen, D-37130, Gleichen-Sennickerode, Germany). Primates, 1999, 40, 479-486.
. . . A group of common marmosets consisting of two parents and their six progeny of various ages were allowed free access to an open-air enclosure, which was equipped with a heated hut, roofed veranda, external cage, and a runway system made of roofing slats and a few small trees. Feeding places, sitting boards, and sleeping boxes were distributed throughout the whole area. The hut and its immediate vicinity can be considered as the core area of the home range, as the maximum frequencies of both feeding and location occurred there. Through the experimental variation in the type of foods provided at specific feeding places during 254 hours of observation, it was obvious that the closeness of the feeding place to the hut was more important than the type of food placed there. The marmosets apparently reduced the energy output when searching for food by minimizing the distance to the food patches.

* Monthly and diurnal variations in food choice by Macaca fuscata yakui during the major fruiting season at Yakushima Island, Japan. Domingo-Roura, X. & Yamagiwa, J. (Wildlife Conservation Res. Unit, Dept of Zoology, Univ. of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PS, England). Primates, 1999, 40, 525-536.
. . . An ecological survey of two groups of wild Japanese macaques was designed to determine and explain variations in both duration of feeding and food choice, and to explain these variations from a nutritional perspective. Feeding activity increased during the hour before sunset, while leaf eating in particular tended to be observed later in the day throughout the study period. A diverse and unstable diet promoted monthly differences in fat and protein consumption. The mean lipid and calorific content of the food and the rate of protein intake were high in early autumn. Ficus fruits were not selected when unripe Ardisia sieboldii fruits were available, but were generally an important food resource. Similarities with experimental results in laboratory animals suggest that a physiological, rather than a behavioral, response was regulating nutritional intake. A high consumption of proteins before rest might produce satiety, giving the opportunity to digest and absorb complicated or toxic metabolites slowly during the night.

 Reproduction

* Measuring male-female relationships during the mating season in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Soltis, J. (Dept of Ecology & Social Behavior, Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan). Primates, 1999, 40, 453-467.
. . . Validation tests of putative mate choice behaviors demonstrated that female initiation and maintenance of proximity, female looking back at the male, and sexual presents to the male, were associated with increased mating. Male grooming of a female was also associated with increased mating. Ten dyadic social behaviors were subject to principal components analysis to empirically define behavioral dimensions of male-female relationships, yielding four relationship dimensions: "Mutual Choice and Male Coercion," "Female Choice" (two types), and "Mutual Choice." Dyads tended to be characterized by more than one dimension. The results suggested that females sought matings with multiple males of various dominance ranks. Female relationships with high-ranking males contained elements of male coercion and mate guarding, however, because these males attempted to inhibit females from mating with lower-ranking males. The correlation between each relationship dimension and mating success depended, in part, on the dominance rank of males.

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In many cases, the original source of references in this section has been the Current Primate References prepared by the Primate Information Center, UW-RPRC, Westlake Facility, 1101 Westlake Ave N., Seattle, WA 98109-3527. Because of this excellent source of references, the present section is devoted primarily to presentation of abstracts of articles of practical or of general interest. We would also like to acknowledge Primate-Science as a source for information about new books.

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* * *

Letter: The Baboon Colony at Montevideo's Zoo, Uruguay

We are assiduous readers of your Newsletter and were surprised when we read an article ("Baboons and Water: A Discussion," 1999, 38[4], 1-2) about our colony of baboons at Montevideo's Zoo, Uruguay. I am a member of the staff, a veterinarian, and one of the team that is planning the new enclosure for that colony. We are surprised, because we haven't finished it yet; it is still an incomplete plan. None of the people who wrote to your newsletter (Silvia Corte, G. Duarte or F. Silveira) has seen the project, or even talked with us or with the zoo authorities.

Of course we can make mistakes, people who work with animals in captivity know that. You can copy a habitat that works in one zoo but not in another. There are a lot of examples.

We want to explain that we are not going to use a water moat alone. We are going to use it in combination with an electric fence and also mesh. We really can't guarantee that we are not going to have any problem, but what they didn't say is that the current enclosure is very old. Animals often escape from it. It not only doesn't have a squeeze cage, it has nothing else to help us manage them.

We don't want to bore you with our CVs, but we can tell you that we travel and personally visit a lot of zoos around the world; we do not see them only in photos as they said. I'm also a graduate of the Conservation and Captive Breeding of Endangered Species course at Jersey Zoo, and received my certification with the award of Distinction. We are the teachers of the postgraduate course in Clinic and Management of Wild Animals in Captivity at our University and so on. But we don't publish it.

It's also not a problem between "vets and biologists" because we have projects in common with other biologists. - Dr. Carmen Leizagoyen, Veterinarian in Charge [e-mail: carleiza@adinet.com.uy], and Dr. Eduardo Tavares, Zoo Director [e-mail: etavares@adinet.com.uy], Zoológico Parque Lecocq, Luis Batlle Berres s/n km 19 y 1/2, Montevideo, Uruguay.

* * *

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (2000)

ARIZONA

* Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: MA and PhD in Anthropology. Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional anatomy, and primate evolution. Facilities include extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, a variety of specimens for dissection, 3D imaging and analysis capabilities, and excellent computing capabilities. Faculty interests include relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, primate community ecology, and comparative primate functional and evolutionary morphology. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, nocturnal prosimians, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (primate anatomy, paleoanthropology, human evolution, growth and development); Kaye E. Reed (primate community ecology, primate paleoecology, primate evolution, paleoanthropology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Drs. Leanne T. Nash, Mary W. Marzke, or Kaye Reed, Department of Anthropology, Box 872402, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 [480-965-6213, fax 480-965-7671; Dr. Nash: 480-965-4812; e-mail: leanne.nash@asu.edu; Dr. Marzke: 480-965-6237; e-mail: mary.marzke@asu.edu; Dr. Reed: 480-727-6583; e-mail: kreed.iho@asu.edu].

* Primate Foundation of Arizona
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: A private, non-profit, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) colony pursuing behavioral research with a goal of improving captive management and the well-being of individual animals. Internships: minimum of 60 days at various times during the year. No stipend. Low-cost summer housing usually available. Assist in on-going behavioral research projects, data entry, data management, and the provision of environmental enrichment.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jo Fritz, Director (captive management and behavior); Sue Howell, MA, Research Director (environmental enrichment and well-being).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027 [480-832-3780; fax: 480-830-7039; e-mail: jopfa@uswest.net].

CALIFORNIA

* California State University, San Marcos, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME: Master of Arts in General Experimental Psychology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Nancy Caine (callitrichid behavior), with possibilities for collaboration with primatologists at the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Nancy Caine, Dept. of Psychology, CSU San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096 [e-mail: ncaine@coyote.csusm.edu].

* University of California, Davis, Psychology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Psychobiology is an area of specialization within the Psychology graduate program.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: John P. Capitanio (primate social behavior and development, personality/temperament, psychoneuroimmunology); Leo M. Chalupa (central mechanisms of vision, prenatal development of sensory systems in the mammalian brain); Richard G. Coss (developmental psychobiology, evolution, experimental aesthetics, antipredator behavior); Kenneth R. Henry (audition, physiological psychology, behavioral genetics, developmental psychobiology, aging); Leah A. Krubitzer (evolutionary neurobiology); William A. Mason (primate social behavior); Sally P. Mendoza (behavioral endocrinology, physiological basis of primate social relationships, stress and reproduction); Robert M. Murphey (behavior of domesticated ungulates, genetic correlates of behavior, psychopathology); Bruno A. Olshausen (vision, computational neuroscience); Donald H. Owings (communication and antipredator behavior, ground squirrel behavior); Jeffrey C. Schank (social behavior, individual-based modeling, development); Andrew P. Yonelinas (human memory, action slips, subjective awareness).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Department of Psychology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616.

FLORIDA

* University of Florida, Psychology Department
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology, experimental analysis of behavior; squirrel monkeys).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Dept, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 [352-392-0601 x205; e-mail: branch@psych.ufl.edu].

GEORGIA

* Emory University, Graduate Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
PROGRAM NAME: Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution (PBEE)
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Faculty are from many disciplines, including the Departments of Anthropology, Biology, and Psychology, the Schools of Medicine and of Public Health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center (YRPRC).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Director of Graduate Studies: Dr. Frans de Waal (Psychology/Yerkes), Dept of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-7898; e-mail: dewaal@rmy.emory.edu; <www.cc.emory.edu/PBEE/pbee.html>].

* Emory University, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: The program in psychobiology emphasizes behavior as a biological phenomenon through the traditional areas of physiological psychology, ethology, and acquired behaviors.
FACULTY: Ronald Boothe, Frans B. M. de Waal, David Edwards, Harold Gouzoules, Jack J. McDowell, Darryl Neill, Hillary R. Rodman, Donald Stein, Kim Wallen, Michael Zeiler.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Michael Zeiler, Program Director, Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-7444; e-mail: psymdz@emory.edu].

* University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAMES: Biopsychology with a specialty area in primatology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Irwin S. Bernstein (primatology, social organization, aggression, sex, dominance); Dorothy Fragaszy (primate behavior, cognition, development, motor skills, social behavior). We also enjoy full cooperation with other departments and universities within the University of Georgia system, as well as collaboration with the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University and the Atlanta Zoo.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Biopsychology Program, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3013 [706-542-2174; fax: 706-542-3275]; <julian.dac.uga.edu/home.html>.

* Georgia State University, Language Research Center, Dept. of Psychology, Biology, and Communication
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Comparative biobehavioral, cognitive, and language studies with primates.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh (PI for primate cognition; biopsychology, primatology, apes and language); Duane M. Rumbaugh (project director; primate intelligence and cognition); David Washburn (comparative cognitive psychology); Charles Menzel (ethology and cognition); also, co-investigators in various disciplines at GSU and other universities here and abroad.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303-3083 [fax: 404-244-5752; e-mail: lrcdmr@gsusgi2.gsu.edu].

ILLINOIS

* Northwestern University Medical School, Department of CMS Biology
PROGRAM NAME: Integrated Graduate Program in the Life Sciences
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: L. R. Cochard (dental allometry); M. Dagosto (prosimian evolution, systematics, locomotion); M. J. Ravosa (experimental functional morphology, skull form); B. T. Shea (growth, allometry, Miocene and recent hominoids); A. Yoder (molecular systematics, living and subfossil Malagasy lemurs).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above faculty or Dr. Hank Seifert, Director, IGP, at: Dept of CMS Biology, Northwestern Univ. Med. School, 303 E. Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 [1-800-255-4166; <www.nums.nwu.edu/igp/>].

* The University of Chicago, Dept. of Anthropology, Dept. of Ecology and Evolution, Dept. of Psychology, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Committee on Human Development, Institute for Mind and Biology
PROGRAM NAMES: Doctoral programs: Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Committee on Human Development, Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Department of Psychology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dario Maestripieri (Human Development; Psychology; Evolutionary Biology: behavior, development, evolution); Martha McClintock (Biopsychology; Evolutionary Biology; Human Development: menstrual synchrony, pheromonal communication); Russell Tuttle (Anthropology; Evolutionary Biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior); Leigh Van Valen (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Carole Ober (Obstetrics and Gynecology; Anthropology: human and nonhuman primate genetics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dario Maestripieri, Committee on Human Development, 5730 S. Woodlawn Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 [e-mail: dario@ccp.uchicago.edu].

LOUISIANA

* University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Institute of Cognitive Science
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: PhD program in the Institute of Cognitive Science, which links researchers in various university units, including the Cognitive Evolution Group. The Cognitive Evolution Group is located at the university's New Iberia Research Center, a facility that houses approximately 5000 nonhuman primates, including about 300 chimpanzees. The Cognitive Evolution Group is devoted to exploring the unique characteristics of the human mind and brain through comparative studies of humans, chimpanzees, and other primate species. The group currently comprises separate laboratories for studying chimpanzee cognition, human cognitive development, and brain organization. Financial support for graduate students is available in the form of assistantships and fellowships.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Daniel J. Povinelli (evolution and development of cognition); Todd M. Preuss (structure and evolution of human cerebral cortex); Claudia Uller (cognitive development; evolutionary origins of mind).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Todd M. Preuss, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Institute of Cognitive Science, Cognitive Evolution Group, 4401 W. Admiral Doyle Dr., New Iberia, LA 70560 [337-482-0261; e-mail: tmp8292@louisiana.edu]; or see <www.louisiana.edu/Research/ICS/student.html>.

MASSACHUSETTS

* Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy and neurobiology. The Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology offers a PhD in anatomy and neurobiology. In addition, there is an active post-doctoral training program, with emphasis on multidisciplinary neurobiological studies. While a variety of species are utilized in the research projects conducted within the department, a number of members of the faculty (Drs. Kemper, Luebke, Moss, Pandya, Peters, Rosene, and Sandell) have programs focused on the brain of the rhesus monkey with particular emphasis on the neurobiological basis of cogntive impairments in normal aging, age-related diseases, and developmental disabilities.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: T. L. Kemper (neuropathology of the forebrain in aging, dementia and autism); J. I. Luebke (in vitro patch clamp neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of the hippocampus and neocortex); M. B. Moss (neurobiology of memory and its function in normal and pathological conditions); D. N. Pandya (the organization of the cerebral cortex and associated white matter pathways); A. Peters (the intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of the cerebral cortex and aging changes in the monkey cerebral cortex); D. L. Rosene (morphology, neurophysiology and chemical neuroanatomy of the limbic system, particularly the hippocampus and amygdala); J. H. Sandell (ultrastructure and chemical neuroanatomy of the retina and the basal forebrain).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Mark Moss, Chairman, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118.

MINNESOTA

* University of Minnesota, Graduate Program in Ecology, Evolution and Behavior
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The program offers MS and PhD degrees. Activity in the program focuses on the biology of organisms, specifically how they interact in social groups, in populations, in communities, and in ecosystems; and how such interactions have influenced the distribution of organisms in space and time. The program provides for a great breadth of training and encourages the interrelation of two or more fields of specialization, including animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, vertebrate ecology, population biology, invertebrate ecology, plant-animal interactions, plant ecology, paleoecology, limnology, and wetland ecology. Opportunities exist for field research in various parts of the world, including Gombe. The Department has recently established the Jane Goodall Institute's Center for Primate Studies, housing all the field-notes and checksheets from Goodall's 35-year study of chimps and the 28-year study of baboons at Gombe.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Anne Pusey (behavioral ecology, parent-offspring interaction, sex differences in development, dispersal patterns, mating systems) and Craig Packer (evolution of cooperative behavior, conflicting reproductive strategies of males and females, comparative mammalian reproductive strategies).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Ecology Bldg., 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108 [<biosci.cbs.umn.edu/eeb/>]; or Terri Alston [e-mail: talston@biosci.cbs.umn.edu].

NEW MEXICO

* University of New Mexico.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral students are admitted to the Primate Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Biology Program of the Department of Anthropology. Program foci include primate systematics, biogeography and paleobiology, or primate life history strategies and socioecology. Terminal Master's students are also admitted; they must write a thesis, usually on less theoretical subjects, especially those related to New Mexico paleobiology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jeffery W. Froehlich (early Eocene paleontology and phylogeny, alpha systematics, speciation mechanisms, and modern primate biogeography in Mexico, Central America, and Indonesia); Jane B. Lancaster (human evolutionary ecology, primate social behavior, evolution of human behavior, life history strategies, reproductive effort, mating and parental investment).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Secretary, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1986 [505-277-4524]. By e-mail: Dr. Lancaster [jlancas@unm.edu] or Dr. Froehlich [jfroehl@unm.edu].

NEW YORK

* City University of New York, Anthropology PhD Program
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

* Columbia University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

* New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: NYCEP is a graduate training program originally funded by NSF. It consists of three degree-granting institutions - City University of New York (CUNY), Columbia University (CU), and New York University (NYU) - in collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). Our focus is human as well as nonhuman primates from the perspectives of comparative morphology, paleontology and systematics, molecular and population genetics, behavior and ecology, and conservation biology. Students in this program will take courses in all these areas at the three universities, attend seminars that draw upon the staff of all five cooperating institutions, and have the opportunity to engage in original research in laboratories, museums, and in the field. Detailed information is available at <www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/anthro/nycep>. NYCEP provides funds for research and travel support and coordinates course programs and seminars. The graduate programs of the three collaborating universities offer full financial aid programs with regular fellowships as well as special opportunities for minority students and all highly qualified applicants regardless of nationality. Members of groups underrepresented in science are especially encouraged to apply. Appropriate undergraduate majors for NYCEP applicants include biological anthropology and other life sciences. Students apply to one or more cooperating universities and send a one-page "application" or tracking form to NYCEP; this is available from the Web site or from Dr. Delson (see below). Annual application deadline is early January.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: CORE faculty are those with whom students will take most courses and who will be likely dissertation supervisors: Tim Bromage, CUNY (paleo-anthropology and developmental morphology); Marina Cords, CU (primate behavior, especially African cercopithecids); Eric Delson, CUNY (paleoanthropology; catarrhine systematics and evolution, biochronology); Tony DiFiore, NYU (primate behavior and ecology, population and molecular genetic applications); Todd R. Disotell, NYU (molecular systematics and evolution, catarrhine primates); Sharon L. Gursky, CUNY (Primate social behavior, ecology and conservation, especially tarsiers); Terry Harrison, NYU (catarrhine systematics, comparative morphology and primate paleontology); Ralph L. Holloway, CU (paleoneurology, human evolution); Clifford J. Jolly, NYU (genetics, systematics, and comparative morphology of primates); Jeffrey T. Laitman, CUNY (paleoanthropology, evolution of speech); Don J. Melnick, CU (population genetics and molecular evolution of higher primates); John F. Oates, CUNY (ecology and behavior of catarrhine primates, tropical forest conservation); Sara Stinson, CUNY (population biology of living humans); Karyl Swartz, CUNY (comparative psychology, primate cognition); Frederick S. Szalay, CUNY (morphology, paleontology, and systematics of primates and other mammals). RESOURCE Faculty are available for consultation, may supervise internships and participate on dissertation committees: Walter Bock, CU (vertebrate functional and evolutionary morphology, biomechanics, systematics, evolutionary theory); Rob De Salle, AMNH (molecular systematics); Patrick J. Gannon, Mt Sinai/NYU (Primate brain evolution and relationship to communication, neurochemistry); Patrick Hof, Mount Sinai/NYU (neurobiology); Robert J. Lee, WCS (Primate social behavior, ecology and conservation, especially in Sulawesi); Ross D. MacPhee, AMNH (development and systematics of primates and other mammals); Leslie F. Marcus, CUNY (geometric morphometrics, multivariate statistical methods); Colleen McCann, WCS (conservation biology, behavior and ecology of cercopithecids, hormonal mediation of behavior); Juan Carlos Morales, CU (molecular and population genetics, conservation); Michael Novacek, AMNH (systematics of mammals and early primates); Andrew J. Plumptre, WCS (Primate social behavior, ecology and conservation, especially gorillas); David Reddy, AMNH (Computer visualization, morphometrics); John G. Robinson, WCS (conservation biology, neotropical primates); Robert Rockwell, CUNY (population genetics, population ecology and dynamics, conservation biology); Mitchell Schaffler, Mount Sinai/NYU (functional and comparative morphology); Eleanor J. Sterling, AMNH (primate social behavior, ecology and conservation, especially in Madagascar); Ian Tattersall, AMNH (systematics and evolution of lemuriform primates and hominids); John A. Van Couvering, AMNH (geochronology and stratigraphy of the Old World Cenozoic); John Wahlert, CUNY (mammalian, especially rodent, paleontology, morphology and evolution); Ward Wheeler, AMNH (molecular systematics). Field adjuncts: Marcio Ayres, WCS-Brazil (conservation biology and ecology of neotropical primates); Elizabeth Bennett, WCS-Malaysia (conservation biology and leaf monkey ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Eric Delson, Dept of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 [212-769-5992; fax: 212-769-5842; e-mail: delson@amnh.org].

* New York University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

NORTH CAROLINA

* Duke University, Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy
PROGRAM NAME: Graduate Study in Biological Anthropology and Anatomy.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Matt Cartmill (anthropoid and primate origins, history of ideas about animal consciousness); Kenneth E. Glander (ecology and social organization); William L. Hylander (functional and evolutionary morphology of the masticatory apparatus); Richard F. Kay (anthropoid phylogeny, based especially on cranial and dental anatomy, through paleontological field research); Theresa R. Pope (interrelationship between social organization, behavioral ecology, and genetic structure of primate populations); Elwyn L. Simons (primate paleontology); Kathleen K. Smith (vertebrate evolutionary morphology); John W. Terborgh (tropical forest ecology); Carel P. van Schaik (socioecology); Steven Churchill (functional morphology of upper limb bones in later stages of human evolution, Neanderthals); V. Louise Roth (Evolutionary modification of growth and development in mammals); Christine Drea (social behavior, social learning, and reproductive endocrinology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy, Director of Graduate Studies, Box 3170, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

OHIO

* Miami University, Department of Zoology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Master's and PhD degrees in Zoology, specializing in primatology. Strong links to Biological Anthropology (which has no graduate program). No nonhuman primates on campus, but connections to local zoos. (Ohio is the only state to have two breeding colonies of Pan paniscus, at Cincinnati and Columbus Zoos.) Focus on ethology, ecology, and paleontology of anthropoids in Africa. The Hefner Zoology Museum is building up primatological collections.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Linda F. Marchant (affiliate in Anthropology; laterality of hand function, chimpanzee behavior, videography); William C. McGrew (laterality of hand function, cultural primatology, ape behavioral ecology); Isaiah O. Nengo (Director, Hefner Museum; Miocene anthropoids, especially post-cranial structure; locomotor behavior of extant anthropoids).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Dept. of Zoology, Miami Univ., Oxford, OH 45056 [513-529-3100; fax: 513-529-6900; <www.muohio.edu/~zoocwis/graduate/>].

* The Ohio State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Graduate work in primatology is part of the specialization of the PhD program in physical anthropology. Students receive training in primate ethology, primate evolution, and primate conservation. Field studies are strongly encouraged.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Frank E. Poirier (primate ethology, particularly socialization; conservation of endangered species; primate evolution); Paul Sciulli (primate dentition, primate evolution, primate genetics); Jeffrey McKee (human evolution, paleoecology, South African fossil baboons); Scott McGraw (primate anatomy, behavior, evolution, and conservation). Additionally, students are advised to take courses in the Departments of Psychology and of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, and in the School of Natural Resources, all of which have faculty interested in primatology.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Frank E. Poirier, Dept. of Anthropology, Lord Hall, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210.

OREGON

* Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train pre- and postdoctoral students in using primates for biomedical research. The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center (ORPRC) is one of eight federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health and disease through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive biology, neuroscience, perinatal physiology, and immunology and infectious diseases. The Center is an institute of the Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, and most ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the Oregon Health Sciences University School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 50 scientists with PhD, MD, or DVM degrees, as well as 200 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathology, confocal and electron microscopy, image analysis, molecular and cell biology, radioimmunoassays, flow cytometry, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, and medical illustration.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The scientific expertise of the faculty is focused in the molecular and cellular aspects of reproductive biology, neuroscience, and infectious diseases. The Center also employs seven full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care of 2,500 nonhuman primates and 4000 small laboratory animals.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006 [503-690-5301].

PENNSYLVANIA

* University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Anthropology, Biology, and Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a PhD with a specialization in primatology in either of the three sponsoring departments; their graduate program will conform in structure and content to the requirements of each department. A group of core interdisciplinary courses is also offered for primatology students, in addition to courses that pertain to their specialty (e.g., cognition, ecology, behavior). Other resources include faculty in ecology and conservation within the Department of Biology; faculty in Psycholinguistics and Cognitive Science in the Department of Psychology and at the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science; and faculty in neuroscience and neuroethology in the Medical School. Cheney and Seyfarth maintain a long-term study of baboons in the Moremi Game Reserve, Okavango Delta; in past years their graduate students have also conducted fieldwork in Mexico, Costa Rica, and the Ivory Coast.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dorothy L. Cheney (Biology: behavior, communication, cognition); Robert M. Seyfarth (Psychology: behavior, communication, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact the appropriate person at the department of interest, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 [e-mail: cheney or seyfarth@cattell.psych.upenn.edu].

* University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME: Physical Anthropology Graduate Program
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Steven J. C. Gaulin (evolution of behavioral adaptations, particularly those that differ between the sexes; use of evolutionary theory, behavioral ecology, and comparative psychology to model the evolution of human behavior); Mark P. Mooney (craniofacial and developmental biology, comparative anatomy, experimental morphology, physiological adaptations to extreme environments, development of animal models for facial clefts); Jeffrey H. Schwartz (method, theory, and philosophy in evolutionary biology; origin and diversification of primates; human and faunal skeletal analysis; dentofacial growth and development); Michael I. Siegel (craniofacial biology, with a clinical speciality in cleft palate; functional anatomy; animal models; physiological adaptation).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Phyllis J. Straub, Graduate Admissions Coordinator, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 [e-mail: straub+@pitt.edu]; and see <www.pitt.edu/~pittanth/anthro.html>.

TEXAS

* University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Dept.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: MA and PhD degrees are offered in Anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, ecology, evolution, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud A. Bramblett (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); John Kappelman (physical anthropology, paleobiology, primate evolution, functional morphology, stratigraphy; Africa and Asia); Deborah Overdorff (physical anthropology, primate behavior, ecology, Madagascar); Liza Shapiro (physical anthropology, primate evolution, functional morphology, locomotion).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 or <www.dla.utexas.edu/depts/anthro/physical/>.

WASHINGTON

* Central Washington University, Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, Experimental Psychology-Primatology, Dept. of Psychology.
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: MS in Experimental Psychology-Primatology includes opportunity for research in the following areas: chimpanzee language, cognition, communication, and post-conflict interaction.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Roger S. Fouts, PhD (chimpanzee language and communication dialects - Psychology), Agustin Fuentes, PhD (post-conflict interaction - Biological Anthropology) and Mary Lee Jensvold, PhD (chimpanzee sign language studies - conversation repair - Psychology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Roger S. Fouts, Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, Central Washingon University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573 [e-mail: chimplab@cwu.edu or foutsr@cwu.edu]; or see: <www.cwu.edu/~cwuchci/>.

* University of Washington, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Animal Behavior Program at the University of Washington is dedicated to providing the best possible graduate training including research techniques, theory, and investigative work with animals both in the laboratory and in natural habitats, preserves, or progressive zoos. The program leads to the PhD in Psychology, with special training in animal behavior (including primate social behavior). It is administered by the core faculty in animal behavior, listed below. One of the great assets of this Animal Behavior Program is the interest and competence of faculty of departments other than Psychology. Cordial and cooperative relationships exist with behavior-oriented colleagues in Zoology, Biology, Anthropology, Wildlife Science (College of Fisheries and School of Forest Resources), the Conservation Biology Program, the Neurobiology Program, the Regional Primate Research Center, and the Human Development and Disabilities Center. An interdepartmental minor in primatology is also offered. Excellent rapport and research affiliations also exist with the Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, Pt. Defiance Zoo, the Seattle Aquarium, Northwest Trek, the Friday Harbor biology and marine research laboratories, and colleagues in the greater Puget Sound.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan S. Lockard (primate social behavior, human ethology, sociobiology, zoo animal behavior, neurobehavior); Michael D. Beecher, (animal communication, avian sociobiology and ecology); Gene P. Sackett (primate development and behavior); David P. Barash (sociobiology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior and evolution); Eliot A. Brenowitz (avian behavior, neuroethology, neuroendocrinology, animal communication); Sean O'Donnell (social behavior, especially of insects; evolution of eusociality, particularly division of labor and task allocation; behavioral genetics; and physiology); Ellen Covey (comparative neural basis, anatomy, physiology, function, and modeling of audition; auditory-motor pathways; echolocation; and auditory temporal patterns and processing networks).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joan S. Lockard, PhD, Dept. of Psychology, Box 351525, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95-1525 [e-mail: jsl@u.washington.edu].

WISCONSIN

* University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, comparative anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. DNA analysis for paternity determination of nonhuman primates. Evolution, behavior, and functional morphology of nonhuman primates. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to MS and PhD degrees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Fred Anapol (primate functional morphology, muscle biology, skeletal analysis); Trudy R. Turner (DNA analysis, nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics); Neil C. Tappen, emeritus (primate anatomy, ecology, and evolution; structure and function of bone and muscle). In the Department of Biological Sciences: R. J. Hutz (regulation of ovarian function in monkeys, effects of xenobiotics on estrogen receptor signaling).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

* Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Graduate School
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Research at the Center is performed within the domain of seven Research Groups: Aging and Metabolic Diseases, Immunology and Virology, Immunogenetics, Physiological Ethology, Psychobiology, Neurobiology, and Reproduction and Development. Students may conduct research at the Center by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and choosing a faculty advisor with Center affiliation. Appropriate departments for graduate students wishing to do research at the Center include Psychology, Zoology, Anthropology, Physiology, Pathology, Veterinary Science, and Medicine, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program and the Neuroscience Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Wisconsin Center has approximately 175 (Midwest, national and international) PhD-, MD-, and DVM-level scientists. The Center Director and Research Group Chairs are listed here: Joseph W. Kemnitz, Interim Director and Co-Chair, Aging and Metabolic Disease (608-263-3500); David H. Abbott, Chair, Physiological Ethology (608-263-3583); Christopher Coe, Chair, Psychobiology (608-263-3550); Richard Weindruch, Co-Chair, Aging and Metabolic Disease (608-262-0788]; David Pauza, Chair, Immunology and Virology, (608-262-9147); David Watkins, Chair, Immunogenetics, (608-265-3380); Ei Terasawa, Chair, Neurobiology, (608-263-3579).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joseph W. Kemnitz, Director, WRPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299. Director's Office and general information: [608-263-3500 fax: 608-263-4031; e-mail: chan@primate.wisc.edu].

AUSTRALIA

* Australian National University, Canberra, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: M.Litt. (=Master of Letters), MA (by coursework and thesis, or by thesis alone), and PhD programs in Biological Anthropology, including primatology. The PhD consists solely of research; no coursework is involved in a PhD at the Australian National University. Graduates of this program have worked on colobine dentition, primate digestive strategies, Southeast Asian macaque variation, European Miocene hominoids, and gibbon social organization and ecology in central Borneo. The Physical Anthropology Laboratory of the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology has a collection of primate skulls and skeletons, Australian mammal skulls, and casts of fossil primates including hominids. Students from overseas wishing to study at Australian Universities are charged a Foreign Students' Fee, currently A$13,500 (or, for a lab-based PhD, A$17,000); there are a few Overseas Student Scholarships which cover this fee. Further Scholarships are available to cover living expenses.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Colin P. Groves (Primate taxonomy, evolution, functional morphology, behavior, ecology); Robert Attenborough (behavior, genetics, epidemiology). Collaboration is also possible with Simon Easteal (John Curtin School of Medical Research, same university), specializing in primate genetics, including DNA.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. C. P. Groves, Dept. of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.

ALBERTA, CANADA

* University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Masters and Doctoral programs available in primatological studies, principally oriented towards behavioral and behavioral ecology approaches. Work in systematics and palaeoprimatology is also acceptable. Both programs require course work, a formal research proposal defense, a candidacy examination for doctoral students, field research minimum of 4 and 12 months respectively, and preparation and defense of a thesis. The department has research relationships with various primate research centers and zoos in the USA; the Monkey River, Belize site at which an annual field school is conducted; the Budongo Forest Project in Uganda; and other field sites.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology, ethology); James Paterson (behavioral ecology, thermobiology, allometry and bioenergetics, postural studies, evolutionary and taxonomic theory, methodology and data acquisition); Mary McDonald Pavelka (behavior, social dynamics, Japanese macaques); Pascale Sicotte (social relationships, ape socioecology, male reproductive competition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Head, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4, [e-mail: paterson@acs.ucalgary.ca or pavelka@acs.ucalgary.ca or sicotte@acs.ucalgary.ca]; or see <www.ss.ucalgary.ca/anth/main.html>.

* University of Alberta, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: MA and PhD degrees in Anthropology with a specialization in primatology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dr. Pamela Asquith (anthropomorphism and animal behavior studies, history and development of primatology, comparative approaches to Japanese and Western primate studies, culture of science); Dr. Nancy Collinge (social cognition in nonhuman primates in general and the development of the cognitive domain in particular; the contextual and environmental factors affecting the development of social cognition in nonhuman primate infants); Dr. Linda Fedigan (life histories, sex selection, and behavioral ecology of monkeys living in multi-male, multi-female societies; field sites in Costa Rica, Japan, and the U.S.; research on gender and science); Dr. Francois Larose (behavioral ecology, howlers).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Linda Fedigan, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H4.

ENGLAND

* University of Liverpool Hominid Palaeontology Research Group (Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology) and School of Archaeology, Classics and Oriental Studies (Department of Archaeology)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: MSc in Early Hominid Studies. An intensive, interdisciplinary course over one year provides a broadly based theoretical and practical understanding of our own origins and biology and that of our closest relatives within the larger context of climatic change and the evolution of life. It provides an excellent basis for further research in the field. Graduates with a first degree in a variety of arts and sciences subjects may enroll.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Robin Crompton (primate ecology, behavior, and evolution); Robin Dunbar (primate social behavior and evolution); Michael Günther (functional morphology and biomechanics); John Gowlett (paleolithic archaeology; early hominid sites; radiocarbon dating); Alf Latham (geochronology and geoarchaeology); Gabriele Macho (early hominid evolution; gnathic and dental evolution, function, and development); John Shaw (paleomagnetism); Anthony Sinclair (archaeological theory; late paleolithic).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Gabriele Macho, Hominid Palaeontology Research Group, Dept of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, Univ. of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England [e-mail: gama1@liverpool.ac.uk].

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address: Judith_Schrier@brown.edu

Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a ruffed lemur (Lemur varecia variegata) by Robert George (Florida International University)

Copyright (c) 2000 by Brown University

Assistant Editor: Elva Mathiesen


Last updated: December 17, 1999