Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 39, Number 4

Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Anamorphic Fungi Isolated from Hair of a Patas Monkey (Cercopithecus [Erythrocebus] patas), by A. M. Nieves-Rivera......1

Comparison of Observational Methods for Juvenile and Group Behavior in Mantled Howlers, by M. R. Clarke, A. M. Tremblay, & D. H. Arden......6

Utilizing Restraint Chair Training to Prepare Primates for Social Housing, by D. Marks, J. Kelly, T. Rice, S. Ames, R. Marr, J. Westfall, J. Lloyd, & C. Torres......9

Endoparasitosis in Captive Cebus apella, by A. C. M. Santa Cruz, J. T. Borda, L. Gomez, & M. I. O. de Rott......10

News, Information, and Announcements

Resources Wanted and Available......5
...Revised Animal Facilities Cost Manual on Web: Primate Materials Available for Research; Conservation Student Seeks Advice

Information Requested or Available......8
...New Procedure for Updating WDP and IDP Entries; Primate Enrichment Database; Conference Papers; More Interesting Web Sites

News Briefs......12
...Cryptosporidiosis Study; New Zoo Habitats; Chimpanzees Inherit; Monkeys Poisoned in India? Ground Broken on Space Chimps' New Home

Editors' Notes: Postage Costs Increase; Howling Howlers......15

Grants Available......17
...Fulbright Scholar Program; Extramural Research Facilities Construction Projects; NRSA Awards for Postdoctoral Fellows; Developmental Psychopharmacology; Reproduction Research Centers

Awards Granted: ACLAM Foundation Grant Awards in 2000......19

Research and Educational Opportunities......20
...Postdoctoral Training - Massachusetts; Gelada Baboon Research Partnership; Biology/Conservation Courses - Costa Rica; Training in Comparative Medicine - North Carolina; Postdoc Training in Lab Animal Medicine

Meeting Announcements......21

Travelers' Health Notes......21
...New Antimalaria Drug Registered; Potential New Treatment for P. falciparum Malaria


Positions Available......13
...Clinical Assistant/Associate Professor - Florida; Psychobiology and Integrative Animal Behavior; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology - Arizona; Veterinarian - Harvard Medical School; Veterinary Technician - Harvard Medical School; Chimpanzee Caregiver - Arizona; Veterinary Technicians - Georgia; Veterinary Technical Associate - Washington State; Clinical Veterinarian - New Mexico

Primates de las Americas...La Pagina......16

Recent Books and Articles......22

Address Changes......29

Contents of Volumes 37-39 (1998-2000)......end of issue

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Anamorphic Fungi Isolated from Hair of a Patas Monkey (Cercopithecus [Erythrocebus] patas

Ángel M. Nieves-Rivera
University of Puerto Rico


The patas monkey or red guenon (Cercopithecus [Erythrocebus] patas) (Cercopithecidae: Primates) is a common inhabitant of the open grasslands and woodland savannahs from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to Tanzania (Nowak, 1991. Patas monkeys, as well as other monkeys, are often used in complex ethological, immunological, microbiological, and physiological studies. The Caribbean Primate Research Center (CPRC) fostered the use of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and patas monkeys as experimental animals because of their similarities to humans, while being cheaper and more abundant than apes.

Free-ranging colonies of patas monkeys were introduced and maintained on Islas Cueva and Guayacán, offshore mangrove-surrounded islands (about 0.4 km2 each in area) which were part of the CPRC at La Parguera, from the late 1960s through the 1980s (Vandenbergh, 1967; Post & Wiley, 1976; Kaplan & Zucker, 1980; Zucker, 1987). Later, there were reports of patas bands living on the Puerto Rico mainland near Guayacán (Kaplan & Zucker, 1980; Loy, 1989; González-Martínez, 1995, 1998). These animals migrated and established themselves in the dry forested region of southwestern Puerto Rico, especially the open woodland savannahs of Lajas and Cabo Rojo. The rhesus macaques of Cueva and Guayacán migrated, too, but preferred the humid forests and limestone formations of Cabo Rojo and San Germán, similar to their natural habitat. Patas monkeys are hunted because they are sometimes destructive to crops and because they carry simian virus B, which is frequently lethal to humans unless treated properly (Baskin, 1999). Their new habitat is being reduced in many areas by heavy cattle grazing or urbanization. For a more complete ecological study of the free-ranging patas and rhesus monkeys in southwestern Puerto Rico, see González-Martínez (1995, 1998).

Fungal diseases, or mycoses, such as candidiasis caused by the anamorphic (asexual) Saccharomycetales Candida albicans, are frequently reported in primates (Beneke & Rogers, 1980; Letvin et al., 1984; Kwon-Chung & Bennett, 1992). Opportunistic fungi, dermatophytes, miscellaneous and deep mycoses, such as ringworm, black and white piedra, histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis, and coccidioidomycosis have been widely recorded in monkeys and apes (Sinski et al., 1965; Gordon & Little, 1968; Al-Doory, 1967, 1969; Rebell & Taplin, 1974; Beneke & Rogers, 1980; Letvin et al., 1984; Goodall, 1988; Costa et al., 1990; Mathur et al., 1991; Kwon-Chung & Bennett, 1992). Fungal surveys in primates have been published as scattered reports in various journals. Few studies, however, deal with the mycology of free-living monkeys in a natural habitat (Al-Doory, 1969), and no mycological surveys of free or corralled patas monkeys have been recorded. Although a few mycological collections have been made in southwestern Puerto Rico (Stevenson, 1975; Navarro & Betancourt, 1992; Nieves-Rivera et al., 1998), their primary focus was field mycology or phytopathology. The present study is a preliminary survey of all anamorphic fungi isolated from the hair of a patas monkey of Sierra Bermeja, in southwestern Puerto Rico.

Figure 1: Map of the southwestern region of Puerto Rico where patas monkeys have been recently seen (·). Collection site of the patas corpse indicated by (+). For a more complete map of the patas home range areas, refer to Figure 2 of González-Martínez (1998).

Materials and Methods

A total of thirty-six hair samples were collected from the head, extremities and thorax of a recently deceased male patas monkey, which was found by the author next to Road 303, km 8.4, between the barrios Las Palmas (Cabo Rojo) and Fajardo (Lajas), near the Sierra Bermeja Field Study Site (Figure 1), in the early hours of August 20, 1998. This individual had apparently been held by humans and killed; there were signs of trauma on the body and a rope tied to its left hand.

The hair samples were stored in sterile sealable plastic bags and brought to the laboratory, where they were rinsed in 70% alcohol and 10% hypochlorite to eliminate contaminants. Hairs were allowed to dry in a sterile cabinet and inoculated into Potato Dextrose Agar acidulated with 10% lactic acid (PDAac - recuperation medium). The plates were incubated at 25°C until colonies appeared. Each of the 520 colonies was transplanted to a fresh PDAac plate. Microscopic observations were made from slides mounted in lactophenol or cotton-blue in lactophenol.

Identification of Species

Seven species of anamorphic fungi were isolated from C. [E.] patas hair (Table 1).

Fungus % of Colonies Source
Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. 5 H, E, T
Cladosporium cladosporoides (Fres.) de Vries 5 H, E, T
Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. 3 E, T
Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Br.) Petch 5 H, E, T
Penicillium sp. 4 H, E, T
Trichoderma sp. 5 H, E
Trichophyton cf. mentagro-phytes (Robin) Blanchard 2 E
Unknown fungi (other filamentous anamorphs) 6 H, E, T
Total anamorphic fungi 35 -
Yeasts 65 H, E, T

Table 1. Fungi isolated from hair of a patas monkey of Puerto Rico.Percentages of 520 single-species colonies.Source: area of body sampled: H = head; E = extremities; T = thorax.

*Aspergillus fumigatus (Figure 2): - Hyphae septate, thin-walled, hyaline. Conidiophores 250-300 µm long with spatulate to pyriform vesicle, 16.6-18.8 µm wide. Phialides short, uniseriate, thin-walled, hyaline. Conidia 2.3-2.5 µm long, globose to slightly elliptical, single- celled, catenulate, thin-walled, minutely-punctate to rough-warted, hyaline. Colony white at first,then dull green when mature, cottony. Remarks: Opportunistic fungus and saprophyte (Stevenson, 1975; Beneke & Rogers, 1980; Klich et al., 1996).

Figure 2: Aspergillus fumigatus. Conidiophores, phialides and conidia. All scale bars = 10 µm.

Figure 3: Cladosporium cladosporoides Conidiophores and conidia.

Cladosporium cladosporoides (Figure 3): - Hyphae 2.5-3.7 µm in diameter, septate, thin- to thick-walled, hyaline or dematiaceous. Conidiophores variable in length, usually unbranched, arising laterally or terminally, dematiaceous. Conidia 3.6-4.8 µm in diameter, oval to slightly cylindrical with pointed ends (at one or both ends), sometimes lenticular, thin-walled, smooth to punctate, brown with a tint of olive. Colony white, then fades to dark greenish gray, cottony. Remarks: Opportunistic fungus and saprophyte (DeVries, 1952; Ellis, 1971; Stevenson, 1975).

Figure 4: Fusarium oxysporum. Hyphae and macroconidia.

* Fusarium oxysporum (Figure 4): - Hyphae septate, thin-walled, hyaline. Conidiophores variable in length, forming branches, thin-walled, hyaline. Macroconidia - 38-43.2 x 2.8-4.3 µm, fusoid-subulate, mostly 3- to 7-septate, acute at both ends, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline. Colony is white when it first develops to pinkish white (or peach) with a purple tint, sparse to abundant; sometimes wrinkled when old; cottony. Remarks: Opportunistic fungus and saprophyte (Booth, 1971; Ellis, 1971; Stevenson, 1975).

Figure 5: Nigrospora oryzae. Hyphae and blastoconidia.

Nigrospora oryzae (Figure 5): - Hyphae 3.4-7.5 µm in diameter, septate, thick-walled, dematiaceous. Conidiophores 3.5-6.2 µm thick, thick-walled, dematiaceous. Conidiogenous cells 7.2-8.4 µm in diameter, thick-walled, dematiaceous. Blastoconidia 11-13.7 µm in diameter, subglobose to slightly elliptical, not round, thick-walled, smooth, from hyaline to brown when first develops to black when mature. Colony and culture characteristics similar to those described by Ellis (1971). Remarks: Opportunistic fungus, saprophyte and phytopathogen (Ellis, 1971; Stevenson, 1975).

Figure 6: Penicillium sp. Conidiophores, phialides and conidia.

Penicillium sp. (Figure 6): - Hyphae septate, thin-walled, hyaline. Conidiophores variable in length, straight, forming branches with repeated forking, hyaline. Phialides obclavate, short, smooth, 3-4 per conidiophore, hyaline. Conidia 2.8-3.8 µm in diameter, globose to subglobose, catenulate, single-celled, thin-walled, smooth to minutely-punctate, hyaline. Colony white when it first develops, then shades to grayish green, cottony. Remarks: Opportunistic fungus and saprophyte (Beneke & Rogers, 1980; Kwon-Chung & Bennett, 1992).

Figure 7: Trichoderma sp. Conidiophores, phialides, and conidia.

Trichoderma sp. (Figure 7): - Hyphae septate, thin-walled, hyaline. Conidiophores variable in length, forming branches with phialides. Phialides obclavate with broadened rounded tips, short, smooth, 1-3 per conidiophore, hyaline. Conidia 2.9-4.1 µm in diameter, oval to slightly cylindrical, sometimes lenticular, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline. Colony white to dull green or dark greenish gray, cottony. Remarks: Opportunistic fungus and saprophyte (Beneke & Rogers, 1980; Kwon-Chung & Bennett, 1992).

Figure 8: Trichophyton cf. mentagrophytes. Hyphae and macroconidia.

Trichophyton cf. mentagrophytes (Figure 8): - Hyphae septate, thin-walled, hyaline. Conidiophores usually short, but very variable in length and width, thin-walled, hyaline. Macroconidia (macroaleuriospores) 23.3-35.7 x 4-6.2 µm long, clavate, 3-5 septate, thin- to slightly thick-walled, smooth, hyaline. Colony white to very light cream, powdery. Remarks: Dermatophyte (Rebell & Taplin, 1974; Stevenson, 1975; Beneke & Rogers, 1980; Kwon-Chung & Bennett, 1992).


Up to ten different isolates of anamorphic fungi were obtained from the hair of one patas monkey. Three of those isolates formed sterile mycelia (not Agonomycetales or Mycelia sterilia) with no reproductive structures, making identification difficult. Of the isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most likely species encountered in pathogenic and nonpathogenic material. Similarly, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp., which are commonly isolated from soil (geophilic) and are saprophytic, are considered opportunistic fungi, capable of causing conditions known as dermatomycoses, as well as other diseases.

The majority of the fungal species isolated from hair of the patas monkey were yeasts (65%; see Table 1), while a minority (36%) were anamorphic fungi. Geophilic anamorphs were members of the following genera, according to frequency of occurrence: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Nigrospora, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Trichophyton. Some isolates were unidentifiable because of the lack of reproductive stages. The few colonies of Trichophyton cf. mentagrophytes, a dermatophyte, could not be purified because of the more aggressive mitosporic fungi.

There are reports of T. mentagrophytes infection in nonhuman primates, where this fungus occurs frequently (Rebell & Taplin, 1974). Stevenson (1975) previously reported T. mentagrophytes in association with foot dyoshidrosis (tinea pedis) and ringworm of the scalp (t. capitis) from Puerto Rico. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the etiologic agent of epizootics of t. capitis in laboratory animals and ringworm in horses in the U.S. The zoophilic form of T. mentagrophytes is highly infectious to humans, causing infections in the form of solitary inflammatory lesions (Rebell & Taplin, 1974).

Nigrospora oryzae is a cosmopolitan species, especially widespread in tropical and subtropical countries on many kinds of plants; it is also isolated from air and soil. N. oryzae grows especially on rice, but is also common on grasses, cereals and other monocotyledons (Ellis, 1971; Stevenson, 1975). According to Webster (1952) N. sphaerica, a species close to N. oryzae, also has a violent spore discharge [ballitosporosis] which causes its conidia to project up to 2 cm vertically and 6.7 cm horizontally. Webster also compared the efficiency of the discharge mechanism of N. sphaerica to that of the basidiomycete Agaricus (= Psalliota) and the zygomycete Entomoph-thora. Perhaps this ballitosporic spore discharge explains the continuous finding of N. oryzae in the hair of the patas monkey. Both N. oryzae and N. sphaerica have been previously isolated in Puerto Rico (Stevenson, 1975).

Most of the isolates from patas hair were yeasts, and without the proper biochemical identification in vitro (e.g., VITEK, MIDI, BIOLOG, or API 20C clinical yeast system), further identification is difficult. The high prevalence of yeasts on skin disagree with Al-Doory (1969). He isolated 7.80% yeasts, including Rhodotorula, Candida, and Cryptococcus, among other yeast genera, from the skin of baboons during a three-year mycological survey. Al-Doory's total number of isolates of yeasts from Papio sp., including ears, nose, throat, rectum, and vagina, as well as skin, was 1102.

In conclusion, anamorphic fungi isolated from the hair of the patas monkey were cosmopolitan, saprophytic, opportunistic pathogens, and are routinely isolated from environmental samples. They are often found in clinical material as laboratory contaminants, and may become pathogenic under special conditions. However, particular attention and care should be given to avoid potential infections with T. cf. mentagrophytes, which can cause tinea barbae, t. capitis, t. corporis, t. unguium, and rarely t. cruris in humans and animals.


Al-Doory, Y. (1967). The mycoflora of the subhuman primates. III. The flora of the skin of the baboon, vervet, and gelada in captivity. Folia Primatologica, 7, 292-298.

Al-Doory, Y. (1969). The mycology of the freeliving baboon (Papio sp.). Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 38, 7-15.

Baskin, G.B. (1999). Pathology of nonhuman primates. <>.

Beneke, E. S. & Rogers, A. L. (1980). Medical mycology manual with human mycoses monograph, 4th ed. New York & London: Macmillan Publishing Company & Collier Macmillan Publishers.

Booth, C. (1971). The genus Fusarium. Kew, England: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Costa, E. O., Diniz, L. S. M., Fava Netto, C., Arruda, C. & Dagli, M. L. Z. (1990). Epidemiological study of sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis in captive Latin American wild mammals, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mycopathologia, 125, 19-22.

DeVries, G. A. (1952). Contributions to the knowledge of the genus Cladosporium. Baarn, Netherlands: Centraalbureau voor Schilmmolcultures.

Ellis, M. B. (1971). Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Surrey, England: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Goodall, J. (1988). In the shadow of man. Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company.

González-Martínez, J. (1995). Ecology of the introduced free-ranging patas and rhesus monkeys of southwestern Puerto Rico. Dissertation. Colorado: University of Colorado at Boulder.

González-Martínez, J. (1998). The ecology of the introduced patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) population of southwestern Puerto Rico. American Journal of Primatology, 45, 351-365.

Gordon, M. A. & Little, G. N. (1968). Trichophyton (Microsporum?) gallinae ringworm in a monkey. Sabouraudia, 6, 207-209.

Kaplan, J. R. & Zucker, E. (1980). Social organization in a group of free-ranging patas monkeys. Folia Primatologica, 34, 196-213.

Kilch, M. A., Samson, R. A. & Members of the International Commission on Penicillium and Aspergillus (ICPA) (1996). Aspergillus reference cultures. New Orleans, Louisiana: Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center.

Kwon-Chung, K. J. & Bennett, J. E. (1992). Medical mycology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Letvin, N. L., Daniel, M. D., Hunt, R. D., King, N. W. & Desrosiers, R. C. (1984). An immunodeficiency syndrome in macaque monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 23 [2], 1-2.

Loy, J. (1989). Studies of free-ranging and corralled patas monkeys at La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, 8, 129-131.

Mathur, M., Rizvi, T. A. & Nayak, N. C. (1991). Effect of low protein diet on chronic aflatoxin B1-induced liver injury in rhesus monkeys. Mycopathologia, 113, 175-179.

Navarro, A. & Betancourt, C. (1992). Hongos alucinógenos en el suroeste de Puerto Rico. International Journal of Mycology and Lichenology, 5[3], 175-194.

Nieves-Rivera, A. M., Lodge, D. J. & Miller, O. K., Jr. (1998). Contributions to the study of gasteromycetes of Puerto Rico. McIlvainea, 13 [2], 50-58.

Nowak, R. M. (1991). Walker's mammals of the world, 5th Ed. Vol. 1. Baltimore & London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Post, W. & Wiley, J. W. (1976). The yellow-shouldered blackbird - Present and future. American Birds, 30, 13-20.

Rebell, G. & Taplin, D. (1974). Dermatophytes: Their recognition and identification. Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press.

Sinski, J. T., Lowe, E. P., Conant, N. F., Hardin, H. F., Castleberry, M. W. & Ray, J. G., Jr. (1965). Immunization against experimental lethal simian coccidioidomycosis using whole killed arthrospores and cell fraction. Mycologia, 57, 431-441.

Stevenson, J. A. (1975). Fungi of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Braun-Brumfield, Inc.

Vandenbergh, J. C. (1967). The development of social structure in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Behaviour, 29, 179-194.

Webster, J. (1952). Spore projection in the hyphomycete Nigrospora sphaerica. The New Phytologist, 5 [2], 229-235.

Zucker, E. L. (1987). Interspecies interactions between free-ranging patas (Erythrocebus patas) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. In E. L. Zucker (Ed.), Comparative behavior of African monkeys (pp. 99-125). New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.

Author's address: Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, P. O. Box 9013, Mayagüez, PR 00681-9013 [e-mail:].
Thanks are expressed to Dr. Janis González-Martínez (CPRC, Sabana Seca) and Prof. José Muñoz (Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y el Caribe, San Juan) for providing further literature on primates and helpful comments on earlier drafts of the text. I am indebted to Mr. Miguel A. Rodríguez (Inter American University, San Germán Campus) for his assistance to this research. My sincere appreciation to Mrs. Carmen Amorós and various staff members of the Main Library (Univ. Puerto Rico-RUM, Mayagüez) for their cooperation during this study. Figure 1 has been slightly modified from a map provided by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge Office.

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Resources Wanted and Available

Revised Animal Facilities Cost Manual on Web

The National Center for Research Resources at NIH has released the revised edition of its "Cost Analysis and Rate Setting Manual for Animal Research Facilities." It is available in .pdf format on the web at: <>. Print copies may be obtained by calling NCRR at 301-435-0888.

Primate Materials Available for Research

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) Aging Cell Repository has assembled panels of primate materials for distribution. These panels contain samples from the following nonhuman primates: ring-tailed lemur, black-handed spider monkey, woolly monkey, red-bellied tamarin, pig-tailed macaque,rhesus macaque, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, and bonobo. These samples are available either as fibroblast cultures or DNA. For additional information see <> or contact the NIA Aging Cell Repository, Coriell Cell Repositories, 401 Haddon Ave, Camden, NJ 08103 [800-752-3805 (U.S.); 856-757-4848 (other countries); fax: 856-757-9737; e-mail:]. - Posted to CompMed July 7, 2000

Conservation Student Seeks Advice

In the Spanish language Página on pages 16-17 of this issue, Karenina Morales, a senior at the University of El Salvador, writes of the extreme danger of extinction to the small population of spider monkeys (Ateles geofroyi) in her country. She is seeking help from primatologists in writing a proposal for an entensive study which would be both the basis for her final thesis and a document to the El Salvador government suggesting ways to conserve the spider monkeys. Karenina Morales, Facultad de Biología. Universidad de El Salvador [e-mail:].

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A Comparison of Methods for Observing Juvenile and Group Behavior in Mantled Howlers

Margaret R. Clarke, Adrienne M. Tremblay, and Douglas H. Arden
Department of Anthropology, Tulane University


As part of a proposal for a long-term study of emigration in mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), a preliminary study was carried out to evaluate if there were an observation method that could be accurately carried out by one field worker to document simultaneously the activity of a focal (or specific) juvenile and its social group. Focal animal observations (all behaviors and interactions of a specific animal, as in Altmann, 1974) and focal group activity (main activity of a specific group, as in Marsden & Bateson, 1994) were recorded by a fieldworker who had not systematically observed free-ranging animals before. Observations were compared with focal group sampling done by a more experienced fieldworker, who also recorded major group activity at 5-minute intervals (concurrent instant scan samples) throughout the observation period.


Study Site: The study was done at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch turned rice farm, in the dry tropical zone (Holdridge, 1967) of Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. The howler population on this ranch has been studied intermittently since the mid 1970's, including long term population studies by Glander since 1970, and by Clarke since 1978. There are three rivers that are boundaries for the main part of the ranch, and howlers can be found in both primary forest riparian habitat and secondary forest upland habitat. The farm was deforested in a conservative manner, leaving forest strips for windbreaks and large forested areas in rocky, hilly areas that were less appropriate for cattle pasture. (see Glander, 1980 and 1994; Clarke et al., 1986; Clarke & Zucker, 1994; and Clarke et al., 1999, for more complete descriptions of the farm and monkey population).

Subjects: The subjects of the present study are members of a group (Group 2 in Scott et al., 1978) that inhabits an approximately L-shaped upland forest area that previously had been irrigated with low-level but constant canal water, but in recent years has been subject to a more variable irrigation regimen. This group has been under observation by Zucker and Clarke since 1984 and has been intermittently captured and marked by Scott or Glander since 1975 (Glander et al., 1991; Scott et al., 1976), so group migration patterns and maternal relatedness are fairly well known. There were two adult males, seven adult females, two juveniles, and four infants in the group.

Observational Procedures: During June and July of 1999, 76.5 hours of focal animal observations (Altmann, 1974) were carried out in conjunction with focal group activity (all behaviors, Martin & Bateson, 1994) by a less experienced field observer (DHA), while 77.1 hours of focal group activity and 5-minute instant scan samples (Altmann, 1974) were carried out at the same time by a more experienced observer, MRC.

Analysis: Observations were tabulated for "rest/sit", "feed", "travel" and "other" for group activity, and for "rest/sit", "feed", "travel", and "play" for focal juvenile observations. Total durations for focal observation activity (juvenile: DHA; group: DHA; group: MRC) were calculated, and total frequencies of group activity scans (group: MRC) were tabulated.

Due to "lost time" on the juvenile focal observations, results comparing juvenile activity, and group activity (DHA and MRC) were based on a total of 57.5 hours, while the comparison of group focal observation and scan samples were based on 73.8 hours.

An additional "mini-analysis" was done to evaluate the concordance of group activity data if the DHA focal group data were converted to instant scan samples. A limited number of hours of data of group activity were converted to instant scans using the same times and intervals as the MRC instantaneous scan samples.


The comparison of total activity for the group during the same time by both observers are shown in Figure 1. While the overall patterns are fairly close, rest and feed are over-represented, while travel is under-estimated, by the observer also following a focal juvenile.

Figure 1: Group daily activity patterns, recorded by MRC (solid) and DHA (hatched).

The comparison of total activity for the focal juvenile and the group are shown in Figure 2. It is clear that the activities of focal juveniles and the rest of the group are not identical. The anecdotal impression that juveniles feed more and play more are supported by these data. Group "travel" appears to be skewed toward the juvenile's behavior.

Figure 2: DHA's data for juvenile vs. group activity.

The comparison of total activity by focal group activity vs. instantaneous scan sample are given in Figure 3.Each represents a percent of total:for focal sampling, a percentage of total duration of behaviors, and for scan sampling, a percentage of total scans. Patterns were similar, and, surprisingly, the scan samples were more effective at identifying "other" than the focal group sampling.

Figure 3: MRC's focal group vs. group scan data.

The "mini-analysis" of converted DHA group activity data and MRC group activity data indicated a concordance of 94.1%. Inspection of the data revealed that the differences appeared when the group was alternating between feeding and traveling, and were limited to only one nonconcordant scan in a feeding or traveling sequence.


1. It is feasible for focal animal observations to be carried out on a juvenile howler in conjunction with focal group activity observations.

2. Group activity appears to be adequately evaluated by either focal group observations or 5-minute instantaneous scan samples, although the scan sample underestimates travel time.

3. Scan samples taken from concurrent focal animal/ group activity observations closely approximate those taken from scan samples alone.


1. The observation method of choice appears to be focal animal sampling on the juvenile, and instantaneous scan samples at 5-minute intervals for group activity.

2. The required scan sample has the additional benefit of forcing the observer to note group activity at a specific time rather than when it is noticed as different from the focal animal activity.


Altmann, J. (1974). Observational methods for behavioral research. Behaviour, 49, 227-265.

Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L., & Scott, N. J., Jr.(1986). Population trends of the mantled howling groups of La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. American Journal of Primatology, 11, 79-88.

Clarke, M. R. & Zucker, E. L. Survey of the howling monkey population at La Pacifica:A seven-year follow-up. International Journal of Primatology, 15, 61-73.

Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L., Crockett, C. M., & Zaldivar, M. (1999). Population parameters of the howling monkeys of La Pacifica. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 27, 108-109.

Glander, K. E. (1980). Reproduction and population growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 53, 25-36.

Glander, K. E. (1994). Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican mantled howling monkeys. International Journal of Primatology, 15, 61-73.

Glander, K. E., Fedigan, L. M., Fedigan, L., & Chapman, C. (1991). Field methods for capture and measurement of three monkey species in Costa Rica. Folia Primatologica, 57, 70-02.

Holdridge, L. R. (1967). Life zone ecology. Costa Rica: Tropical Science Center.

Martin P. & Bateson, P. (1993). Measuring behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, N. J., Jr., Scott, A. F., & Malmgren, L. (1976). Capturing and marking howler monkeys for field behavioral studies. Primates, 17, 527-534.

Scott, N. J. Jr., Malmgren, L .S., & Glander, K. E. (1978). Grouping behavior and sex ratio in mantled howling monkeys. In Chivers, D. and Herbert, J. (eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology, 1 (pp. 183-185). New York: Academic Press.

First author's address: Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, New Orleans LA 70118 [e-mail:].
This is the text of a poster presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Primatologists, June 21-24, 2000, Boulder Colorado. An abstract was published in the American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 51, 51.
The authors would like to thank the Department of Anthropology and the Graduate School of Tulane University for support for the analysis of this project.
We also thank the management of Hacienda La Pacifica for allowing us access to their property and observation of the free-ranging howling monkeys, and Ken Glander for capturing and marking animals.


* * *

Information Requested or Available

New Procedure for Updating WDP and IDP Entries

Primate Info Net (PIN) has announced that their two directories, the World Directory of Primatologists (WDP) and the International Directory of Primatology (IDP), are soon to undergo a change in the way entries are created or revised. All entries, which will be protected by a password, now will be updated online. People with entries in the directories will receive messages with their passwords when the new system is ready to go.

Primate Enrichment Database

Viktor and Annie Reinhardt announce revisions to their Primate Enrichment Database. They have reduced duplication, simplified searching, and included active links to all papers that are available on the Web.See <>

Conference Papers

The full texts of all papers presented at the conference "Australian Primate Welfare in a New Millennium", held November 11, 1999 in New South Wales, are available at <>. Speakers presented views on a wide variety of welfare-related topics. For further information, contact: Lynette Shanley, President, Primates for Primates, Australian Representative, IPPL, P.O. Box 60, Portland NSW 2847, Australia [61 2 63554026/02 6355 4026; e-mail:].

Selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000 are available at <>. The conference was held July 16-19, 2000, in Atlanta, Georgia, and attended by over 1800 public health professionals representing many specialty areas.

More Interesting Web Sites

* American Committee on Laboratory Animal Diseases: <>

* Calculator for human and animal dosage conversions: <>

* Carel van Schaik's Orangutan Network: <;

* Duke University Primate Center: <>

* Environmental Enrichment for Caged Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Photographic documentation and literature review, byV. & A. Reinhardt. <>

* Gibbon Research Lab, including sound recordings: <>

* Guidelines for Importation of Human and Nonhuman Primate Material: <>

* Mazuri animal feed information: <>

* Primate Taxonomy: <>

* Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A: <>

* TOPAZ Technologies' animal community Web site: lt;>

* USDA APHIS Animal Care Policy Manual: <>

* Zoo exhibit design discussion: <>

* * *

Utilizing Restraint Chair Training to Prepare Primates for Social Housing

D. Marks, J. Kelly, T. Rice, S. Ames, R. Marr, J. Westfall, J. Lloyd, and C. Torres
Coulston Foundation

In these times of ever changing perspectives and regulations involving nonhuman primates in research, it is necessary to incorporate behavioral management into all aspects of a facility's program. Recently, we received six juvenile (two-year-old) hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas; three females, three males) for a short-term project which required them to be singly caged and restrained in chairs. Knowing that this project was short in duration, and since the main objective in our enrichment program is socialization, we created a plan to begin familiarizing the juveniles with one another immediately.

We used the methods and equipment developed by Primate Products.We began by fitting each baboon with an appropriate size collar (while they were anesthetized for their initial physicals), and then observing to ensure the collars' fit and comfort. Next, we attached a pole to the squeeze back of each baboon's cage (simulating a perch), allowing them to get used to the presence of the pole. Once the baboons were comfortable with the pole, we began attaching it to their collars, removing the animals from their cages, and maneuvering them around the room. Now the restraint chair was placed in the room to allow the baboons to become familiar with it. After two weeks of daily pole-to-collar familiarization, we began placing the baboons in the restraint chair. The first day we kept each baboon in the chair for five minutes. Over two weeks we increased the time every day until they were spending one hour per day in the chair. At the end of four weeks of training, the baboons showed no signs of stress when the pole was attached to their collars, and almost always got into the chair with no fuss.

In the early stages of training we allowed the baboons to see and communicate with each other while we were walking them around the room getting them used to the pole. Once they were trained to the chair, we would place the chairs near each other so that the baboons could touch each others' hands if they wanted to. We watched closely, to prevent any grabbing or other aggressive action. Once the study began, these contacts were continued without any negative effects on the study.

We placed two 18-ft2 cages, with perches and squeeze backs, face to face with each other in a room adjacent to the room with the baboons' individual cages. When the study was completed, we brought the baboons in to form social groups, one all-male and the other all-female. On the day of socialization,animals were removed from individual cages using the pole and collar and walked to the room with the large cages. The oldest male, and then the oldest female, were placed in the new cages. Another male, and then another female, were brought in and allowed to get acquainted with the others for about 5 or 10 minutes before the last animals were introduced in the same way.

Animals were continuously observed for the first hour of socialization, then left alone for 30 minutes, then one hour, then two hours, and finally left until the next day. The male baboons played roughly shortly after the initial introductions and then occasionally until they were shipped to another facility. The female baboons explored each other, and hugged and groomed one another throughout the socialization period. The males also groomed one another. By the second and third day, it was obvious within both groups that they had formed a dominance hierarchy.

Juvenile male hamadryas baboons in a group cage.

Because we do not have a long-term holding facility for baboons, we had been attempting to find a new location to which to transfer the animals when the study ended. We were contacted by a zoo that was creating a new exhibit for hamadryas baboons; they were extremely interested in our animals, especially because they were already socially grouped. We have since shipped the baboons to the zoo, and they are doing marvelously in their new habitat. By utilizing the principles of behavioral management and by working together as a team, we were able to create a successful plan and permanent future for these six juvenile baboons.


Authors' address: Coulston Foundation, 1300 LaVelle Road, Alamogordo, NM 88310 [e-mail:


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Endoparasitosis in Captive Cebus apella

Antonia C. M. Santa Cruz, J. T. Borda, L. Gómez, and M. I. O. de Rott
Grupo de Investigaciones Primatologicas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste

Several of the endoparasitic diseases affecting capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, or monos caí) have been described in Argentina (Coppo et al., 1977; Mazza, 1930; Mazza et al., 1930; Moriena et al., 1977; Santa Cruz et al., 1998); a few descriptions come from other regions as well (Fowler, 1993; Gozalo & Tantaleán, 1996). Most of the cases reported have been isolated findings during necropsy, and not the results of systematic investigation. After three decades, many fundamental aspects of these parasites - their life cycles, prevalence, and pathogenesis - are still unknown.

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of endoparasites affecting Cebus apella.

Subjects, Materials, and Methods

This study was carried out at the Centro Argentino de Primates and at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, both located in Corrientes, Argentina (38ş 12" lat. and 57ş 30" long.).

The study group was a colony of 60 capuchin monkeys (40:20) of various ages, weights, and origins, housed in 15-m3 outdoor cages with cement floors. The cages were cleaned daily. The animals lived in harems consisting of one adult male with three adult females, or in groups of three or four juveniles or subadults. They were fed monkey biscuits with a protein content of 24%, which was given at the rate of 9% of each animal's body weight per day; in addition they received seasonal fruit. Water was provided ad libitum.

Samples of fecal matter were obtained from all 15 cages. In an attempt to make sure that every animal was represented, samples were collected from several places in each cage and then mixed together to form a blended sample from each cage. Parasites in each cage's blended sample were identified and counted by direct examination, by Willis's method, and by special sedimentation (Basso et al., 1987).

In order to identify the parasitized individuals, and which parasites they carried, we isolated each animal indoors in a 1 m3 stainless steel cage with a catch-pan under the grate. Their fecal matter was collected within 24 hours and examined by the three methods named above.

In addition, necropsies were performed on six animals, not in the study group, who died of causes unrelated to endoparasitosis.


Examination of fecal matter revealed the presence of the vegetative form of Trichomonas sp. The organisms were extremely active, squirming and appearing to vibrate. Their lengths ranged from 10 to 15 microns.

Figure 1: Egg of Strongyloides sp.(40X)

Eggs of Strongyloides sp. (Figure 1) were observed in varying degrees of infection, ranging from light (1 to 2 eggs per 40X microscopic field) to heavy (more than 12 eggs per field). The eggs were 55 to 57.5 microns long by 27.5 to 32.5 microns wide.

Figure 2: Larva of Filariopsis arator(40X)

We also observed first-stage larvae of Filariopsis arator (Figure 2), which were very active and displayed serpentine movements. Infections ranged from light (1 or 2 larvae per field) to heavy (more than 12 larvae per field). The larvae were 300-448.8 microns long by 10.2-12 microns wide.

In addition we found eggs of cestodes of the family Anoplocephalidae (Figure 3) in low (1 to 2 eggs per field) to moderate (6 to 12 eggs per field) numbers. These eggs, each containing a single embryo with six hooks, were spherical or nearly spherical in shape and ranged from 52.5 to 70 microns in diameter.

Figure 3: Egg of a cestode with six-hooked embyro anoplocephalid (40X)

In the peritoneal cavities of all six necropsied monkeys we found adults of Filaria sp. (Figure 4), in numbers ranging from one to five. The female Filaria ranged from 210-300 mm. long; the males were 110-112 mm. long.

Figure 4: Filaria sp. 210 microm.

We observed numerous nodules protruding from the lungs of all six necropsied animals. The nodules were dark brown in color, 3 to 5 mm. in diameter, some adjoining each other. Microscopic examination of the nodules' openings revealed organisms that we identified as adults of both sexes of Filariopsis arator (cf. Santa Cruz, et al., 1998).

Figure 5: Percentages of parasites found in fecal matter collected from 60 monkeys in 15 cages (across all 15 blended samples and all three methods of analysis).

Parasite # of infected animals % of animals infected
Filiariopsis arator 37/60 45.67
Strongyloides sp. 17/60 20.98
Trichomonas sp. 16/60 19.75
Cestodes (Anoplocephalidae) 11/60 13.58

Table 1: Proportion of the study group (60 animals) infected by each parasite

The relative prevalence of the parasites we found are summarized in Figure 5. During the second phase of the study, when we collected fecal samples from the isolated animals, we found that 17 had no parasites, while 43 animals were infected with one or more kinds of parasite. Table 1 shows the number and percentages of animals infected by each parasite, while Table 2 shows the number of monkeys infected by each observed combination of parasites.

of Parasite
# of Animals
FilariopsisTrichomonas Cestodes Strongyloides

no no no no 17
yes no no no 26
yes yes yes yes 8
no yes yes yes 3
no yes no yes 3
yes yes no yes 2
yes no no yes 1

Table 2: Number of monkeys infected by each combination of parasites.


The prevalence of Filariopsis arator was highest, followed by Strongyloides sp. and Trichomonas sp. Cestodes of the family Anoplocephalidae were least prevalent. It is interesting to note that the proportions of infected animals (Table 1) roughly mirror the proportions of parasites found in the blended samples from the group cages (Figure 5). These data lead us to believe that the three most prevalent parasites must have a direct life cycle, which would facilitate intraspecific transmission in groups of animals that share the same habitat. On the other hand, the anoplocephalids, with an indirect life cycle, propagate according to the availability of intermediate hosts, causing variations in their prevalence.

We attempted to control the parasitic infections by the following methods:

For Strongyloides sp. and Filariopsis arator we used ivermectin with a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously. This controlled the Strongyloides adequately, but its results with F. arator were disappointing.

For the cestodes we used praziquantel with a dosage of 5 mg/kg injected subcutaneously.This treatment produced excellent results.


We found different degrees of prevalence of several endoparasitic infections affecting capuchin monkeys in captivity. Despite cleaning cages daily and administering the antiparasitic drugs ivermectin and praziquantel, only two parasites could be controlled: Strongyloides sp. with ivermectin, and cestodes with praziquantel. F. arator was not affected by ivermectin, and we did not attempt treatment for Trichomonas sp. or Filaria sp.

Under some conditions, eradicating or controlling some of these parasites may be impossible. If any readers have had better results in eradicating or controlling these parasites, we would be grateful if you would communicate with the authors.


Basso, N., Resio, E. C., Dughetti, R. P., Giménes, R. A., Pérez-Tort, R. B., Rosa, A. B., & Welch, E. L. (1987). Fundamentos de parasitológia veterinaria. Buenos Aires: Editorial Hemisferio Sur.

Coppo, J. A., Moriena, R. A., & Lombardero, O. J. (1977). El parasitismo de los primates del CAPRIM. VII Congreso Latinoamericano de Zoología (Tucumán), Resúmene, 28.

Fowler, M. E. (1993). Zoo and wild animal medicine: Current therapy, vol. 3. Philadelphia: Morris Animal Foundation.

Gozalo, A. & Tantaléan, M. (1996). Parasitic protozoa in Neotropical primates. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 35[3],1-7.

Mazza, S. (1930). Doble parasitación por Filarias en monos Cebus del Norte. 5a. Reunión de la Sociedad Argentina de Patológia Regional del Norte, 1140-1145.

Mazza, S., Parodi, S., & Brachetto Brian, B. (1930). Estongilosis intestinal y pulmonar en el Cebus libidinosus. 5a. Reunión de la Sociedad Argentina de Patología Regional del Norte, 1054-1063.

Moriena, R. A., Lombardero, O. J., & Coppo, J. A. (1977). Nuevos parásitos de primates para la Argentina. VII Congreso Latinoamericano de Zoología (Tucumán). Resúmenes, 55.

Santa Cruz, A. M., Borda, J. T., de Rott, M. I. O., & Gómez, L. (1998). Pulmonary Filariopsis arator in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 37[1], 15-16.

Grupo de Investigaciones Primatológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNE), Sargento Cabral 2139, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina. This research was supported by Proyecto de Investigación (PI) No. 181, of the Secretaría General de Ciencia y Técnica, UNNE.
An earlier form of this paper was presented at the XV Panamerican Congress of Veterinary Sciences, 21-25 October, 1996, in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
We thank Dr. Juan Carlos Sampietro and Mr. Martín Rodríguez of the Dept. of Fotography and Video of the Fac. Cien. Vet., UNNE, for their assistance; Elva Mathiesen and Dr. Morris Povar for their translation; and Dr. Russ Church for comments.

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News Briefs

Cryptosporidiosis Study

The Morris Animal Foundation is funding, through the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, a study of Cryptosporidium, an infectious pathogen that infects cells of the gastrointestinal tract and causes diarrhea in the mountain gorilla. Dr. Thaddeus Graczyk, of Johns Hopkins University's School of Hygiene and Public Health, in conjunction with African scientists, is conducting a study to determine the prevalence and intensity of Cryptosporidium infections among human-habituated mountain gorillas of the Virunga Mountains and Bwindi Impenetrable Forest. The investigators have determined that mountain gorillas maintain their own "animal-specific" genotype of Cryptosporidium, which can be transmitted from gorillas to other animals and can be contracted by gorillas from other animals. They have also found that mountain gorillas are exposed to the human-specific genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum in their environment and this genotype is able to recombine with the genotype characteristic for gorillas.

The investigators plan to develop a management strategy for preventing or controlling Cryptosporidium transmission among mountain gorillas. They also want to determine if these infections in gorillas, domestic animals, or humans contribute to environmental contamination. The increasing amount of ecotourism and conservation management of mountain gorillas is believed to be the cause for the transmission of parasites from humans to gorillas and vice versa. - From the Morris Animal Foundation's Friends & Family, Summer, 2000

New Zoo Habitats

USA Today featured some new zoo habitats for primates in its August 18 edition.

* The new $6.5 million Red Ape Rain Forest exhibit at the Los Angeles Zoo mirrors the rain forests of Indonesia, where orangutans swing on vines, tree limbs and bamboo "sway poles." Visitors follow the apes' antics from a safe distance on elevated decks and bridges, protected by a tentlike enclosure of strongmesh that extends more than 25 feet high. See < >.

* The Philadelphia Zoo has opened their PECO Primate Reserve, designed to resemble an abandoned timber mill that has been converted into a conservation center. The reserve is a 2.5-acre facility that tells the story of 11 primate species, from Sumatran orangutans to pygmy marmosets. Visitors can listen in to the sounds of the jungle, thanks to microphones placed throughout the exhibit. See <>.

* The North Carolina Zoo, in Asheboro, has increased its number of hamadryas baboons from 10 to 15, with the addition of five young baboons who arrived this past winter. The five youngsters, three males and two females, range in age from 19 to 26 months and were acquired from a research lab. The keepers spent almost four months integrating the five into a single group and then introducing them to the ten adults. The results exceeded expectations and the adult baboons quickly adopted the juveniles. They can be seen riding on the backs of adult females (a typical behavior), receiving hugs for reassurance and lots of grooming, and showing plenty of play behavior. Numbers of hamadryas baboon in the US zoo population have declined, with only about 75 remaining. See <>

Chimpanzees Inherit

COPENHAGEN (Reuters) - Six chimpanzees in Copenhagen zoo have inherited $60,000, the tabloid Ekstra-Bladet reported Wednesday. Jimmy, Trunte, Fifi, Trine, Grinni and Gigi were named as sole heirs in the will of an 83-year-old widow who had no living relatives of her own. A zoo spokesman said the money would be used to improve the facilities of the chimpanzee area. - Posted to Primate-Science by Lyna Watson

Monkeys Poisoned in India?

Over 40 monkeys, it is believed, have been poisoned by irate farmers in India. The bodies of nine monkeys were found dead in the Ukhli Beet forest, Adhar forest range of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. The bodies have been sent for post mortem to determine the exact cause of death. Primary investigations, however, revealed that the animals did not die because of any illness, but had probably been poisoned. Some maize or gram laced with some poison had been thrown into the fields by farmers, who were apparently sick of the damage being caused by the animals to the crop. - by Jagdish Bhatt, Times of India News Service; Posted to Alloprimate August 28

Ground Broken on Space Chimps' New Home

A secluded tract of land in Fort Pierce, Florida, will soon be home to some retiring supporters of the United States' early space program. The Center for Captive Chimpanzee Care has held its official groundbreaking for a chimpanzee sanctuary to be built for 21 descendants and companions of the Air Force's "space chimps." At the ceremony, Carole Noon, director of the planned center, thanked the advocates and groups who have helped with the sanctuary project. Upon completion, the first stage of the project will house the 21 chimpanzees and encompass approximately six of the 150 acres the non-profit organization purchased. If the center expands to more of the available land, Noon says it could eventually hold 150 to 200 chimpanzees.

Elements of phase one will include a research center for administrative facilities and an introduction building where the chimpanzees will be brought initially to begin socialization with each other. After they form groups, the chimps will be moved to group housing complexes connected by a land bridge to an island surrounded by a lake. The chimps can then move freely among the group housing buildings or out to the island. The center does not wish to disturb the chimpanzees in their new environment, so it might install closed-circuit television cameras for researchers to observe them. - From the Fort Pierce News, August 18. See <>

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Positions Available

Clinical Assistant/Associate Professor - Florida

The University of Florida, Animal Care Services, seeks to fill a position for a Clinical Assistant/Associate Professor. Of special interest with this position is the management of surgical facilities and anesthesia procedures on all species, including primates. This position will be one of three clinical veterinarians providing institutional veterinary care services to a variety of animals. Primates included here are small numbers of monkeys, but no great apes or chimps. The other two veterinarians already on board include one with rodent/rabbit interests and the other with primate interests.

Qualifications include a DVM degree with experience in laboratory animal medicine and ACLAM board certification or eligibility. Rank and salary will be commensurate with experience and qualifications. Appointment will begin November 15, 2000, or sooner. The closing date for applications is October 15, 2000. To apply send CV and two letters of recommendation to Kirk N. Gelatt, VMD, Distinguished Professor of Comparative Ophthalmology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Box 100126, Gainesville, FL 32610-0126 [352-392-4700, x 5855; fax 352-392-6125].

For a review of the Animal Care Services unit and the rest of the animal care program at UF, see <>. UF is an equal opportunity/ affirmative action employer. Women and members of minority groups are encouraged to apply.

Psychobiology and Integrative Animal Behavior

The Psychology Department, University of Nebraska at Omaha, invites applications for a tenure-track Assistant Professor with emphasis on the mechanisms of behavior.UN-Omaha and the Psychology Department are committed to achieving diversity among faculty and staff. Persons from underrepresented groups, women, and persons of color are particularly encouraged to apply. UN-Omaha is also supportive of dual-career couples, and we invite applications accordingly. The successful candidate will conduct research at the interface between proximate and ultimate levels of analysis, and will develop a fundable research program. A research area in molecular, neuroendocrine, or physiological approaches to the study of behavior is preferred, although candidates in all areas are encouraged to apply. The psychobiology program will occupy new $2.5 million laboratory facilities in December, 2000. The successful candidate will teach and train students in the department's degree programs (BA/BS, MA, and PhD). Scientists with a completed PhD (post-doctoral experience preferred) may apply by sending a cover letter, CV, representative publications, statement of teaching philosophy and interests, and three reference letters to Dr. Kenneth Deffenbacher, Chair, Psychology Department, University of Nebraska, Omaha NE 68182-0274. Inquiries about the psychobiology program can be addressed to Dr. Jeff French at the same address [e-mail:]. Applications received by December 1, 2000, will receive full review, and the position will remain open until a suitable candidate is hired.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology - Arizona

The University of Arizona Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology plans to fill five or six positions over the next several years. Their primary interest is in candidates at the Assistant Professor level who will establish research programs of originality and depth. Their interests include, but are not limited to, the following areas (in no specific order of priority): * animal behavior, behavioral ecology and/or sociobiology (with possible connections to neurobiology, cognitive science, and neurocomputing); * evolution of development and complexity (with possible connections to major evolutionary transitions, biochemical innovation, the origin of life, and life elsewhere such as in silico, biospheres, and astrobiology); * genomics and bioinformatics in an evolutionary context (with possible connections to molecular evolution and the diversification of life); and * landscape, ecosystem, and/or global scale ecological patterns and processes (with possible connections to organismic, population, evolutionary and/or conservation biology). In our department we seek to maintain a balance of methodological approaches, organismal focus, and habitat. Candidates working with any taxa, and any combination of lab, field, or theory-based methods will be considered. The successful candidates will be expected to teach at undergraduate and/or graduate levels and to develop externally funded research programs. A PhD in a related field is required.

To apply, please send the following to Search Committee, Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210088, Tucson, AZ 85721-0088: CV, statements of research and teaching interests, and a one-page cover letter in which you indicate * your research area, * the significance of your work in addressing major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology, and * the names, titles, and addresses (including e-mail) of four individuals who can evaluate your work and its significance (also please arrange for the letters to be sent). Please send no more than four reprints. Visit <> for updated information. The University of Arizona is an EEO/AA Employer-M/W/D/V. - From ABSnet, v. 6, no. 25

Veterinarian - Harvard Medical School

A Clinical Laboratory Animal Veterinarian is sought to provide veterinary support for the biomedical research laboratories at McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, in Belmont, Massachusetts. The Hospital Veterinarian will provide veterinary care for research animals, perform surgical procedures, serve on the McLean IACUC, and interface with both consulting veterinarians and regulatory agencies. The ideal candidate will have excellent surgical skills and be interested in working as part of a research team in a laboratory environment. A DVM degree is required, but ACLAM certification is not. The salary is competitive, and McLean Hospital offers excellent benefits. Interested applicants should send a resume to: Dr. Steve Negus, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill St., Belmont, MA 02478.

Veterinary Technician - Harvard Medical School

McLean Hospital also seeks a Veterinary Technician to assist with veterinary support and research. Practical experience working with animals in a research setting and a knowledge of basic technical procedures in physiology and behavioral science is preferred. Some computer and data analysis skills are necessary. This position requires a degree in animal science, biology, or related fields. Interested applicants should send a resume to Dr. Steve Negus at the address above.

Chimpanzee Caregiver - Arizona

The Primate Foundation of Arizona is currently building a pool of applicants for possible future openings as chimpanzee caregivers. The position is full-time and requires two years of college level course work plus two year's experience in the care of exotic animals; OR an equivalent combination of experience which provides the required knowledge, skills, and ability. Primate experience is a plus. The position requires lifting and carrying objects weighing up to 60 pounds. Caregivers assist in caring for approximately 77 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Must be willing to make at least a two-year commitment. Excellent benefits. E.O.E. Applicant must have a negative TB skin test, and evidence of a measles booster or natural disease prior to employment. Send letter of interest (with requested salary), resume, and three letters of reference to Jim Murphy, Colony Manager, PFA, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027.

Veterinary Technicians - Georgia

The Division of Animal Resources at Emory University seeks a motivated Veterinary Technician interested in a rewarding career in contributing improvements to human and animal health. You will assist veterinarians and research professionals with medical treatment, surgery, and experimental procedures; and will monitor animal health and maintain records. Requires two years experience or an Associate's degree/equivalent background in biology, animal health technology, veterinary technology, or a related field. Send resume referencing Job #128025/128024 to Emory University Human Resources, 1762 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322 [404-727-7611; TDD: 404-727-2075; fax 404-727-1922]. AA/EOE.

Another Technician is sought to perform routine duties associated with animal care in a research setting; prepare food and feed animals; maintain sanitary conditions; observe animal conditions and behavior; and collect animal specimens. In this job you may assist in animal restraint, and in animal housing and cage maintenance. You will take on related responsibilities as required. Employees in this classification may be required to work with, take specific precautions against and/or be immunized against potentially hazardous agents. Minimum qualifications are: * a high school diploma or equivalent * one year of animal husbandry or related animal care experience * the ability to lift up to 75 pounds. Positions in this classification may require a valid Georgia driver's license and an insurable driving record. You will be trained to restrain animals, identify signs of illness or injury, and be responsible for accurate records. Send resume, referencing Job #127794, to the address above.

Veterinary Technical Associate - Washington State

SNBL USA, Ltd. has an immediate opening for a Veterinary Technical Associate (VTA). Candidates should be licensed, or eligible and willing to become licensed, and will provide assistance and support for the staff veterinarians. The VTA will * maintain the surgery suites, radiology suite, and clinical treatment facilities; * be responsible for organization, inventory, scheduling, and cleaning and disinfection of facility, instruments, fixtures, and equipment; * assist in preparing animals for surgery; preparing the surgical suite including instruments, instrument packs; * assist with intraoperative monitoring and anesthesia, and postoperative monitoring and care, under the oversight of the staff veterinarians; * prepare animals for radiology, fluoroscopy, sonography; safely and properly position animals for radiographs; * administer clinical treatments, assist with quarantine procedures, perform dental prophylaxis, diagnostics, and colony maintenance activities, as well as assist the staff veterinarians with procedures and activities. The VTA will be encouraged to publish and keep current with laboratory animal literature and processes. Other duties may be incorporated as need arises in conjunction with research projects. ALAT, LAT, LATG, RLATG certifications and/or willingness to achieve these certifications are a definite plus.

SNBL USA, Ltd. is a contract research organization located just north of Seattle. Send a CV or resume to Human Resources: SNBL USA, Ltd. 6605 Merrill Creek Pkwy, Everett, WA, 98203 [fax: 425-407-8601]. Faxes should be marked "Attn: D. Lachance, HR". Also see <>.

Clinical Veterinarian - New Mexico

White Sands Research Center is accepting applications for a clinical veterinarian with strong chimpanzee and/or other nonhuman primate experience. This person will be responsible for health care management of laboratory animal colonies in cooperation with other clinical staff. Candidates should have a DVM or equivalent degree, be licensed in at least one state, and have a strong background in nonhuman primate medicine. We have an excellent benefit plan. Send CV, a letter of interest, and the names and addresses of three references to:WSRC (HR Dept), 1300 LaVelle Rd., Alamogordo, NM88310 [fax: 505-437-9897; e-mail:]. EOE/AA Employer.

* * *

Editors' Notes

Postage Costs Increase

We are sorry to announce that postage charges for subscriptions outside the United States will be $10 for surface mail and $20 for airmail, starting with the 2001 volume. Those who have paid in advance do not have to pay any extra. We remind all our subscribers that the e-mail and World Wide Web versions of the LPN are FREE. We also remind them that those who read the paper edition when they could be reading the Web are honor-bound to send us a little money each year for printing and mailing costs.

Howling Howlers

We were surprised to learn, while editing this issue, that there is a difference of opinion about the "common" name of Alouatta palliata. While all the reference books in our office refer to "howler monkeys" or simply "howlers", there is a faction which calls them "howling monkeys". Happily, the latter will compromise with "howlers". We would like to host a brief discussion of this question.

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Primates de las Américas...La Página

En esta edición, un grupo de estudiantes españoles que han participado como voluntarios en un estudio conductual con primates silvestres nos relatan brevemente algunas de sus experiencias, lo cual esperamos que sea un incentivo para otros interesados en iniciarse en la primatología. Asimismo, incluimos un llamado urgente a apoyar los estudios con primates no-humanos en la República de El Salvador, donde los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi) se encuentran en grave peligro de desaparecer. Como siempre estamos a sus ordenes: Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen, Depto. de Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología AC, km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, Ap. 63 CP 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail:].

Comportamiento del Mono Aullador (Alouatta palliata mexicana): Nuestras Experiencias como Voluntarios. J. álamo García, I. Alfaro Pinedo, V. Arroyo Rodríguez, I. Huelves Baeuerle, R. Ramos Blanco de la Facultad de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España []

Estas son las vivencias de un grupo de estudiantes persiguiendo monos por las selvas mexicanas:

Lo primero y principal fue encontrar nuestros objetos de estudio: los monos.

Nuestra inexperiencia inicial nos hizo deambular durante horas por la selva sin obtener resultados. Por su carácter tranquilo y la necesidad de reposar largos periodos sobre las ramas, debes tener la suerte de acertar con una ventana entre el dosel de la selva para conseguir localizarlos. Recorriendo su ámbito hogareño comenzamos a familiarizarnos con las diferentes señales que en ciertos momentos nos ofrecían: vocalizaciones, movimiento brusco de ramas, caída de fragmentos vegetales y excrementos, llegando al punto en que conocíamos sus rutas de forrajeo y árboles preferidos.

Una vez encontrados, lo siguiente fue el identificarlos. En el principio para nosotros todos eran "monos" pero gracias a sus diferentes tamaños, manchas, bultos de parásitos y cicatrices acabamos despidiéndonos por sus nombres: "Adiós Blanquillo...hasta luego Espartero... Ħcuidaros...!"

Lo que más nos gusto del estudio de los monos en su entorno, fue vivir la selva (en el sentido literal) y en esos momentos de observación, en soledad y silencio, llegar a sentir que formas parte de ella. Fué importante también, comprender no solo la vida y milagros de estas criaturas tan semejantes a nosotros sino también surelación con el resto deseres vivos que los rodean.

Entre toda esta magia, la irritante picadura de mosquitos, el calor sofocante producido por la intensa humedad, los peligrosos resbalones machete en mano, rodeados de numerosas plantas espinosas, y claro sin olvidarnos del siempre presente fantasma de la nauyaca (Gen. Bothrops), nos recordó que estos no eran nuestros tranquilos bosques españoles...sin embargo gracias a lo bello de las selvas, todo esto fue.....pecata minuta.

Echando una mirada atrás te das cuenta de lo mucho que hemos aprendido de nuestros primos del Nuevo Mundo. Durante su estudio apreciamos el valor que tiene la disciplina en el trabajo que deberíamos extrapolar a nuestra vida cotidiana, estableciendo horarios y pautas para nuestras actividades diarias. Algo muy importante fue plasmar en un papel algo que llevamos haciendo toda la vida: observar la naturaleza. Dicha observación nos llevó a convertirnos en interesados "hombres de selva", sitio que acabas conociendo como la palma de tu mano y donde al final te mueves como si fuera el jardín de tu propia casa.

A pesar de todo esto, mucho nos queda por aprender... parece que al haber metido nuevos conocimientos en nuestro ávido cerebro, este abrió una nueva puerta hacia un inmenso espacio a rellenar. Nos queda deciros que ha sido una experiencia educativa donde las haya, un gran empujón para nuestra carrera. Solo la fortaleza física y mental te llevará a superar la desesperación creada por la frustración de no encontrar a los monos. Una vez conseguido esto lo demás viene solo.

El estar en contacto continuo con la Madre Naturaleza nos ha hecho ver lo insignificantes y vulnerables que somos y hemos aprendido que cualquier persona que se adentra en la selva es un mero invitado y como tal debe comportarse, con el máximo respeto con el anfitrión, para que este muestre su cara mas amable.

Recomendamos a cualquier persona a colaborar en algún proyecto de este tipo, ya que a parte del estudio, conoces nuevas culturas y a sus personas, tal es el caso de nuestro asesor D. Juan Carlos Serio Silva, del que aprendimos más en este tiempo que en largas horas de clases universitarias. Por esto y mucho más, muchas gracias, amigo.

URGENTE: Monos Araña en Peligro en la República de El Salvador. Karenina Morales, Facultad de Biología. Universidad de El Salvador [e-mail:]

El Salvador es el país mas pequeño de Centroamérica. Mas de seis millones de habitantes ocupan una superficie de 21,000 km2. La creciente población humana ha dejado muy poco del hábitat que ocupaba la fauna silvestre, en parte debido al uso del bosque como leña para combustible. La consecuencia de esta práctica ha sido que El Salvador sea uno de los países más deforestados de América y no hay signos de que esto pueda detenerse. Como la población humana sigue creciendo, las áreas que pudieran mantener vida silvestre cada vez se convierten en mas pequeñas y mas aisladas y en ellas se encuentran varios animales silvestres amenazados como el caso del mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi), los cuales son la última especie de primates no-humanos que habita el país.

Hace 50 años hubo también una población de monos aulladores (Alouatta palliata) pero desaparecieron debido a la intervención humana. Hoy en día, El Salvador es el único país en Mesoamérica (desde México a Panamá) incapaz de mantener una población viable de monos aulladores - como resultado en parte del crecimiento de la población humana y su práctica del uso de leña, y los monos araña pudieran tener el mismo fin. Estos monos permanecen en espacios muy pequeños de aproximadamente 3.5 millas2, la cual es una población aún sin estudiar ya que no se tiene algún dato de cualquier tipo o censo, inclusive es tan pequeña que los Salvadoreños creen que ya no hay monos. Hasta ahora no han existido fondos privados o públicos para estudiarlos, y el único apoyo del gobierno ha sido designar el sitio como "área natural protegida". Sin embargo, lo anterior sólo funciona en el papel ya que no hay límites geográficos o reglas claras para hacer realidad su protección.

El Domingo 30 de Julio, La Prensa Gráfica, uno de los dos periódicos nacionales que se distribuyen en El Salvador, realizaron un amplio reportaje de la población de monos araña que habitan cerca de la Bahía de Jiquilisco. Este sitio es muy famoso como hábitat de invierno para especies de aves migratorias, sin embargo este periódico ha presentado a los monos como atracción turística, incluyendo un mapa con la localización específica de estos animales. Es obvio que esta información fué presentada de una manera irresponsable y coloca a los monos aún mayor en peligro ya que se incrementará el estrés por la cercanía con humanos. Como nota adicional, durante la guerra civil en El Salvador, el ejército estuvo en este sitio y utilizó a los monos para sus practicas de tiro al blanco.

Como estudiante de la carrera de Biología en la Universidad de El Salvador, yo espero graduarme en temas relacionados con la primatología. Estoy conciente que no hay primatólogos en mi país que me apoyen en el diseño de un programa de protección para esta población tan amenazada, así yo escribo a ustedes solicitando su apoyo para redactar una propuesta para desarrollar un amplio estudio de esta población de primates, lo cual ayudaría a aportar sugerencias para declarar el área protegida como "Reserva del mono araña" por el Ministerio de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales.

Este es el tópico que me gustaría abordar en mi tesis de licenciatura, siendo asesorada por un comité de primatólogos y otros profesionales asociados (genetistas, veterinarios y manejadores de la vida silvestre) para guiarme académicamente, entendiendo que participando como parte de mi comité ayudarían a conservar a los últimos primates no-humanos de El Salvador. Mi objetivo es hacer algo útil para proteger y salvar estos primates. Yo estaría muy agradecida si me pudieran dirigir en esta difícil (aunque no imposible) unión de fuerzas; los monos araña se los agradecerán también.

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Grants Available

Fulbright Scholar Program

The Fulbright Scholar Program for faculty and professionals is offering more than 45 awards in Biological Sciences for lecturing and/or doing research abroad during the 2001-2002 academic year. The Fulbright Scholar Program is sponsored by the United States Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, and administered by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 3007 Tilden St, NW, Suite 5L, Washington, DC 20008-3009 [202-686-7877; fax: 202-362-3442]. For more complete information, contact them, or see <>. Non-U.S. citizens should contact the Fulbright agency or U.S. embassy in their home countries.

Programs that may be of interest include the African Regional Research Program; ecology or zoology in Botswana; wildlife management in Costa Rica; tropical ecology in Cote d'Ivoire; environmental studies in Nicaragua; and ecology of large African mammals, sustainable use, conservation biology, and ecosytem dynamics in South Africa.

Extramural Research Facilities Construction Projects

The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) is authorized to "make grants to public and nonprofit private entities to expand, remodel, renovate or alter existing research facilities or construct new research facilities". The facilities will be used for basic and clinical biomedical and behavioral research and for research training.

Domestic, non-federal, public and private non-profit institutions, organizations, and associations that conduct or support biomedical or behavioral research are eligible to apply, including, for example, allied health professional schools. Applications are encouraged from "institutions of emerging excellence", defined as those health professions schools that received a Fiscal Year 1999/2000 grant award from the Centers of Excellence (COE) Program of the Division of Disadvantaged Assistance, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services.

The total project period for an application submitted in response to this announcement may not exceed five years and no facilities and administrative costs or continuation costs will be awarded. The anticipated award date is September, 2001. Matching funds will be required for the specific project awarded in Fiscal Year 2001. Matching funds must be non-federal funds set aside for this project.

The principal objective of this program is to facilitate and enhance the conduct of PHS-supported biomedical and behavioral research by supporting the costs of designing and constructing non-federal basic and clinical research facilities to meet the biomedical or behavioral research, research training, or research support needs of an institution or a research area at an institution.

Direct inquiries to: Dr. W. Fred Taylor, Research Infrastructure, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6142, MSC 7965, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0766; fax: 301-480-3770; e-mail:]. Application receipt dates are February 1 and October 1, annually.

NRSA Awards for Postdoctoral Fellows

The National Research Service Act (NRSA) Program has, since 1974, helped to ensure that highly trained scientists will be available in adequate numbers and in appropriate research areas to carry out the nation's biomedical and behavioral research agenda. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards NRSA individual postdoctoral fellowships to promising applicants with the potential to become productive, independent investigators in fields related to the mission of the NIH constituent institutes and centers.

By the time of award, individuals must be citizens or non-citizen nationals of the United States, or must have been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence. The individual must have received a doctoral degree from an accredited domestic or foreign institution. Certification by an authorized official of the degree-granting institution that all degree requirements have been met is also acceptable. The applicant must identify a sponsoring institution and an individual who will serve as a sponsor (also called mentor or supervisor) and will supervise the training and research experience.

The applicant's sponsor should be an active investigator in the area of the proposed research who will directly supervise the candidate's research. The sponsor must document the availability of staff, research support, and facilities for high-quality research training. Applicants proposing training at their doctorate institution or at the institution where they have been training for more than a year must document the opportunities for new training experiences designed to broaden their scientific background.

Applicants requesting foreign training must show in the application that the foreign institution and sponsor offer unique opportunities that are not currently available in the United States. Only if there is a clear scientific advantage will foreign training be supported.

Individuals may receive up to three years of aggregate NRSA support at the postdoctoral level, including any combination of support from institutional training grants and individual fellowship awards. The proposed NRSA training must be within the scope of biomedical, behavioral, or clinical research and must offer an opportunity for individuals to broaden their scientific background or to extend their potential for research in health-related areas. For those who have a health professional degree, the proposed training may be part of a research degree program.

Individuals are required to pursue their research training on a full-time basis. Research clinicians must devote full time to their proposed research training and must restrict clinical duties within their full-time research training experience to activities that are directly related to the research training experience. An NRSA fellowship may not be used to support studies leading to the MD, DO, DDS, DVM, or other similar health-professional degrees, nor may these awards be used to support the clinical years of residency training.

The Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), is required by law to consider the nation's overall needs for biomedical personnel and to give special consideration to physicians and other health professionals who agree to undertake a minimum of two years of biomedical, behavioral or clinical research. NIH recognizes the critical importance of training clinicians to become researchers and encourages them to apply. Women, minorities, and individuals with disabilities are also encouraged to apply.

Application receipt dates are April, August, and December 5, for starting dates of, respectively, September 1 to December 1; January 1 to March 1; and May 1 to July 1. For more information, contact Walter T. Schaffer, Research Training Officer, NIH, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6184, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7911 [301-435-2687; fax: 301-480-0146; e-mail:].

Developmental Psychopharmacology

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) request research grant applications to study the possible clinically significant effects that various psychotropic medications may have on the brain when administered during the developing phase that spans from birth to early adulthood.

Psychotropic medications are prescribed with increased frequency to children and adolescents, often for extended periods of time. Experimental data are needed to clarify the nature, extent, and impact of these interactions. In addition, identification of brain regions and physiological mechanisms responsible for both the therapeutic and negative effects of drugs will be useful for the development of more selective psychotherapeutic mechanisms with fewer side effects. For ethical, methodological, and practical reasons, it is often difficult or impossible to conduct this type of experiment in humans. In these cases, research in animals is appropriate.

The ultimate goal of this research is to determine the short and long-term consequences of chronic or acute psychotherapeutic drug administration. As such, relevant studies in developing animals will examine behavioral, neurochemical, physiological, and molecular effects of early drug administration in both young and adult animals. Studies should focus on specific behaviors and their relationship to biochemical endpoints within defined brain regions. Research approaches to address these questions could include, but are not limited to the following: * Develop models of psychotherapeutic medication delivery in normal developing animals. * Develop and apply behavioral models in animals to assess long-term effects of psychotherapeutic drug administration during development on cognitive and emotional measures. * Apply pharmacological and behavioral animal models to assess drug mechanisms and brain sites responsible for therapeutic and adverse drug effects in developing animals.

Integrative studies in both nonhuman primates and preliminary studies in other species are encouraged. Brain imaging and gene targeting approaches to identify molecules and brain regions responsible for behavioral effects of drugs are also appropriate.

Direct inquiries to Lois Winsky, Div. of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Research, NIMH, 6001 Executive Blvd, Rm 7184, MSC 9641, Bethesda, MD 20892-9641 [301-443-5288; fax: 301-402-4740; e-mail:]; or George P. Giacoia, Endocrinology, Nutrition and Growth Branch, Center for Research in Mothers and Children, NICHD, 6100 Executive Blvd, Rm 4B11B, Bethesda, MD 20982-5288 [301-496-5589; fax: 301-480-9791; e-mail:].

Reproduction Research Centers

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), through the Reproductive Sciences Branch (RSB) in the Center for Population Research, provides funding for a limited number of research centers in the reproductive sciences. These centers provide an arena for multidisciplinary interactions among basic and clinical scientists interested in establishing high quality research programs in the reproductive sciences. Applications for these centers are sought from investigators willing to participate with the NICHD under a cooperative agreement in a multicenter cooperative research program. Center investigators will be expected to work with NICHD staff in facilitating research collaborations and interactions within and between centers. Such a cooperative program will form a national network that fosters communication, innovation and research excellence with the ultimate goal of improving human reproductive health through accelerated transfer of basic science findings into clinical practice.

Topics that are considered to be responsive to the mission areas of the RSB fall under * Reproductive Biology and Physiology * Reproductive Endocrinology * Reproductive Medicine.

Direct inquiries and address the letter of intent to Louis V. DePaolo, Reproductive Sciences Branch, NICHD, 6100 Executive Blvd, Rm 8B01, MSC 7510, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510 [301-435-6970; fax: 301-496-0962; e-mail:]. The letter of intent receipt date is January 10, 2001, and the application receipt date is April 27, 2001.

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Awards Granted: ACLAM Foundation Grant Awards in 2000

The American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) Foundation has announced the funding of seven research grants totaling $99,000. Grants were awarded in the key areas of diagnostics/diseases of laboratory animals, analgesia/anesthesia, and animal well-being. Dr. Morin expects the research projects to further the goal of the Foundation by expanding the body of knowledge in the fields of laboratory animal science and medicine. The seven grants included "Determination of Shedding Frequency of B Virus in Pair-Housed Rhesus Macaques," submitted by Peter A. Barry and colleagues at the University of California, Davis. The goal of this project is to assess whether PCR detection of B virus is more sensitive than virus isolation at identifying asymptomatic shedding in macaques. The deadline for applications for next year's grants will be early February. For more information, visit <> or contact Dr. Martin Morin, Chairman, ACLAM Foundation, 208 Byford Dr., Chestertown, MD, 21620 [410-810-1870;e-mail:].

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Research and Educational Opportunities

Postdoctoral Training - Massachusetts

The MIT Division of Comparative Medicine is seeking veterinarians for its NIH-funded training program in Biomedical Research. The program incorporates a year of clinical training followed by three years of research training. The clinical experience and didactic training in laboratory animal medicine, laboratory animal pathology, and research prepare candidates for the ACLAM board examinations and a career in research. Clinical training will entail daily rounds at the Division's state-of-the-art, AAALAC-approved animal facilities that include extensive surgical resources and fully equipped transgenic laboratories. Training activities also occur in the Division's diagnostic laboratory, at Harvard's Regional Primate Center and at other biomedical research institutions. Candidates have the option of pursuing a master's degree or doctorate through MIT's Div. of Bioengineering and Environmental Health. For details regarding the program see <>.

Requirements: DVM from an AVMA-accredited institution, strong interest in research, and U.S. citizenship or permanent residency.

Interested candidates should send a cover letter, CV, and three letters of support to Dr. James G. Fox, MIT Division of Comparative Medicine, 16-825, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139.MIT is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Gelada Baboon Research Partnership

Bruce Richman writes: "Join me in an exciting research project on gelada baboon vocal exchanges and how they give a model for the early stages of human language. I need one or two collaborators to work with me in recording and analyzing gelada vocal exchanges. I am an independent scholar and visiting researcher at Haskins Laboratories. Collaborators can be undergraduates, graduate students, or senior researchers, or anyone interested. All that's needed is some experience in analyzing auditory, acoustic, and/or articulatory patterns.

"Geladas produce a wide range of different sounds and rhythmic and melodic patterns, in face-to-face, conversation-like vocal exchanges. The Bronx Zoo has a large gelada group in a natural, outdoor setting. We'll also be able to use the facilities of Haskins labs.

"If you are interested, please contact me at 3805 Woodridge Rd, Cleveland Heights, OH 44121 [216-381-7510; e-mail:]."

Biology/Conservation Courses - Costa Rica

The Central American Institute for Biological Research and Conservation is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its purpose is to promote and to develop scientific research in the areas of biology and conservation in the Central American isthmus. This organization is offering short training field courses, in the Spanish language, on biology and conservation subjects which may be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students of biology or related fields. The courses to be given in 2001 are Cladistic Phylogenetics (January 21-February 4; application deadline November 24, 2000) and Field Ecology (April 15-31; application deadline January 30).More information can be found at <>; or e-mail Maguil Cespedes, Academic Director, at <>. - Posted to Alloprimate

Training in Comparative Medicine - North Carolina

The Section on Comparative Medicine of the Wake Forest University School of Medicine is seeking candidates for Post-Doctoral Fellowships in Comparative Medicine. These positions offer unique opportunities for highly motivated veterinarians interested in research careers and in the care and study of primates, rodents, and a variety of other species in a research setting. The duration of the NIH&-sponsored post-doctoral fellowship is typically three years. The post-doctoral fellowships are designed to provide research training to veterinarians, and may lead to the PhD degree. Training faculty includes 24 faculty, 11 of whom are veterinarians and 6 of whom hold board certification by ACLAM or ACVP. Areas of research include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer biology, and behavioral medicine. There is an emphasis on research in women's health and nutrition. Applicants must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents and graduates of AVMA-accredited veterinary schools. Stipends range from $30,000 to $55,000 per year depending on previous experience. Interested applicants should send a statement of career goals and interests, a CV, college transcripts, and three letters of reference to Dr. Jan Wagner, Dept of Pathology, Section on Comp. Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040 [336-716-1630; fax: 336-716-1515; email:]. AA/EOA. - Posted to CompMed

Postdoc Training in Lab Animal Medicine

The Dept of Comparative Medicine at the University of Washington invites applications for postdoctoral training positions starting on July 1, 2001. The training program is designed to provide individuals with a broad foundation to build a career in teaching, research, and service in the laboratory animal medicine field and to prepare them for ACLAM board certification. One year of clinical training in laboratory animal medicine supported by the University is followed by three years of research training which is supported by an NRSA training grant from the National Center for Research Resources, NIH. Prerequisite for the program is a DVM or equivalent. Opportunities exist for qualified trainees to pursue advanced study for a MS or PhD degree. Contact Ms. Alice Ruff, Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Box 357190, Seattle, WA 98195-7190 [e-mail:]. An EO/AA Employer.

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Meeting Announcements

American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting will be held March 28-31 at the Westin at Crown Center, in Kansas City, Missouri. For program information, see <> or contact Phillip Walker, Program Chair, Dept of Anthropology, UCSB, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 [805-685-8424; fax: 805-685-8424; e-mail:]. For local arrangements information, contact Co-Chairs David Frayer [785-864-2633; e-mail:] or Sandra Gray (as of Jan. 2001) [785-864-2646; e-mail:], Dept of Anthropology, 622 Fraser Hall, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2110.

Great Apes at the Threshold: Implications for Law, Ethics, Conservation and Science is a conference sponsored jointly by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of Georgetown University and the Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine. It will be held April 28-May 1, 2001, at the Boston Park Plaza Hotel. The goal of the conference is to "evaluate the tension created by the changing ethical and legal status of the great apes, particularly in the international arena, and the continued demand for their use to serve human ends." To achieve this purpose attendees will review recent information about the evolution, natural history, culture and cognitive abilities of the apes; the nature of the arguments concerning the basis of their moral and legal standing; the justifications for continued use; and the status of national and international initiatives for conservation and other forms of basic protection. The conference is intended for primatologists and other scientists, philosophers and other ethicists, students of the humanities and law, legislators, the animal protection community, and the interested public. For information, contact the Tufts University School of Veterinary. Medicine, 200 Westboro Rd, North Grafton, MA 01536 [508-839-5302]; or see <>.

ORAGE' 2001, an international conference on ORAlity and GEstuality, will be held June 18-22, 2001, in Aix-en-Provence, France.The languages will be French and English. The objective is to promote the importance of a multimodal approach in the study of communication.The major theme of this meeting is the use of voice and gestures in the management of interactive time and space. This conference is supported by The International Society for Gesture Studies and La Société Française d'Acoustique. For information, contact Colloque ORAGE' 2001, Laboratoire Parole et Langage, Université de Provence, 29, av. R. Schuman, 13621 Aix-en-ProvenceCedex 1 - France [+33(0)4 42 95 36 37; fax: +33 (0)4 42 59 50 96; e-mail:]; or see <>.

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Travelers' Medical Advice

New Antimalaria Drug Registered

Artemotil (previously beta-arteether), a new type of antimalarial drug, has been registered for use in severe malaria. The drug, developed by the World Health Organization's Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with designated finance from the Government of the Netherlands and in collaboration with a Dutch pharmaceutical company, was approved for use by the Dutch regulatory authorities. News of the approval came through during TDR's Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee meeting in February 2000. Because it has a mode of action quite different from other classes of antimalarial drug used to treat severe malaria, artemotil will be useful in cases of drug resistance. - From the WHO Website

Potential New Treatment for P. falciparum Malaria

In March 2000, the pivotal Phase III clinical trial of chlorproguanil/dapsone (LAPDAP) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria was initiated in five African clinical trial sites. The goal is to develop a "new" safe and effective alternative to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa. Chloroquine has been the principal drug for decades, but it no longer achieves adequate cure rates across much of the continent. However, it remains the first-line drug in many national malaria control programs. Some African countries, such as Malawi, have replaced chloroquine with S/P, but unfortunately this compound has the drawback of rapidly selecting resistant organisms, due to its slow elimination from the body and simple molecular mechanism of resistance. This was the case in Thailand where S/P had a useful lifetime of less than 10 years.

This double-blind Phase III trial is designed to measure the safety and efficacy of LAPDAP for 3 days as compared to treatment with a single dose (the standard course) of S/P. The trial will randomize - in a 4:1 ratio of LAPDAP:S/P - 2000 African children aged 12-120 months. The trial sites are in Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria and United Republic of Tanzania.

The LAPDAP development project is a public/ private sector collaboration of WHO/TDR, the U.K. Department for International Development, and SmithKline Beecham. For more information, see <>. - Posted June 5 to the tdr-scientists list

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Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


* Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton. M. A. Katzenberg & S. R. Saunders (Eds.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000. [Price: $95]
...Contents include Part I: Theory and application in studies of past peoples; Part II: Morphological analyses and age changes; Part III: Prehistoric health and disease; Part IV: Chemical and genetic analyses of hard tissues; and Part V: Quantitative methods and population studies.

* Old World Monkeys. P. F. Whitehead & C. J. Jolly (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. [Price: $105.00]
...Contents: Old World monkeys: Three decades of development and change in the study of the Cercopithecoidea, by C. J Jolly & P. F. Whitehead; The molecular systematics of the Cercopithecidae, by T. R. Disotell; Molecular genetic variation and population structure in Papio baboons, by J. Rogers; The phylogeny of the Cercopithecoidea, by C. P. Groves; Ontogeny of the nasal capsule in cercopithecoids: a contribution to the comparative and evolutionary morphology of catarrhines, by W. Maier; Old World monkey origins and diversification: An evolutionary study of diet and dentition, by B. R. Benefit; Geological context of fossil Cercopithecoidea from eastern Africa, by T. Gundling & A. Hill; The oro-facial complex in macaques: tongue and jaw movements in feeding, by K. Hiiemae; Evolutionary morphology of the skull in Old World monkeys, by M. J. Ravosa & L. P. Profant; Evolutionary endocrinology of the cercopithecoids, by P. L. Whitten; Behavioral ecology and socioendocrinology of reproductive maturation in cercopithecine monkeys, by F. B. Bercovitch; Quantitative assessment of occlusal wear and age estimation in Ethiopian and Tanzanian baboons, by J. E. Phillips-Conroy, T. Bergman & C. J. Jolly; Maternal investment throughout the life span in Old World monkeys, by L. A. Fairbanks; Cognitive capacities of Old World monkeys based on studies of social behavior, by I. S. Bernstein; The effects of predation and habitat quality on the socioecology of African monkeys: Lessons from the islands of Bioko and Zanzibar, by T. T. Struhsaker; The loud calls of black-and-white colobus monkeys: Their adaptive and taxonomic significance in light of new data, by J. F. Oates, C. M. Bocian & C. J. Terranova; Agonistic and affiliative relationships in a blue monkey group, by M. Cords; Locomotor behavior in Ugandan monkeys, by D. L. Gebo & C. A. Chapman; and The behavioral ecology of Asian colobines, by C. P. Yeager & K. Kool.

*Primate Encounters - Models of Science, Gender and Society S. C. Strum & L. M. Fedigan (Eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. [Price: $35]
...Contents include: Introduction and history; What do the pioneers say? The advantages of hindsight; A diversity of primatologies: Other national traditions; Enlarging the lens: Closely related disciplines; Models of science and society; Reformulating the questions; Conclusions and implications.

Magazines and Newsletters

* ASP Bulletin, June 2000, 24[2]. [Janette Wallis, Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73104-5020]
...Includes reports by recipients of ASP Conservation Awards and Grants: "Density of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in southeastern Colombia", by E. Palacios; "Primates of the peninsula of Yucatan: Current state and strategies for their conservation", by J. C. Serio-Silva & V. Rico-Gray; and "Status of the black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) at La Suerta Biological Field Station, Costa Rica", by J. D. Pruetz. There is also an article by J. Wallis about R. A. Brumback, who recently learned about his namesake, Aotus brumbacki, and who has, as a result, "returned to primatology."

* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, May, 2000, 7[2]. [Depto. de Psicobiología, Buzón 150, Facultad de Psicología, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid, Spain]
...Contents include reports on the debate about the Great Ape Project, held in Madrid on April 7, 2000, by M. M. Esteban, F. Cuellar, F. Colmenares, and J. A. Trobat Giménez; and a summary of a doctoral dissertation, "Early socialization in a group of captive baboons: Maternal influence on sexual behavior of offspring", by B. G. Domingo

* CCC Update, Spring/Summer 2000, 11[1]. [Community Conservation Consultants, Howlers Forever, Inc., RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]

* The Newsletter, 1999, 11[1]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
...Includes "Chimpanzee preference for familiar versus unfamiliar slide images," by J. Fritz, J. Morris, M. Schwandt, & S. Howell; and "Projected slide images as environmental enrichment," by J. Fritz, J. Murphy, & S. Howell.

* Primate Eye, February, June 2000, No. 71. [Bill Sellers, Primate Society of Great Britain, Dept of Biomed. Sci (Anatomy Sect.), Univ. of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Bldg, George Sq., Edinburgh EH8 9XD, Scotland]
...Contents include "The behaviour and adaptation of reintroduced chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, Republic of Congo", by K. Farmer.

* PrimeApes, Summer 2000, 5[1]. [Center for Orangutan and Chimpanzee Conservation, P.O. Box 488, Wauchula, FL 33873]
...Contents include a description of teaching ASL signs to an 8-year-old male chimp, and discovering that a 5-year-old female had been learning the signs by watching.


*Action Plan for Conservation of the Gibbons of the Wuliang Mountains Sino-Dutch Forest Conservation and Community Development Project, Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. W. V. Bleisch & J. Xuelong.March, 2000. [Bram Busstra or Wang Weiming, Sino-Dutch Forest Conserv. & Community Devel. Project, Yunnan Dept of Forestry, Kunming, Yunnan, P.R.C.]
...The primary objective of this action plan, developed at an intensive two day workshop held in Kunming November 2-3, 1999, is to promote the conservation of the black crested gibbons of the Wuliang Mountains in the wild.


* Primate Report, April, 2000, 56. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
...Contents: Alouatta palliate politics: Empirical and theoretical aspects of power, by C. B. Jones; A model for the interpretation of grooming patterns applied to the Belizean black howling monkey (Alouatta pigra), by R. C. Brockett, R. H. Horwich, & C. B. Jones; Duet songs of the siamang, Hylobates syndactylus: I. Structure and organisation, by T. Geissmann; A survey of hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) in Dibru-Saikhowa National, Assam, India, by A. U. Choudhury; and Active plant food division and sharing by wild chimpanzees, by E. Bethell, A. Whiten, G. Muhumuza, & J. Kakura.

* Malaria Transmission Blocking Vaccines: An Ideal Public Good. Geneva:TDR, 2000. 20 pp. [Communications Unit (TDR), WHO, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland]
...Report of a meeting held in 1999, of an international group of experts - including scientists, representatives from industry, major funding agencies and the World Health Organization. It covers the feasibility of reducing transmission in various epidemiological settings, of regional elimination of malaria, of preventing/controlling malaria epidemics, and of protecting other vaccines and possibly also drugs against the emergence and/or spread of vaccine-or drug-resistant parasites.

Special Journal Issues

* Program and abstracts of the twenty-third annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, June 21-June 24, 2000. American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 51[Suppl. 1].

Anatomy and Physiology

* Selectivity for 3D shape that reveals distinct areas within macaque inferior temporal cortex. Janssen, P., Vogels, R., & Orban, G. A. (R. V., Laboratorium voor Neuro-en Psychofysiologie, Medical School, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven B-3000, Belgium). Science, 2000, 288, 2054-2056.
...The anterior part of the macaque inferior temporal cortex, area TE, occupies a large portion of the temporal lobe and is critical for object recognition. Thus far, no relation between anatomical subdivisions of TE and neuronal selectivity has been described. Here, we present evidence that neurons selective for three-dimensional (3D) shape are concentrated in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus, whereas neurons in lateral TE are generally unselective for 3D shape, though equally selective for 2D shape. These findings reveal that TE consists of at least two distinct areas, one of which processes a specific object property.

Animal Models

* Studies on transmission of hepatitis A virus to squirrel monkeys. Vitral, C. L., Yoshida, C. F. T., Marchevsky, R. S., Pinto, M. A., Tiexeira, C. S., Baptista, M. L., & Gaspar, A. M. C. (Inst. Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, Dpto de Virologia, Av Brasil 4365 21040-360, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). Primates, 2000, 41, 127-135.
...The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as animal models for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Animals were inoculated, either intragastrically or intravenously, with a Brazilian HAV isolate (HAF-203). Alanine amino-transferase (ALT) and anti-HAV antibodies (IgM and total) were monitored. Feces were collected daily for HAV antigen and HAV RNA detection. Samples of liver tissue were obtained by biopsy before inoculation, at peak ALT levels and/or when anti-HAV antibodies developed, and at necropsy for morphological examination. Monkeys inoculated by the intravenous route rapidly developed significant elevations of serum ALT, anti-HAV antibodies, and liver histologic changes, while the only evidence of HAV infection in intragastrically inoculated animals was the seroconversion. Moreover, squirrel monkeys excreted very low levels of HAV detectable in only a few fecal samples after amplification by RT-PCR, in contrast to humans and other nonhuman primate species, which eliminate large quantities of virus during the late incubation period. The unusual onset of hepatitis A in experimentally infected squirrel monkeys represents an important obstacle to using this species as a model for the study of this viral infection. However, it can be a valuable tool for obtaining hyperimmunesera for HAV, in light of the very high titer (105) of anti-HAV developed 24 days after a single IV inoculation.


* Referential labelling in Diana monkeys. Zuberbühler, K. (Max-Planck-Inst. for Evolutionary Anthropology, Dept of Comparative Psychology, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany). Animal Behaviour, 2000, 59, 917-927.
...This study examined how wild Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) of the Tai forest, Ivory Coast, label predation events. By altering playback stimuli and the position of a concealed speaker, the author investigated whether Diana monkeys respond with acoustically different alarm calls depending on a predator's (a) distance (close vs. far), (2) elevation (above vs. below), or category (eagle vs. leopard). Analysis of male and female alarm-call behavior showed that Diana monkeys consistently responded to predator category regardless of immediate threat or direction of attack. Data further suggest that, in addition to predator category, monkeys' alarm calls might also convey information about the predator's distance.

* Infanticide in a group of wild saddle-back tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis. Herrera, E. R. T., Knogge, C., & Heymann, E. W. (E. W. H., Abt. Verhaltensforsch. & Okologie, DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 153-157.
...An infanticide was observed in a group of wild saddle-back tamarins.The newborn singleton was killed by its mother after its father had dropped it several times. This infanticide may represent a case of parental manipulation: the mother terminated investment in an offspring that probably had a low chance of survival. Stress associated with the simultaneous pregnancy of another adult female in the group may also have played a role.

* Reconciliation in captive Guyanese squirrel monkeys. Pereira, M. E., Schill, J. L., & Charles, E. P. (Biology Dept, Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA 17837). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 159-167.
...Post-conflict and matched control observations were analyzed. Former opponents maintaining affiliative relationships soon engaged in friendly interaction following large proportions of agonistic interactions, whereas non-affiliated individuals, including virtually all male-female pairs, rarely did so. Close-proximity approaching and huddling contact constituted the principal modes of post-conflict amicability. Agonistic interactions of relatively high intensity were most likely to be reconciled.

* Effects of six-day maternal separation on Tonkean macaque infants. Drago, L. & Thierry, B. (Lab. d'Ethologie des Primates, CNRS (FRE 2130), Univ. Louis Pasteur, 7 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France). Primates, 2000, 41, 137-145.
...The goal of this study was to verify that an infant's reaction to mother loss is related to the social environment. The mothers of eight 5- to 9-month-old infants were removed during 6-day experimental periods. Infants' behavior was characterized by a mild initial protest stage, followed by a slight decrease in activity during later maternal separation, and quick recovery after the mother's return. No despair stage occurred. During separation, group members compensated for the mothers' absence by cradling the infants. That social networks determine the intensity of an infant's response to separation has far-reaching implications with regard to the meaning of depression occurrence within social networks.

* Allogrooming behavior in Cercocebus torquatus: The case for the hygienic functional hypothesis. Pérez, A. P. & Veà, J. J. (Dpto de Psiquiatría y Psicobiol. Clinica, Univ. de Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron 171, 08035 Barcelona, Spain).Primates, 2000, 41, 199-207.
...Allogrooming behavior was examined in two captive groups (n=9 and n=8) of white-crowned mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) by analyzing (1) the corporal distribution of manipulation type according to hair density, and (2) the corporal distribution of allogrooming according to presence of wounds. In both groups the sites with higher hair density received more bouts of superficial grooming, which implies a tactile screening of a fragment of the body surface. Only one group tended to perform more allogrooming on body sites when they were wounded. In the other group, however, the number of wounds was very small and the wounds concentrated predominantly on those sites which were accessible to the wounded animal itself. Thus, our results may be consistent with the hygenic functional hypothesis of allogrooming behavior in general and with the sanitary one in particular.

* Infanticide of a newborn black-and-white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) in Kibale National Park, Uganda.Onderdonk, D. A. (Dept of Zoology, 223 Bartram Hall, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611). Primates, 2000, 41, 209-212.
...An observed case of infanticide of a newborn Colobus guereza by a recently immigrated male. The author knows of no previously reported cases for this or any other black-and-white colobus species.

* Do ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) reconcile in the hour post-conflict? A pilot study. Rolland, N. & Roeder, J. J. (Lab. d'Ethologie des Primates, 7 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France). Primates, 2000, 41, 223-227.
...A study by Kappeler, six years ago, showed no reconciliation in ringtailed lemurs within 10 minutes after conflict. An identical study was done here on the same semi-free-ranging group, but with a 70-minute post-conflict period. Results showed that individuals who never interacted within 10 minutes did engage in friendly interactions within the longer postconflict period.

* Recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalizations by bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Ramakrishnan, U. & Coss, R. G. (R. G. C., Dept of Psychology, U.C., Davis, CA 95616-8686). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2000, 114, 3-12.
...Recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalizations is an essential component of antipredator behavior in several prey species. The authors examined the role of learning in the discrimination of heterospecific vocalizations by wild bonnet macaques in southern India. The bonnet macaques' flight and scanning responses to playbacks of their own alarm vocalizations were compared with their responses to playbacks of vocalizations of Nilgiri langurs (Trachypithecus johnii), Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus), and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor). The study was conducted in three regions that differed in the frequency with which bonnet macaques encountered these species, and included an urban setting. Call recognition was highest in adults and in regions where individuals were frequently exposed to the calling species; calls were not recognized by urban monkeys. Thus age and experience are important factors in heterospecific call recognition by bonnet macaques.

* Proximate factors mediating "contact" calls in adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) and their infants. Rendall, D., Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. (Dept of Psychology & Neurosci., Univ. of Lethbridge, 4401 University Dr., Lethbridge, Alta, T1K 3M4 Canada). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2000, 114, 36-46.
..."Contact" calls are widespread in social mammals and birds, but the proximate factors that motivate call production and mediate their contact function remain poorly specified. Field study of chacma baboons revealed that contact barks in adult females were motivated by separation both from the group at large and from their dependent infants. A variety of social and ecological factors affect the probability of separation from either one or both. Results of simultaneous observations and a playback experiment indicate that the contact function of calling between mothers and infants was mediated by occasional maternal retrieval rather than coordinated call exchange. Mothers recognized the contact barks of their own infants and often were strongly motivated to locate them. However, mothers did not produce contact barks in reply unless they themselves were at risk of becoming separated from the group.

* Recognizing facial cues: Individual discrimination by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Parr, L. A., Winslow, J. T., Hopkins, W. D., & de Waal, F. B. M. (Living Links, Emory Univ., 954 N. Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2000, 114, 47-60.
...Faces are one of the most salient classes of stimuli involved in social communication. Three experiments compared face-recognition abilities in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. In the face-matching task, the chimpanzees matched identical photographs of conspecifics' faces on Trial 1, and the rhesus monkeys did the same after four generalization trials. In the individual-recognition task, the chimpanzees matched two different photographs of the same individual after two trials, and the rhesus monkeys generalized in fewer than six trials. The feature-masking task showed that the eyes were the most important cue for individual recognition. Thus, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys are able to use facial cues to discriminate unfamiliar conspecifics. Although the rhesus monkeys required many trials to learn the tasks, this is not evidence that faces are not as important social stimuli for them as for the chimpanzees.

* Primates: A natural heritage of conflict resolution. de Waal, F. B. M. (Address same as above). Science, 2000, 289, 586-590.
...The traditional notion of aggression as an antisocial instinct is being replaced by a framework that considers it a tool of competition and negotiation. When survival depends on mutual assistance, the expression of aggression is constrained by the need to maintain beneficial relationships. Moreover, evolution has produced ways of countering its disruptive consequences. For example, chimpanzees kiss and embrace after fights, and other nonhuman primates engage in similar "reconciliations". Theoretical developments in this field carry implications for human aggression research. From families to high schools, aggressive conflict is subject to the same constraints known of cooperative animal societies. It is only when social relationships are valued that one can expect the full complement of natural checks and balances.

* Cognitive style: Problem solving by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) reared with living or inanimate substitute mothers. Capitanio, J. P. & Mason, W. A. (J. P. C., California RPRC, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616-8542). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2000, 114, 115-125.
...Cognitive style, reflected in the generation of novel solutions and the use of identifiable response strategies in problem-solving situations, was contrasted in rhesus monkeys reared individually with either canine companions or inanimate surrogate mothers. Four experiments were conducted over a five-year period, examining problem solving in relatively unstructured as well as more formal situations. Results indicated that whereas the two rearing groups did not differ on most measures of performance, consistent response strategies were identified for the dog-raised monkeys. The results were compared with previously published data from the same monkeys demonstrating rearing group differences in abilities to engage in complex social interaction. The animate nature of the early rearing environment may facilitate the development of a cognitive style that influences problem-solving abilities in both the social and nonsocial realms.

* Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) handedness: Variability across multiple measures of hand use.Hopkins, W. D. & Pearson, K.(Div. of Psychobiology, Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2000, 114, 126-135.
...This study examined intertask consistency in handedness across multiple measures of hand use in 187 chimpanzees. Hand preferences for two to six measures were collected from the animals, and hand preference scores were derived on the basis of individual hand preferences for each measure. Seven of 15 possible intratask correlations were significant, with some degree of clustering depending on the motor demands of the tasks. Two overall measures of handedness revealed population-level right-handedness in the chimpanzees, although the degree of bias was reduced for chimpanzees tested on more than three measures of hand use. The results are interpreted in the context of several recent studies that proposed theoretical models of handedness in nonhuman primates.

* Estimating and operating on discrete quantities in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Call, J. (Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Inselstr. 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2000, 114, 136-147.
...This study investigated the ability of three male orangutans (1 subadult, 2 adults) to estimate, compare, and operate on two sets of small quantities (1 to 6 cereal bits). Experiment 1 investigated the orangutans' ability to choose the larger of two quantities when they were presented successively as opposed to simultaneously, thus being perceptually unavailable at the time of choice. Experiment 2 investigated the orangutans' ability to select the larger quantity after the original quantities were augmented or reduced. Orangutans were capable of selecting the larger of two quantities in Experiment 1. There was also some evidence from Experiment 2, albeit weaker, that orangutans may mentally combine quantities (but not dissociate), to obtain the larger of two quantities. This study suggests that orangutans use a representational mechanism (especially when comparing quantities) to select the larger of two sets of items.

* Learning and limits of use of eye gaze by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in an object-choice task.Vick, S.-J. & Anderson, J. R. (J. R. A., Dept of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2000, 114, 200-207.
...The ability of three capuchin monkeys to use experimenter-given cues to solve an object-choice task was assessed. The monkeys learned to use explicit gestural and postural cues and then progressed to using eye-gaze-only cues to solve the task, that is, to choose the baited one of two objects and thus obtain a food reward. Increasing cue-stimulus distance and introducing movement of the eyes impeded the establishment of effective eye-gaze reading. One monkey showed positive but imperfect transfer of use of eye gaze when a novel experimenter presented the cue. When head and eye orientation cues were presented simultaneously and in conflict, the monkeys showed greater responsiveness to head orientation cues. The results show that capuchin monkeys can learn to use eye gaze as a discriminative cue, but there was no evidence for any underlying awareness of eye gaze as a cue to direction of attention.


* Rigid plastic balls as environmental enrichment: A novel presentation. Neu, K., Howell, S., Fritz, J., & Murphy, J. (Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027). The Newsletter, 2000, 11[2], 1-2.
...A rigid plastic ball was placed in the 23-cm wide alleyway between two cages. Chimps in both cages were able to play with the balls but not throw them at each other.

* King Kong(r) rubber toys: An effective enrichment device for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Ohlinger, R., Schwandt, M., Fritz, J., & Howell, S. (Address same as above). The Newsletter, 2000, 11[2], 2-4.
...The "extra large" King Kong Toy proved as interesting for chimps as was the regular Kong Toy. The authors recommend rotating the toy from group to group to help maintain its novelty, washing and sanitizing it between groups.

* A few new developments in primate housing and husbandry. Schapiro, S. J. (Dept of Vet. Sci., UT-MDACC, Rt. 2, Box 141-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602). Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science, 2000, 27, 103-110.
..."A major focus of this paper is an examination of the complementary role that behavioral management strategies play in the establishment and enhancement of well-defined nonhuman primate research resources."


* Population dynamics of the feral macaques in the Kowloon Hills of Hong Kong. Wong, C. L. & Ni, I..-H. (I.-H. N., Dept of Biology, Hong Kong Univ. of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay Rd, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 53-66.
...Hong Kong's feral monkey population is controversial. Many people complain about the aggressiveness of the monkeys, while some conservationists urge the government to deal with the problem in a way that will not harm the animals. These are descendents of macaques that were released in the early 20th Century to control the spread of a local poisonous plant, the strychnos, which contains alkaloids poisonous to livestock and humans, but which is a favorite food of the macaques. Population dynamics of these animals were studied in 1992 and 1993. Species found were Macaca mulatta (65.3%), M. fascicularis (2.2%), M. thibetana (0.2%), and hybrids (32.3%). Population growth was 5.6% in 1992 and 7.8% in 1993. The estimated macaque population in the year 2000 will be around 1100 if conditions remain favorable. Management strategies are recommended.

* Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in the Brazilian state of Rodônia. Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Messias, M. R., Ramos, E. M., Ramos, P. C. S., da Cruz Neto, E. H., & Coutinho, P. E. G. (Dpto de Genética, Univ. Fed. Do Pará, Caixa Postal 8607,66.075-900, Belém, PA, Brazil). Primates, 2000, 41, 229-234.
...Five species of titi monkey (Callicebus brunneus, C. caligatus, C. cinerascens, C. donacophilus, and C. moloch) were recorded in surveys of primate populations at 26 sites throughout the Brazilian state of Rondônia. Distribution of C. cinerascens and C. donacophilus (recorded in the state for the first time) appeared to be related to that of non-forest ecosystems, the former in the cerrado woodlands, and the latter in gallery forests of the Guaporé grasslands. The results also indicate that C. brunneus has a more restricted distribution in southern Rondônia than was previously thought, whereas C. moloch is more widespread. However, the ecological factors that determine species distribution in the south of the state remain unclear on the basis of the available data. All species were observed in small social groups of no more than five individuals, which are typical of the genus, generally in the middle and lower forest strata.


* Identification of the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the main viral determinant of vascular cell cytotoxicity and injury. Yang, Z.-y., Duckers, H. J., Sullivan, N. J., Sanchez, A., Nabel, E. G., & Nabell, G. J. (G. J. N., Vaccine Research Center, NIH, 40 Convent Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-3005). Nature Medicine, 2000, 6, 886-889.
...Here we define the main viral determinant of Ebola virus pathogenicity; synthesis of the virion glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus Zaire induced cytotoxic effects in human endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. This effect mapped to a serine-threonine-rich, mucin-like domain of this type I transmembrane glycoprotein, one of seven gene products of the virus. Gene transfer of GP into explanted human or porcine blood vessels caused massive endothelial cell loss within 48 hours that led to a substantial increase in vascular permeability. Deletion of the mucin-like region of GP abolished these effects without affecting protein expression or function.GP derived from the Reston strain of virus, which causes disease in nonhuman primates but not in man, did not disrupt the vasculature of human blood vessels. In contrast, the Zaire GP induced endothelial cell disruption and cytotoxicity in both nonhuman primate and human blood vessels, and the mucin domain was required for this effect. These findings indicate that GP, through its mucin domain, is the viral determinant of Ebola pathogenicity and likely contributes to hemorrhage during infection.

* T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in an aged rhesus macaque. Gilardi, K. V. K., Spinner, A., Canfield, D. R., Valverde, C. R., Hatcher, S., Larkin, E., Roberts, J., & McChesney, M. (Wildlife Health Ctr, School of Vet. Med., UC, Davis, CA 56516). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2000, 217, 384-387.
...A CD8+ T-cell leukemia was diagnosed in an aged female rhesus macaque. Although leukemia and lymphoma in nonhuman primates are commonly associated with simian T-lymphotropic virus, gibbon ape leukemia virus, oncogenic herpesviruses, and types C, D, and E retroviruses, this monkey was not infected with any of these viruses. However, the monkey did have antibodies against herpesvirus saimiri. This likely represents cross-reactivity of the h. saimiri assay with rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) antibodies; RRV was first described in rhesus macaques that were identified as having antibodies against h. saimiri. Rhesus rhadinovirus is a gamma herpesvirus, related antigenically to h. saimiri and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), which have been linked to lymphoproliferative disorders in primates and humans, respectively. Moreover, an oncogene has been recently identified in the RRV genome that is equivalent in position to the H. saimiri and KSHV oncogenes. Presently, the association of RRV infection with disease in nonhuman primates is unknown.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: Taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Swisher III, C. D., Ferring, R., Justus, A., Nioradze, M., Tvalchrelidze, M., Antón, S. C., Bosinski, G. Jöris, O., de Lumley, M.-A., Majsuradze, G., & Mouskhelishvili, A. (C. C. S., Purtseladze Street, Tbilisi, 380007, Republic of Georgia). Science, 2000, 288, 1019-1025.
...Archeological excavations at the site of Dmanisi in the Republic of Georgia have uncovered two partial early Pleistocene hominid crania. The new fossils consist of a relatively complete cranium and a second relatively complete calvaria from the same site and stratigraphic unit that yielded a hominid mandible in 1991. In contrast with the uncertain taxonomic affinity of the mandible, the new fossils are comparable in size and morphology with Homo ergaster from Koobi Fora, Kenya. Paleontological, archeological, geochronological, and paleomagnetic data from Dmanisi all indicate an earliest Pleistocene age of about 1.7 million years ago, supporting correlation of the new specimens with the Koobi Fora fossils. The Dmanisi fossils, in contrast with Pleistocene hominids from Western Europe and Eastern Asia, show clear African affinity and may represent the species that first migrated out of Africa.

* Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps chromosomal homologies between the dusky titi and squirrel monkey.Stanyon, R., Consigliere, S., Müller, S., Morescalchi, A., Neusser, M., & Wienberg, J. (Lab. of Genomic Diversity, NCI, Frederick, MD 21702). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 95-107.
...We mapped homology and identified translocations in the chromosomes of the dusky titi monkey (Callicebus moloch, 2n=50) and the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus, 2n=44) by fluorescence in situ hybridization of human chromosome paints. The hybridization results established chromosomal homologies between these New World primates, humans, other primates, and more distantly related mammalian species and show that both species have highly rearranged karyotypes. Parsimony analyses of outgroup painting patterns allowed us to propose an ancestral karyotype for New World monkeys consisting of 2n=56, with homologues to several human chromosomes or chromosome segments. The chromosomal phylogeny of New World monkeys based on banding patterns is in need of revision using modern molecular methods.

* Degenerative joint disease in African great apes: An evolutionary perspective. Jurmain, R. (Dept of Anthropology, San Jose State Univ., San Jose, CA 95192-0113). Journal of Human Evolution, 2000, 39, 185-203.
...Degenerative joint disease is investigated in the spine and major peripheral joints in samples of chimpanzees, lowland gorillas, and bonobos. Total data for African ape samples include 5807 surfaces for ascertainment of vertebral osteophytosis, 12,479 surfaces for determination of spinal osteoarthritis, and 1211 joints for evaluation of peripheral joint osteoarthritis. All apes display significantly less spinal disease than in a comparable human sample, and these differences are most likely a consequence of human biomechanical adaptations for bipedal locomotion. Apes are also generally less involved in the major peripheral joints than are humans, but human groups are themselves highly variable in prevalence of peripheral osteoarthritis. These data agree with other findings of low prevalence of degenerative joint prevalence in free-ranging apes, but contrast markedly with evidence derived from colony-reared Old World monkeys.

* Interspecific nucleotide sequence differences in the cytochrome b gene of Indriidae (Primates, Strepsirhini). Razafindraibe, H., Montagnon, D., Ravoarimanana, B. I., & Rumpler, Y. (Univ. of Mahajunga, Mahajunga, Madagascar). Primates, 2000, 41, 189-197.
...The comparison of partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene nucleotides for different Indriidae allowed us to confirm the species status of Avahi laniger, A. occidentalis, and Propithecus tattersalli. The nucleotide sequence also allowed us to propose a phylogenetic tree which is discussed, taking into account morphological, cytogenetic, and former molecular biology data.


* Survival and reproduction in the first two years following a large-scale primate colony move and social reorganization. Ha, J. C., Robinette, R. L., & Davis, A. (Primate Center, U. of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 131-138.
...A description of the mortality and fertility rates before, during, and after the move and social reorganization of the Washington RPRC's pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and baboon (Papio cynocephalus, P. anubis, and hybrids) breeding colonies from the Primate Field Station (Medical Lake, Washington) to the Tulane RPRC (Covington, Louisiana). Overall survival rates of macaques in the months following the move (71.7%) were similar to those associated with the move of the Arashiyama West colony from Japan to Texas. Significantly lower survival following the move was seen only in older (> 10 yr) macaques, while survival in other age groups was slightly lower than in a comparison year preceding the move. Captive-bred macaques exhibited higher survival than wild-caught animals. Infant survival at Tulane was not significantly different than in pre-move years. Baboons fared well, with no significant differences in mortality or reproduction.

Instruments & Techniques

* Additional highly polymorphic microsatellite (STR) loci for estimating kinship in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).Smith, D. G., Kanthaswamy, S., Viray, J., & Cody, L. (Dept of Anthropology, U.C. Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 1-7.
...Thirty-four short tandem repeat (STR) loci, not previously studied in rhesus macaques, were amplified by PCR. About one third of these were found to clearly and reliably amplify and exhibit high levels of genetic heterogeneity, even in relatively inbred populations. These loci, together with 11 loci previously studied, were sufficiently informative to discretely differentiate between related and unrelated pairs and, in most cases, between parent/offspring and other relative pairs. An even greater number of hypervariable STR loci might be required to distinguish between half-sib and full-sib pairs in most rhesus populations.


* Geophagy among primates: Adaptive significance and ecological consequences.Krishnamani, R. & Mahaney, W. C. (Div. of Conservation Biol., Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology & Natural History, Anaikatty P.O., Coimbatore 641 108, India). Animal Behaviour, 2000, 59, 899-915.
...Geophagy, or soil ingestion, is widespread and is presumed to be important to health and nutrition. Primates may engage in geophagy for one or a combination of reasons. Six nonexclusive hypotheses that may contribute are presented and assessed. This review concludes that mineral supplementation, adsorption of toxins, treatment of diarrhea, and pH adjustment of the gut seem the most plausible reasons why primates engage in geophagy.

* Food-neophobia in semi-free ranging rhesus macaques: Effects of food limitation and food source. Johnson, E. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 25-35.
...Monkeys received novel and familiar foods during periods of normal provisioning and when provisioning was suspended. The monkeys did discriminate between novel and familiar foods and continued to exhibit neophobia when provisioning was suspended. Later, food was either tossed to subjects or placed in the habitat so that monkeys discovered it without the observer in close proximity. Rhesus macaques were more likely to eat a novel food that was hand-tossed to them than food they discovered in their habitat. This study suggests that food neophobia is a robust trait in rhesus macaques and that a history of provisioning may affect the expression of the trait.


* Reproductive performance of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in two outdoor housing conditions. Westergaard, G. C., Izard, M. K., & Drake, J. H. (Div. of Research, LABS of Virginia, Inc., 95 Castle Hall Rd, P.O. Box 557, Yemassee, SC 29945). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 87-93.
...This study examined the reproductive performance of rhesus monkeys maintained in two different housing conditions: high-density semi-sheltered gang cages and low-density outdoor corrals. Two hundred sixteen subjects were housed in 49 gang cages, each of which contained one breeding male and between one and eight breeding females. Two hundred seven subjects were housed in 13 corrals, each of which contained between two and four breeding males and between nine and 26 breeding females. Over three years, pregnancy, live birth, and production rates were significantly greater for females in corrals than for those in gang cages. Fetal death rate was lower in corrals than in gang cages, while neonatal death rates did not differ between housing conditions. These differences did not result from potential confounds such as differential age structures or virological statuses between housing conditions. We conclude that, for rhesus macaques, outdoor corral housing leads to better reproductive performance than does semi-sheltered gang housing, probably as a result of increased individual space and relaxation of intense social stressors.

* Pre- and postpartum sex steroids in female marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii): Is there a link with infant survivorship and maternal behavior? Fite, J. E. & French, J. A. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68182-0274). Hormones and Behavior, 2000, 38, 1-12.
...For six females, hormonal profiles were determined by enzyme immunoassay for two pregnancies, one in which infants survived at least two weeks postpartum and one in which infants did not survive. Within-subjects analyses revealed significant differences in mean prepartum estradiol (E2) levels for females in the different infant survival conditions. In contrast to previous findings, however, females exhibited significantly higher E2 levels when their infants did not survive than when they did.

* When will the stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in Neotropical primates. Di Bitetti, M. S. & Janson, C. H. (Dept of Ecology & Evolution, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 50, 109-130.
...A literature review of ultimate and proximate causes of birth seasonality in Neotropical primates and the seasonal patterns shown by each genus within the group. A multiple regression ANCOVA model shows that diet, latitude, and body size affect the degree of birth seasonality. Folivores are less seasonal than frugivores and insectivores. The degree of seasonality increases with latitude and shows a humped relationship with body size, peaking at 1.66 kg body mass.

* Paternity determination, genetic characterization, and social correlates in a captive group of chimpanzees.Meier, C., Hemelrijk, C. K., & Martin, R. D. (Anthropol. Inst. u. Museum, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057, Zürich, Switzerland). Primates, 2000, 41, 175-183.
..."In this study we use genetic fingerprints based on highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for paternity identification, apply some descriptive genetic measures, and test social correlates of reproductive success in a group of captive chimpanzees. Using six microsatellites applied to 34 blood or muscle samples, we inferred sires for 16 offspring. Mean allele-sharing values revealed an increase in genetic relatedness from founder animals to animals born in the colony. Multi-dimensional scaling of genetic relatedness revealed only one patrilinear and no matrilinear clusters. Furthermore, individuals did not appear to produce offspring more often with partners that they mated with more often, that were higher-ranking, older, or (in the case of females) of higher parity. There was also no association between male rank and reproductive success.

We would like to acknowledge Primate-Science as a source for information about new books.


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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a ruffed lemur (Lemur varecia variegata) by Robert George (Florida International University)

Copyright (c) 2000 by Brown University

Assistant Editor: Elva Mathiesen

Last updated: September 18, 2000