Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 39, Number 2

Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Enrichment Device Use by Baboons during Long-Term vs. Intermittent Availability, by R. D. Hienz, D. A. Pyle, J. J. Frey, T. J. Zarcone, R. J. Adams, & J. S. Turkkan......1

Trypanoxyuris (Hapaloxyuris) callithricis (Oxyurida, Oxyuridae) in Wild Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758), in Northeast Brazil, by M. Mafra Valença, J. Bianque de Oliveira, M. A. Oliveira Monteiro da Cruz, M. Dowell Cavalcanti, & M. Eielson Pinheiro de Sá......4

Baboons and Water: Another Letter......5

Environmental Enrichment Fund-Raising at the Primate Foundation of Arizona, by S. Howell......5

A Survey of Cyclospora-Like Organisms in New World Monkeys, by A. Gozalo, M. L. Flores, E. Montoya, K. Block, & D. M. Watts......6

Daily Feeding Enrichment for Laboratory Macaques: Inexpensive Options, by V. Reinhardt & M. Garza-Schmidt......8

Notes on the Reproductive Behavior and Early Development of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) in a Mexican Zoo, by J. C. Serio-Silva, V. Rico-Gray, M. Parra-Sánchez, & S. Ruiz-Guerrero......11

Same-Sex Pairing of Marmosets: A Discussion......14

Thoughts on Animals as Research Subjects......17

A Short, Potentially Harmful Stimulus as Enrichment, by B. Butler......20

News, Information, and Announcements

Resources Wanted and Available......16
. . . Bushmeat Poster and Action Kit; Lemur Serum

Award Nominations: Fyssen Foundation 2000 International Prize......17

Workshop Announcement: Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act......17

Meeting Announcements......18

Information Requested or Available......19
. . . Current Primate References Ceases Publication; Fetal Development Questions; Diabetes in Captive Chimpanzees; Primate Enrichment Database; NCRRP Booklet; Journals on the Web; European Primate Information System; E-mail Lists; More Interesting Web Sites

News Briefs......21
. . . Kenya to Host Task Force on Illegal Wildlife Trade; REAC Officially Becomes AC; Coulston Again? Primates on the Brink; WWF Honors Ecuador; NABR Wins Appeal in Primate Case; Chimpanzees Retiring; AWA Definition of Field Study Amended; Increase in APHIS Animal Care Funds; Marburg hemorrhagic Fever - Congo, DR

Grants Available......24
. . . Mentored Research Scientist Development Award; Independent Scientist Award; Senior Scientist Award; Male Contraceptive Agents; NIA Pilot Research Grant Program; Skeletal Muscles, Aging, and Cardiovascular Disease; NIA Institutional Training; Hemochromatosis and Diabetes Mellitus; Innovative Grants on Immune Tolerance; Tropical Medicine Research Centers; Mechanisms of HIV-1 Trafficking in the CNS; Specific Pathogen-Free Rhesus Macaque Colonies

Advice for the Day......27

Addendum to the Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research......36

Research and Educational Opportunities......36
. . . Summer Research and Educational Opportunities; Veterinary Residency, Louisiana; Field Research in Conservation Biology


Address Changes......10

Primates de las Américas...La Página......15

Positions Available......23
. . . Laboratory Jobs - Washington, DC Area; Clinical Veterinarian, New Mexico; Pharmacology, Ridgefield, Connecticut; Animal Care/Laboratory Tech, Madison, Wisconsin

Recent Books and Articles......28

* * *

Enrichment Device Use by Baboons during Long-Term vs. Intermittent Availability

Robert D. Hienz, Danielle A. Pyle, Jennifer J. Frey, Troy J. Zarcone, Robert J. Adams, and Jaylan S. Turkkan
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the University of Kansas


Research in our laboratory has been documenting use of enrichment devices in singly caged baboons by attaching miniature activity monitoring devices to both the devices and the baboons. Previous results have shown that adult male baboons readily interact with food-based foraging devices, and that stereotypical behaviors are reduced when the devices are present (Pyle et al., 1996). In addition, these devices elicit species-typical behaviors such as foraging and grooming, even after food appears to be absent from the devices. The use of non-food enrichment devices, however, varies considerably among individual baboons. Some individual animals show decreased device use over time, which points to the need to consider individual differences when evaluating the effectiveness of enrichment devices (Hienz, et al., 1998).

Our prior studies examined enrichment device use over brief (two-week) periods; the present study was conducted to study the baboons' use of enrichment devices over an extended period of four months. Additionally, "intermittent" exposure to enrichment devices was examined to determine how the availability of a device influenced its overall use. Cherry logs were used as the enrichment devices in this study because a prior study (Hienz et al., 1998) indicated that our baboons readily played with logs. Both observational data and activity data (from activity monitors placed on the baboons and inside the logs) were obtained. Daily circadian patterns of device movements were examined to determine how device use was distributed throughout the day, and how device use was influenced by other variables (e.g., light/dark cycle). All data were obtained with individually housed baboons in a colony room where human contact was controlled and documented.


Subjects: Six adult male baboons (Papio anubis, Charles River Research Primates) were individually housed in a single room in regulation Group 4 primate cages equipped with polyethylene seating benches. Each baboon could view other baboons in the colony room except the ones immediately adjacent to him. Visual shielding of adjacent cages, by opaque plastic panels, was done to reduce both physical and social aggression between adjacent males. Baboons had free access to water, and were maintained on a controlled daily feeding, cleaning, and light/dark cycle (lights on/off at 6 a.m./6 p.m.). The baboons were wild-caught, and had no previous experimental histories.

Apparatus: The electronic activity monitor (PAM(r), Individual Monitoring Systems, Baltimore, MD) has been used previously to record the movements of baboons and enrichment devices (Hienz et al., 1992; Pyle et al., 1996). The monitors are sensitive to acceleration changes, and produce "activity counts" that are translated into movement durations. Hand-cut cherry hardwood logs (9 cm diameter x 35 cm long) were employed as enrichment devices, and an activity monitor was placed inside each log by splitting the log, hollowing out an area inside, and rejoining the log with recessed bolts. Additionally, each baboon wore a monitor attached to a handmade soft leather neck collar. Activity data were retrieved every 2 weeks from the logs, and every 42 days from the baboons. The baboons were videotaped daily (Monday to Friday). Cameras were positioned so that a pair of baboons could be videotaped simultaneously for 20 min. Humans were not allowed in the colony room during videotaping.

Procedure: All logs were removed from the cages for 129 days prior to the start of the study to obtain baseline activity data for each baboon. Next, each baboon received continuous exposure to a log for 104 consecutive days (except for 5-10 min every two weeks when log activity data were downloaded). After this phase, each baboon received intermittent exposure to a log to determine whether varying the availability of the log influenced its overall use. Three intermittent schedules were used in which a log was placed in each cage for 1 day, and then removed for either 1, 4, or 7 days before it was re-inserted into the cage.

Data analysis: A daily log sheet was kept to record times when the logs were manipulated by technicians (e.g., cage washing, data retrieval) and when humans entered the colony room. Instances of human activity that may have produced log movement were excluded from the data. Videotapes were scored by human observers for five categories of interactions with the logs: 1) hand grasp, 2) mouth contact, 3) foot grasp, 4) unintentional (e.g., stepping on or kicking) and 5) unobservable (e.g., the baboon sat between the log and the camera, obstructing the observer's view). Videotapes were scored for the onset and cessation of each response in real time via computer.


Figure 1: Total movement times (in minutes) recorded from each baboon's log during the first (left) and last (right) 28 days of continuous exposure.

Four of the six baboons increased their log use over the exposure period, while the remaining two baboons (PO and ST) decreased their interactions with their logs over this period (see Figure 1). The increase in log use was most dramatic for baboons LE, PO, and SW, with baboon SW showing over a 10-fold increase in log use over the 4 months.

Figure 2a: Minutes of log use recorded per day for baboons LE, PO, and SW; upper lines indicate the log use during the daylight hours, and lower lines indicate the log use during periods of darkness.

Graphs of the actual minutes of log use per day are shown in Figure 2a for these latter baboons. Baboon LE (left) showed very little log use during the first 75 days, following which he showed large increases in log use. This baboon rarely touched the log during the night, mainly interacting with the log during daytime. Similarly, baboon SW showed extremely low rates of interaction with the log during the first 40 days, but subsequently accelerated his log use during both day and night. Baboon PO, on the other hand, interacted with his log more than the others throughout the exposure period, both during day and night. The cumulative use of logs by all six baboons is shown in Figure 2b, which emphasizes the changing nature of enrichment device use. Of all baboons, SW used the log the least during the first 30 days, but his log use subsequently accelerated and surpassed all but one of the other baboons. Baboon PE used the log infrequently throughout the exposure period. Baboon ST used his log over the first 70 days, but then abruptly stopped interacting with the log.

Figure 2b: Cumulative log use by all six baboons over the 104-day period.

Figure 3 shows the daily, simultaneous activity of both baboons and logs over consecutive days of the 4 months. Baboon LE's daytime activity (top left) fluctuated over time and decreased during the last 30-50 days, which coincided with an increase in log use. Although baboon SW's monitor failed in the middle of the study (blank space in graph), his final activity levels approximated his initial activity levels, and thus did not show any change related to his increased log use. Baboon PO showed constant levels of both animal activity and log use throughout the period.

Figure 3: Daily activity simultaneously recorded from both baboons and logs over all days of the 4-month period. Baboon activity is shown for daytime (6 am - 6 pm, thick lines) and nighttime (6 pm - 6 am, thin lines).

Figure 4 shows the log use recorded when logs were inserted for one day, and then removed for either one, four, or seven days. Clearly, the baboons "used" the logs more when they were available only intermittently. This effect was strongest after one and four days without logs; when the logs were removed for a longer period (i.e., seven days), log use approached baseline levels of usage.

Figure 4: Average log use of all baboons when logs were inserted for one day, and then removed for either 1, 4 or 7 days. Data are also shown for pre- and post-exposure conditions when logs remained in the cages continuously (mean of means ± 1 standard error).


The results show clearly that within individual animals the use of logs as enrichment devices may wax and/or wane across the daily circadian cycle as well as across months of exposure. Previous reports suggested that items such as sticks, branches, and perches encourage more species-typical behaviors, and show little habituation over time (Reinhardt, 1989; Reinhardt, 1990). The daily activity recordings of the present study, however, reveal a more evanescent nature to log use in these baboons, which may reflect species differences, object differences, and/or the use of a more precise, long-term data collection method. These changing patterns of log use were not observed to be linked to the physical condition of the log or animal, or social changes in the colony room.

Comparisons of the activity of both baboons and logs showed that enrichment devices did not dramatically affect an animal's general activity across days or the circadian rhythm within days. Further, the movement patterns of both an enrichment device and an animal tended to wax and wane together, with both patterns strongly influenced by the light/dark cycle and the feeding/cleaning schedule. These results suggest that the daily feeding schedule and/or the presence of humans may greatly affect the use of enrichment devices by animals, and that estimates of animal-device interactions based on observations by animal care personnel at such times could inaccurately estimate total enrichment device use.

Notably, enrichment device use varied as a function of the frequency of availability of the device. When the logs were available only every other day, or every fourth day, log use was considerably enhanced on those days. When the logs were withheld longer, log use declined to the same level of use observed when the logs were continuously available. These results suggest that leaving enrichment devices out of a monkey's cage for extended periods would not be beneficial for generating greater use.

These observations point to a number of considerations when evaluating the effectiveness of enrichment devices. First, device use can vary dramatically among individuals. Second, assessments of device use can be greatly influenced by the time of day selected for evaluation and whether such assessments are conducted in the presence of caregivers. Third, because device use can wax and wane over long periods of time, fair assessments of a device's usefulness in engaging an animal's behavior may require extended periods of exposure to it. Finally, it is important to carefully schedule the availability of enrichment devices when attempting to encourage their use by occasionally removing them from cages.


Hienz, R. D., Turkkan, J. S., Spear, D. J., Sannerud, C. A., Kaminsky, B. J., & Allen, R. P. (1992). General activity in baboons measured with a computerized, lightweight piezoelectric motion sensor: Effects of drugs. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 42, 497-507.

Hienz, R. D., Zarcone, T. J., Turkkan, J. S., Pyle, D. A., & Adams, R. J. (1998). Measurement of enrichment device use and preference in singly caged baboons. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 37 [3], 6-10.

Pyle, D. A., Bennett, A. L., Zarcone, T. J., Turkkan, J. S., Adams, R. J., & Hienz, R. D. (1996). Use of two food foraging devices by singly housed baboons. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 35[2], 10-15.

Reinhardt, V. (1989). Evaluation of the long term effectiveness of two environmental enrichment objects for singly caged rhesus macaques. Lab Animal, 8, 31-33.

Reinhardt, V. (1990). Time budget of caged rhesus monkeys exposed to a companion, a PVC perch, and a piece of wood for an extended time. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 51-56.

First author's address: Behavioral Biology Research Center, Suite 3000, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6823 [e-mail:].
This research was supported by U.S. Public Health Service Grant RR06750 and by NIMH training grant MH 15330. Reprint requests should be sent to Dr. Hienz. The authors thank Amy Bennett and Dana Carluccio for their help in the collection of these data.

* * *

Trypanoxyuris (Hapaloxyuris) callithricis (Oxyurida, Oxyuridae) in Wild Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758), in Northeast Brazil

Mônica Mafra Valença, Jaqueline Bianque de Oliveira, Maria Adélia Oliveira Monteiro da Cruz, Miriam Dowell Cavalcanti, and Marcos Eielson Pinheiro de Sá
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco


The use of nonhuman primates in biomedical research results from their phylogenetic, biochemical, and physiological similarity to humans, and some callitrichid species are widely used as experimental models in parasitological research (Cooper, 1968), despite the fact that current knowledge concerning natural parasitism is considered to be far from satisfactory (Dunn, 1979). The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus (Primates, Callitrichidae), known as the sagüi-do-Nordeste, sagüi-comum or sagüi-de-tufos-brancos, is widely distributed in the northeast of Brazil, north of the Rio São Francisco and east of the Rio Parnaíba, and has also been introduced into various regions in the southeast of Brazil (Auricchio, 1995). A considerable number of internal parasites have been recorded for this marmoset, the most frequently recorded, in recently caught individuals, being oxyurids, especially Trypanoxyuris, although there are no records of any associated clinical symptoms or lesions (Kuntz & Myers, 1972; Potkay, 1992). In this note we describe a natural infection by Trypanoxyuris (Hapaloxyuris) callithricis associated with a rectal prolapse in a wild-caught C. jacchus. This study is part of a larger project identifying primate parasites in captive and wild primates in the state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

Material and Methods

Ongoing studies of the behavior, ecology and demography of C. jacchus groups in the Tapacurá Ecological Station, a field station of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE), involve periodic captures of entire groups, using Tomahawk small mammal traps. In one of these trapping sessions an adult female which had suffered a rectal prolapse (Figure 1) was caught. Clinical examination revealed nematodes infesting the prolapsed area. The parasites were collected and sent to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Biology Department of the UFRPE. They were fixed, cleared, and mounted following the methodology of Amato et al. (1991), and identified using Petter and Quentin (1974) and Hugot (1984). The prolapse was corrected surgically and the marmoset, when fully recovered, was released again at Tapacurá.

Figure 1: Rectal prolapse in an adult female Callithrix jacchus.

Results and Discussion

An analysis of the morphology of the eight female and four male nematodes collected resulted in their identification as Trypanoxyuris (Hapaloxyuris) callithricis (Solomon, 1933) (Oxyurida, Oxyuridae), a colon parasite of C. jacchus (see Potkay, 1992; Cubas, 1996) which was described in detail by Hugot in 1984 from specimens collected from Brazilian marmosets. The case reported here is of interest for two reasons: the possibility that the rectal prolapse was caused by the T. callithricis infection; and the fact that the record is from a marmoset caught in the wild. Although T. callithricis infections are frequently high, with a large numbers of worms per host (Kuntz & Myers, 1972), lesions or other clinical symptoms previously reported for this species are limited to some few cases of perianal excretions in recently captured callitrichids (Potkay, 1992; Cubas, 1996; Diniz, 1997) which, according to Long (1997), is a result of oviposition by the female oxyurids in the perianal region of the infected animals. Although Collilas et al. (1984) indicated that oxyurid parasites were the cause of rectal prolapse in a C. jacchus maintained in captivity in Argentina, he did not identify the species of oxyurid. We are unfortunately unable to confirm categorically that the prolapse we observed was caused by the nematodes because we have no clinical history of the marmoset involved.


Amato, J. F. R., Boeger, W. A. & Amato, S. B. (1991). Protocolos para Laboratórios: Coleta e Processamento de Parasitos do Pescado. Seropédica: Imprensa Universitária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ).

Auricchio, P. (1995). Primatas do Brasil. São Paulo: Terra Brasilis.

Collilas, O. J., Ruiz, J. C. & Travi, B. L. (1984). Callithrix jacchus: Reproducción y patologías en cautiverio. In M. T. Mello (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil (pp. 115-128). São Paulo: Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia.

Cooper, R. W. (1968). Small species of primates in biomedical research. Laboratory Animal Care, 18, 267-279.

Cubas, Z. S. (1996). Desafios na manutenção de animais selvagens em cativeiro na América do Sul. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 15, 267-287.

Diniz, L. S. M. (1997). Primatas em Cativeiro. Manejo e Problemas Veterinários. São Paulo: Editora Ícone.

Dunn, F. L. (1979). Natural infection in primates: Helminths and problems in primate phylogeny, ecology and behaviour. Laboratory Animal Care, 20, 383-388.

Hugot, J. P. (1984). Sur le genre Trypanoxyuris (Oxyuridae, Nematoda). II. Sous-genre Hapaloxyuris parasites de primates Callitrichidae. Bulletin du Muséum National de Histoire Natural de Paris, 6, 1007-1019.

Kuntz, R. E. & Myers, B. J. (1972). Parasites of South American primates. International Zoo Yearbook, 12, 61-68.

Long, R. D. (1997). Perguntas Ilustradas de Medicina Veterinária: Clínica de Pequenos Animais. São Paulo: Editora Manole.

Petter, A. J. & Quentin, J. (1974). Keys to genera of the Oxyuroidea. In R. C. Anderson, A. G. Chabaud, & S. Willmott (Eds.), CIH: Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates (pp. 1-30). Wallingford: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau.

Potkay, S. (1992). Diseases of the Callitrichidae: A review. Journal of Medical Primatology, 6, 189-236.

Corresponding author: Jaqueline Bianque de Oliveira, Laboratório de Parasitologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, 52171-030, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil [e-mail:]. Translated by Anthony B. Rylands.

* * *

Baboons and Water: Another Letter

Baboons (and probably all monkeys, for anatomical reasons) are not only good swimmers, but at least the West African olive baboon (Papio anubis) can even walk and swim under water, entirely submerged. This has been observed in 1989-90 in the wild at the Wikki Warm Springs (7º44' N, 10º31' E) in the Yankari Game Reserve, Nigeria, by my former team member, Rein Pfeijfers. A description will soon be published in African Primates.

One may, however, assume that such behavior will rarely develop because slow-flowing rivers in pristine areas in the tropics are usually infested by many crocodiles, which are invisible before they attack in turbid water. They are known to be quite dangerous to people fetching water or washing clothes. The behavior at Wikki Springs may be explained by the crystal-clear water without crocodiles, as well as the lure of food thrown into the water by tourists.

It may be interesting to try whether a moat is an effective barrier to monkeys if it is inhabited by some aquatic or semi-aquatic animals - not crocodiles, but perhaps swans, capybaras, or non-venomous aquatic snakes. - Adriaan Kortlandt, 88 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 7ND, England

* * *

Environmental Enrichment Fund-Raising at the Primate Foundation of Arizona

S. Howell
Primate Foundation of Arizona At the Primate Foundation of Arizona (PFA), the care staff has initiated an innovative way to increase our funds for environmental enrichment (EE) materials and increase our ability to keep enrichment supplies in stock. Each month we purchase soda pop, coffee, and snacks (small candy bars, bags of chips, etc.) and stock a small "goody" refrigerator. The staff can purchase these items for a small fee (50¢ for drinks, 25¢ for snacks). That money goes into a special "enrichment fund" used to replenish the "goody" refrigerator and purchase extra EE supplies for the chimpanzees. We use the money to buy enrichment supplies and sponsor EE "parties." All staff join in to make a huge number of EE items (such as peanut butter bombs, see p. 33), share stories and discuss colony assessment, and just chat! After all the items are bagged and put away, we cap off the evening with pizza and a fun time is had by all! We have been so successful that we often make as much as $50 profit each month. That goes a long way to providing lots of extras for the chimpanzees in our care. Our enrichment parties also act to build staff camaraderie and encourage communication between care and research staff. It's a good thing! - From the PFA Newsletter, 1999, 10[4]

* * *

A Survey of Cyclospora-Like Organisms in New World Monkeys

Alfonso Gozalo1, Maria L. Flores2, Enrique Montoya2, Karla Block1, and Douglas M. Watts1
1U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, 2San Marcos National University


( Organisms of the genus Cyclospora have been described in reptiles, myriapods, insectivores, rodents, and recently in baboons, colobus monkeys, and green monkeys (Eberhard et al., 1999; Lopez et al., 1999; Smith et al, 1996). In humans Cyanobacterium-like bodies, recently identified as Cyclospora cayetanensis (Ortega et al., 1994; 1993), have been described in association with diarrheal illness in immunocompromised patients (Long et al., 1990; Pape et al., 1994) and in travelers to tropical regions (Albert et al., 1994; Ashford et al., 1993; Bendall et al., 1993; Hale et al., 1994; Hoge et al., 1993a,b; Schlim et al., 1991). At present, there are no suitable animal models for studying Cyclospora cayetanensis.

A survey was conducted at the Center for Reproduction and Conservation of Nonhuman Primates in Iquitos, Peru, in order to explore the possibility of Cyclospora infection in New World nonhuman primates. If infection is demonstrated, future plans are to evaluate New World nonhuman primates as models for studying Cyclospora cayetanensis.

Materials and Methods

Fresh fecal samples were taken from 832 nonhuman primates housed at the Center. Monkeys housed at the Center were kept in family groups under natural photoperiod conditions, fed with an in-house prepared, natural-ingredient baked diet, plus ripe bananas and apples. Species sampled were Aotus nancymae (owl monkey), Aotus vociferans (owl monkey), Saimiri boliviensis (squirrel monkey), Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey), Saguinus mystax (moustached tamarin), Cebus albifrons (capuchin monkey), and Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey). Samples were taken in triplicate during three consecutive days and fecal smears were prepared and stained according to Kinyoun's modified acid-fast stain technique (Bronsdon, 1984). The stained smears were scanned at 400 magnification under a conventional light microscope. Identification of the organisms was based upon size, shape, and staining characteristics (Long et al., 1991). Additionally, ten fresh fecal samples were taken from positive animals and preserved in potassium dichromate 2.5%, incubated at 30º C for seven days, and examined for the development of sporocysts and sporozoites by bright field microscopy.

Results and Discussion

Microscopic examination revealed reddish to pink spherical organisms with a blue background (Figure 1). The organisms ranged in size from 9.8 µ to 16.8 µ, with a mean of 12.7 µ (n=140), and some contained a variable number of inclusions not clearly defined. The organisms resembled Cyclospora oocysts in size, shape and staining characteristics, although they were larger than those previously associated with humans. Interestingly, the organisms were found only in fecal samples from Aotus monkeys - 23% (68/296) of A. nancymae and 4% (5/132) of A. vociferans. The overall infection rate for primates housed in the colony was 9% (Table 1). Attempts to sporulate the organism in the laboratory were unsuccessful. Clinically, there was no clear association between presence of the microorganism and development of diarrhea. The source of infection and mechanisms of transmission are unknown.

Figure 1: Reddish to pink spherical organisms ranging in size from 9.8 µ to 16.8 µ were observed in fecal samples from Aotus monkeys. Kinyoun's modified acid-fast stain, 1,500X .

The morphology and staining characteristics of the organism described in this report agree with those described previously for Cyclospora spp. oocysts (Long et al., 1991). However, the microorganisms observed in the Aotus monkeys were larger than the ones reported in green monkeys, colobus monkeys, baboons (Eberhard et al., 1999; Smith et al., 1996), and humans (Ortega et al., 1993, 1994). Also, attempts to sporulate the organism were unsuccessful. Eberhard et al. (1999) also found that the sporulation of material collected from colobus monkeys was poor compared with C. papionis from baboons. Thus it is highly probable that this microorganism is a parasite specific to monkeys of the Aotus genus. This could also explain why the attempts to sporulate the organism in vitro were unsuccessful: oocyst requirements for sporulation might not be the same as those previously described for Cyclospora cayetanensis (Ortega et al., 1994). It is interesting to note that, even though all the nonhuman primates at the Center were housed and managed under the same conditions, Cyclospora-like organisms were only observed in Aotus monkeys. Further studies are required to determine whether the organisms observed belong to the Cyclosporagenus. Finally, these findings indicate that the Aotus monkey might be a suitable animal model for studying Cyclospora-like organisms in the laboratory, including the species associated with human disease.

Species              | % |(# positives/# tested)
Aotus nancymae       | 23|      (68/296)
Aotus vociferans     | 4 |      (5/132)
Saimiri boliviensis  | 0 |      (0/285)
Saimiri sciureus     | 0 |      (0/70)
Saguinus mystax      | 0 |      (0/36)
Cebus albifrons      | 0 |      (0/10)
Lagothrix lagotricha | 0 |      (0/3)
Total                | 9 |      (73/832)
Table 1: Prevalence of Cyclospora-like organisms in a colony of New World nonhuman primates.


Albert, M. J., Kabir, I., Azim, T., Hossain, A., Ansaruzzaman, M., & Unicomb, L. (1994). Diarrhea associated with Cyclospora sp., in Bangladesh. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 19, 47-49.

Ashford, R. W., Warhurst, D. C., & Reid, G. D. F. (1993). Human infection with Cyanobacterium-like bodies. Lancet, 341, 1034.

Bendall, R. P., Lucas, S., Moody, A., Tovey, G., & Chiodini, P. L. (1993). Diarrhea associated with Cyanobacterium-like bodies: A new coccidian enteritis of man. Lancet, 341, 590-592.

Bronsdon, M. A. (1984). Rapid dimethyl sulfoxide-modified acid-fast stain of Cryptosporidium oocysts in stool specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 19, 952-953.

Eberhard, M. L., da Silva, A. J., Lilley, B. G., & Pieniazek, N. J. (1999). Morphologic and molecular characteriza-tion of new Cyclospora species from Ethiopian monkeys: C. cercopitheci sp.n., C. colobi sp.n., and C. papionis sp.n. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5, 651-658.

Hale, D., Aldeen, W., & Carroll, K. (1994). Diarrhea associated with Cyanobacteria-like bodies in an immunocompetent host. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271[2], 144-145.

Hoge, C. W., Shlim, D. R., & Echevarría, P. (1993a). Cyanobacterium-like Cyclospora species. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1504-1505.

Hoge, C. W., Shlim, D. R., Rajah, R., Triplett, J., Shear, M., Rabold, J. G., & Echevarría, P. (1993b). Epidemiology of diarrhoeal illness associated with Coccidian-like organism among travellers and foreign residents in Nepal. Lancet, 341, 1175-1179.

Long, E. G., Ebrahimzadeh, A., White, E. H., Swisher, B., & Callaway, C. S. (1990). Alga associated with diarrhea in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in travelers. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 28, 1101-1104.

Long, E. G., White, E. H., Carmichael, W. W., Quinlisk, P. M., Raja, R., Swisher, B. L., Daugharty, H., & Cohen, M. T. (1991). Morphologic and staining characteristics of a Cyanobacterium-like organism associated with diarrhea. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 164, 199-202.

Lopez, F. A., Manglicmot, J., Schmidt, T. M., Yeh, C., Smith, H. V., & Relman, D. A. (1999). Molecular characterization of Cyclospora-like organisms from baboons. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179, 670-676.

Ortega, Y. R., Sterling, C. R., & Gilman, R. H. (1994). A new coccidium parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from humans. Journal of Parasitology, 80, 625-629.

Ortega, Y. R., Sterling, C. R., Gilman, R. H., Cama, V. A., & Díaz, F. (1993). Cyclospora species - A new protozoan pathogen of humans. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 1308-1312.

Pape, J. W., Verdier, R. I., Boncy, M., Boncy, J., & Johnson, W. D. (1994). Cyclospora infections in adults infected with HIV. Annals of Internal Medicine, 121, 654-657.

Shlim, D. R., Cohen, M. T., Eaton, M., Rajah, R., Long, E. G., & Ungar, B. L. P. (1991). An alga-like organism associated with an outbreak of prolonged diarrhea among foreigners in Nepal. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 45[3], 383-389.

Smith, H. V., Paton, C. A., Girdwood, R. W., & Mtambo, M. M. (1996). Cyclospora in non-human primates in Gombe, Tanzania. Veterinary Record, 138, 528.

First Author's address: U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Unit# 3800, APO AA 34031.
This research was supported by the Peruvian Primatological Project/Pan American Health Organization and the U.S. Naval Medical Research and Development Command NNMC, Bethesda, MD, Work Unit No 61102AS138448.
The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private ones of the writers and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Navy Department or the naval service at large.
The experiments reported herein were conducted according to the principles set forth in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, National Academy Press, 1996).

* * *

Daily Feeding Enrichment for Laboratory Macaques: Inexpensive Options

Viktor Reinhardt1 and Marisa Garza-Schmidt2
1Animal Welfare Institute, 2Sierra Biomedical, a division of Charles River Inc.

( In their natural environment, nonhuman primates spend a great deal of time searching for food and gathering food (i.e., foraging). In fact, while they are awake, many species - including macaques (Chopra et al., 1992; Menard & Vallet, 1997; Feeroz, 1998) - allocate more time to foraging than to any other activity. Macaques will voluntarily work for food even when identical food is freely available (Anderson & Chamove, 1984; Evans et al., 1989; O'Connor & Reinhardt, 1994; Reinhardt, 1994), suggesting that they have an inherent need to get actively involved in the food acquisition process.

Because foraging is a predominant occupation in wild animals, it can be assumed that the drive to forage is substantial in captive animals who, however, have little or no opportunities to express it. It is conceivable that the development of some stereotypical behavior patterns - such as hair-pulling-and-eating, tongue-rolling, gnawing at the mesh or at the bars of the cage, licking cage walls, smearing feces on cage walls - is the result of a frustrated foraging drive (cf., Mason, 1991). The provision of foraging options would give primates some control over their environment, a circumstance which is likely to promote their psychological well-being (cf., Mineka et al., 1986; Line et al., 1991).

The traditional free-food feeding practice for laboratory macaques is often defended with the argument that it is too expensive and too time-consuming to provide foraging opportunities on a daily basis. The literature suggests that this is not necessarily the case.

Figure 1: It takes no extra time to throw the standard biscuit ration on the top of the cage to promote time-consuming foraging activities in laboratory macaques. *

Using the ceiling of the cage, rather than the floor, to deliver food is the simplest way of daily feeding enrichment (Britt, 1993; Reinhardt, 1992; Buchanan- Smith, 1995). It costs nothing, but induces time-consuming foraging activities (Figure 1).

So far, the "ceiling puzzle" method has been tested in only one study (Reinhardt, 1993a). The standard dry-food ration, consisting of 33 small or 16 large biscuits per animal, was distributed on control days in two conventional feed-boxes, and during 2-week test periods on the mesh ceiling of the cages of eight pair-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The average increase in time spent foraging for the small-biscuit and the large-biscuit ration was 81-fold (17 vs 1383 sec) and 296-fold (12 vs 3551 sec), respectively. Working for their food had no negative impact on the subjects' body weights.

Individual animals sometimes threw biscuits out of the feed-boxes or pushed biscuits over the edge of the ceiling of the cage. In this manner 0.8% of the ration was wasted at feed-boxes, and 1.8% at the ceiling puzzle. The extra food wastage of 1% at the ceiling puzzle could probably have been avoided by fixing rims around the top of the cages. *

Converting the ordinary feed-box into a "food puzzle" offers another affordable option of daily feeding enrichment. Two different techniques have been tested.

1) The feed-box of 20 singly caged adult pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) was redesigned by replacing the large circular access hole (5 cm in diameter) with four smaller openings (3 cm in diameter; Murchison, 1995). This resulted in a nearly 8-fold increase in time spent retrieving the daily biscuit ration.

At the feed-box, the animals wasted on average 14% of the biscuits by dropping them on the cage floor. At the test feeder, less than 1% of the biscuits were wasted; the animals usually consumed everything they worked for.

2) The feed-boxes of eight pair-housed, adult rhesus macaques were remounted and bolted a few centimeters away from their original positions directly onto the mesh, so that they no longer covered the large access holes (Figure 2; Reinhardt, 1993b). Skillful manipulations with the fingers were now required to retrieve biscuits through the mesh. The monkeys received their daily ration of 33 biscuits/animal in the food puzzles for a 4-week period and were tested on day 28. Offering the biscuit ration in food puzzles instead of feed-boxes resulted in a 140-fold increase in time (0.3 vs 42.2 minutes) devoted to foraging. Working for their daily food ration did not affect the animals' body weight.

The usefulness of this simple food puzzle as a permanent feeding enrichment device has been confirmed in stump-tailed macaques (M. arctoides; Reinhardt 1993c) and in Japanese macaques (M. fuscata; Yanagihara et al., 1994).

Figure 2: Mounted over the mesh [or bars] of the cage, the feed-box can readily be used as an inexpensive feeding enrichment device. Here a stump-tailed macaque is foraging for its standard biscuit ration from the food puzzle.

Permanently mounted food puzzles not only promote foraging, but they also save both time and money. Feed-boxes usually are latched on the front wall of the cage. Many animals quickly learn how to unlatch the boxes and unavoidably drop them onto the catch pan or floor. This can cause damage to fiberglass pans and epoxy-type floors, costing hundreds of dollars in repairs. Another problem with latched feed-boxes is that personnel spend much of their time sanitizing them. Since there is no way to determine from which cages the dislodged feeders have come, each feed-box must be sanitized before it can be remounted to the cage (USDA, 1991). The advantages to installing permanently bolted feed boxes as food puzzles are numerous: animal care personnel will spend no extra time sanitizing feed-boxes; pans and floors will be protected from the damage caused by dropped feeders; and the animals will be provided with food in such a way that it cannot come in contact with feces or urine.

If one does not have the type of feeders shown in Figure 2, it might be worth looking at reworking existing feeders to serve the same purpose. This may be more cost effective than purchasing a new design. To convert the standard feed-box into a food puzzle, simply cut away the side of the feeder that faces the cage. This side can then be permanently fixed to the front wall of the cage allowing the animal to manipulate its food ration through the mesh.

This design has been used at Sierra Biomedical for the past year. During this time over 100 pair- and single-housed long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) and 50 rhesus macaques (M. mulatta) of both sexes have successfully utilized the food puzzle. At this facility, the food puzzle has found other applications besides its use as a foraging device. It has been used as a successful occupational therapy for animals who over-groom themselves, and it has been effective in treating animals who eat too quickly and tend to bloat. To date, there have been no reports of animals with impaired food consumption related to the puzzle. This is true for both single-housed and pair-housed subjects. In one remarkable case, a blind, pair-housed female rhesus learned to use her food puzzle in less than two weeks; she retrieves her daily biscuit ration as skillfully as the other animals.

The feeding enrichment options described here are structural elements of the cage, redesigned in such a way that they serve as primary feeders for the daily biscuit ration. Therefore, no extra time is needed to clean them and to bait them with special food. Some extra time, however, is required to verify that subjects adequately use the puzzles. It would defeat the purpose of environmental enrichment to force a monkey to perform dexterous foraging activities if this causes pain or even discomfort. A survey of a randomly chosen population of 158 rhesus macaques showed that 11% of the animals did not retrieve an adequate portion of their biscuit ration from the food puzzle. There were 14 animals who had dental problems, making it difficult to pull biscuits through the mesh, and four animals who had healthy teeth and strong fingers but seemingly preferred to starve rather than to work for food. Needless to say, all 18 subjects had their puzzles reconverted to normal feed-boxes as soon as the problem was recognized, to assure unrestricted access to food (Reinhardt, 1993d).

Monkeys tend to hoard food when they have free access to it. It is common for a rhesus macaque, for example, to get hold of as many biscuits as possible at the moment of feeding, fill both check pouches to the brim, hastily grab the remaining biscuits from the food-box and drop most of them on the floor, and only then start consuming biscuits. Inevitably, some biscuits lying on the floor get in contact with feces and urine and are consequently rejected by the animal. Care staff have to remove these discarded biscuits from the cage to prevent the development of mold in the corners and edges of the cage. This problem does not exist in the ceiling and food puzzle situations. There is no hoarding - once a biscuit has been laboriously retrieved, it is quickly consumed (Reinhardt, 1992, 1993a; Murchison, 1994). It may happen that fragments of biscuits fall down in the course of the foraging process, but they are usually so small that they pass through the mesh of the floor to be flushed away in the drop pan. The cages of animals fed from food or ceiling puzzles are distinguished from the others by the absence of spoiled biscuits.

The present report indicates that daily, i.e., seven days a week, feeding enrichment for laboratory macaques is a practical option for providing the animals with an outlet for their intrinsic need to forage.


Anderson, J. R., & Chamove, A. S. (1984). Allowing captive primates to forage. In Standards in Laboratory Animal Management (pp.253-256). Potters Bar: The Universities Federation For Animal Welfare.

Britt, A. (1993). Cage top feeding for primates. The Shape of Enrichment, 2[3], 11.

Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (1995). The effect of food distribution on captive Old World primates. The Shape of Enrichment, 4[1], 12-13.

Chopra, P. K., Seth, P. K., & Seth, S. (1992). Behavioural profile of free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Primate Report, 32, 75-105.

Evans, H. L., Taylor, J. D., Ernst, J., & Graefe, J. F. (1989). Methods to evaluate the well-being of laboratory primates. Comparison of macaques and tamarins. Laboratory Animal Science, 39, 318-323.

Feeroz, M. M. (1998). Food and feeding behaviour of the pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina leonina) in semi-evergreen forest in Bangladesh. Primate Eye, 65, 22.

Line, S. W., Markowitz, H., Morgan, K. N., & Strong, S. (1991). Effects of cage size and environmental enrichment on behavioral and physiological responses of rhesus macaques to the stress of daily events. In M.A. Novak & Petto, A.J. (Eds.), Through the Looking Glass. Issues of Psychological Well-being in Captive Nonhuman Primates (pp.160-179). Washington: American Psychological Association.

Mason, G. J. (1991). Stereotypies: A critical review. Animal Behaviour, 41, 1015-1037.

Menard, N., & Vallet, D. (1997). Behavioral responses of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) to variations in environmental conditions in Algeria. American Journal of Primatology, 4, 285-304.

Mineka, S., Gunnar, M., & Champoux, M. (1986). Control and early socioemotional development: Infant rhesus monkeys reared in controllable versus uncontrollable environments. Child Development, 57, 1241-1256.

Murchison, M. A. (1994). Primary forage feeder for singly-caged macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 33[1], 7-8.

Murchison, M. A. (1995). Forage feeder box for single animal cages. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 34[1], 1-2.

O'Connor, E., & Reinhardt, V. (1994). Caged stumptailed macaques voluntarily work for ordinary food. In Touch, 1[1], 10-11.

Reinhardt, V. (1992). Foraging for commercial chow. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 31[2], 10.

Reinhardt, V. (1993a). Using the mesh ceiling as a food puzzle to encourage foraging behaviour in caged rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Welfare, 2, 165-172.

Reinhardt, V. (1993b). Enticing nonhuman primates to forage for their standard biscuit ration. Zoo Biology, 12, 307-312.

Reinhardt, V. (1993c). Promoting increased foraging behaviour in caged stumptailed macaques. Folia Primatologica, 61, 47-51.

Reinhardt, V. (1993d). Evaluation of an inexpensive custom-made food puzzle used as primary feeder for pair-housed rhesus macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 32[3], 7-8.

Reinhardt, V. (1994). Caged rhesus macaques voluntarily work for ordinary food. Primates, 35, 95-98.

United States Department of Agriculture (1991). Title 9, CFR (Code of Federal Register), Part 3. Animal Welfare; Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, 56, 6426-6505.

Yanagihara, Y., Matsubayashi, K., & Matsuzawa, T. (1994). Environmental enrichment in Japanese monkeys: Feeding device. Primate Research, 10, 95-104.

Address correspondence to M. Garza-Schmidt, c/o Sierra Biomedical, Inc., 587 Dunn Circle, Sparks, NV 89431 [e-mail:].

* * *

Address Changes

Americans for Medical Progress, 908 King St, Suite 201, Alexandria VA 22314.

Faisal Guhad, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Dept of Veterinary Sciences, Science Park, P.O. Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602.

Jan Vacek, 102-1420 Victoria Park Ave, Toronto, ON M4A 2P7, Canada.

* * *

Notes on the Reproductive Behavior and Early Development of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) in a Mexican Zoo

Juan Carlos Serio-Silva,1 Victor Rico-Gray,1 Marisol Parra-Sánchez,2 and Serena Ruiz-Guerrero3
Instituto de Ecología,1 Africam Safari Zoo,2 and University of Georgia3


Numerous studies have been conducted on the genus Callithrix, particularly on C. jacchus jacchus. Although many studies have been done on various aspects of their behavior and ecology in the wild (Ferrari, 1992; Koenig, 1995; Ferrari & Digby, 1996), the majority of studies were done using captive groups (Hearn, 1978; Coimbra-Filho et al., 1984). There is no doubt that Callithrix jacchus jacchus has been an excellent model in biomedical research (Hearn, 1994; Jaquisth et al., 1997). Many laboratories and primate research centers around the world have established breeding colonies of this species in order to maintain an adequate supply for research projects.

One aspect of the behavior of this species that has been studied extensively is sociosexual behavior, particularly reproductive inhibition exerted by the dominant female on her daughters and subordinate females (Johnson et al, 1991; Saltzman et al., 1997). Female reproductive physiology, endocrinology, and cycling have been studied by a number of authors including Hearn (1978), Ruiz and Colillas (1982), Morrell et al. (1997), and Tardiff and Jaquish (1997). Other studies have focused on early development of infants and the participation of group members in the care of the young (Locke-Haydon, 1984; Koenig & Rothe, 1991).

This paper reports the first study in Mexico of the reproductive behavior and early development of Callithrix jacchus jacchus.


Establishment of the marmoset colony: In February, 1988, a group of eight Callithrix jacchus jacchus adults (four males and four females) arrived at Africam Safari Zoo in Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico. The animals were donated to this institution by private owners. The colony was maintained according to federal guidelines for laboratory care, as well as published reports on marmoset management (Hearn & Lunn, 1975; Hearn et al., 1978). Food and water were available ad libitum. The animals were kept under an artificial 12:12 hr light:dark cycle, a temperature between 23o and 28oC, and a relative humidity of 50-60%. The monkeys were quarantined and during that time a series of medical tests were performed. Fecal analysis indicated the presence of Strongyloides stercolaris in several individuals. The infestation was successfully treated with Albendazole (20mg/kg).

After the quarantine period, the group was transferred to new quarters in the children's section of the zoo ("A" quarters). Wire mesh divided these quarters into several compartments with a total area of 16 m2. In the back of the enclosure there was a stone wall. A nest box, constructed of wood and equipped with a heat lamp, was attached to this wall. There was also a door in the back wall, giving the keepers access to the enclosure for cleaning and feeding. The ground surface had grass and climbing structures made from bamboo and thin tree logs. Various toys were made from palm leaves (Sabal mexicana) for enrichment purposes.

The animals' reaction to transfer to their quarters was one of uncertainty at first. They appeared to be very anxious, vocalized continuously, and defecated repeatedly. After about five days, they calmed down and sat quietly in a corner of the enclosure. However, several days later, an increase in aggression was noted and it was decided that two of the males and two of the females should be transferred to other quarters. These quarters ("B" quarters) were in the zoo's hospital and had the same structure as the "A" quarters with the exception of the grass. In the back there were two wooden nest boxes containing infrared lamps. Climbing structures made from bamboo and hanging ropes were placed in the enclosure. This enclosure, unlike the other, is isolated from visitors.

In 1989, after one and a half years, a male from the "A" quarters (children's section) and a female from the "B" quarters (hospital) died on September 13 and September 30, respectively. A few days later an adult male and an adult female were given to the Zoo by the Mexican Federal Anti-Traffic Office, so that there were again two pairs of marmosets in each area. The new animals did not cause any increase in agonistic behavior with the rest of animals there. It was at this time that reproductive phenomena began to occur in both groups of marmosets.

Record of reproductive parameters: Data on reproductive parameters such as courtship, mounts, copulations, and births were obtained on a daily basis and in a systematic manner for 64 months, starting from the monkeys' arrival at the zoo (February 1988 to June 1993). The information most relevant to the growth of the primate colony was recorded and entered into a database. Events such as births, deaths, and diet were recorded daily while other observations, using ad libitum sampling, were recorded opportunistically by the veterinary staff in charge of the supervision and care of these primates.


Reproductive Parameters: From September 1989 to June 1993, there were 12 births. Three occurred in the group housed in the "A" quarters (children's section) and nine in the group housed in the quieter "B" quarters (hospital). The births occurred in both breeding pairs at each location (pairs A1 and A2 in the "A" quarters and pairs B1 and B2 in the "B" quarters; see Table 1).

Site            Date of birth      # of offspring
"A" Quarters -  January 6, 1990         2
Children's      June 9, 1990            2
Section         November 6, 1990        2
"B" Quarters -  March 24, 1990          2
Hospital        September 4, 1990       1
                April 30, 1991          1
                October 2, 1991         2
                March 8, 1992           2
                April 12, 1992          2
                August 12, 1992         2
                September 12, 1992      1
                March 4, 1993           2
Table 1: Distribution of births between January 1990 and June 1993 at the Africam Safari Zoo.

Gestation and births: The only copulation observed occurred on September 25, 1992, between the B2 couple. The young were born on March 4, 1993, 160 days later. For the B1 pair there was an average of 163.8 (±4.5) days between six births. The average interval between the births of the three offspring of the B2 pair was 160 (±3.6) days. The average interval between births for the group housed in the hospital section was 161.8 (±6.3) days. The only inter-birth interval in the children's section was 151 days for the A2 pair. These data suggest an immediate postpartum estrus, with a gestation period of less than 160 days. Births observed at Africam Safari Zoo did not show strong evidence of seasonality: five (41.7.0%) births occurred in spring, three (25.0%) in summer, two (16.7%) in autumn, and two (16.7%) in winter.

Infant Deaths: During the observation period, three infants died under various circumstances (Table 2). These three infants were the offspring of the reproductive B2 female from the hospital group. The first two infants were from her first birth. One of them was devoured by the male while the other was born during a situation of high tension in the group and fell from an altitude of 1.5 m. The infant was rescued and placed next to its mother in a styrofoam box with a heat source, but it was rejected by the mother. Efforts were made to bottle-feed it but the infant died. The third infant was from the same female's second birth and it was removed from her at three days of age when it did not show any signs of strength or movement in its hind legs and tail. Although it was given treatment and fed, the infant died a few days later.

Date of birth      Date of death      Cause of death
March 8, 1992      March 9, 1992      Cranio-encephalic trauma
March 8, 1992      March 8, 1992      Devoured by conspecific
September 12, 1992 September 28, 1992 Lesion in medulla in 
                                      lumbar region
Table 2: Deaths of Callithrix jacchus jacchus infants at Africam Safari Zoo in Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico

General observations of the development of Callithrix jacchus jacchus: As in many diurnal species (Jolly, 1972), births occurred during the night. Newborn infants have a gray coat color which changes in time as some body parts (most of the body) get lighter and others (e.g., the ears) get darker.

The average weight at birth recorded was 22.3 ± 3.1g (n = 21). During the first days of life, marmoset infants spend most of their time on the back of the adult male. It was possible to observe that the infants suckle their mother's milk, on average, five times per day for a duration of five minutes on each occasion. The change from the deciduous teeth to permanent teeth occurred at approximately eight weeks (± 5 days) of age in those infants that were observed (n = 10).

Finally, regarding the care that a newborn infant received during its first days of life, it was observed that the individual carrying the young is generally the male. The young are transferred to the female only at nursing times. The female is the one who cleans the infants when they defecate (taking advantage of the time when she feeds them). Whenever the female has the infants and she finds herself in danger, the male quickly takes them from her. This may occur at the zoo, particularly in the children's section, when the marmosets are scared by the visitors, who often bring their own pets with them, or by the noise made by other animals or cars. However, sometimes there is no time for such a transfer and the female holds on to the infants and stands behind the male, who will be on the alert and vocalizing.


It is possible that the number of births that occurred in the children's section group (n = 3) was less than in the hospital (n = 9) because of the disturbance from zoo visitors. It is noteworthy that the interbirth intervals here were very similar to what is reported by Hearn and Lunn (1975), who suggest a range from 149 to 160 days. Similar periods of 154 days are suggested for other Callithrixspecies, such as C. humeralis intermedius (Rylands, 1982). Although our data, like the majority of studies conducted on Callithrix jacchus in captivity, do not suggest seasonality in births (Johnson et al., 1991), the number of births is higher in the spring.


1. A total of 12 births occurred in the marmoset colony held at the Africam Safari Zoo in Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico. However, a strong negative influence, perhaps of the presence of humans, in the children's section was noted on the number of births. This has implications for the management of these animals in captivity.

2. Our data suggest a gestation period of 160 days with a variable interval between births (151-164 days). No strong evidence of seasonality of births was found in our colony.


Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Rochae e Silva, R., & da Aleksitch, S. (1984). Gomas enriquecidas na alimentação de saguis em captiveiro. In M. T. de Mello (Ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil (pp. 133-136). Brazilia: Sociedad Brasilera de Primatologia.

Ferrari, S. F. (1992). The care of infants in a wild marmoset (Callithrix flaviceps) group. American Journal of Anthropology, 26, 109-118.

Ferrari, S. F., & Digby, L. J. (1996). Wild Callithrix groups: Stable extended families? American Journal of Primatology, 38, 19-28.

Hearn, J. P. (1978). The endocrinology of reproduction in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. In D. G. Kleiman (Ed.), The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae (pp.163-171). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Hearn, J. P. (1994). New World primates for research in human reproduction health. American Journal of Primatology, 34, 11-18.

Hearn, J. P. & Lunn, S. F. (1975). The reproductive biology of the marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus. In F. T. Perkins & P. N. O'Donoghue (Eds.), Breeding simians for developmental biology. Laboratory animal handbook, no. 6. (pp. 191-202). London: Laboratory Animals Ltd..

Hearn, J. P., Abbott, D. H., Chambers, P. C., Hodges, J. K., & Lunn, S. F. (1978). Use of the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, in reproductive research. In N. Gengozian & F. Dienhardt (Eds.), Marmosets in Experimental Medicine (pp. 40-49). Basel: Karger.

Jaquish, C. E., Tardiff, S. D., & Cheverud, J. M. (1997). Interaction between infant growth and survival: Evidence for selection on age specific body-weight in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). American Journal of Primatology, 42, 269-280.

Johnson, E. O., Kamilaris, T. C., Carter, S., Gold, P. W., & Chrousos, G. P. (1991). Environmental stress and reproductive success in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). American Journal of Primatology, 25, 191-202.

Jolly, A. (1972). Hour of birth in primates and man. Folia Primatologica, 18, 108-121.

Koenig, A., & Rothe, H. (1991). Infant carrying in a polygynous group of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). American Journal of Primatology, 25, 185-190.

Koenig, A. (1995). Group size, composition and reproductive success in wild common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). American Journal of Primatology, 35, 311-319.

Locke-Haydon, J. (1984). The caregiving/careseeking balance in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Animal Behaviour, 32, 806-815.

Morrell, J. M., Nowshari, M., Rosenbusch, J., Naydu, P. L., & Hodges, J. K. (1997). Birth of offspring following artificial insemination in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. American Journal of Primatology, 41, 37-44.

Ruiz, J. C., & Colillas, O. J. (1982). Ciclo ovarico del marmoset común. Acta Physiologica Latinoamericana, 32, 59-61.

Rylands, A. B. (1982). The behaviour and ecology of three species of marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae) in Brazil. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge.

Saltzman, W., Schultz-Darken, N. J., & Abbott, D. H. (1997). Familial influences on ovulatory function in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). American Journal of Primatology, 41, 159-178.

Tardiff, S. D. & Jaquish, C. E. (1997). Number of ovulations in the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus): Relation to body weight, age and repeatability. American Journal of Primatology, 42, 323-330.

First author's address: Departamento de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología, A.C., km.2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, ap 63 CP 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail: serioju@ecologí].
We are grateful to Mrs. Amy Camacho Wardle, General Director of Africam Safari Zoo, for her authorization of and valuable help in the study. We also thank Irwin S. Bernstein for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.

* * *

Same-Sex Pairing of Marmosets: A Discussion

Katie Eckert writes: Several weeks ago I posted a query to several Internet lists regarding a situation at our facility where we were anticipating breaking up several heterosexual pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). The pairs had been together for over a year and had not yet reproduced, so the investigators were planning to put them in line to be subjects for an experimental allergic encephalitis protocol. In an effort to conserve space, we were considering re-pairing the animals in same-sex pairs to avoid the risk of pregnancy prior to going onto a study. However, after taking the matter into serious consideration, those involved in the decision opted not to try to re-pair the animals. What follows is a summary of 15 responses I received on the subject, with the major points emphasized. I would like to thank everyone who took the time to write to me on this issue; I think there are several valuable pieces of information here.

First and foremost, same-sex pairing of this species is a tricky business and probably should not be attempted unless it is absolutely necessary to do so. It can introduce a variable which investigators may find undesirable. Marmosets being family-oriented animals, they tend to be very aggressive with strangers. An animal's ability to be paired successfully depends a great deal on its environment and individual temperament. Here are a few generalities gleaned from the responses to my inquiry:

1. Where possible, try to pair related individuals. Five of the respondents who reported success with same-sex pairing recommended same-sex twins, or parent/offspring matches.

2. Monitor pairs carefully. As one person mentioned, if a pair is not going to work you will usually know within the first four hours. Some people reported that pairs who were fine for several years suddenly erupted in fights that in one case led to a fatality. Watch for squabbling and bickering, and keep an eye on the weight and general health of the animals. Other trouble signs to watch out for include: food domination, one animal spending a disproportionate amount of time on the ground, and animals keeping their distance from each other. If injuries are seen, separate the animals immediately.

3. Isosexual rooms. Isolating males from females in separate rooms was recommended by six of the respondents. Males can apparently sense when females are ovulating, and the presence of unfamiliar males may stimulate ovulation. This can lead to a great deal of tension, so the more olfactory and auditory isolation the sexes have from each other, the better the chances of success for same-sex pairs.

4. Isolate animals before re-pairing. Two people indicated that this would increase the chances of success. Giving the animals some time on their own (a couple of days, perhaps) before introducing them to a new animal will reduce tension. If you can keep the animals in contact with the same neighbors they are used to, this also will reduce the potential for strife.

5. Best age/sex combinations: there are none. This topic had by far the greatest disparity of experience. Some found male/male pairs to be more successful, others found female/female. Two people indicated that pairing one juvenile with an older animal seemed to work better, but I stress that there are no generalities and any pairing attempt should be carefully monitored. It is a good idea to consider the temperament of individuals: generally, mild tempered animals should do well together.

6. In the cage: two is better than three; nestboxes all around. Two people reported difficulties with having three animals together, following the logic that two will probably gang up on a weaker third party. Visual barriers such as nest boxes are important, and it may facilitate things if animals each have their own box to get away to, though animals will frequently sleep together. If you are pairing a juvenile with an adult, one person recommended that you bring the younger one into the adult's cage.

7. Birth control? Two persons recommended birth control in lieu of same-sex pairs (if it doesn't interfere with your study). There is a technique for vasectomizing males described by T. H. Morris and C. L. David ["Illustrated guide to surgical technique for vasectomy of the common marmoset", Laboratory Animals, 1993, 27, 381-384], and prostaglandin was recommended for females.

Finally, two recommended resources: "An experimental analysis of social interaction in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus)", by A. G. Sutcliff & T. B. Poole (International Journal of Primatology, 1984, 5, 591-607); and D. Seelig's index of LPN articles on pairing: <>.

Please use caution with this information, as there are no rules that hold true for all marmosets in all situations. Be careful as well of applying it toward other species, particularly other callitrichids, because, as we all know, the social dynamics of different species can vary significantly. It is intended solely to give a few generalities for safe pairing, based on the anecdotal accounts of several people with marmoset experience. Good luck! - Katherine Eckert, UCSF Lab. Animal Resource Center, 513 Parnassus Ave, Box 0564, San Francisco, CA 94143-0564 [e-mail:]

* * *

Primates de las Amé Página

En este primer número del año 2000, "La Página" tiene el gusto de ofrecerles las destacadas investigaciones de dos colegas primatólogas, las cuales nos han permitido difundir algunos aspectos de su interesante trabajo. Estamos seguros que será de mucho interés para todos ustedes. Como siempre estamos a sus órdenes para cualquier asunto relacionado con esta columna. Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen (Editores). Departamento de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. km. 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, apdo 63 CP 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail:].

Dieta e Dispersão de Sementes de um Grupo de Alouatta seniculus, numa Floresta de Terra Firme da Amazônia Central Brasileira. Marcela Santamaría-Gómez. Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais (PDBFF). Ecología INPA CP 478, Manaus-Brasil CEP 69011-970 [e-mail:]

O guariba vermelho, Alouatta seniculus, apresenta a distribuição mais ampla do gênero, abrangendo vários tipos de habitat e ocorrendo em 10 países neotropicais. Este estudo reporta aspectos da ecologia e comportamento de um grupo de Alouatta seniculus, numa floresta de terra firme da Amazônia central Brasileira.

O grupo de guaribas foi observado ad libitum entre abril e maio de 1998, numa reserva de 10.000 ha do Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais (PDBFF). A coleta sistemática dos dados iniciou-se em julho e prolongou-se até dezembro de 1998. Este período corresponde a estação seca na Amazônia. Foram obtidas informações sobre a composição e diversidade da dieta, dispersão de sementes, padrões de atividade e uso do espaço, durante 534 horas de observação. O "método de freqüência" foi utilizado para quantificar a dieta, enquanto que os padrões de atividade foram registrados através do "instantaneous scan sampling". Os movimentos diários do grupo foram registrados em mapas, permitindo calcular a área de vida do grupo e as distâncias diárias percorridas.

O grupo focal apresentou uma dieta folívora, ingerindo principalmente brotos e folhas jovens (82.9%), seguidas por flores (7.0%), frutos (6.4%), folhas maduras (0.7%) e outros recursos, como terra de cupinzeiro e água (3.0%). A composição da dieta variou significativamente entre as quinzenas amostradas (? 2 = 1815 ; g.l. = 30 ; p < 0.001). Atribuiu-se este resultado, principalmente, ao consumo elevado de frutos de Goupia glabra (Celastraceae) durante a segunda quinzena de novembro. Neste período, o consumo de frutos aumentou de menos de 5.0% a 55.0% da dieta total.

O padrão de consumo de alimentos pelo grupo focal, pareceu estar relacionado com a disponibilidade de alguns destes recursos na floresta. O grupo focal utilizou 201 espécies de plantas (87 gêneros e 33 famílias), dos quais 183 foram de folhas, 11 de flores e 17 de frutos. Durante o período de estudo, frutos e flores foram escassos, mas foram amplamente explorados quando estiveram disponíveis na floresta. Os frutos de Goupia glabra (Celastraceae) foram os mais consumidos. As flores das espécies Arrabidaea chica (Bignoniaceae) e Dipteryx odorata (Leguminosae), ocuparam o terceiro e quinto lugar na dieta do grupo. Das 17 espécies de frutos registradas, as sementes de 12 espécies foram recuperadas intactas nas fezes dos guaribas.

O grupo focal investiu 67.5% do tempo repousando, 22.2% forrageando, 8.8% deslocando-se e 1.5% em "outras" atividades. Este padrão variou significativamente entre as quinzenas (?2 = 1457; g.l. = 30 ; p <0,001). A principal atividade realizada ao longo do dia foi o repouso, especialmente antes das 8:00 e depois das 16:00 (>77%). No entanto este padrão apresentou variações consideráveis ao longo das quinzenas, sendo isto visualizado pelos grandes desvios padrões obtidos em cada atividade. Porém, foi detectada uma seqüência comportamental recorrente de descanso - defecação - forrageio.

O tamanho da área de vida total estimado para o grupo foi de 21 ha mas só um quarto ou metade desta área foi utilizada a cada quinzena. A distância média diária percorrida pelo grupo foi de 687,8 m. Os quadrantes da periferia apresentaram um menor número de unidades de alimentação em relação aos do centro, indicando que o grupo concentra sua atividade de forrageio na zona central da sua área. Os quadrantes com um maior número de unidades de alimentação tenderam a apresentar um maior número de árvores utilizados (rs = 0,91; p < 0,001). Porém, o único quadrante da periferia, que não mostrou o comportamento acima descrito, apresentou uma árvore de Goupia glabra (Celastraceae) e outra de Dipteryx odorata (Leguminosae), que foram altamente preferidas e exploradas pelo grupo para o consumo de frutos e flores, respectivamente

Os longos períodos de inatividade assim como a pequena área de vida registrados para o grupo, foram discutidos levando em consideração a influência da dieta folívora. Finalmente, esta tese comparou os resultados obtidos com outros estudos sobre o gênero Alouatta, especialmente A. seniculus.

Variación Vocal en Poblaciones Alopátricas y Simpátricas de Monos Aulladores (Alouatta) y su Uso para Analisis Filogéneticos. Ma. Guadalupe Méndez-Cárdenas. Departamento de Ecología y Comportamiento Animal, Instituto de Ecología AC, Apdo. 63, Xalapa, VER, 91000, México. [e-mail:]

Uno de los temas mas controvertidos en la historia de la etología ha sido el uso del concepto de homología, esto debido a que la conducta no puede ser considerada una estructura tangible (Brooks & McLennan, 1991). Sin embargo, análisis filogenéticos realizados por De Queiroz & Weinberger (1993) encuentran que no existen diferencias significativas en los índices de consistencia entre caracteres conductuales y morfológicos. Esto significa que los caracteres conductuales no son mas homoplásicos que los morfológicos. Es por lo anterior, que en el presente estudio se analiza la variación entre las vocalizaciones de alarma de seis especies de monos aulladores (Alouatta). Con estos datos se evaluarán cuales características acústicas pueden ser informativas para una reconstrucción filogenética y se le contrastará con otras filogénias propuestas con base en caracteres moleculares y morfológicos. Para este objetivo, el mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi) será utilizado como grupo externo.

En esta investigación a se definieron los caracteres (frases, sílabas, notas, armónicos e intervalos) con lo cual se analizará la variación (frequencia y duración) mediante técnicas de componentes principales anidados. A fin de establecer los estados de los caracteres, se utilizarán pruebas de rangos múltiples los cuales detectan los grupos homogéneos es decir estados. Finalmente se utilizará el programa PAUP (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony) con el propósito de reconstruir el cladograma.

Para evaluar si existe un efecto de la simpatría sobre algunos caracteres acústicos de las vocalizaciones, se grabaron tropas de monos aulladores negros (Alouatta pigra) y monos aulladores de manto (Alouatta palliata mexicana) en zonas de simpatría (Macuspana, Tabasco) y zonas alopátricas (Veracruz, Campeche y Chiapas). Estas dos especies han mostrado grandes diferencias en sus vocalizaciones, especialmente en la frecuencia, energía y continuidad de estas (Whitehead, 1993).

Resultados preliminares muestran que la diferencia en el número de armónicos fué estadisticamente significativa entre poblaciones simpátricas y alopátricas, sin embargo se pretende rastrear otra zona de probable simpatría cerca de la Estación Biológica Chajúl, en el estado de Chiapas, con el objetivo de integrar estos datos al análisis general de la información.


Brooks D. R. & McLennan D. H. (1991). The eclipse of history in ethology. In D. R. Brooks & D. H. McLennan (Eds.), Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior: A Research Program in Comparative Biology (pp. 5-8). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

De Queiroz, A. & Weinberger, P. H. (1993). The usefulness of behavior for phylogeny estimation: Levels of homoplasy in behavioral and morphological characters. Evolution, 47, 46-60.

Whitehead, J. M. (1993). Vox Alouattinae: A preliminary survey of the acoustic characteristics of long distance calls of howling monkeys. International Journal of Primatology, 16, 121-144.

* * *

Resources Wanted and Available

Bushmeat Poster and Action Kit

The Primate Conservation and Welfare Society (PCWS), along with the Rainforest Action Network and in cooperation with several other organizations, has developed a poster and action kit aimed at educating U.S. citizens on the plight of Africa's great apes. The Action Kit provides background information on the hunting and killing of primates and the destruction of their habitat, and also provides the names and addresses of U.S. timber companies active in African rainforests, with information on joining a letter-writing campaign. The poster has been designed for zoos, sanctuaries, interested laypeople, shops - in short, any place where people can learn more about commercial deforestation and primate conservation. Proceeds from the sale of the poster, rich with images of gorillas and chimpanzees taken by world-famous photographers, will benefit primate conservation organizations whose works focuses on ending the "bushmeat" trade.

Bushmeat hunting, or the killing of endangered species for human consumption, has been practiced on a subsistence level by forest-dwelling peoples for centuries. But the influx of loggers into the rainforest, and increased access to remote forest areas via logging roads, has transformed bushmeat hunting into a commercial venture. This poses a serious threat to the survival of Africa's great apes.

For a copy of the poster, send $14.75 to Hope Walker, PCWS, P.O. Box 2101, Port Townsend, WA 98368 [e-mail:]; or see <>, where the Action Kit is available in PDF format.

Lemur Serum

Julia Hilliard asks if anyone has access to serum samples from lemurs. Her group at Georgia State would like to procure some for an immunological survey/study. If you can help, contact her at the Viral Immunology Center, Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 [404-651-0811; fax: 404-651-0821; e-mail:].

* * *

Award Nominations

Fyssen Foundation 2000 International Prize

The Fyssen Foundation's aim is "to encourage all forms of scientific inquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, underlying animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development." The Foundation supports research in: Ethology and Psychology: Nature and development of the cognitive processes in man and animals, both ontogenetic and phylogenetic. Neurobiology: Neurobiological bases of cognitive processes, their embryonic and postnatal development, and their elementary mechanisms. Anthropology-Ethnology: Cognitive aspects of the representations of natural and cultural environments; analysis of their construction principles and transfer mechanisms; analysis of forms of social organization and their technological systems (knowledge, know-how, transfer mechanisms). Human Paleontology: Origin and evolution of the human brain and human artifacts.

An International Prize of 200,000 ff is awarded annually to a scientist who has conducted distinguished research in the areas supported by the Foundation. It has been awarded to Professors A. Leroi-Gourhan (1980), W. H. Thorpe (1981), V. B. Mountcastle (1982), H. C. Conklin (1983), R. W. Brown (1984), P. Buser (1985), D. Pilbeam (1986), D. Premack (1987), J. C. Gardin (1988), P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1989), J. Goody (1990), G. A. Miller (1991), P. Rakic (1992), L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1993), L. R. Gleitman (1994), W. D. Hamilton (1995), C. Renfrew (1996), M. Jouvet (1997), and A. Walker (1998). The topic considered for the 2000 prize is "Intentionality and Planning Of Action". Candidates cannot apply directly and should be proposed by recognized scientists. Nominations, including a CV, list of publications, and summary of research, should be sent to the Secretariat of the Foundation, 194, rue de Rivoli, 75001 Paris, France, before October 31, 2000.

* * *

Thoughts on Animals as Research Subjects

1. Pros: * genetic purity * more rapid breeding * similarity to humans * understand laws of behavior across species

2. Cons: * ethics * generalizability

3. Ethical standards: * animals shall receive every consideration of their bodily comfort * shall be treated with kindness, properly fed, and have surroundings in the best possible sanitary condition * same care given to humans to minimize discomfort after an operation shall be given to animals * journals should require statements about measures taken to avoid needless pain or suffering, and decline to publish articles that violate these standards

4. Other considerations: * test painful stimuli on yourself * use positive reinforcement to evoke behavior * study aggression in natural settings * ask if question can be answered by computer modeling or by tissue and cell cultures - From a handout by Teresa King, Brown University Medical School, for a Behavioral Medicine course

* * *

Workshop Announcement: Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act

The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library (NAL), has developed a two-day workshop for persons who are responsible for providing information to meet the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act. A representative from USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service will be available for questions and answers. The workshop will be held at the NAL in Beltsville, Maryland.

The objectives of the workshop are to provide: * an overview of the Animal Welfare Act and the information requirements of the act * a review of the alternatives concept * an introduction to NAL, AWIC, and other organizations that may assist in providing information * instruction on the use of existing information databases/networks and internet resources * hands-on computer online database searching exercises.

This workshop is targeted for principal investigators, members of IACUCs, information providers, administrators of animal use programs, and veterinarians. All participants will receive a resource manual. Workshops will be held on April 27-28, June 22-23 and October 26-27, 2000. The workshops will be limited to 20 people each, so please sign up quickly. There is no fee for the workshops.

For more information, contact Animal Welfare Information Center, USDA, NAL, 10301 Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351 [301-504-6212; fax: 301-504-7125; e-mail:]; or see <>.

* * *

Meeting Announcements

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000, organized by CDC, American Society for Microbiology, WHO, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, the Association of Public Health Laboratories, and the National Foundation for CDC, will be held July 15-19, in Atlanta, GA. For more information contact the ICEID 2000 Management [202-942-9257; fax: 202-942-9340; e-mail:] or see <>.

The Third Symposium of Latin American Scientists in Biomedical Research and the Second International Conference on the Biology of Nocardiae will be held September 11-14, 2000, at the University of California, Davis. These are international meetings sponsored by the UC School of Medicine, the Latin American Council for Biomedical Research (CLABE), and the International Group for Research on Pathogenic Actinomycetes. Topics will be organized into plenary lectures; round table discussions; and workshops with invited speakers, short oral presentations, and poster sessions. The two programs will be developed jointly and run concurrently. Abstracts, which must be 250-300 words, may be submitted by e-mail to . For more information see: <>, or contact José V. Torres, President, CLABE, School of Medicine, 3134 Tupper Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 [530) 752-3157; FAX (530) 752-8692; e-mail:].

A joint meeting of the Royal/American/Japanese Societies of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, titled "New Challenges in Tropical Medicine and Parasitology", will take place September 18-22, 2000, at Oxford University. For information, see <> or contact the Congress Secretariat, Complete Congress Services Ltd, CMC House, 19, King Edward St, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 1AQ, UK [+44 (0) 1625 624091; fax: +44 (0) 1625 624075; e-mail:].

The Ninth Austrian International Congress on Alternative and Complementary Methods to Animal Testing in Biomedical Research and The 6th Annual Meeting of the Middle European Society for Alternative Methods to Animal Testing, will be held September 24th-26th, 2000, at the University of Linz, Austria. A commercial exhibition will be held in the context of the Congress. For further information contact the Congress office, Center for Alternative and Complementary Methods to Animal Testing, P.O. Box 210, A-4021 Linz, Austria [+43 7217 20600; fax +43 7217 20600; e-mail:]; or see <>.

The Russian Federation State Research Center's Institute of Biomedical Problems (Director: A. I. Grigoriev), in cooperation with Russian Academy of Medical Sciences's Research Institute of Primatology (Director: B. A. Lapin), is organizing the Symposium Primatology at the Turn of the Century. It will discuss the use of nonhuman primates for studying environmental medicine and physiology, as well as primate care, husbandry, and selection for biomedical investigations. This symposium will be held on September 26-29, 2000, in Moscow, as a part of the Russian National Conference "Living Beings and Their Environment: Life Support and Protection of Humans under Extreme Conditions". For further information about the Conference and Symposium, contact Eugene A. Ilyin (Program) [095-195-0223]; Tamara A. Smirnova (Abstracts) [095-195-6388]; or Alexander N. Romanov (Logistics) [095-195-0103]. The secretariat can also be reached by mail: E. A. Ilyin, RF SRC-Institute of Biomedical Problems, 76A, Khoroshevskoye shosse, 123007 Moscow, Russia [fax: 095-195-2253; e-mail:].

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, will host the 18th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS on October 4-7, 2000. This Symposium will consist of five sessions focusing on primate research utilizing SIV, HIV-2, HIV-1, SHIV and other primate retroviruses. Topics will include Pathogenesis (Chair, Chris Miller, California RPRC), Immunology (Chair, Norman Letvin, Beth Israel Hospital), Vaccines/therapeutics (Chair: John Shiver, Merck), and Virology (Chair: Ronald Desrosiers, New England RPRC). There will be a special session dealing with Resource Development (chaired by Neal Nathanson, Office of AIDS Research). This will include updates on tetramers (John Altman, Emory); intracellular staining (Luis Picker, Oregon); genetics (Jeff Rogers, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research); MHC class I (David Watkins, Wisconsin); MHC class II (Ronald Bontrop, The Netherlands), and antibody-mediated depletion (Keith Reimann, Beth Israel Hospital). Dr. Andrew McMichael (Oxford University) will deliver the keynote address. For more information, contact: Symposium on NHP Models for AIDS, c/o Edi Chan, Conference Coordinator, Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3500; fax: 608-263-4031; e-mail:].

The Nonhuman Primate Pathology Seminar and Workshop 2000 will be held October 7-8, 2000, at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, in conjunction with the above Symposium. The tentative schedule includes a dinner and speaker Saturday night, followed by case presentations all day Sunday. For more information and registration materials please contact Dr. Amy Usborne [e-mail:] or Dr. Iris Bolton [e-mail:], or write either at WRPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299.

* * *

Information Requested or Available

Current Primate References Ceases Publication

"We must announce - sadly - that the December 1999 issue of Current Primate References is the final issue. Current Primate References has helped researchers stay abreast of new publications since its inception in the 1960s under Maryeva Terry, first as a mimeographed newsletter and then later as a fully developed journal.

"The Primate Information Center no longer has the resources to continue publishing paper bibliographic products and products tailored to individual researcher requests. However, we are exploring options to make an equivalent to Current Primate References available on the Web, along with improving Web access to our online database. We hope to realize this goal in the year 2000.

"Thanks are due to the Washington RPRC, University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries, and NIH/NCRR for sponsorship of the Primate Information Center.

"Until the proposed new Web access becomes available, everyone is invited to get free password access to our current Web database by e-mailing requests to <> (indicate password request in the subject line and list your name and affiliation in the text of the message).

"Rather than this being a final goodbye message, we hope it is simply a temporary pause until we get reincarnated electronically!" - Jackie Pritchard, Manager, PIC [e-mail:], and Chico Otsuka-Gooding, CPR Managing Editor

Fetal Development Questions

Christopher Gomes writes: "During human fetal development, a mass of epithelial cells forms and completely seals the nostril openings for roughly eight weeks, from about the 12th to the 20th week after conception. Two questions: 1. Is there any analogous event during fetal development of any of the great apes? 2. If so, what is the current explanation for this short-lived mass of epithelial cells? If you can answer either question, please contact me at P.O. Box 74045, Brampton, Ontario, L6V 1M0, Canada [e-mail:]." - Posted to Alloprimate

Diabetes in Captive Chimpanzees

The Primate Foundation of Arizona (PFA) is conducting a survey of the occurrence of Type I ("juvenile") and Type II ("adult-onset") diabetes in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). If you have diabetic chimpanzees in your care, please contact Jo Fritz, Director, PFA, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027 [e-mail:].

Primate Enrichment Database

The Primate Enrichment Database at <> has been updated to contain 1519 entries, 227 of which are on-line.

NCRRP Booklet

The National Center for Retired Research Primates (NCRRP)'s booklet is now available at <>. If you cannot access the Web, contact Carol Asvestas, NCRRP, P.O. Box 1186, Helotes, TX 78023.

Journals on the Web

A new service, PubMed Central, offers free online access to the full text of life science research articles from selected journals at <>. The articles can be viewed through a Web browser or as downloadable PDF files. Features include: links from article reference citations to PubMed abstracts; figures sized for on-screen viewing; and support for supplementary information such as data tables, streaming video, and high-resolution images. There will soon be new search engines; direct links from PubMed search results to the full text of articles in PubMed Central; and flexible support for new scientific publishing models, such as "electronic-only" journals. The journals currently available are Molecular Biology of the Cell and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Biochemical Journal and the Canadian Medical Association Journal are expected to be available soon.

European Primate Information System

The European Primate Information System (EPIS) is an internet forum currently being created to intensify the exchange of information among scientists and institutions; to optimize use of resources through sharing technology, methods, know-how, and equipment; to avoid redundant investigations; and last, but not least, to reduce the number of primates required for research. An Internet server has been programmed to store the offers and requests of potential users for animals, tissues, methods, etc. in a self-sustaining data base. New input is sent by e-mail to subscribers immediately and can also be accessed as interactive server pages with all common internet browsers. EPIS will be accessible on three security levels controlled by password and user-ID, with each level providing different degrees of access. The user submitting data can declare the level of access for his input.

EPIS is being designed on behalf of the European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) and funded by the European Union. Participation in the system is free of charge. If you need additional information, please contact Dr. Dr. Michael Schwibbe, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D - 37077, Göttingen, Germany [+ 49 551 3851 120; fax: + 49 551 3851 103; e-mail:].

E-mail Lists

Thierry Decelle, of Aventis Pharma, and Lionel Zenner, of le Ecole Vétérinaire de Lyon, announce the creation of ANILAB, a new francophone list about lab animal science and techniques. "The aim is to exchange scientific and technical information about animal experimentation. This list is open to professionals who use lab animals: investigators, vets, L.A.R. managers, breeders, technical staff, animal caretakers, etc. To subscribe, send e-mail to <> with the following message: "sub anilab Firstname Lastname". You will receive a subscription confirmation. - Posted to CompMed

The International Primate Sanctuary, Panama, has formed an e-mail newsgroup, <>, with the intention of forming an association of primate sanctuaries. They expect to start a newsletter, and eventually ally themselves with a primate society such as the IPS or ASP. To contact them, write to <>.

More Interesting Web Sites

* Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra: <>

* Information about the crisis in the Congo and addresses of influential government officials: <>

* Malaria maps of most African countries: <>

* Pros and cons of feeding onions to nonhuman primates: <>

* National Sanctuary for Retired Research Primates: <>

* New Jersey Association for Biomedical Research: <>

* Highland Farm Gibbon Sanctuary: <>

* Primate Society of Great Britain: <>

* Summer programs for veterinary students: <>

* WHO's Vaccination Requirements and Health Advice: <>

* * *

A Short, Potentially Harmful Stimulus as Enrichment

Beverley Butler
Auckland Zoo

( A seemingly harmful but short stimulus has been suggested as an enrichment for captive animals. See an article with several references, "Stimulating natural protective behaviors with short term natural stress," by Keri A. Van Wormer (The Shape of Enrichment, 1999, 8[1]).

The brief stimulus I witnessed between two captive zoo species certainly appeared to have the desired effect - encouraging a wider repertoire of natural behaviors and, to some extent, giving them control of their environment.

At the Auckland Zoo we used to have an old jaguar in a cage alongside a group of seven chacma baboons. Usually there was no interaction between the two species although they could see each other clearly. I have studied the baboons on many occasions over several years and only once did I see such interaction and total absorption with each other.

How the episode started I don't know; I was walking past at the time and understood from the body language of the baboons that something was different.

As I approached I could see the jaguar, Lima, walking along the boundary of his cage. The baboons, similarly, were lined up along their side, almost stiff-legged. As the jaguar would turn and make a pass once more along the side of his cage his whole body was tense and in what appeared to be a stalking position.

His entire attention was focused on the baboons who by this time were barking loudly and taking turns threatening him as he neared their particular positions. They were spread out along the side of their cage nearest to him. The dominant baboon, Nicholas, would run along the dividing side, which include a narrow concrete ledge, staring, barking, and stamping his front feet at the jaguar.

This enactment of "tension in the raw" was kept up for several minutes - what a time to forget to take note of the time-span! It all looked so real, as if there were no barriers between them.

Eventually both parties eased off the pressure of threat, but it left those of us watching with a sense of what it must be like out in the "jungle".

Author's address: 34 Galloway Crescent, Bucklands Beach, Auckland 1704, New Zealand [e-mail:].

* * *

News Briefs

Kenya to Host Task Force on Illegal Wildlife Trade

On December 22, 1999, the United Nations Environment Programme announced that they have negotiated an agreement with the Government of Kenya to establish Kenya as the headquarters of a Task Force to curb the illegal trade in endangered wildlife and flora. The conclusion of the agreement is an important step in the implementation of the Lusaka Agreement on Cooperative Enforcement Operations Directed at Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora, an agreement adopted by six African countries in 1994. Launched in June 1999, the Task Force has already conducted successful cross-border and undercover operations that have led to the arrests of poachers and the confiscation of hundreds of tons of ivory tusks and firearms. - Posted to AlloPrimate

REAC Officially Becomes AC

A notice in the January 10 Federal Register officially redesignates the names and responsibilities of several Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) offices. APHIS's Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care (REAC) Unit is renamed as the Animal Care (AC) Unit and its role is redefined. "This redesignation better reflects the actual functions of this unit. AC is no longer responsible for directing the formal investigation of reported violations of laws and regulations applicable to APHIS activities. AC still has the responsibility of directing activities to ensure compliance with and enforcement of animal welfare and horse protection laws and the regulations promulgated under those laws." The notice is available under APHIS at <>. - Reported on CompMed

Coulston Again?

In Defense of Animals, of Mill Valley, CA, has posted at <> what appears to be a USDA APHIS Inspection Report indicating that federal inspectors were refused access to the Coulston Foundation's primate laboratory on February 17, 2000.

Primates on the Brink

A report released by Conservation International and the Primate Specialist Group of IUCN (the World Conservation Union) presented a list of the 25 most endangered primates. In some cases, only a few hundred individuals survive. Of the 25 species listed, 24 are found exclusively in seven of the world's 25 "biodiversity hotspots," which claim the richest terrestrial species diversity as well as some of the most extreme habitat destruction. The main causes for primates' decline are tropical forest habitat destruction and local bushmeat hunting, according to the report. Live capture for the pet trade and export for biomedical research also threaten some species.

Biodiversity hotspots, where 96 percent of the most threatened primates live, are identified by Conservation International as 25 places that cover only 1.4 percent of the Earth's land surface, but claim more than 60 percent of all plant and animal diversity.

The top 25 most endangered primates, and the hotspots where they are found, are: * Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands: the golden bamboo lemur, the Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur, Perrier's sifaka, the silky sifaka and the golden-crowned sifaka * Atlantic Forest Region: the golden lion tamarin, the black lion tamarin, the black-faced lion tamarin, the buff-headed capuchin and the northern muriqui * Tropical Andes: the yellow-tailed woolly monkey * Guinean Forests of West Africa: Miss Waldron's red colobus, white-naped mangabey, Sclater's guenon, the drill and the Cross River gorilla * Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania and Kenya: Sanje mangabey * Indo-Burma: Delacour's langur, Cat Ba Island golden-headed langur, gray-shanked douc langur, the Tonkin snub-nosed monkey and the Hainan gibbon * Sundaland: the Sumatran orangutan and the Javan gibbon * Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda: the mountain gorilla

WWF Honors Ecuador

In a ceremony in Quito in December, 1999, the World Wildlife Fund recognized the government of Ecuador for protecting more than 2.4 million acres of Amazon rainforest by expanding two reserves, the Cuyabeno-Imuya and Yasuni National Parks, and putting them off limits to oil, mining, and infrastructure development.

NABR Wins Appeal in Primate Case

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit today handed down a decision sustaining the National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR)'s position in ALDF v. NABR, the lawsuit that seeks to invalidate existing U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for nonhuman primate environmental enrichment (9 CFR Section 3.81). Finding that the current regulations do meet statutory and Administrative Procedure Act tests, a three-judge panel reversed the district court's decision to the contrary.

The opinion, filed by Circuit Judge Williams for himself and Circuit Judges Garland and Sentelle, agreed with a prior appeals panel that the Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) lacked standing to file the suit. Only one individual plaintiff, Marc Jurnove, was found to have the required standing in a sharply divided opinion of the full Court of Appeal issued in September, 1998. The U.S. Supreme Court declined NABR's request to review recognition of Jurnove's legal standing. As a result, the merits of the case - the question of whether the Secretary's regulations satisfy the Animal Welfare Act mandate to set "minimum requirements...for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates" - were argued by NABR and the USDA on October 29, 1999. Because it upheld the existing regulations, the court declared that ALDF's challenge to NABR's intervention and participation in the case was now moot. It is likely that ALDF will ask the full Court of Appeals to review today's panel decision and to rehear the merits of the case. - From a February 1, 2000 NABR press release

Chimpanzees Retiring

Six chimpanzees, originally from LEMSIP, arrived at the National Sanctuary for Retired Research Primates (NSRRP) in Helotes, Texas, on February 11, 2000. "These chimps, all veterans of HIV research, have settled in wonderfully and are enjoying their new surroundings. They had been temporarily housed at Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research where they had access to indoor and outdoor housing. No research was done on these chimps while they were housed at SWFBR. They were accompanied to NSRRP by SWFBR animal care staff. Dr. James Mahoney has been staying with them for the past few days. These chimps had been destined to be moved to Coulston. They will stay with NSRRP for the remainder of their natural lives. We thank all concerned for their cooperation and assistance with the retirement of these chimps." - From a statement by NSRRP posted to AlloPrimate, February 13

AWA Definition of Field Study Amended

APHIS's revised definition of a field study was published as a final rule in the Wednesday, February 9, 2000 Federal Register (Vol. 65, No. 27). The actual Animal Welfare Act (AWA) definition of field study is now: "Field study means a study conducted on free-living wild animals in their natural habitat. However, this term excludes any study that involves an invasive procedure of, harms, or materially alters the behavior of an animal under study."

The summary statement reads, "We are amending the Animal Welfare regulations by clarifying the definition of the term 'field study'. We will clarify that a field study cannot involve an invasive procedure, harm the animals under study, or materially alter the behavior of the animals under study. As worded prior to this final rule, the definition of field study could be interpreted to mean that a field study may include one of these situations. This action will help ensure the proper use and care of animals used in field studies."

The effective date for this amendment is March 10, 2000. A few notable comments from the announcement:

* APHIS is considering the development of a policy statement that would provide examples of what APHIS considers invasive or noninvasive procedures.

* The principal investigator is responsible for determining whether a study is a field study. If the principal investigator reviews a field study protocol and has questions regarding whether a procedure is invasive or noninvasive, the investigator can consult with the IACUC of the facility.

* An invasive procedure is typically one in which the living animal is entered by either perforation or incision in a manner that could cause more than short-lived pain or distress and may materially alter the behavior of the animal for more than a short period of time. [...] However, implantation of microchips and transponders may not be invasive depending on the site and method of implantation.

* Trapping, including the testing of traps, is not regulated by the AWA. - posted to CompMed by Brad Williams

Increase in APHIS Animal Care Funds

The Administration's Fiscal Year 2001 budget request submitted to Congress this week includes an additional $5 million for Animal Welfare Act activities. A total of $16 million is proposed for the APHIS's Animal Care unit in 2001. The unit's funding estimate for this year is $11 million. According to the President's budget summary: "The increase would maintain all current activities, increase the number of inspections and improve follow-up to verify corrections of prospective violators. APHIS would expand outreach efforts to the general public and AWA-regulated facilities by increasing the amount of educational resources available, encourage participation at industry meetings and allow the development of industry specific training for animal care and welfare." As an example of performance anticipated with additional funding, USDA predicted that "APHIS will increase the number of animal welfare inspections from 10,000 in 1998 to 17,000 in 2001. - National Association for Biomedical Research Update, February 14, 2000, 21[3]

Marburg hemorrhagic Fever - Congo, DR

A Marburg fever outbreak in the Durba region of Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo, has now killed at least 17 people. More than 70 people died in a Marburg fever outbreak a last year. (See "An introduction to Ebola: The virus and the disease", by C. J. Peters & J. W. LeDuc, in the LPN, 2000, 39[1], 8-11, for background.) - from ProMED, March 10, 2000

* * *

Positions Available

Laboratory Jobs - Washington, DC Area

Pathology Associates International (PAI), a wholly owned subsidiary of SAIC, the world's largest employee-owned scientific, technical, and engineering service company, has immediate opportunities within the Washington, DC metropolitan area for: * Lab Animal Technician * Veterinary Technologists * Technical Supervisors.

PAI is a service organization, supporting research and testing programs sponsored by government and commercial clients. Lab Animal Technicians perform routine care and husbandry for a variety of species (small, large, and nonhuman primates) within facilities. Veterinary Technologists perform routine, surgical, and critical care at the direction of on-site veterinarians. Technical Supervisors perform facility management tasks as well as demonstrating technical on-the-job instructions for technicians performing care and husbandry. All candidates must be highly motivated, have a strong commitment to excellence, and the ability to follow required protocols in a safe, effective manner.

Qualifications and salary are commensurate with candidate's experience and position level. LATG, LAT, or ALAT certification is desirable and may in certain cases be required. Veterinary Technologists should have an AA in Veterinary Technology or the equivalent from an AVMA-accredited college level program. Entry level opportunities also exist for those willing to become certified within six months of eligibility. The ability to lift at least 50 pounds and a high school diploma or GED are necessary.

For confidential consideration, send your resume and salary history to: PAI, Employment Office, 15 Worman's Mill Court, Suite I, Frederick, MD 21702 [fax: 301-663-8994; e-mail:]. For more information, contact Christie Williams at 301-435-7752.

Clinical Veterinarian, New Mexico

White Sands Research Center is accepting applications for a Clinical Veterinarian with strong chimpanzee and/or other nonhuman primate experience, who will be responsible for health care management of laboratory animal colonies in cooperation with other clinical staff.

Candidates should have a DVM or equivalent degree, be licensed in at least one state, and have a strong background in nonhuman primate medicine. We have an excellent benefit plan. Send curriculum vitae, letter of interest, and the names and addresses of three references to: WSRC (HR Dept), 1300 LaVelle Road, Alamogordo, NM 88310. We are an EOE/AA employer.

Pharmacology, Ridgefield, Connecticut

Boehringer Ingelheim is seeking a "Scientist I/II" to participate in drug discovery and development programs using various in vivo models including nonhuman primates. This person will assist in drug profiling involving pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and assist with proof-of-principle models and sterile surgical procedures while following standard animal care and use procedures and observing strict IACUC protocols. The successful candidate will have a BS or MS in Biology or a related discipline, the ability to work with nonhuman primates and assist with sterile surgical procedures, and no known allergies to animals.

For immediate consideration, please send your resume and salary history to Boehringer Ingelheim Staffing Center, P.O. Box 534, Waltham, MA 02454-0534 [e-mail:]. Including Job Code AD-LPN/RD1300 in your cover letter or subject line will help us to expedite your request and avoid delays in routing your resume. We are a proud Equal Opportunity Employer and are committed to offering a healthy, non-smoking work environment, M/F/D/V.

Animal Care/Laboratory Tech, Madison, Wisconsin

The Wisconsin RPRC is seeking a highly motivated, independent individual to join a team investigating the behavioral control of endocrine function in marmoset monkeys. The successful applicant will provide directed technical support for, and will assist in running, an NIH-funded study of social and reproductive regulation of adrenal function. Applicants should have good interpersonal skills and the ability to work unsupervised. Duties include, but are not limited to, scheduling experimental procedures, collecting blood samples, performing hormone assays, performing hormonal treatment of animals, preparing and initial processing of data, coordinating student assistants, preparing supplies, and maintaining experimental records. Assistance with immunohistochemistry and with surgeries may also be required. Some weekend, evening and early morning hours will be required.

A bachelor's degree in biological science or a related field, at least one year of laboratory experience, preferably working with animals, and good computer skills are required. UW-Madison is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. Contact Wendy Saltzman, c/o Susan Carlson, Wisconsin RPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299 [608-263-3515; fax: 608-263-4031; e-mail:]. The application deadline is May 5, 2000.

* * *

Grants Available

Mentored Research Scientist Development Award

The Mentored Research Scientist Development Award (K01) provides support for an intensive, supervised career development experience in one of the biomedical, behavioral, or clinical sciences leading to research independence. Candidates for this award normally must have a research or health-professional doctorate and postdoctoral research experience at the time of application. In addition, the candidate must be able to demonstrate the need for a three, four, or five-year period of additional supervised research as well as the capacity and/or the potential for highly productive independent research. The proposed career development experience must be in a research area new to the applicant and/or one in which an additional supervised research experience will substantially add to the research capabilities of the applicant. The candidate must provide a plan for achieving independent research support by the end of the award period.

Although most of the NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs) use this award to support career development experiences which lead to independence, the characteristics of the ideal candidate may vary. Some of the ICs reserve this award for individuals who propose to train in a completely new field or for individuals who have had a hiatus in their careers because of illness or pressing family circumstances. Other ICs reserve the K01 for faculty from underrepresented groups or faculty at minority-serving institutions who may want to enhance their research skills and knowledge through a period of supervised training at a research center. Finally, some ICs use it to support a research experience that will substantially expand the knowledge and capabilities of a current postdoctoral scientist. Therefore, potential applicants are strongly advised to contact the appropriate NIH staff contact to discuss their particular situations before developing an application. Additional information about the career awards program at NIA is available from: <>.

Independent Scientist Award

The Independent Scientist Award (K02) provides up to five years of salary support for newly independent scientists who can demonstrate the need for a period of intensive research focus as a means of enhancing their research careers. This award is intended to foster the development of outstanding scientists and enable them to expand their potential to make significant contributions to their field of research.

The candidate must have a doctoral degree and independent, peer-reviewed research support at the time the award is made. Some of the NIH Institutes and Centers require the candidate to have an NIH research grant at the time of application. Other NIH Institutes and Centers will accept candidates with peer-reviewed, independent research support from other sources. Candidates are encouraged to explore this issue with the proper NIH funding unit before preparing an application. The candidate must also be willing to spend a minimum of 75 percent of full-time professional effort conducting research and research career development during the period of the award. In addition, the candidate must be able to demonstrate that the requested period of salary support and protected time will foster his/her career as a highly productive scientist in the indicated field of research. Scientists whose work is primarily theoretical may apply for this award in the absence of external research grant support.

Written and telephone inquiries concerning this PA are encouraged, especially during the planning phase of the application. Additional information about the career awards program at NIA is available from: <>.

Senior Scientist Award

The Senior Scientist Award (K05) provides stability of support to outstanding scientists who have demonstrated a sustained, high level of productivity and whose expertise, research accomplishments, and contributions to the field have been and will continue to be critical to the mission of the particular NIH center or institute. The award provides salary support for award periods of up to five years as a means of enhancing the individual recipient's skills and dedication to his/her area of research. The Senior Scientist Award (K05) permits NIH institutes and centers to identify and support exceptionally talented investigators who are well established in their field of research.

Since not all of the NIH centers and institutes support this award, potential applicants should contact the appropriate NIH program staff prior to preparing an application. See also <>.

Male Contraceptive Agents

The Contraception and Reproductive Health Branch, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), requires the design, synthesis, and testing of non-steroidal and non-hormonal male contraceptive agents that inhibit testicular sperm development, post-testicular sperm maturation, and epididymal function. Such compounds should be devoid of (or have minimal) ancillary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, and other side effects. A Request for Proposals (RFP-NICHD-CRHB-2000-03) will be issued on or about February 24, 2000. Copies may be obtained by sending a written request to Paul J. Duska, Contracting Officer, Contracts Management Branch, NICHHD, 6100 Executive Blvd, Suite 7A07, MSC 7510, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 [301-496-4611; fax: 301-402-3676; e-mail:].

NIA Pilot Research Grant Program

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is seeking small grant (R03) applications in specific areas to: (1) stimulate and facilitate the entry of promising new investigators into aging research, and (2) encourage established investigators to enter newly targeted, high priority areas in this research field. This Small Grant Program provides support for pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant that is focused on aging and/or a significant advancement of aging research.

Investigators may apply for a small grant in one of the following areas: * Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular aging. * Stems cells, tissue repair, and cell replacement in aging. * Neural modeling. * Sensory and motor processing. * Sleep and circadian processes. * Extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. * Functional senescence. * Health-related consequences of female reproductive aging. * Nutrient modulation. * Basic underlying mechanisms of musculoskeletal aging. * Animal models of aging. * Tools for research on the genetics of aging.

Information on other initiatives supported by NIA may be found at <>. Contacts: For Biology of Aging Program: David B. Finkelstein, Suite 2C231 [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail:]. For Behavioral and Social Research Program: Angie Chon-Lee, Suite 5C533 [301-594-5943; fax: 301-402-0051; e-mail: BSRquery]. For Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program: Judy Finkelstein, Suite 3C307 [301-496-9350; fax: 301-496-1494; e-mail: NNAquery]. For Geriatrics Program: Wanda Solomon, Suite 3E327 [301-435-3046; fax: 301-402-1784; e-mail:]. All of the above are at NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave., MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205. Application receipt dates are March 17; July 17; and November 17, 2000.

Skeletal Muscles, Aging, and Cardiovascular Disease

The National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) invite exploratory research grant applications (R21) for studies of whether aging and/or chronic diseases common to old age may negatively affect skeletal muscle perfusion and thereby lead to potential metabolic disorders or limit physical performance in older persons. The current understanding of potential changes in skeletal muscle perfusion in old age and its consequences remains equivocal in nature. With the recent advent of improved tools to measure skeletal muscle perfusion and to examine the muscle microvasculature, it is anticipated that exploratory studies utilizing these new methodologies will help to identify the most promising experimental approaches to address fundamental issues regarding the skeletal muscle microvasculature and blood supply in old age.

There is limited data on whether or how skeletal muscle perfusion changes with increasing age and/or with diseases common to old age, such as congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes. Thus a clear understanding of the metabolic and physical functional consequences of such changes is lacking as well. This initiative will provide research support for exploratory/pilot studies of potential changes in skeletal muscle blood flow/perfusion due to aging and/or chronic diseases common to old age. Applications submitted in response to this PA should explore the mechanism(s) by which changes in skeletal muscle blood supply could contribute to metabolic and/or physical functional problems often noted in older persons. One of the topics of interest is development and validation of appropriate animal models to examine changes in skeletal muscle microvasculature due to aging and/or disease.

Direct inquiries to: Chhanda Dutta, Geriatrics Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 3E-327 MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-435-3048; e-mail:]; Richard W. Lymn, Muscle Biology Program, NIAMSD, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6500, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 [301-594-5128; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:]; or Maren R. Laughlin, Metabolism Program, NIDDKD, Room 6101, MSC 5460, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460 [301-594-8802; e-mail:].

National Institute on Aging Institutional Training

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) will award new and competing renewal National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Training Grants (T32) to eligible institutions to develop or enhance research training opportunities for individuals, selected by the institution, who are training for careers in specified areas of aging research. The purpose of this announcement is to help ensure a broad cadre of researchers trained in the content and methods of aging research and in the major biomedical, behavioral and social areas of research most closely related to their field of study within aging. NIA supports both predoctoral and postdoctoral training in aging. The Institute also supports short-term research training for students in health professional programs as part of an overall T32 program.

Information about eligibility and other NRSA policies is available at <>; or contact: Robin A. Barr, NIA Training Officer, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 2C218 MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9322; fax: 301-402-2945; e-mail:]. The application receipt date is May 10, in 2000 and succeeding years.

Hemochromatosis and Diabetes Mellitus

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD) invites investigator-initiated research grant applications to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in hemochromatosis and other forms of iron overload, and to encourage clinical studies leading to a better understanding of the development of diabetes in patients with iron overload.

One of the appropriate topics for investigation would be development of suitable animal models for study of diabetes of iron overload. Direct inquiries to Dr. David G. Badman, Division of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases, NIDDKD, 45 Center Dr., Rm 6AS-13C, MSC 6600, Bethesda, MD 20892-6600 [301-594-7717; fax: 301-480-3510; e-mail:].

Innovative Grants on Immune Tolerance

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDKD), NIH, invite applications for exploratory/developmental research project grants to support novel work on the molecular mechanisms and applications of antigen-specific immune tolerance, which is the selective and long-term inactivation of immune responses. The projects should involve a high degree of innovation, and have a clearly articulated potential to improve understanding of immune tolerance. Investigators new to immune tolerance are particularly encouraged to develop projects in this area. Research projects will be supported by the exploratory/developmental research grant mechanism, which provides the resources to carry out preliminary tests of feasibility for new research hypotheses.

As highlighted by recent success in inducing long-term transplant tolerance in nonhuman primates, very promising opportunities and important challenges exist to develop effective protocols for the antigen-specific prevention, or even reversal, of detrimental immune responses in human allergy, asthma, autoimmune disease and transplantation. The application of new technologies such as soluble MHC-peptide reagents, the ability to conduct single cell assays, and progress in the genetic manipulation of normal cells, offer opportunities for more definitive analyses of the human immune system and for the construction of experimental animal systems that more directly model human clinical situations.

The goal of this initiative is to support truly innovative projects on immune tolerance and to encourage investigators working in other areas of research to bring novel perspectives and expertise to this field. High risk, high impact projects are sought that have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of the mechanisms that induce long-lived, antigen-specific immune tolerance for application to human disease. Studies relevant to the etiology and/or treatment of Type 1 Diabetes are of particular interest to the NIDDKD. Studies on HIV/AIDS are excluded from this program. Exploratory/developmental research grants (R21) will be used to provide funds to develop preliminary studies of a very speculative nature. Within a two- or three-year funding period, it is expected that successful projects will yield sufficient data to support a well-planned and rigorous future grant application to continue the work by competing within the general pool of unsolicited applications.

Direct inquiries to: Helen Quill, Div. of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, NIAID, 6700-B Rockledge Dr., Rm 5140, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-7551; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail:]; or Barbara Linder, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, NIDDKD, Bldg 45, Rm 5AN18A, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-594-0021; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail:]. The letter of intent receipt date is August 1; the application receipt date is September 14, 2000.

Tropical Medicine Research Centers

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, invites applications for multiproject center grants from institutions in geographic areas where tropical infectious diseases are endemic. It is the NIAID's objective to develop a flexible tropical disease research network that can be responsive to emerging scientific needs and challenges in the field of tropical infectious diseases. The purpose of the Tropical Medicine Research Center's (TMRC) program is to support high quality centers for research that will lead to or result in prevention, amelioration, and/or treatment of tropical infectious diseases and thus improve the health and quality of life of individuals in endemic areas. It is envisioned that this program will enhance opportunities for relevant experience in tropical disease research and will promote scientific linkages and interaction between U.S. and foreign investigators. Each TMRC will be included as a component of the NIAID's network of International Centers of Tropical Disease Research (ICTDR).

Non-U.S. and non-European organizations and institutions located in the tropics in or near an area endemic for tropical infections are eligible to apply. Applications may be submitted by for-profit and non-profit organizations, and by public and private institutions. To achieve the goals identified in the application, subcontract or consortium arrangements are permitted with other institutions. It will be necessary for each TMRC to demonstrate a working relationship with the appropriate government organization in the host country. It may also be convenient to develop a collaborative association with an organization such as the Pan American Health Organization or the World Health Organization. Only institutions with strong ongoing research programs will be considered.

Requests for the NIAID Information Brochure "NIAID Program Project Grants and Multiproject Cooperative Agreements" and inquiries may be directed to Dr. Elizabeth S. Higgs, Div. of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, 6700B Rockledge Dr., MSC 7630, Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-7115; fax: 301-402-0804; e-mail:]. The letter of intent receipt date is May 1, and the application receipt date is June 27, 2000.

Mechanisms of HIV-1 Trafficking in the CNS

HIV-1 infection of central nervous system (CNS) tissues results in neurological and neuropsychiatric abnormalities in a significant number of patients. The presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) precludes efficient drug penetration into the CNS compartment and thus current therapies may not eradicate latent viral reservoirs in the brain. Therefore, the CNS may serve as an important viral reservoir for reinfection of peripheral tissues subsequent to viral clearing in response to effective treatment. The BBB serves as a critical gatekeeper for regulating HIV-1 transit into and out of the CNS. It is therefore imperative to understand the mechanisms of viral passage through the blood-brain barrier in order to develop strategies for blocking early infection of this compartment as well as subsequent reinfection of peripheral tissues.

This announcement solicits applications that will examine potential pathways and mechanisms for HIV-1 entry into and out of the CNS through the BBB. In vivo and in vitro models may be proposed to study the involvement of leukocyte and monocyte trafficking, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, viral proteins (Tat, Vpr, Nef, gp120), adsorptive endocytosis, transcytosis, changes in BBB permeability, excitotoxic damage to endothelial cells, glial and endothelial apoptosis, and infection of endothelial cells or glial cells in promoting HIV-1 entry into the brain. The study of interactions of viral and host factors may lead to an improved understanding of the mechanism of establishment of CNS viral reservoirs and approaches to prevent passage of HIV-1 through the blood-brain barrier.

Direct inquiries to Jeymohan Joseph, Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS, NIMH, 6001 Executive Blvd, Rm 6202, MSC 9619, Bethesda, MD 20892-9605 [301-443-6100; fax: 301-443-9719; e-mail:]; or F. J. Brinley, Jr., Associate Director for Infection and Immunity, NINDS, 6001 Executive Blvd, Rm 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892-9521 [301-496-6541; fax: 301-402-0302; e-mail:]. The letter of intent receipt date is April 24; the application receipt date is May 24, 2000.

Specific Pathogen Free Rhesus Macaque Colonies

Increased numbers of rhesus macaques of Indian ancestry are needed for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis studies. The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), NIH, is soliciting proposals from prospective grantees who can breed rhesus macaques that are Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) and provide them to NIH grantees for AIDS-related research. The term SPF in the context of this solicitation is defined as animals free (antibody negative) of herpes B virus; simian immundeficiency virus (SIV); Type D simian retrovirus (SRV); and simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV-1).

It is also recognized that there is a special need for Major Histocompatability (MHC)-defined rhesus macaques for certain types of AIDS-related research. A major component of the evaluation of AIDS vaccines in nonhuman primates, and in humans, is the measurement of virus-specific T-cell immune responses. The majority of immunogenic Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) bind to MHC class I molecules. Mamu-A *01 is an example of one MHC class I haplotype that is important in controlling viral replication. Thus, although the screening of such animals is not within the purview of this announcement, special consideration will be given to those colonies whose programs are targeted toward selected pedigree breeding for these MHC type I haplotypes. If, for example, collaborative arrangements have been established for the screening of MHC-1 haplotype, such an arrangement would facilitate the genetic management of the colonies to provide genetically-defined animals for AIDS research. Such animals could be invaluable for the AIDS research community.

Direct inquiries to Jerry A. Robinson, Comparative Medicine, NCRR, One Rockledge Center, Rm 6164, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-435-0744; fax: 301-480-3819; e-mail:]. The application receipt date is April 26, 2000.

* * *

Advice for the Day

Do not pound on a desk with the hand that is holding the banana. - Ruth Hanschka, Connecticut

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Walker's Primates of the World. R. M. Nowak. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. [Price: $19.95]
. . . Includes an Introduction by R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, & W. R. Konstant.

* 40 Years at Gombe: A Tribute to Four Decades of Wildlife Research, Education, and Conservation. J. Goodall. New York: Stewart, Tabori, & Chang, 1999. [Price: $29.95 USA $49.00 Canada]

* The Paranasal Sinuses of Higher Primates: Development, Function, and Evolution. T. Koppe, H. Nagai, & K. W. Alt (Eds.). Carol Stream, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., 1999. [Price: $98]
. . . The contributors are K. W. Alt, A. M. Burrows, T. Koppe, M. P. Mooney, H. Nagai, Y. Ohkawa, T. C. Rae, O. Rohrer-Ertl, M. I. Siegel, T. D. Smith, F. Spoor, P. Stierna, D. R. Swindler, J. S. Todhunter, J. C. Turp, A. H. Weiglein, K. M. Westrin, L. M. Witmer, & F. W. Zonneveld.

* The Origins of Language: What Nonhuman Primates Can Tell Us. B. King (Ed.). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 1999. 440 pp. [Price: $60 (cloth); $24.95 (paper)].
. . . Contents include: Introduction: Primatological perspectives on language, by B. J. King; Viewed from up close: Monkeys, apes, and language-origins theories, by B. J. King; Primate social organization, gestural repertoire size, and communication dynamics: A comparative study of macaques, by D. Maestripieri; An empiricist view of language evolution and development, by C. T. Snowdon; Ape language: Between a rock and hard place, by S. Savage-Rumbaugh; Language evolution and expansions of multiple neurological processing areas, by K. R. Gibson and S. Jessee; The game of the name: Continuity and discontinuity in language origins, by I. Davidson; Children's transition to language: A human model for development of the vocal repertoire in extant and ancestral primate species? by L. McCune; Motivation, conventionalization, and arbitrariness in the origin of language, by R. Burling; and The invention and ritualization of language, by S. Wilcox.

* Primate Anatomy: An Introduction (2nd ed.). F. Ankel-Simons. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 2000. [Price: $59.95]

* Primate Ecology and Social Structure. Volume 1: Lorises, Lemurs and Tarsiers. R. W. Sussman. Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing, 1999. [Price: $41.95 +$6.69 shipping]
. . . A review of the literature on free-ranging nonhuman primates.

* The Rhesus Monkey Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. G. Paxinos, X-F. Huang, & A. W. Toga. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1999. [Price: $139.95]


* Annotated Bibliography on Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates, 3rd Edition. V. & A. Reinhardt (Eds.). January 2000.
. . . The printed edition is completely sold out, but see <>.


* Husbandry Protocol for Golden Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia), Revised June, 1996. Compiled by the Golden Lion Tamarin Managment Committee, with the assistance of Beate Rettberg-Beck. [Available from Jonathan D. Ballou, Dept of Zoological Research, National Zoological Park, 3000 Block Connecticut Ave., Washington, DC 20008>]

Magazines and Newsletters

* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, Septiembre, 1999, 6[3]. [&AACUTE;rea de Etología y Bienestar Animal, Fac. de Veterinaria, Centro Univ. San Pablo CEU, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia, Spain]
. . . Contents include a review article on homosexual behavior in human and nonhuman primates, by F. Guillén-Salazar & G. Pons-Salvador.

* CCC Update, Fall/Winter 1999, 10[2]. [Community Conservation, Inc., RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]
. . . Includes articles about projects in Belize and Nicaragua. Also see <>.

* The Gibbon's Voice, December, 1999, 3[1]. [International Center for Gibbon Studies, P.O. Box 800249, Santa Clarita, CA 91380]
. . . Includes "The Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch", by A. R. Mootnick & L. K. Sheeran; and "Studying the behavior of captive gibbons," by B. Merker & M. Ujhelyi.

* Gorilla Gazette, December, 1999, 13[1]. [Columbus Zoological Park Assn, 9990 Riverside Dr., Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400]
. . . Includes: Forming bachelor gorilla groups at Port Lympne, by P. Ridges; A gorilla cesarean section at the Columbus Zoo, by M. J. King; Case report on surgical management of rectal prolapse in a mountain gorilla Gorilla gorilla beringei in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, by G. Kalema; Creation of an age-diversified gorilla group through alternative means, by B. Armstrong; A medical survey of tourists visiting Kibale National Park, Uganda, to determine the potential risk for disease transmission to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from ecotourism, by H. Adams, J. Sleeman, & J. C. New; and a report from the Philadelphia Zoo, site of the tragic 1995 fire, by J. Unger Smith, a primate keeper.

* IPPL News, November, 1999, 26[3]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes "The plight of Vietnam's primates," by L. R. Baker.

* Noldus News, 1999[2]. [Costerweg 5, P.O. Box 268, 6700 AG Wageningen, Netherlands, or 6 Pidgeon Hill Dr., Suite 180, Sterling, VA 20165]
. . . Includes information on EthoVision for Windows.

* Pongo Quest: Newsletter of the Orangutan Foundation International, Fall/Winter, 1999, 9[2]. [O.F.I., 822 S. Wellesley Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90049]


* The Emergence of Optimal Housing for Chimpanzees in the 21st Century. V. Landau (Ed.). 1998 Chimpanzoo Conference Proceedings, Sponsored Program of The Jane Goodall Institute. 1999. [Price: $10 Plus $2 S&H, from Virgina Landau, Director of Chimpanzoo, The Jane Goodall Institute, Geronimo Bldg. No. 308, 800 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AR 85721]
. . . Contents include: The Integration and socialization of four responsive care raised chimpanzees at the Oakland Zoo, by J. A. Bitnoff; Strategies and tactics of intervention of wild chimpanzees, by C. Boehm; It's not your father's exhibit anymore; A video cruise through the Koch Orangutan and Chimpanzee Habitat, by R. Burton & E. Weiss; The architect's perspective of the chimpanzees of Mahale Mountain, by J. C. Coe; The Heredity of longevity in chimpanzees, by J. Grenfell & V. Landau; Gracie's grand adventure, by J. E. King; Who's training who? Trials and tribulations of training chimpanzees, by L. King & E. Weiss; Chimp Haven: Working collaboratively to provide chimpanzees with sanctuaries, by L. Koebner; Factors leading to disease and death in captive chimpanzees, by V. Landau; Longevity in chimpanzees, by E. Metelovski; Chimpanzee hunting behavior and human evolution, by C. B. Stanford; and The limits of zoo influence? By A. Weiss & J. E. King.

Special Journal Issues

* Experimental Animals, 1999, 48[5], Supplement.
. . . Abstracts from the 46th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science, held May 20-22, 1999, in Ichikawa-City, Chiba. Abstracts include: Total blood volume and specific gravity of blood in nonhuman primates, by A. Naohide, S. Hiroaki, N. Hayato, H. Kouji, K. Ayako, O. Fumiko, & T. Keiji; Age-related changes, phenotypes and T cell receptor repertory of peripheral CD4+ CD8+ T cells in cynomolgus monkeys, by K.-H. Nam, H. Akari, K. Terao, & Y. Yoshikawa; Env and gag specific CTL and natural killer activities in SHIV-89.6P infected rhesus monkeys, by H. Yamamoto, S. Ri, K. Katsuyama, K. Ibuki, T. Igarashi, & M. Hayami; Efficacy of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on artificial reproduction of Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), by N. Kusaka, R. Torii, Y. Hosoi, Y. Masuda, F. Mori, M. Yamashita, H. Nigi, & A. Iritani; Changes in the electrical impedance of vaginal mucus during the pregnancy period in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), by H. Tsuchiya, T. Yoshida, T. Ono, M. Suzuki, F. Cho, & T. Sankai; Effects of frequency of eCG administration and timing of hCG administration on follicle growth and follicular oocyte quality in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), by T. Sankai, H. Tsuchiya, & T. Yoshida; and Influence of bone metabolism by long term treatment of 0.5% calcium diet in old female Macaca fascicularis, by A. Seki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Ono, T. Takashima, R. R. G. Resullo, N. L. Malaca, & Y. Kanamori.

* Primatologie, 1999, 2, 538 pp.; or see <>.
. . . "Vision in primates" (edited by M. Imbert): Comparison of visual cortex areas in the macaques and in humans, by M. Imbert; Color vision in primates, by K. Knoblauch; Perception of the global and local dimensions of visual stimuli by primates, by J. Fagot, C. Derulle, & M. Tomonga; Understanding another's attention: Visual cues used by rhesus monkeys for perception and communication, by E. N. Lorincz, D. I. Perret, & C. I. Baker; Visual categorisation in humans and macaques, by M. Fabre-Thorpe, A. Delorme, & G. Richard.
. . . "Memory in primates" (edited by C. Chavoix): Introduction, by C. Chavoix; Development of recognition memory in the human and non-human primates, by O. Pascalis & J. Bachevalier; Memory consolidation process and hippocampal system: Anatomo-functional approach using brain imaging, by B. Bontempi, C. Laurent-Demir, R. Jaffard, & C. Destrade; The specific contribution of the prefrontal cortex to working memory and executive functions assessed by the experimental approach in the monkey, by R. Levy; Working memory: Assessment modalities and role of the dopaminergic system, by R.-M. Marii; Role of the striatum in conditional associative learning, by M. Meunier, F. Hakj-Bouziane, & D. Boussaoud.
. . . Other articles: Non-pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections in their natural hosts, the African monkeys, by M. C. Müller-Trutwin & F. Barri-Sinoussi; The green monkey: A primate model of the Parkinson's disease, by C. Frangois, J. Yelnik, E. Hirsch, & Y. Agid; Importance of a primate model for transplantation, by G. Blancho; Functional multivariate study of the talus and calcaneus of Mesopithecus pentelici, Wagner 1839 (Cercopithecoidea, Primates), by D. Youlatos; Seasonal variation of the palatability of tannic acid in a sweet solution in Microcebus murinus and its relationship to feeding behaviour, by S. Iaconnelli & B. Simmen; Environmental enrichment: Evaluation of the behavioural modifications in the presence of four kinds of litter in Cebus capucinus, by E. Ludes-Fraulob.
. . . Debate: Looking for an animal model (Macaca) in Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP), by J. Testart, B. Lefevre, S. Doumerc, & F. Oliveness; What rights for primates? Animal rights and gradualism, by G. Chapouthier; To forget the animal rights, by D. Lestel; Equatorius and Nacholapithecus: Newcomers among Miocene Apes, by B. Senut.

* The use of non-human primates in experimental medicine. Baltic Journal of Laboratory Animal Science, 1999, 9[2]. (Dr. Eugenia Cherkovich, 53 Krustpils St, Riga LV-1057, Latvia-Lettonie [e-mail:])
. . . Contents include: Principles and some trends of using primates as laboratory animals, by B. A. Lapin; Social structure of groups and reproduction in captive monkeys, by N. V. Meishvili & V. G. Chalyan; Function of adrenal cortex in Macaca mulatta in different age groups, by N. D. Goncharova & B. A. Lapin; Incidence of malignant lymphomas in the progeny of lymphomatous Papio hamadryas females, by L. A. Yakovleva & B. A. Lapin; Coronavirus infection in monkeys, by R. I. Krylova; Spontaneous bacterial and viral infections in non-human primates, by E. K. Dzhikidze, Z. K. Stasilevich, & R. I. Krylova; and The necessary rules to be observed to obtain correct values of biological normals in non-human primates (in Russian), by G. M. Cherkovich.

* The future of nonhuman primates in biomedical research. Lab Animal, 2000, 29[1].
. . . Contents include: Social enhancement for adult nonhuman primates in research laboratories: A review, by V. Reinhardt, & A. Reinhardt; The future of research on NHPs: Southwest Regional Primate Research Center, by J. Strandberg; USDA's environmental enhancement plans for NHPs: Ensuring the best care possible, by W. R. DeHaven; Refining macaque handling and restraint techniques, by R. Sauceda, & M. G. Schmidt; and The future of long-term chimpanzee care: An update, by L. Brent.

* The squirrel monkey in biomedical and behavioral research. ILAR Journal, 2000, 41[1].
. . . Contents: Introduction, by C. R. Abee; Squirrel monkey (Saimiri spp.) research and resources, by C. R. Abee; Research techniques for the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.), by A. G. Brady; Steroid resistance in the squirrel monkey: An old subject revisited, by J. G. Scammell; Squirrel monkey behavior in research, by L. Williams & M. Glasgow; and Role of the squirrel monkey in parasitic disease research, by G. G. Galland.

Anatomy & Physiology

* Somatotopic organization of cortical fields in the lateral sulcus of Homo sapiens: Evidence for SII and PV. Disbrow, E., Roberts, T., & Krubitzer, L. (L. K., Center for Neuroscience, Univ. of California, 1544 Newton Ct, Davis, CA 95616). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2000, 418, 1-21.
. . . The human somatosensory cortex in the Sylvian fissure was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe the number and internal organization of cortical fields present. Somatic stimuli were applied to the lips, face, hands, trunk, and foot of 18 human subjects. Activity patterns were transposed onto three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of the brain so that the location of activity associated with the different stimuli could be related to specific regions of the cortex. First, there were three regions of activity in the lateral sulcus associated with stimulation of the contralateral body. The most consistent locus of activation was on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus, continuing onto the operculum. The other two areas, one rostral and one caudal to this large central area, were smaller and were activated less consistently. Second, when activity patterns in the large central area resulting from stimulation of all body parts were considered, this region appeared to contain two fields that corresponded in location and somatotropic organization to the second somatosensory area (SII) and the parietal ventral area (PV). Finally, patterns of activation within SII and PV were somewhat variable across subjects. Repeated within-subject stimulus presentation indicated that differences across subjects were not due to inconsistent stimulus presentation. Comparisons with other mammals suggest that some features of organization are found only in primates. It is hypothesized that these features may be associated with manual dexterity and coordination of the hands.

* Phenotypical characterization of the neurons expressing the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the monkey striatum. Aubert, I., Ghorayeb, I., Normand, E., & Bloch, B. (UMR CNRS 5541, Lab. d'Histologie-Embryologie, Univ. V. Segalen, Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bourdeaux Cedex, France). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2000, 418, 22-32.
. . . The striatum is regulated by dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra. Several anatomical studies using in situ hybridization have demonstrated that in rodents, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are segregated into distinct striatal efferent populations: dopamine D1 receptor into ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/substance P striatonigral neurons, and dopamine D2 receptor into GABA/enkephalin striatopallidal neurons. The existence of such a segregation has not been investigated in primates. Therefore, to quantify the efferent striatal GABAergic neurons in the adult cynomolgus monkey, we detected GAD67 mRNA expression while considering that only a minority of the GABAergic population is composed of interneurons. To characterize the peptidergic phenotype of the neurons expressing dopamine D1 or D2 receptors, we examined the mRNA coding for these receptors in the striatum at the cellular level using single and double in situ hybridization with digoxigenin and 35S ribonucleotide probes. Double in situ hybridization demonstrated a high coexpression of dopamine D1 receptor and substance P mRNAs (91-99%) as well as dopamine D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A mRNAs (96-99%) in medium-sized neurons throughout the nucleus caudatus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. Only a small subpopulation (2-5%) of the neurons that contained dopamine D1 receptor mRNA also expressed dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in all regions. Large-sized neurons known to be cholinergic expressed D2R mRNA. However, within the nucleus basalis of Meynert, the large cholinergic neurons expressed D2R mRNA, but the neurons producing enkephalin expressed neither D1R nor D2R mRNA. These results demonstrate that the striatal organizational pattern of D1 and D2 receptor segregation in distinct neuronal populations, previously described in rodents, also exists in primates.

* Digesta retention in the gastro-intestinal tract of the orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Caton, J. M., Hume, I. D., Hill, D. M., & Harper, P. (Dept of Geology [Bldg 47], Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia [e-mail:]). Primates, 1999, 40, 551-558.
. . . The diet of the orang utan consists of fruit, leaves, communal insects, and bark, and contains appreciable amounts of non-starch polysaccharides which require microbial fermentation before they can be used as an energy source. The gastrointestinal tract of P. pygmaeus consists of a unipartite stomach, a relatively long small intestine, and a complex caecum and colon. This morphology suggests that the capacious proximal colon is the principal site of digesta retention and fermentation of non-starch polysaccharides. We measured several parameters of digesta retention by giving three captive adult P. pygmaeus a pulse dose of inert markers specific for the solute and particulate phases of the digesta and collected their feces at regular intervals over 192-338 hours. Transit times and mean retention times (MRT) were long, consistent with a large complex gastro-intestinal tract. MRTs for the particulate marker were longer (p = 0.032) than for the solute marker, indicative of selective retention of large particulate digesta.

Animal Models

* Foreign DNA transmission by ICSI: Injection of spermatozoa bound with exogenous DNA results in embryonic GFP expression and live rhesus monkey births. Chan, A. W. S., Luetjens, C. M., Dominko, T., Ramalho-Santos, J., Simerly, C. R., Hewitson, L., & Schatten, G. (G. S., Oregon RPRC, Depts of OB/GYN & Cell Developmental Biology, Oregon Health Sciences University, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006). Molecular Human Reproduction, 2000, 6, 26-33.
. . . Exogenous DNA transfer, mediated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with plasmid-bound spermatozoa, results in the production of transgene-expressing embryos in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, mean = 34.6%; n = 81). Rhodamine-tagged DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene binds avidly to spermatozoa. The rhodamine signal, while lost at the egg surface during in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is traced by dynamic imaging during ICSI and remains as a brilliant marker on the microinjected spermatozoa within the oocyte cytoplasm. The transgene is expressed in preimplantation embryos produced by ICSI, but not IVF, as early as the 4-cell stage, with the number of expressing cells and the percentage of expressing embryos increasing during embryogenesis to the blastocyst stage. The three offspring that resulted from seven embryo transfers (a set of anatomically normal twins, one male and one female, stillborn 35 days premature, and a healthy male born at term) demonstrate that primate spermatozoa with exogenously bound DNA retain their full reproductive capacity in ICSI, but raise the concern that, theoretically, ICSI could transmit infectious material as well.

* Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting. Chan, A. W. S., Dominko, T., Luetjens, C. M., Neuber, E., Martinovich, C., Hewitson, L., Simerly, C. R., & Schatten, G. P. (G. P. S., address same as above]. Science, 2000, 287, 317-319.
. . . Primates that are identical in both nuclear and cytoplasmic components have not been produced by current cloning strategies, yet such identicals represent the ideal model for investigations of human diseases. Here, genetically identical nonhuman embryos were produced as twin and larger sets by separation and reaggregation of blastomeres of cleavage-stage embryos. A total of 368 multiples were created by the splitting of 107 rhesus embryos with four pregnancies established after 13 embryo transfers (31% versus 53% in vitro fertilization controls). The birth of Tetra, a healthy female cloned from a quarter of an embryo, proves that this approach can result in live offspring.

* Progress and challenges in therapies for AIDS in nonhuman primate models. Haigwood, N. L. (Seattle Biomed. Research Inst., 4 Nickerson St, Seattle, WA 98109-1651). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1999, 28, 154-163.
. . . Efforts to develop animal models for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine testing have focused on lentivirus infection of nonhuman primates. A long-term goal of this primate research is to utilize the models to understand the mechanisms of pathogenesis leading to AIDS. Because the time to disease is compressed relative to HIV infection in humans, therapeutic strategies and compounds can be tested in NHP models in a shorter time frame and under more controlled conditions than are possible in many clinical studies. Recent interventive studies in primates using anitviral drugs or passive immune globulin have demonstrated that multiple logarithmic reductions in plasma virus can be achieved and sustained, with accompanying health benefits. Information gained about timing and dosage may be of utility in designing clinical studies. The development of reliable and predictable animal models for effective therapies and vaccines against AIDS remains a critical priority for primate research.

* Immunization against SIVmne in macaques using multigenic DNA vaccines. Mossman, S. P., Pierce, C. C., Robertson, M. N., Watson, A. J., Montefiori, D. C., Rabin, M., Kuller, L., Thompson, J., Lynch, J. B., Morton, W. R., Benveniste, R. E., Munn, R., Hu, S.-L., Greenberg, P., & Haigwood, N. L. (N. L. H., Address same as above). Journal of Medical Primatology, 1999, 28, 206-213.
. . . All structural and regulatory genes of SIVmne were cloned into mammalian expression vectors to optimize expression in vitro and immunogenicity in mice. Macaca fascicularis were immunized four times with plasmid DNA (n = 4), or two DNA priming inoculations followed by two boosts of recombinant gp160 plus Gag-Pol particles (n = 4). Following intrarectal challenge with SIVmne, all macaques became infected. Three monkeys immunized with DNA alone maintained low plasma virus loads by 1-year post-challenge; the fourth exhibited high virus loads and significant CD4+ cell decline. Two of the DNA plus boost and three control macaques had high virus loads and associated CD4+ cell decline. Both vaccine protocols elicited antibodies and comparable helper T-cell proliferative responses to gp160. Cytokine mRNA levels in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken at time of challenge suggested a dominant T helper 1 state in three DNA-immunized and one protein-boosted macaque, which correlated with low virus loads and high CD4+ cell counts post-challenge.


* Social anxiety, relationships and self-directed behaviour among wild female olive baboons. Castles, D. L., Whiten, A., & Aureli, F. (Department of Cognitive and Behavioural Science [Shinri], Grad. School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan [e-mail:]). Animal Behaviour, 1999, 58, 1207-1215.
. . . Self-directed behavior (SDB) can be used as a behavioral indicator of stress and anxiety in nonhuman primates. We investigated the effect of nearest neighbors' relative dominance status on the SDB of sexually mature female olive baboons, Papio anubis. When the animal nearest to (within 5 m of) a female was a dominant individual, SDB rates (a combined measure of self-scratching, self-grooming, self-touching, body shaking and yawning) increased by ca. 40% over those observed when the nearest neighbor was a subordinate. The results indicate that (1) SDB can be used as a measure of uncertainty during the social interactions of cercopithecine primates and (2) as there was considerable variation in SDB response according to the nature of the dominant individual, SDB can be used to assess relationship security (i.e., the perceived predictability of a relationship for one partner). Finally, in combination with measures of affiliation rate, SDB may provide insight into relationship value.

* The effects of social status on food-associated calling behaviour in captive cotton-top tamarins. Roush, R. S. & Snowdon, C. T. (C. T. S., Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1202 West Johnson St, Madison, WI 53706 [e-mail:]). Animal Behaviour, 1999, 58, 1299-1305.
. . . We examined the effects of social environment on food-associated calling of cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus, in two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared the food-associated calling behavior of six juvenile tamarins living in their natal groups with their calling behavior 9 months after being removed from family groups and paired. In experiment 2, we studied food-associated calling behavior of nine cotton-top tamarins immediately before and after removal from their natal groups and pairing. The tamarins underwent three separate developmental processes in their calling behavior. Animals removed from their natal groups showed an immediate reduction in vocalizations other than food-associated calls (C and D chirps). The development of precise adult forms of C and D chirps was more gradual and was a function of time since removal from their natal group rather than time since pairing. Finally, the post-removal tamarins persisted in applying C chirps to nonfood objects and showed no correlation between C-chirp rate and food preference, which is typical of immature tamarins. We conclude that social status plays an important role in the development of adult forms and usage of food-associated calls.

* Tool-set for termite-fishing and honey extraction by wild chimpanzees in the Lossi Forest, Congo. Bermejo, M. & Illera, G. (Av. Parallel 159, 2-3, 08004, Barcelona, Spain). Primates, 1999, 40, 619-627.
. . . The use of perforating sticks and flexible stalks in combination for termite fishing and a complex tool-set of three components used sequentially (stout chisel, bodkin, and dip-stick) to penetrate bee hives by Pan troglodytes troglodytes are documented or inferred from circumstantial evidence. Functionally, termite extraction tools were similar to other locations in west and central Africa, but the plants and the number of raw material species used were different. Tools varied in the degree of modification (fraying ends). Chimpanzees in the Lossi forest seem to be able to use the tools not in a stereotyped fashion, but in a flexible, insightful way. The extraction of honey using large pieces of wood as pounding tools has rarely been recorded elsewhere. This is the only known use of a tool-set of three components in sequence to extract honey by wild chimpanzees.

* Hand preferences in different tasks by tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Spinozzi, G. & Truppa, V. (Istituto di Psicologia, CNR, Reparto di Psicologia Comparata, 00197, Rome, Italy [e-mail:]). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 827-849.
. . . We examined hand preferences in 25 tufted capuchins in three tasks. The hole task involved a single action of reaching for food in a hole. The horizontal panel and the vertical panel tasks required the alignment of two apertures, by moving or lifting a panel, to reach for food in a hole. We found a significant group-level right-hand preference for reaching actions in the hole and in the horizontal panel tasks, but not in the vertical panel task, in which the food retrieval implied the complementary use of both hands. No significant hand bias emerged for moving or lifting actions with high visuospatial components. There is a stronger hand preference in more complex manual activity - coordinated bimanual hand use for food retrieval - than in other unimanual measures.

* Hand preferences for a haptic task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Lacreuse, A., Parr, L. A., Smith, H. M., & Hopkins, W. D. (Div. of Neuroscience, Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 867-881.
. . . Data from tests of the hand preferences of 20 chimpanzees for a haptic (depending on the sense of touch) task requiring individuals to search for grapes in an opaque bucket filled with water were compared to the hand preferences displayed by the same chimpanzees during reaching and bimanual feeding tasks. The chimpanzees displayed no significant hand preference for the latter tasks, but exhibited a right-hand preference while performing the haptic task. In contrast, New and Old World monkeys display left-hand preferences for similar tasks. The relevance of these findings for the evolution of handedness in primates is discussed.

* Social contact following severe aggression in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A new test of the consolation hypothesis. Matheson, M. D. (Psychology Dept, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 [e-mail:]). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 961-975.
. . . Based on the literature on social stress buffering, I predicted that, by employing longer observation periods and the percentage of time in affiliative contact as a dependent measure, I would be more likely to detect increases in affiliative contact following aggression than with the typical short observation periods and latency. I observed adult female rhesus macaques for one hour after they received severe aggression and for one hour after some affiliative contact, and measured time spent in affiliative contact using instantaneous recording at 30-sec intervals. Contrary to prediction, victims of attack did not spend a greater percentage of time in affiliative contact postaggression compared to postaffiliation. Following aggression, subjects were also less likely to initiate contact with other individuals and were more likely to have contact with individuals that were dominant to their aggressor. These results provide converging evidence that affiliative contact is not increased following aggression in macaques. I discuss the failure of my data to bear out the predictions based on the literature of social stress buffering in terms of rhesus social dynamics, the nature of aggression as a stressor, and possible mechanisms for the social stress buffering effect.


* "Peanut butter bombs": An enrichment device for captive chimpanzees. Borman, R., Gratton-Fabbri, L., & Fritz, J. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027). The Newsletter, 1999, 10[3], 1-3.
. . . Peanut butter, or another moist food such as applesauce or mustard, is smeared on the inside of destructible 1- or 2-liter plastic bottles; about one cup of food treats, such as chicken scratch or popcorn, is placed inside; and the bottle is capped. Each "bomb" takes about 4 minutes to make and will keep chimpanzees "intently occupied for between two and three hours whenever offered."

* Forage "shooter": A means to widely distribute forage materials. Murphy, J. & Fritz, J. (Address same as above). The Newsletter, 1999, 10[4], 1-3.
. . . A device, consisting of a portable air tank and PVC pipes, to blow forage into both empty and occupied cages and over a wide area.

* Clinical problem solving exercise: Neuromuscular weakness in a baboon. Newsome, J. T. & Portnoy, L. G. (Georgetown Univ., Div. of Comparative Med., Washington, DC 20007). Laboratory Animal Science, 1999, 49, 349-357.
. . . A 7-year-old female baboon presented with an initial episode of mild lameness of the left hindlimb, noticed seven weeks after surgery to place a head platform for neuropharmacological and behavioral testing. Over the following six days, the baboon became agitated and her lameness slowly worsened. An MRI of the brain revealed cystic lesions, which were eventually determined to have been most likely caused by a direct inoculation of bacteria during test injections through the head platform.


* Primate conservation: The prevention of disease transmission. Wallis, J. & Lee, D. R. (Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Oklahoma Univ. Health Sci. Center, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190 [e-mail:]). International Journal of Primatology, 1999, 20, 803-826.
. . . "We address the strategies to prevent disease transmission from human to nonhuman primates in natural settings. Some field research methods, such as gaining close proximity for observation, provisioning for habituation, or reintroducing for repopulation, may place primate subjects at risk for acquiring human-carried diseases. Additional risks arise through inadequate waste disposal or nonhygienic conditions of humans residing at the study site. We describe several disease outbreaks at primate field sites, emphasizing the need for proper protocols to diagnose, to treat, and to prevent recurrence. Finding solutions to the disease transmission problem requires effecting change in the behavior and policies of many individuals, including field researchers, veterinarians, human health care providers, park personnel, government officials, local villagers, and tourists. The prevention of exposure to infectious disease is an important, fundamental aspect of primate conservation; the assurance of good health and longevity in wild primate populations is paramont to the more traditional conservation issues of poaching control and forest protection."


* Efficacy of artesunate plus pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine for uncomplicated malaria in Gambian children: A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Von Seidlein, L., Milligan, P., Pinder, M., Bojang, K., Anyalebechi, C., Gosling, R., Coleman, R., Ude, J. I., Sadiq, A., Duraisingh, M., Warhurst, D., Alloueche, A., Targett, G., McAdam, K., Greenwood, B., Walraven, G., Olliaro, P., & Doherty, T. (Farafenni Field Station, Medical Research Council Laboratories, The Gambia [e-mail:]). Lancet, 2000, 355, 352-357.
. . . Background resistance to cheap effective antimalarial drugs, especially to pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine (Fansidar), is likely to have a striking impact on childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of artesunate (sodium artesunate) in combination with pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine may delay or prevent resistance. We investigated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this combined treatment. The combined treatment was safe, well tolerated, and effective. The addition of artesunate to malaria treatment regimens in Africa results in lower gametocyte rates and may lower transmission rates.

* Simian foamy virus infection among zoo keepers. Sandstrom, P. A., Phan, K. O., Switzer, W. M., Fredeking, T., Chapman, L., Heneine, W., & Folks, T. M. (T. M. F., HIV/Retrovirus Diseases Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and Tuberculosis Lab. Res., Mailstop G-19, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333 [e-mail:]). Lancet, 2000, 355, 551-552.
. . . We investigated 322 North American zoo workers in an anonymous serosurvey for antibodies to simian foamy viruses to establish the potential risk of zoonotic transmission by these retroviruses. Four (3%) of 133 individuals who worked specifically with mammals including primates were seropositive, primarily with chimp-like viruses, indicating the importance of work practices to reduce exposure to these agents.

* Emerging Infectious diseases of wildlife - Threats to biodiversity and human health. Daszak, P, Cunningham, A. A., & Hyatt, A. D. (Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 [e-mail:]. Science, 2000, 287, 443-449.
. . . Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with "spill-over" from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These phenomena have two major biological implications: first, many wildlife species are reservoirs of pathogens that threaten domestic animal and human health; second, wildlife EIDs pose a substantial threat to the conservation of global biodiversity.

* AIDS as a zoonosis: Scientific and public health implications. Hahn, B. H., Shaw, G. M., DeCock, K. M., Sharp, P. M. (Depts of Medicine & Microbiology, Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294). Science, 2000, 287, 607-614.
. . . Evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported for 26 different species of African nonhuman primates. Two of these viruses, SIVcpz from chimpanzees and SIVsm from sooty mangabeys, are the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Together, they have been transmitted to humans on at least seven occasions. The implications of human infection by a diverse set of SIVs and of exposure to a plethora of additional human immunodeficiency virus-related viruses are discussed.

* Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses select for amino-acid variation in simian immunodeficiency virus Env and Nef. Evans, D. T., O'Connor, D. H., Jing, P., Dzuris, J. L., Sidney, J., da Silva, J., Allen, T. M., Horton, H., Venham, J. E., Rudersdorf, R. A. Vogel, T., Pauza, C. D., Bontrop, R. E., DeMars, R., Sette, A., Hughes, A. L., & Watkins, D. I. (D. I. W., Wisconsin RPRC, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715 [e-mail:]). Nature Medicine, 1999, 5, 1270-1276.
. . . Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to human immunodeficiency virus arise early after infection, but ultimately fail to prevent progression to AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus may evade the CTL response by accumulating amino-acid replacements within CTL epitopes. We studied 10 CTL epitopes during the course of simian immunodeficiency virus disease progression in three related macaques. All 10 of these CTL epitopes accumulated amino-acid replacements and showed evidence of positive selection by the time the macaques died. Many of the amino-acid replacements in these epitopes reduced or eliminated major histocompatibility complex class I binding and/or CTL recognition. These findings strongly support the CTL "escape" hypothesis.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* Polymorphic microsatellite loci and low-invasive DNA sampling in Macaca cyclopis. Chu, J.-H., Wu, H.-Y., Yang, Y.-J., Takenaka, O., & Lin, Y.-S. (Inst. of Zoology, Acad. Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115, R. O. C.). Primates, 1999, 40, 573-580.
. . . Polymorphic genetic markers and methods for DNA sampling in the field are the basic requirements for studies on population and conservation genetics of wild Macaca cyclopis. In this paper we screened microsatellites for their polymorphism and accessed the validity in paternity identification and gene typing of DNA samples from various sources. Among the 36 primer sets tested, 21 are polymorphic with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.56. All the eight loci examined for a parent-offspring triad followed Mendelian inheritance. Application of the two most polymorphic loci in paternity identification of a captive group showed that the top-ranking male sired all the juveniles. DNA samples from wound and menstrual bleeding, or from ejaculates and hairs, produced concordant microsatellite banding patterns for specific individuals. The success in DNA extraction from samples collected with low invasion and the polymorphic loci screened in this study can be applied in future studies on population and conservation genetics of natural primate populations.

* Variation in blood proteins and mitochondrial DNA within and between local populations of longtail macaques, Macaca fascicularis on the island of Java, Indonesia. Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Kawamoto, Y., & Suryobroto, B. (Dept. of Biology, Bogor Agricultural Univ., Jalan Raya Pajajaran, Bogor 16143, Indonesia [e-mail:]). Primates, 1999, 40, 581-595.
. . . We examined 31 blood protein loci and restriction fragment length profiles of a PCR product of mitochondrial DNA containing the D-loop region using five kinds of restriction endonucleases in order to quantify the level of genetic variation of longtail macaques. Samples were collected from nine social groups in five localities of West Java. The average heterozygosity per individual was 0.060 and 15.7% of the loci were polymorphic over all populations in the protein analysis. There was no mtDNA haplotype variation within either social groups or local populations. To the contrary, great diversity was observed among local populations. Both nuclear diversity and mitochondrial diversity showed a significantly positive correlation with geographic distance. There was no significant correlation between these two genetic markers, however. The genetic structure of the population was evaluated in terms of local inbreeding and temporal changes in allele frequency. Differences between nuclear and mitochondrial data are discussed in relation to gender-specific migration and lineage sorting.


* Display of proceptive behaviors in relation to urinary and fecal progestin levels over the ovarian cycle in female tufted capuchin monkeys. Carosi, M., Heistermann, M., & Visalberghi, E. (Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, Bldg. 112, Rm 205, NICHD Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837). Hormones and Behavior, 1999, 36, 252-265.
. . . In many primate species, female sexual attractivity is influenced by behavioral cues as well as by nonbehavioral cues. Both kinds of cues are usually related to the ovarian cycle and female hormonal state. Female tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) lack any external morphological change in relation to the ovarian cycle and evidence of scent-marking behavior has never been reported. In addition, tufted capuchin males do not routinely investigate the female's body or urine. Instead, capuchin females are extremely active in sexually soliciting the males, and their courtship toward them involves a rich behavioral repertoire. The present study defines female tufted capuchin proceptivity and investigates its relationship with female reproductive state. Ovarian hormones were measured in urine and fecal samples from four captive females in order to (a) assess their reliability for monitoring female ovarian function and (b) provide information on the timing of the component cycle phases and in particular the periovulatory phase. Measurements of urinary and fecal progestin metabolites provided the best indicator of ovarian cyclicity and for timing of the periovulatory phase. Through multivariate analysis of the behavioral data set, four behaviors (eyebrow raising with vocalization, touching-and-running, nuzzling, and head cocking) which showed a marked cyclicity (21.3 days) were distinguished that matched that of urinary progesterone (21.9 days). Data showed that each period of proceptive behaviors was 2.7 ± 0.8 days long and the day of a defined luteal phase rise in urinary progesterone levels was markedly shifted toward the end of this period. Furthermore, the ejaculations observed always occurred within proceptive periods.

* Coexistence of monogamy and polygyny in black-crested gibbon (Hylobates concolor). Jiang, X., Wang, Y., & Wang, Q. (Y. W., Kunming Inst. of Zoology, Chinese Acad. of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, 650223, P. R. China [e-mail:]). Primates, 1999, 40, 607-611.
. . . All gibbons are monogamous and territorial except Hylobates concolor. This paper reports the assumption of coexistence of monogamy and polygyny in black-crested gibbons, based mainly on the observation of two adult females and two offspring of the same age category in one group. Other main reasons for the assumption are a large home range that makes it possible for more individuals to live in one group; mutual tolerance among the two females; and selection pressure favoring polygyny. ------------------------------------------


* * *

Addendum to the Directory of Graduate Programs
in Primatology and Primate Research (2000)

* University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Biological Anthropology focuses on the evolution of social behavior in humans and nonhuman primates.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan Silk (female-female relationships, infant handling, sex ratios, post-conflict behavior, coalition formation, the structure of social relationships, communication; species studied: chimpanzees, bonnet macaques, savanna baboons; current field site: Amboseli); Joseph Manson (sexual selection and social relationships, infant handling, lethal aggression; species studied: rhesus macaques, white-faced capuchin monkeys; current field site: Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica); Susan Perry (the dynamics of social relationships, social intelligence, communication, coalitionary aggression; species studied: white-faced capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys; current field site: Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553. Application procedures: contact Ann Walters, Graduate Advisor for Anthropology [310-825-2511; e-mail:]. Faculty e-mail addresses: <>, <>, and <>. Or see .

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities

Summer Research and Educational Opportunities

The American Society of Primatologists has compiled a list of summer research and educational opportunities for students. These are available at .

Veterinary Residency, Louisiana

The School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University (LSU), has two three-year resident/graduate student training positions available to start July 1, 2000. Residency training includes laboratory animal medicine, facility management, and diagnostic pathology. Residents rotate through the Veterinary School and university vivaria, two human medical research facilities, and one of two primate centers. Graduate training includes a weekly seminar/slide review/case presentation, instruction of veterinary students, graduate course work, and research leading to a master's degree in any area of science, preferably pathology. Emphasis is on preparation for board certification by ACLAM. Applicants must possess a DVM or equivalent degree, and a license to practice in at least one state within the U.S. Starting salary is $30,000 with a $750 increase annually. Applicants should send CV, a statement of goals and interests, complete transcripts, GRE scores (if available), and the names and addresses of three persons to be contacted for letters of recommendation to: Dr. Rhett W. Stout, Div. of Lab. Animal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 [225-346-3122; fax: 225-346-5705; e-mail:]. LSU is an equal opportunity employer.

Field Research in Conservation Biology

The Lincoln Park Zoo Africa/Asia Fund and Neotropic Fund support field research in conservation biology throughout, respectively, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific; and Latin America and the Caribbean. The funds emphasize support of graduate students and other young researchers, particularly those from the areas named above. The funds support between 10 and 30 projects each year. Awards are seldom greater than US$7500, and most awards fall in the range of $3000-$6000. Initial support is for up to 12 months from the date of award. Maximum duration of support is two years. Deadline for receipt of proposals is September 1. For more information write to Lincoln Park Zoo Africa/Asia Fund (or Neotropic Fund), Dept of Conservation & Science, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL 60614 [e-mail:]; or see .

* * *

All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address:

Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the World Wide Web at


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a ruffed lemur (Lemur varecia variegata) by Robert George (Florida International University)

Copyright (c) 2000 by Brown University

Assistant Editor: Elva Mathiesen

Last updated: March 17, 2000