Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 40, Number 2

Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

Rank Relations in Captive Juvenile Male Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi): A Case Study, by A. J. J. MacIntosh......1

More Discussion of Enrichment for Lemurs......5

News, Information, and Announcements

Editors’ Note: Celebrating Boris Lapin, August 10, 1901......5

Announcements from Publications......6
. . . ASP Book Series; New French Veterinary Journal; Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow; Neotropical Primates; Parasitology & Tropical Medicine Journals Available

Meeting Announcements......7

Information Requested or Available......8
. . . NiBBS - News in Brain and Behavioural Sciences; West Nile Virus Prevention; New African Primatology Society; More Interesting Web Sites

Grants Available......11
. . . Pilot Grants in Aging Research; Small Grants for Underrepresented Investigators; Nonhuman Primate Immune Tolerance; Understanding Malarial Anemia; ADVANCE, Women in Science and Engineering; Lincoln Park Zoo Research Grants; New Technologies - HIV and HIV Vaccine; Functional Microstimulation of Spinal Cord; PCWS Primate Conservation Grants

Awards Granted: Reynolds Accepts ASP’s President’s Award......15

Award Nominations: ASP Conservation Awards and Grants......15

Research and Educational Opportunities......16
. . . European Course in Tropical Epidemiology; Conservation and Behavioral Ecology Field Course; Behavioral Research Internship - Arizona

News Briefs......17
. . . Monkey Business in the Corridors of Power; Chimpanzee Retirement Bill; East African Community Proposed; Rise in Number of Mountain Gorillas; Recent Zoo Gorilla Deaths; Oregon Capuchins Move to Texas; Kalangala Residents Told to Kill Monkeys

Resources Wanted and Available......18
. . . Obese, Diabetic, & Aging Animal Resource (ODAAR); Materials Available for Research; Simple, Practical Fly Trap; Taxonomic Software; Wisconsin RPRC Coordinated Info Services Grant

Workshop Announcements......32
. . . Alternatives to Animal Drug Testing; Workshop on Aging


Address Changes......5

Positions Available......9
. . . Assistant Professor, Comparative Medicine - Yale; Clinical Veterinarian - Tulane RPRC, Louisiana; Clinical Laboratory Animal Veterinarian - Tennessee; Animal Keeper - Alabama; Animal Behavior Instructor - Panama; Animal Health Technician - Rockefeller University; Veterinarian - Bethesda, Maryland; Biopsychology Faculty Positions - Chicago

Primates de las Américas...La Página......20

Recent Books and Articles......21

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Rank Relations in Captive Juvenile Male Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi): A Case Study

Andrew J. J. MacIntosh
University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology


Dominance rank relations are a fundamental aspect of the social organization of group-living primates (Horrocks & Hunte, 1983). Reproductive success is linked to an individual’s ability to compete for key resources such as food or mates (Trivers, 1972); thus dominance rank is one factor that can influence reproductive success. Rank relations are manifested in very different ways among primates. Maternal rank inheritance occurs in several species of macaques (Macaca fuscata: Chapais, 1988; M. mulatta: Chapais & Schulman, 1980; M. sylvanus: Prud’Homme & Chapais, 1993), baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus: Cheney, 1977; P. c. cynocephalus: Hausfater et al., 1982; Theropithecus gelada: Dunbar, 1980), and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus: Horrocks & Hunte, 1983). These species are characterized by male dispersal. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), on the other hand, a species exhibiting female dispersal, a male’s rank is highly dependent on his ability to form alliances with other males (de Waal, 1982). Bonobos (P. paniscus) present a somewhat different scenario: male alliances remain important, but mother-son bonds are strong and females can influence the rank of their male offspring (Ihobe, 1992). Both chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit fission-fusion social systems (Furuichi & Ihobe, 1994). Little is known about rank relations, and particularly about the ontogeny of rank acquisition, in most other species.

Spider monkeys (Ateles spp.), like Pan, exhibit a fission-fusion social system, in which groups aggregate at resting sites and then break into subgroups to forage (Eisenberg, 1976; Fedigan & Baxter, 1984). Chapman (1990) found that the most common spider monkey subgroup was females with their dependent offspring, with all-male, all-female, and male-female subgroups less commonly observed. Unlike females, males are rarely solitary (Chapman, 1990); they comprise the more socially cohesive sex (Fedigan & Baxter, 1984). Spider monkeys exhibit female dispersal and male philopatry (Eisenberg, 1976; Fedigan & Baxter, 1984; Symington, 1987).

Many similarities have been seen between the ecology and social organization of Ateles and Pan (see Fedigan & Baxter, 1984; Furuichi & Ihobe, 1994; Chapman et al., 1995). This makes comparison of the two in terms of rank relations valuable. Both exhibit male philopatry and female dispersal and live in multi-male, multi-female fission-fusion groups (for Pan see Furuichi & Ihobe, 1994). Furthermore, P. troglodytes and Ateles species are quite similar in their intra-group association patterns (Chapman et al., 1995). Male chimpanzees, like male spider monkeys, tend to travel in all-male or mixed-sex subgroups, while females tend to travel alone or in pairs with their dependent offspring and are generally less affiliative (Kawanaka, 1984; Furuichi & Ihobe, 1994). Chapman et al. (1995) found, however, that mixed-sex subgroups were observed more frequently in chimpanzees than in spider monkeys (i.e., spider monkey males were more likely to be found in all-male subgroups). P. paniscus, on the other hand, exhibit association patterns in which females are much more likely to occur in mixed parties (Kuroda, 1979), and are more affiliative, than Pan troglodytes females (Ihobe, 1992; Furuichi & Ihobe, 1994). Unlike chimpanzees, bonobo females appear to be able to influence the rank of their sons (Ihobe, 1992). This may be because bonobo females spend more time in proximity to males than do chimpanzee females. The presence or absence of a chimpanzee male’s mother seems to have no influence on his group rank, which is dependent upon the relationships he forms with other males in the group (de Waal, 1982). Young males around the age of sexual maturity generally seek affiliation with the alpha male (Kawanaka, 1989). Given the similarities in social organization, might we expect male rank relations in spider monkeys to resemble those in one or both of the Pan species?

Symington (1987) suggested that female black spider monkeys (A. paniscus) do influence the rank of their sons. The present study examines the rank relations of two captive juvenile male black-handed spider monkeys (A. geoffroyi). I will show that there is an association between the relative rank of mothers and sons in this social group, and that the rank of the juvenile males seems to be positively associated with their affiliation with the adult male. Mothers and sons were similar in their patterns of affiliation with the adult male. Finally, the dominant juvenile male received less agonism from the adult male than the other juvenile did.


The results presented in this study are based on 52 hours of observations of a group, established in 1991, of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the Calgary Zoo. The group consisted of 8 individuals at the beginning: 1 adult male, 4 adult females, 2 juvenile males (aged 1 year, 8 months; and 1 year, 4 months), and 1 juvenile female. A male infant was born in the second month of the study (November 3, 1999). The adult male fathered all of the immature animals in the group, and all of the adult females were maternal sisters (a group composition not representative of wild spider monkey populations: see Introduction).

The enclosure consisted of an indoor, middle, and outdoor area. The animals had access to each area during the study period, except that the outdoor enclosure was not used from approximately November through February, because air temperatures were too low. When the animals occupied the middle area they were out of sight of the observer. Observations were made from October 6 through December 3, 1999, and from March 27 to April 12, 2000. The data were divided a posteriori into three periods. The first period ends with the birth of a new male infant into the group; Period 2 begins thereafter; and Period 3 begins at the start of the 2000 study period.

Observations were made using focal animal, continuous time sampling. Notes on subjects other than the focal animal were also taken opportunistically during the focal samples. Samples lasted 15 minutes and were discarded if the focal animal was out of sight for more than 10% of the time. Individuals were easily identifiable by facial and pelage characteristics. Each female was observed for 7.25 hours; each juvenile was observed for 11.75 hours. Dominance rank for the adult females and the juvenile males was based on the direction of agonism (i.e., overt aggression and displacement). Aggression included behaviors such as open-mouth threats, baring teeth, chasing, hitting, and biting. A displacement was said to occur when one individual approached another, causing the second one to vacate the area, and then occupied the vacated area within 2 seconds. The proportion of affiliative behavior (resting in proximity, resting in contact, grooming, and play) was also analyzed for adult females and juvenile males in relation to the adult male. Finally, agonism directed by the adult male toward the juvenile males was analyzed overall, and for the proportion of approaches by the adult male to each juvenile male, and the proportion of approaches by each juvenile male to the adult male, that resulted in displacement and aggression (D/A) directed from the adult male toward each juvenile male.

Simple chi-square tests on the D/A between the juvenile dyad showed no significance at p < 0.05. Because of the small sample sizes, no other statistical analysis was attempted.


A linear dominance hierarchy, with no reversals, existed among the adult females (Table 1). The mother of the younger juvenile male occupied the top rank, followed by the mother of the slightly older juvenile male.

Adult Actor                        Adult Recipient
Female 1*       Female 1*      Female 2*      Female 3      Female 4
Female 1*          X               3              4            10
Female 2           X               X              7             3
Female 3           X               X              X             5
Female 4           X               X              X             X
Table 1: Adult female dominance relations. All occurrences of displacement and aggression from focal samples on adult females are shown here (* = mother of a juvenile male).

The dominance relationship of the juvenile males was not as clear as that of the adult females. The slightly younger son of the highest-ranking adult female (high-born male) was dominant over the older, low-born, young male in counts of D/A, although there were reversals. Overall, the high-born male was dominant in 64.29% (N=42) of the dyadic agonistic interactions with the low-born male. There were progressively fewer reversals in D/A over the study period. During Period 1, neither male seemed dominant to the other (N=16; 50% in favor of each male). As time went on, the high-born male outranked the low-born male more and more. In Periods 2 and 3, the high-born male was dominant in 71% (N=17) and 77% (N=9), respectively, of the dyadic agonistic interactions with the low-born male.

Affiliation with the adult male was examined for the two mothers and the two sons (Table 2a-b). Globally, the two females did not differ in affiliation time spent with the adult male (see Table 2a). The alpha female progressively affiliated more with the adult male while the opposite was true for the beta female. While the sample size for each of the adult females in Period 3 was small (adult female 1: P1=4.5 hr, P2=2.25 hr, P3=.5 hr; adult female 2: P1=4.0 hr, P2=2.75 hr, P3=.5 hr), ad lib. notes taken during focal samples on the young males suggest that the alpha female did affiliate more with the adult male in this period. She copulated with the adult male in Period 3.

Individual      Period 1    Period 2    Period 3    Total
Alpha Female    (1)0.009     0.116        0.640     0.086
Beta Female     (2)0.148     0.044        0.00      0.098
Table 2a: Proportion of time mothers spent in affiliation with the adult male

For the juvenile males there was an overall difference in affiliation with the adult male in favor of the high-born male (Table 2b). There was also a progression from Period 1 to Period 3, with the high-born male progressively affiliating more with the adult male and the low-born male affiliating less with the adult male.

Individual        Period 1     Period 2     Period 3     Total   
High-Born Male     0.025        0.126        0.164       0.120 
Low-Born Male      0.326        0.020        0.013       0.069 
Table 2b: Proportion of time juvenile males spent in affiliation with the adult male

The adult male directed considerably less agonism at the high-born juvenile male than at the low-born juvenile male (Table 3). 20% (N=5) of all approaches by the adult male to the dominant juvenile resulted in D/A from the adult male. For the subordinate juvenile, 66.7% (N=9) of all approaches from the adult male resulted in D/A from the adult male. The dominant juvenile approached the adult male more often than did the subordinate juvenile and received no D/A in return (N=25). In contrast, the subordinate juvenile received D/A in 13.3% of all his approaches to the adult male (N=15).

Individual male   % approaches by adult       % approaches by juvenile
                   male in which juvenile       male in which juvenile
                   male received D/A            male received D/A     
High-Born              20.00 (1/5)                   0.00 (0/25)
Low-Born               66.67 (6/9)                  13.33 (2/15)
Table 3: Agonism between adult and juvenile males


The subject of rank relations has not received much attention among New World primates relative to Old World primates. This study showed that adult female Ateles geoffroyi may influence the relative rank of their sons. There also seems to be a positive association between juvenile male rank and affiliation with the adult male. Furthermore, affiliation between juvenile males and the adult male also corresponded to that between the mothers and the adult male, as both the dominant female and her son progressively affiliated more with the adult male over each period. Finally, this study illustrated that the dominant juvenile male received less agonism from the adult male than did the subordinate juvenile male.

Symington (1987) suggests that adult male dominance is related to body size but provides no empirical data to support the suggestion. In this study, for juvenile males, body size did not correspond to dominance rank because the smaller individual outranked the larger. A mother’s influence may compensate for smaller body size.

As in bonobos, female spider monkeys do seem able to influence the rank of their male offspring. How this influence is exercised is yet unknown for spider monkeys. The dominance relations of the two juveniles in this study confirm the idea that rank is socially learned by immature animals (Berman, 1982). Their young age at the start of this study may have contributed to the lack of a dominant-subordinate relationship in period one. Horrocks and Hunte (1983) posit that aggression among adult females is an important factor influencing rank of their offspring in vervets. The dominant female in this study was more aggressive than the other females. Thus, juvenile male spider monkeys may learn their rank by watching the dominance relations of their mothers. Prud’Homme and Chapais (1993) point out the importance of interventions in agonistic contexts as the primary mechanism of rank influence in cercopithecines. In this study, only two interventions by a mother on behalf of her son were observed, and both occurred on behalf of the low-born male by his mother. The dominant female was never observed to intervene on behalf of her son. Symington (1987) did find that mothers intervene on behalf of their sons, but not daughters, during episodes of rough play; but the frequency of this behavior was not given. Maternal influence of rank in spider monkeys seems subtle, and thus it is important to examine other areas of behavior that may shed light on the matter.

Juvenile male rank and affiliation with the adult male were positively, associated in this study. The dominant juvenile affiliated almost twice as much with the adult male overall, and affiliated progressively more with the adult male, while the subordinate juvenile affiliated less with the adult male, with each period. This pattern also corresponded to adult male-adult female affiliation. The two mothers showed the same pattern as their sons, with the alpha female affiliating progressively more with the adult male and the beta female affiliating progressively less with the adult male with each period. In wild populations, dominant females affiliate more with adult males than do subordinate females (Fedigan & Baxter, 1984), and may thus be able to influence the association between their sons and adult males (Symington, 1987). Instead of directly influencing her son’s rank through agonistic behaviors, a female may do so through affiliation with adult males. Young male chimpanzees, upon reaching maturity, seek affiliation with the alpha male in order to be integrated into the adult male cohort (Kawanaka, 1989). If this were also true of spider monkeys, it would benefit a young male if his mother were to increase his affiliation with high-ranking adult males prior to weaning (which occurs between 16 to 30 months). Our dominant juvenile approached the adult male more often and received considerably less D/A from the adult male than did the subordinate juvenile. Therefore it would appear that the role of the adult male in juvenile male rank relations is an important one.

It seems that spider monkey females do not give birth randomly to male and female offspring. Symington (1987) found that dominant females produced sons at least as often as daughters while subordinate females almost invariably produced daughters. Silk (1983) developed Clark’s (1978) local resource competition hypothesis to explain sex ratio bias at birth in female-bonded species such as macaques and baboons. She suggests that dominant females should have daughters because they will inherit the rank of their mothers. Conversely, because spider monkey males remain in their natal group, we might expect dominant females to bias the sex ratio of their offspring toward males. If the sex of an infant is influenced by the dominance status of its mother, there must be some reproductive advantage given by a high-ranking mother to her infant. Symington (1987) suggests that, although it is as yet unknown whether male dominance is positively correlated with reproductive success in spider monkeys, dominant males are able to monopolize estrous females. If true, it would seem advantageous for a female to influence the sex and rank of her male offspring. Whatever the case, mothers do seem to have the ability to influence the rank of their juvenile male offspring. Whether these ranks carry over into adulthood (about age 4-5 years in male Ateles geoffroyi) remains to be explored.


Berman, C. M. (1982). The ontogeny of social relationships with group companions among free-ranging infant rhesus monkeys. I. Social networks and differentiation. Animal Behaviour, 30, 149-162.

Chapais, B. (1988). Experimental matrilineal inheritance of rank in female Japanese macaques. Animal Behaviour, 36, 1025-1037.

Chapais, B. & Schulman, S. R. (1980). An evolutionary model of female dominance relations in primates. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 82, 47-89.

Chapman, C. A. (1990). Association patterns of spider monkeys: The influence of ecology and sex on social organization. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 26, 409-414.

Chapman, C. A., Fedigan, L. M., Fedigan, L., & Chapman, L. J. (1989). Post-weaning resource competition and sex ratios in spider monkeys. Oikos, 54, 315-319.

Chapman, C. A., Wrangham, R. W., & Chapman, L. J. (1995). Ecological constraints on group size: An analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 36, 59-70.

Cheney, D. L. (1977). The acquisition of rank and the development of reciprocal alliances among free-ranging immature baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2, 303-318.

Clark, A. B. (1978). Sex ratio and local resource competition in a prosimian primate. Science, 201, 163-165.

Dunbar, R. I. M. (1980). Determinants and evolutionary consequences of dominance among female gelada baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 7, 253-265.

Eisenberg, J. F. (1976). Communication mechanisms and social integration in the black spider monkey, Ateles, fusciceps and related species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 113.

Fedigan, L. M. &. Baxter, M. J. (1984). Sex differences and social organization in free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Primates, 25, 279-294.

Furuichi, T. & Ihobe, H. (1994). Variation in male relationships in bonobos and chimpanzees. Behaviour, 130, 211-228.

Hausfater, G., Altmann J., & Altmann, S. A. (1982). Long-term consistency of dominance relations among female baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Science, 217, 752-754.

Horrocks, J. & Hunte, W. (1983). Maternal rank and offspring rank in vervet monkeys: An appraisal of the mechanisms of rank acquisition. Animal Behaviour, 31, 772-782.

Ihobe, H. (1992). Male-male relationships among wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Republic of Zaire. Primates, 33, 163-179.

Kawanaka, K. (1984). Association, ranging, and the social unit in chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. International Journal of Primatology, 5, 411-434.

Kuroda, S. (1979). Grouping of the pygmy chimpanzees. Primates, 20, 161-183.

Prud’Homme, J. & Chapais, B. (1993). Aggressive interventions and matrilineal dominance relations in semifree-ranging barbary macaques. Primates, 34, 271-283.

Silk, J. B. (1983). Local resource competition and facultative adjustment of sex ratios in relation to competitive abilities. The American Naturalist, 121, 56-66.

Symington, M. M. (1987). Sex ratio and maternal rank in wild spider monkeys: When daughters disperse. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 20, 421-425.

Trivers, R. L. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man (pp. 1871-1971). Chicago: Aldine.

de Waal, F. (1982). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. New York: Harper and Row.

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More Discussion of Enrichment for Lemurs

In the last issue of the LPN (January, 2001, 40[1], 14) we printed a discussion from the Alloprimate list about enrichment for captive lemurs. Since then, several more responses have appeared, which we are printing here.

Michelle Carrillo, a student at UC Davis and volunteer at a local zoo, had written: I would like to offer more enrichment to our lemurs. We have ring-tails, red-ruffed, and mongoose lemurs. Is there any information on captive lemur enrichment? Are there plants that are poisonous to them? I would like to concentrate on scent enrichment, but am open to other ideas. Thank you.

Ken Glander (Duke University Primate Center) wrote: There are plants that can be toxic but most captive lemurs can tell the difference and will eat only those that are safe for them. For example, we feed our lemurs poison sumac, which is not poisonous for them - in fact, they relish it and eat it all year round. Try a few different leaves and then feed your lemurs the things they eat.

Elizabeth Van Nostrand (Seneca Park Zoo): Puzzle feeders are basically boxes that the animal needs to manipulate in some way to get food or some other treat. Our zoo uses puzzle boxes for orangutans, but I don’t think lemurs are smart or dexterous enough to use them.

Food can be placed in different containers (cardboard boxes, paper bags). Also, consider live food (crickets, mealworms). I’ve seen this done with other primates, but I don’t know if it’s safe for lemurs, so check first.

“M. L.” wrote: As far as scent enrichment, we haven’t had a whole lot of success. We have used perfume inserts from magazines and have sprayed washcloths with diluted scents (rose, orange, jasmine), but the lemurs really don’t seem that crazy about them.

Another enrichment we do here is to cut two holes (big enough so no heads get stuck) into various sizes of food boxes and put part of the lemur diet into them; the boxes are secured to branches with bungee cords. What else? … fresh browse: sweetgum, tulip poplar, black locust and redbud. We have various sizes of cups with food in them hanging from branches.

Lemurs can be challenging to enrich but the simpler you keep it the more successful it is. The one thing that I do know is that food motivates them the most.

Susan Pinkus (Dept of Zoology, Univ. of British Columbia): I don’t know anything about enrichment but I spend a lot of time observing ringtail and redfronted brown lemurs in the wild. The things they play with most are saplings. They love narrow-diameter (~ 1.5”) upright saplings, ideally around 4’ or 5’ apart, maybe a little farther. They only need to be 8’ or so tall - shorter might work too. They play chasing games, bouncing back and forth among the saplings. If the saplings are springy they like it even better - they’ll hang from the tip of one and bounce as it bends, or bend it down to the ground with their weight and then spring off. As for vertical structure, remember that lemurs are wonderful leapers. If some “canopy” branches are far apart they may take advantage of challenging distances between branches rather than taking the long way around. My two species eat insects, given the choice, and spent long periods being very attentive while searching the trunks, branches, and crevices of trees looking for caterpillars. Maybe the same effect could be gotten using mealworms or a treat food like raisins.

“HH” wrote: When I was a volunteer working with lemurs, the enrichment that worked the best was fruit ice cubes (probably more of a hot weather treat) and arboreal enrichment as mentioned in another posting. A simple feeder can be made by filling the hollow of a piece of bamboo with lemur-safe treats. This can be hung from a tree branch or inside a caged area. Paper towel tubes would also be effective and would be easier for a lemur to get into. Also, the ringtails really liked to mark trees by clawing at them with that inside spear located on their wrist. They ruined quite a few banana trees but it would be interesting to see if a removable post might be something they would enjoy marking. I’ve never tried it but I’d imagine a cat scratching post (or similar alternative) could be put inside outdoor or indoor enclosures.

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Editors’ Note: Celebrating Boris Lapin, August 10, 1901

A letter from Professor E. Dzhikidze, Deputy Director of the Institute of Medical Primatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, informed us that August 10, 2001, will be the 80th birthday of our friend and colleague, Boris Lapin, Director of that Institute for the past 50 years. (See Professor Lapin’s articles on the Institute in this Newsletter, 1998, 37[2], 5-7; and 1999, 38[1], 7-9.) We congratulate Boris on remaining an active member of the research and conservation communities at this very impressive age! * * *

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Address Changes

Matt J. Kessler, 835 Windrift Dr., Earlysville, VA 22936-9333.

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Announcements from Publications

ASP Book Series

The American Society of Primatologists’ Book Series, Special Topics in Primatology, has several volumes currently in preparation (see below). In addition, four people have suggested topics for future volumes and are in the process of developing official book proposals. Thus, one year from now the series should have four published volumes and at least four volumes in progress. If you wish to suggest a topic for this book series, please contact Janette Wallis, ASP Book Series Editor, Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73026 [e-mail:]. She can provide full details of the procedures to officially propose a volume and guide you through the process of getting started. Current volumes in the series and their publication dates are: Volume I: Primate Conservation: The Role of Zoological Parks, Janette Wallis, Editor (1997); Volume II: The Care and Management of Captive Chimpanzees, Linda Brent, Editor (early 2001); Volume III: The Gibbons of China, Lori K. Sheeran, Editor (Spring 2001); and Volume IV: Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Primates: New Perspectives and Directions, Clara B. Jones, Editor (Fall 2001).

New French Veterinary Journal

Pratique des Animaux Sauvages et Exotiques is the first veterinary journal in the French language dedicated to exotic animals. The publishers are interested in promoting scientific literature in French, as well as promoting the welfare of exotic animals in zoos. See <>.

Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow

Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow is a refereed electronic quarterly journal aimed at building a global animal health research community with a sense of identity and quality. It will provide state-of-the-art reviews and will publish interpretation and opinion on issues of importance for animal health, encouraging interdisciplinary exchange, at <>.

Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow intends to publish regular columns entitled Editorials, News, Reviews, Tools, Education, and Policies (as well as other sections such as Archives and Administrative Information). There is no restriction in length, since we will edit text anyway, to adapt it to the Scientific American-like style we want to achieve (“we” are Dr. Susanna Stout, a native English speaking Scientific Editor and Cambridge graduate, plus an office manager, a part-time Assistant Editor, and the Editor-in-Chief, Marian C. Horzinek). Illustrations are given special attention: we have graphic artists here that can convert a napkin sketch into an animated cartoon that talks! We will exploit the multimedia possibilities of the medium, to the extent they are appropriate.

The content of Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow is not exclusively intended for the veterinary practitioner - but rather is aimed at the graduate student, PhD supervisor, postdoctoral fellow, academic teacher, veterinary scholar, science journalist, government researcher, and scientist. In other words, it is not only for veterinarians by training - but for any biomedical research worker in a veterinary environment. For further information, or to submit papers or announcements, see <>; or contact Prof. Marian C. Horzinek, Utrecht University, Veterinary Faculty, Yalelaan 1, Androclusgebouw, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Neotropical Primates

“Neotropical Primates has taken on a new role - doubling as a journal while maintaining its main function as a newsletter for the Primate Specialist Group membership, as well as for Neotropical primate researchers, zookeepers, and conservationists worldwide. Our intention is to include up to two or three peer-reviewed articles. These will be limited to aspects directly dealing with or linked to the systematics and taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, and conservation of the platyrrhines. For this reason, we are pleased to announce H. M. Buchanan-Smith, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, L. Cortés-Ortiz, C. M. Crockett, S. F. Ferrari, E. W. Heymann, W. R. Konstant, R. A. Mittermeier, M. D. Mudry, H. Schneider, K. B. Strier, and M. E. Yamamoto as our new Editorial Board. They have kindly agreed to play a special role in helping us to glean articles and information of importance for Neotropical primate studies and conservation, and to maintain, even raise, the standards we are hoping to achieve. Please send your contributions, news items, and announcements relevant to Neotropical primates (as well as sloths, armadillos, and anteaters) to Jennifer Pervola, Assistant Editor, CABS/CI, 2501 M St, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037.” - From an editorial in volume 8, number 1

Parasitology & Tropical Medicine Journals Available

For a limited time, several parasitology and tropical medicine journals published by Elsevier have free full-text articles available on line. These include: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology; Acta Tropica; International Journal for Parasitology; and Parasitology International. Links to these journals are available from <>. Apparently this free full-text access will continue at least until October, 2001. - Posted toTDR-Scientists list

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Meeting Announcements

You are invited to attend the American Genetic Association’s annual meeting and symposium May 19-20, 2001, in San Diego, California. New studies at the interface of human genomics and evolution will be presented. Registration includes a reception on the evening of May 18th and a banquet at the San Diego Zoo the evening of the 20th. Registration and updated program information can be found at <>. Contact Ms. Susan Hansen, San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112 [e-mail:].

The XXV Congresso Brasileiro de Zoológicos and VI Encontro Internacional de Zoológicos will be held May 20-25, 2001, in Brasília, DF, Brazil. The central theme is “Conservation”. For information, contact: Comissão Organizadora do Congresso, a/c Raul Gonzales Acosta, Fundação Pólo Ecológico de Brasília, Avenida das Nações, Via L-4 Sul, 70610-100 Brasília, DF, Brazil [+55 61 9966 0092; fax: +55 61 346 4611; e-mail: or].

Congreso de Primatología del Nuevo Mundo will be held June 13-15, 2001, in Bogotá, Colombia. See <>; or contact Victoria Pereira, Calle 96, No 22-08, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia [2573691; fax: 2573691; e-mail:].

The deadline for proposing symposia and workshops for the 24th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, August 8-11, 2001, in Savannah, Georgia, is March 15. The individual abstracts deadline is April 1. Contact Tammie Bettinger, ASP Program Chair, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 3900 Wildlife Way, Cleveland, OH 44109 [216-635-3314; fax: 216-661-3312; e-mail:]; and see <>.

The First Mexican Congress of Primatology, sponsored by the Asociacíon Mexicana de Primatología as its second biennial meeting, and by the Departamento de Evolución Humana of the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, will take place September 2-5, 2001, in Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. For further information, to submit abstracts for oral presentations or posters, or to submit proposals for symposia (due May 30), send e-mail to <>. A more detailed announcement, in Spanish, is in this issue of the LPN (“Primates de las Américas…La Página”, p. 20).

The VII. Congress of the Gesellschaft für Primatologie will be held September 30 ­ October 4, 2001, in Zürich, Switzerland. There will be symposia on Macaca sylvanus, Callithrix, and lemurs. For information, contact the Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland [+41 +1 635 54 11; fax: +41 +1 635 68 04; e-mail:]; or see <>.

The American Association of Zoo Veterinarians will hold its annual conference in Orlando, Florida, September 18-23, 2001, in conjunction with the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, the American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, and the Nutrition Advisory Group. Sessions include reptilian, avian and aquatic animal medicine, environmental activism, clinical pathology, anesthesia, behavior/escapes, megavertebrates, small mammals, nutrition, field project reports, and case reports. There will also be a poster session, veterinary student paper competitions, and workshops/wet labs. For more information on the scientific program, contact: Ray Wack, Program Chairman, Sacramento Zoo, 3930 West Land Park Dr., Sacramento, CA 95822-1123 [916-264-5887; e-mail: rfwack@ucdavis,edu]. For additional conference or membership information, please contact Wilbur Amand, VMD, Executive Director/AAZV, 6 North Pennell Rd, Media, PA 19063 [610-892-4812; fax 610-892-4813; e-mail:].

The AALAS 2001 National Meeting will be held October 21-25 in Baltimore, Maryland. See <> for forms and information; use Fax On Demand at 901-754-2546 to have documents faxed to you; or call the AALAS National Office at 901-754-8620.

The 5th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment will be held November 4-9, 2001, at Taronga Park Zoo, Sydney, Australia. The theme is “Making Enrichment a 21st Century Priority”. For information see <>; or contact Margaret Hawkins, 5IEE Conference Coordinator, Taronga Zoo, P.O. Box 20, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia [+61 2 9978 4615; fax: +61 2 9978 4613; e-mail:].

The V Congresso Brasileiro de Ecologia do Brasil will be held November 4-9, 2001, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The theme will be “Environment and Society”. It will be sponsored by the Brazilian Ecological Society and hosted by the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Institute of Biosciences, Center for Ecology, and Departments of Ecology, Zoology and Botany. For information, see <www.ecologia/> or contact: Organização de Congresso, Rua João Abott, 44- cj.402, 90460-150 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil [Tel/fax: + 55 51 333 8737; e-mail:].

The 19th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS, hosted by the New England Regional Primate Research Center and the Caribbean Primate Research Center, will be held November 7-10, 2001, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This Symposium will consist of four sessions and a series of workshops focusing on primate research utilizing SIV, SHIV, and other related primate retroviruses. Specific sessions will include Immunology, Pathogenesis, Virology, and Vaccines/Therapeutics. Workshop topics include Genetics, Detection of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses, and Advances in in vivo Imaging. For registration materials contact: Symposium on NHP Models for AIDS, c/o Carolyn A. O’Toole, Conference Coordinator, NERPRC, One Pine Hill Dr., Southborough, MA 01772 [508-6248032; fax: 508-6248172; e-mail:].

The American Society of Primatologists’ 2002 meeting will be held June 1-4 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. For information, contact Janette Wallis, Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190 [405-271-5251 ext. 47612; fax: 405-271-3808; e-mail:].

The XIXth Congress of the International Primatological Society will be held August 4-9, 2002, in Beijing, China, organized by the Mammalogical Society of China and the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Congress will focus on the progress and prospects of primatology and the conservation of nonhuman primates. The deadline for symposium and workshop titles to be submitted is August 31, 2001. Contact Prof. Fuwen Wei, Secretary General, 19th Congress of the IPS, c/o Institute of Zoology. Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Zhongguancan Lu, Haidian, Beijing 100080, People’s Republic of China [fax: (86-10) 82627388; e-mail: <>; and see: <>].

Annual Meetings of the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialists Group (CBSG), 10-13 August, 2002, The World Zoo Organization (WZO), 13-17 August 2002, and The International Association of Zoo Educators (IZE), 17-22 August, 2002, Hofburg Palace, Redoutensäle, Vienna. Hosted by the Schoenbrunn Zoo. For more information: Austropa Interconvention, Conference Office, Friedrichstrasse 7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria [fax: +43 1 315 56 50; e-mail:].

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Information Requested or Available

NiBBS - News in Brain and Behavioural Sciences

NiBBS - News in Brain and Behavioural Sciences, at <>, is updated every day with news, scientific reports, reviews, and discussion. You may also subscribe to a weekly newsletter (in html) by sending a blank e-mail to <>. - From Absdigest 7[2]

West Nile Virus Prevention

Facilities that keep their animals out-of-doors should read “Prevention and Control of West Nile Virus Infection in Equine and Other Livestock or Poultry”, on the Web at: <>.

New African Primatology Society

“The African Primatology Society will be a scientific organization for the conservation of primates as well as for research and education. It will be the only society of its kind in Africa and we hope to be affiliated with a number of international scientific bodies. We are in the late stages of its launch and wish to seek for help. We are preparing a database of all African primatologists, as well as other scientists who originate in Africa or work in Africa in primatology. This list will go a long way in our launch agenda, as we intend to invite all these scientists to a symposium, at which interim officials will be elected. We also hope these scientists will play a key role in fundraising for the society.” For information, contact Kunga Ngece Nicholas, Co-Convener, African Primatology Society, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya [e-mail:]. - Posted to Primate-Science, March 13, 2001

More Interesting Web Sites

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Positions Available

Assistant Professor, Comparative Medicine - Yale

The Section of Comparative Medicine at Yale University is accepting applications for an assistant professorship in comparative medicine. The position offers excellent opportunities for growth as a clinician-scientist at a leading academic institution. The Section has a full-time faculty of 11 veterinarians, physicians, and basic scientists who provide animal health services to the Yale Animal Resources Center, conduct independent and collaborative research, and teach at the School of Medicine. Primary duties for the position include clinical service for the Yale Animal Resources Center, which cares for more than 50,000 animals in daily residence, and participation in research. Current research areas in the Section include microbial pathogenesis, cancer models, metabolic bone disease models, and the pathobiology of genetic disorders. However, applications from candidates with other research interests are welcome. Applicants must have specialty training in laboratory animal medicine and demonstrable enthusiasm for a career in academic comparative medicine. The initial appointment is for three years at a highly competitive salary and with excellent benefits. Letters of interest and a resume, which should include the names and addresses of at least three references, should be sent to: Robert O. Jacoby, Professor and Chair, Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208016, New Haven, CT 06520-8016. We seek to fill the position by July 1, 2001. AA/EOE.

Clinical Veterinarian - Tulane RPRC, Louisiana

The Tulane Regional Primate Research Center (TRPRC) is seeking applications for the position of Clinical Veterinarian within the Department of Veterinary Medicine. The TRPRC is one of eight regional primate research centers in the U.S. The TRPRC is an AAALAC International-accredited facility housing approximately 5000 nonhuman primates (NHP) of nine different species. The largest research program involves infectious disease research concentrating on the study of AIDS. Other areas of research involve gene therapy, reproduction, vaccine studies, malaria, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, antiviral therapy, and clinical NHP medicine and surgery.

Responsibilities include general medical and surgical care of breeding colony and research animals; as well as provision of research support for, and training of, investigators, veterinary students, and technicians. There will also be opportunities to conduct independent or collaborative clinical research directed toward nonhuman primate medicine and surgery.

The candidate must hold a DVM/VMD degree from an AVMA-accredited college of veterinary medicine and be licensed to practice veterinary medicine in one of the 50 states. ACLAM, ACVIM, or ACVECC board certification or eligibility is desirable. The candidate should have good oral and written communication skills and the ability to interact positively with others.

Interested persons should submit a letter of interest, CV, and a list of three references to: James L. Blanchard, Associate Director for Veterinary Resources, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433 [504-871-6285; e-mail]. Tulane University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer and encourages applications from women and members of minority groups.

Clinical Laboratory Animal Veterinarian - Tennessee

Vanderbilt University invites nominations and applications for the position of Clinical Veterinarian, Division of Animal Care. This position will report to the Director of the Division of Animal Care. The successful candidate will provide comprehensive veterinary care, in compliance with NIH guidelines and federal, state, and accreditation requirements, to all research and teaching animals maintained by the University. The primary responsibilities will be related to: * oversight of the survival surgery program for rodents, nonhuman primates, canines, and other species; * management of postoperative care; * veterinary consultation on protocol development with emphasis on surgical planning; and * provision of adequate anesthesia-analgesia. The applicant will also participate in the preventive medicine and quarantine programs, animal vendor surveillance, clinical treatment of research animals, and a variety of teaching and training efforts for investigators, research staff, and caretakers. Collaborative research with established investigators is available and encouraged. A DVM or equivalent degree from an accredited school of veterinary medicine, and formal training in laboratory animal medicine, are required. ACLAM board-certification is preferred. Strong interpersonal and communication skills as well as eligibility for licensure to practice in Tennessee are highly desirable. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. The position will be filled as soon as a qualified candidate is identified. For full consideration, send a letter of application, resume, and the names and addresses of three references to: Joan Richerson, DVM, Director, Div. of Animal Care, S-1316 MCN, Vanderbilt University, 21st Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37232 [615-322-2231; fax: 615-343-7682]. Vanderbilt University is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.

Animal Keeper - Alabama

The Birmingham Zoo is working to increase and diversify its applicant pool for Animal Keeper positions. Potential applicants are needed for future openings in the Primate, Carnivore, Hoofed Stock, Pachyderm, Bird, and Reptile Departments. A degree in biology or a related field is preferred. Please send cover letter and resume to: Marcia Riedmiller, Mammal Curator, Birmingham Zoo, 2630 Cahaba Rd, Birmingham, AL 35223 [e-mail:]. Resumes will be kept on file for one year. Equal Opportunity Employer.

Animal Behavior Instructor - Panama

The Institute for Tropical Ecology and Conservation (ITEC) is seeking an instructor (senior faculty position) to teach a field course in tropical animal behavior at the Bocas del Toro Biological Station on Isla Colón, Bocas del Toro, Panama, from July 15 through August 11, 2001. The instructor will be responsible for designing and executing a four-week field course that focuses on field techniques and individual student research in animal behavior.

The course should include a section on field research techniques in the form of group field research problems, exercises, or demonstrations during the first two weeks of the course. This will provide the knowledge necessary to enable students to formulate, design, and execute individual short-term research projects during the last two weeks. The design of the course should take full advantage of the juxtaposition of lowland tropical wet forest, mangrove, and coral reef ecosystems available at the Biological Station. Together, these ecosystems offer a tremendous array of potential subjects for animal behavior studies including mammals (three primate species, sloths, bats, rodents, etc.), birds (forest, marsh, coastal and pelagic), insects, fishes (freshwater and marine), and marine invertebrates.

Course size is limited to 15 students. There will be one graduate teaching assistant (TA) with an enrollment of 10 students, and two TAs with 15. TAs will be recruited by ITEC or the instructor, as the instructor prefers. The instructor’s salary varies with the number of students enrolled in the course. With a minimum of five students, remuneration will be $1000 for the four-week course. An additional $150 will accrue with each additional student for a maximum of $2500 for a full course of 15 students. ITEC will cover international and national airfare to and from the field station, all meals and lodging during transit, and all meals, lodging, and local transportation while at the field station. ITEC will also cover all costs associated with the transportation, lodging, meals, and remuneration of TAs.

The successful candidate will have the PhD in hand by the start of the course, an academic position, a focus on animal behavior in a tropical environment (preferably the Neotropics), and some teaching experience. Preference will be given to candidates whose primary research focus is with the behavior of birds, bats, insects, or marine organisms, but all animal behaviorists are invited to apply.

Please send a letter of intent, CV, and two letters of recommendation to Peter N. Lahanas, Executive Director, ITEC, 1023 SW Second Ave, Gainesville, FL 32601 [352-367-9128; fax: 352-367-0610; e-mail:].

Animal Health Technician - Rockefeller University

Rockefeller University is seeking applications from qualified candidates for Animal Health Technician in its Laboratory Animal Research Center. Rockefeller University is an AAALAC-accredited institution with a departmental staff of over 35 individuals, and includes a centralized facility and two smaller satellite facilities on campus. The program maintains an average daily census of approximately 35,000 animals.

The successful candidate will have a high school diploma and previous experience with animals in a research setting. An associate degree and veterinary technician certification is preferred. This person must be technically proficient and have experience working with laboratory rodents; primate experience is a plus. Excellent communication skills and computer proficiency are necessary. Reporting to the supervisor, this person will monitor the health of animals, maintain detailed records, perform technical procedures, collect samples, assist veterinarians with clinical duties, and participate in training procedures.

We offer a competitive salary, an excellent benefits package, and a beautiful working environment (see <>). For immediate consideration, please submit cover letter, resume, and references to Michelle Keenan, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, Box 125, New York, NY 10021 [fax: 212-327-7079; e-mail:]. AA/EOE.

Veterinarian - Bethesda, Maryland

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH, is seeking applicants for the position of Campus Veterinarian for NHLBI activities conducted in Bethesda, Maryland. This position offers an opportunity for making substantial contributions to the NHLBI’s Division of Intramural Research (DIR) program. The DIR currently utilizes a wide variety of laboratory animals including nonhuman primates (macaques, tamarins, and squirrel monkeys), farm animals (swine and sheep), dogs, rabbits, and rodents. As a key member of the Laboratory of Animal Medicine and Surgery (LAMS) team, the successful applicant will have responsibilities for planning, directing, coordinating, and evaluating all aspects of animal care and use activities on the NIH campus.

Specific responsibilities include: * supervision of six or more animal care personnel * providing veterinary clinical care and surgical support services to NHLBI investigators * providing guidance in the development and implementation of animal use protocols to researchers * maintaining the animal health surveillance program * participating in IACUC activities * participating in the on-campus surgical support program * representing NHLBI in central animal holding facility committees * assisting in the education and training of animal care personnel * advising the Chief of LAMS and other intramural Laboratory and Branch Chiefs and research investigators on animal care, use, and welfare issues * assuring compliance with all federal and state animal care and use laws and regulations * maintaining AAALAC accreditation.

Minimum qualifications are a DVM or equivalent degree from an AVMA-accredited school of veterinary medicine (board eligibility or certification by ACLAM is desirable), licensure in at least one state, experience in the AAALAC accreditation process, and five years of progressively responsible experience managing an animal research program. Applicants must also have a positive administrative record that includes effective leadership and interactive personal skills. U.S. citizenship is required. Salary will be commensurate with experience. Officers in the Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service may also apply.

For additional information, contact Donald Ouellette at (301) 496-6477. To apply for this position, submit a CV and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of four professional references by April 16 to: Donald Ouellette, Personnel Management Branch, NHLBI, NIH, 31 Center Dr., MSC 2484, Bldg 31, Rm 5A28, Bethesda, MD 20892-2484 [301-496-6477]. Contact Donald Ouellette for any additional information. NIH is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Biopsychology Faculty Positions - Chicago

The University of Chicago is seeking to fill several faculty positions in biopsychology. Our primary goal is to understand behavior and the mind in relation to biological mechanisms. We construe biological mechanisms to include the endocrine and immune systems as well as the nervous system. Biopsychologists who study either animals or humans are encouraged to apply. We are open to a wide range of research areas and will ultimately select a group with diverse and complementary perspectives. Research areas include the reciprocal relations between psychological processes and biological systems, with an emphasis on their evolution, development, or mediating mechanisms.

The University of Chicago has established an Institute for Mind and Biology (see <>) and constructed a new biopsychology research facility to house these research efforts. This building includes research laboratories for both human and animal behavioral studies, fully accredited animal care facilities, offices, and rooms for equipment to be shared in common. Positions are open at both junior and senior levels. The anticipated start date is fall, 2002, but is flexible.

Applicants should submit a CV, a conceptual summary of research, and representative publications. In addition, junior candidates should have three letters of reference sent to: Biopsychology Search Committee, c/o Gwen Stevenson, 5848 South University Ave, Green Hall, Rm 109, Chicago, IL 60637.

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Grants Available

Pilot Grants in Aging Research

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is seeking small grant applications in specific areas to: * stimulate and facilitate the entry of promising new investigators into aging research, and * encourage established investigators to enter newly targeted, high priority areas in this research field. This Small Grant Program provides support for pilot research that is likely to lead to a subsequent individual research project grant that is focused on aging and/or a significant advancement of aging research. New or established investigators are eligible to apply for this award, but for an established investigator to be eligible the individual must propose research that is unrelated to any federally-funded research project in which the investigator participates. Applicants may request either $25,000 or $50,000 in direct costs for one year. These awards are not renewable.

The following are some, but not all, of the fields of interest: * Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular aging. * Neural Modeling. * Sensory and motor processing. * Extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. * Functional Senescence. * Vaccine Development. * Health-related consequences of female reproductive aging. * Biology of age-related prostate growth. * Metabolic regulation. * Basic underlying mechanisms of musculoskeletal aging. * Animal models of aging.

For information contact: David B. Finkelstein, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 2C231, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail:]; Judy Finkelstein, Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 3C307, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-9350; fax: 301-496-1494; e-mail:]; or Wanda Solomon, Geriatrics Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 3E327 MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-435-3046; fax: 301-402-1784; e-mail:]. Application receipt dates are March 20; July 17; and November 16, 2001.

Small Grants for Underrepresented Investigators

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) recognizes the need to increase the racial and ethnic diversity of the pool of scientists in research areas important to the NIDDK. This program will enable the applicant to accept a tenure-earning position, gain additional research experience while making the transition to independence, and obtain preliminary data on which to base a subsequent research grant application in an area of diabetes, endocrinology, metabolism, digestive diseases, obesity, nutrition, kidney, urology, or hematology research. For the purpose of this announcement, underrepresented investigators are defined as individuals belonging to a particular ethnic or racial group that has been determined by the applicant institution to be underrepresented in biomedical or behavioral research.

In addition, applicants must have a doctoral degree (MD, PhD, DO, DVM) and at least 2-4 years of postdoctoral research experience at the time of application. This training should have been in an area applicable to the research supported by the NIDDK. The applicant must have direct access to an expert in the area of the proposed research who can provide guidance or any necessary assistance in carrying out the proposed project. Applicants may not hold, or concurrently apply for, any other Public Health Service research project grants at the time of this application. While priority will be given to applicants who have not previously been a Principal Investigator on a major research project grant, applicants are encouraged to apply for other research project grants during the course of, or following, this award.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to: Judith Podskalny, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Rm. 667, MSC 5450, Bethesda, MD 20892-5450 [301-594-8876; e-mail:]; James Hyde, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Rm. 603, MSC 5460, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460 [301-594-7692; e-mail:]; or Terry Bishop, Division of Kidney, Urology, and Hematology, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Rm. 619, MSC 5458, Bethesda, MD 20892-5458 [301-594-7726; e-mail:].

Nonhuman Primate Immune Tolerance

The Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases (DDEMD) of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) invite applications from single institutions and consortia of institutions to participate in the Non-Human Primate Immune Tolerance Cooperative Study Group (NHPCSG). The NHPCSG is a multi-center, cooperative research program focused on the study of immune tolerance in nonhuman primate models of kidney and islet allograft rejection, asthma and allergic diseases, and autoimmune diseases. The goals of this research program are to: evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel tolerance induction regimens; elucidate the mechanisms of the induction, maintenance, and loss of tolerance; and develop and validate biomarkers for induction, maintenance, and loss of tolerance in these immune-mediated disorders. Tolerance may be induced by a variety of approaches, including: clonal deletion, clonal anergy, immune deviation, or suppression. Projects should be designed to meet these goals in established and new nonhuman primate models.

Essential elements of the multi-project cooperative agreement mechanism include: * a minimum of three interrelated individual research projects organized around a central theme; * collaborative efforts and interaction among independent projects and their investigators to achieve a common goal; * a single Principal Investigator who will be scientifically and administratively responsible for the group effort; * a single applicant institution that will be legally and financially responsible for the use and disposition of funds awarded; and * where necessary, support for “Core” resources or facilities, each of which shall be utilized by at least two research projects in order to facilitate the research effort. The broad-based, long-range NIAID Plan for Research on Immune Tolerance is available at: <>.

A broad range of scientific and technical expertise is required, including extensive experience in: immune-mediated diseases; asthma and allergic diseases; autoimmune diseases; transplantation immunobiology and genetics; solid organ, cell, and tissue transplantation; nonhuman primate models of immune system disorders; molecular and cellular biology, particularly as applied to the identification and evaluation of biomarkers and assay development and validation; research design and statistics; and veterinary care for nonhuman primates. Each participating member of the Cooperative Study Group must possess scientific expertise in the appropriate areas under the direction of a senior scientist as the Principal Investigator responsible for the scientific, technical and administrative coordination and management of the awardee institution(s).

Requests for the NIAID brochure “Instructions for Applications for Multi-Project Awards”, as well as inquiries regarding programmatic (research scope and eligibility) issues, may be directed to: Shiv A. Prasad, Div. of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, NIAID, 6700-B Rockledge Dr., Rm 5255, Bethesda, MD 20892-7640 [301-496-5598; fax: 301-402-2571; e-mail:]; or Joan T. Harmon, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Rm 697, Bethesda, MD 20892-5640 [301-594-8813; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail:]. Letter of intent receipt date is June 11, 2001; application receipt date is July 17, 2001.

Understanding Malarial Anemia

The Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health, invites applications for research grants to support multidisciplinary research in the areas - such as tropical medicine, hematology, immunology, and genetics - relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia. Studies should be designed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying severe malarial anemia in individuals who are naturally exposed to infection, and/or to clarify the pathophysiology of malarial anemia reported in nonhuman primates following immunization and challenge infection.

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of Plasmodium spp. (primarily P. falciparum and P. vivax). Malaria claims an estimated 1 to 3 million lives annually, and accounts for untold morbidity in the approximately 300 to 500 million people infected annually. It is becoming increasingly recognized that severe anemia contributes substantially to malaria-related mortality, especially in young children living in endemic regions. In P. falciparum malaria, anemia may develop acutely or chronically, and may range from mild to severe. In the case of life-threatening anemia, a feature of severe and complicated malaria, the only effective treatment currently available is blood transfusion, which carries risks for transmission of other blood-borne pathogens.

Severe malarial anemia is multifactorial, involving increased erythrocyte destruction as well as decreased erythrocyte production. The mechanisms underlying severe malaria anemia are poorly understood, apparently involving humoral (e.g. antibody and/or complement) as well as cellular (e.g. cytokine) immune responses. The immunologic basis of severe malarial anemia is of particular interest to NIAID because of its potential relevance to malaria vaccine development (see NIAID’s malaria vaccine research activities at <>). Recent observations of severe anemia developing in nonhuman primates (Aotus) following vaccination with blood-stage antigens and challenge infection, or after repeated P. falciparum infection and drug cure, suggest that improved understanding of the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia will be an important factor in the development of safe and effective vaccines.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic (research scope and eligibility) issues to: Dr. Stephanie James, Div. of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Rm 3101, MSC 7630, 6700-B Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-2544; fax: 301-402-0659; e-mail:]. Letter of intent receipt date is April 20, 2001; application receipt date is May 22, 2001.

ADVANCE, Women in Science and Engineering

The National Science Foundation has announced a new program, ADVANCE: Increasing the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers. The Program Solicitation (NSF 01-69) and other information are available at <>; from the home page, select the “Crosscutting” link. A brief synopsis of the program follows.

The goal of the ADVANCE program is to increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. To meet this goal, the Fiscal Year 2001 ADVANCE pilot program provides new award opportunities for both individuals and organizations: Fellows Awards, Institutional Transformation Awards, and Leadership Awards. With each of the three types of ADVANCE awards, NSF seeks to support new approaches to improving the climate for women in U.S. academic institutions and to facilitate women’s advancement to the highest ranks of academic leadership. Creative approaches to realizing the goal of this pilot program are sought from men and women. Members of underrepresented minority groups and individuals with disabilities are encouraged to apply. The deadline for Institutional Transformation and Leadership Proposals is May 8, 2001; and the deadline for Fellows Proposals in the biological sciences is August 21-24, 2001. - Fred Stollnitz, Program Director for Cross-Directorate Activities, Div. of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230 [703-292-7868; fax: 703-292-9153; e-mail:].

Lincoln Park Zoo Research Grants

The Lincoln Park Zoo Neotropic and Africa/Asia Funds support field research in conservation biology around the world. The Neotropic Fund focuses on projects undertaken in Latin America and the Caribbean. The fund emphasizes the support of graduate students and other young researchers, particularly those from Latin America. Since 1986, the fund has awarded over 146 grants in 19 countries. The Africa/Asia Fund, launched in 1997, focuses on projects throughout Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. Each fund typically supports between five and ten projects annually, including project renewals for a second year. Most awards fall into the range of $3,000-$6,000. Initial support is for up to 12 months from the date of award, and the maximum duration of support is two years. The current deadline for receipt of Neotropic and Africa/Asia proposals is October 1, 2001. For additional information and application procedures see <>; or write to: Lincoln Park Zoo NF/AA Funds, Department of Conservation and Science, Lincoln Park Zoo, 2001 N. Clark St, Chicago, IL 60614 [e-mail].

New Technologies - HIV and HIV Vaccine

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), invite applications to conduct novel and innovative research in three target areas: * development of improved technologies for detecting HIV; * utilization of novel technologies to evaluate immune responses to HIV vaccines, as well as expansion of the range and scope of immune functions currently measured in HIV vaccine trials; and * utilization of novel technologies to measure and correlate immune responses that are responsible for/associated with the efficacy of non-HIV licensed vaccines. Studies in animals, particularly primates, which have received SIV/SHIV vaccines are encouraged. The program will not directly support the conduct of human trials or animal vaccine studies.

The research studies may be conducted within a single laboratory or in conjunction with other laboratories at the same or different institutions specializing in different research areas. Investigators should, prior to application, arrange for access to samples from existing clinical and cohort studies through the existing “Material Transfer Agreements” of these organizations.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to: Patricia D’Souza, Vaccine Prevention and Research Program, Div. of AIDS, NIAID, Rm 4152, MSC 7628, 6700-B Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-7628 [301-496-8379; fax: 301-402-3684; e-mail:]; or Dennis F. Mangan, Chief, Infectious Diseases and Immunity Branch, Div. of Extramural Research, NIDCR, Bldg. 45, Rm 4AN-32F, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2421; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail:].

Functional Microstimulation of Spinal Cord

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), NIH, announces the availability of a Request for Proposal (RFP) to support the development of neural prostheses to restore lost function in neurologically injured individuals. Neural prostheses replace or supplement neurological function by directly interfacing with the nervous system. Microstimulation with microelectrodes implanted into neural tissue in the spinal cord can directly activate neural circuits, and may also functionally modify the neural circuitry in the spinal cord. Animal and human studies have shown the potential of microstimulation to provide focal, controlled activation of neural tissue. At the same time, studies of spinal cord circuitry have demonstrated plastic circuitry that might be functionally activated and or modified by suitable microstimulation with or without other sensory stimulation. Studies have demonstrated the possibility of activating bowel and genito-urinary function in intact animals and in acutely spinalized animals. Now studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of functional restoration in chronically spinalized animals. The purpose of this project is to design, develop, and evaluate microstimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord as a method of controlling genito-urinary and bowel function. Male and female animal models (excluding chimpanzees) should be investigated for studies of bladder and bowel function.

Prospective offerors are expected to have personnel resources adequate to conduct the proposed research with expertise in the following areas: neuroengineering, anatomy and physiology of the sacral spinal cord, and chronic microstimulation of the spinal cord.

RFP No. NIH-NINDS-01-04 will be available electronically and may be downloaded from <>. Offerors are responsible for routinely checking this Web site for any possible solicitation amendments that may be issued. No individual notification of any amendments will be provided. Inquiries may be directed to: Laurie A. Leonard, Contracting Officer, Contracts Management Branch, NINDS, Neuroscience Center, Rm 3287, 6001 Executive Blvd, MSC 9531, Bethesda, MD 20892-9531 [301-496-1813; fax: 301-402-4225; e-mail:]. Proposals will be due on or about May 13, 2001.

PCWS Primate Conservation Grants

Students and organizations that are seeking funds to help study, conserve, and/or protect primates in the wild are invited to apply for a Primate Conservation & Welfare Society (PCWS) Conservation Grant. For a copy of the application, send a self-addressed stamped envelope to: PCWS - Conservation Grant, P.O. Box 2101, Port Townsend, WA 98368; visit <>; or send e-mail to <>. If you e-mail, specify if you want a pdf or Word document. The grant deadline is June 30, 2001.

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Awards Granted: Reynolds Accepts ASP’s President’s Award

In 2000, the American Society of Primatologists' Awards and Recognition Committee announced that Professor Vernon Reynolds received the first “ASP President’s Award”. This newly created award is given to individuals or organizations that have made unique and exceptional contributions to primatology. The award was announced in the June issue of the ASP Bulletin. At our annual conference in Boulder, Charles Southwick read an acceptance letter from Vernon - who was unable to attend the meeting. The award includes a plaque and $1000.

In September, Janette Wallis, ASP Executive Secretary and Reynolds’ frequent collaborator, traveled to Uganda to make a public presentation of the ASP President’s Award. Vernon graciously accepted the award and, as is typical, gave all recognition and credit to the hard-working staff of the Budongo Forest Project (BFP), directed by Mr. Fred Babweteera. Vernon chose to split the $1000 award evenly among the staff.

BFP is genuinely a forest project. Research conducted via BFP has included study of the forest itself (effects of logging, reforestation, etc.) and many species of animals inhabiting the forest - including various birds, butterflies, and, of course, chimpanzees and other primates.

* * *

Award Nominations: ASP Conservation Awards and Grants

Nominations for Conservation Awards and Grants are now being sought by the American Society of Primatologists (ASP). These awards and grants, funded from the ASP Conservation Fund, are a mechanism to recognize deserving colleagues and students, including those from primate habitat countries - countries with native primate fauna - for whom the prestige of an ASP award or grant can be a valuable aid to the recipient’s conservation efforts.

Subscription Award: This award provides the American Journal of Primatology to worthy individuals in habitat countries who otherwise would have little access to the scientific literature on nonhuman primates. Preference is given to individuals who will make the journal available for use by students and colleagues. The award is normally granted for a 5-year period. Recipients are requested to submit a brief report every two years summarizing the use of the journal. A nominating letter should describe the nominee’s credentials and primate-related activities, and should explain why the nominee deserves to receive high priority consideration.

Conservation Award ($750): This award provides recognition and financial support for students and young investigators from habitat countries who demonstrate potential for making significant and continuing contributions to primate conservation. Those eligible include students, researchers, and educators from primate habitat countries for whom no more than five years have elapsed since receipt of their terminal degree. Nominators should provide the name, title and full mailing address of their nominee, along with a statement about the nominee’s qualifications for the award, focusing on past and potential contributions to primate conservation. A copy of the nominee’s CV is requested. Supporting letters from other individuals acquainted with the nominee’s work may be submitted. Past awards have been presented by U.S. Ambassadors or other senior officials, thereby obtaining favorable publicity for the award, its recipient, and primate conservation in the recipient’s country.

Conservation Small Grants (up to $1,500): Grant proposals are solicited for conservation research or related projects, including conservation education. ASP and IPS members working in habitat countries are especially urged to apply or to help someone from a habitat country submit a meaningful project which can be a portion of a larger effort. Applications may be obtained from <> or by contacting the ASP Conservation Committee Chair at the address below. Recipients of grants must agree to submit a brief report (maximum one page, single spaced), in a form suitable for publication in the ASP Bulletin, to the chair of the ASP Conservation Committee within six months of completing the project.

Evaluation and Application Procedure: With the exception of requests for emergency support, which can be considered at any time, the Conservation Committee will make its recommendations for awards and grants to the ASP Board of Directors at the annual meeting. Successful nominees and applicants will be informed following the meeting and their names will be published in the ASP Bulletin and posted on the ASP Web page. The 2001 deadline for submission of nominations and grant proposals is June 8, 2001. All materials should be mailed or faxed (206-685-0305) to Randall C. Kyes, Chair, ASP Conservation Committee, RPRC, Univ. of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195. - Randy Kyes, Conservation Committee Chair

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Research and Educational Opportunities

European Course in Tropical Epidemiology

The European Course in Tropical Epidemiology, an annual collaborative venture among various European institutes of tropical medicine, will be held in Basel, Switzerland, September 3-14, 2001. This is an intensive introductory course in epidemiology, intended for physicians, nurses, health program managers, health administrators, and other persons with a professional interest in health in tropical countries. The course provides participants with basic skills in epidemiological assessment of health problems and service priorities and in the planning of field studies. Emphasis will be on the methodology and practical application of epidemiological tools in developing countries, the interpretation of data, and the reporting of field studies. This course is appropriate for those with no formal training in epidemiology or statistics, but the course is intensive and applicants should have a good command of English. A certificate of attendance is awarded to those completing the course. For details, see <>; or contact Cornelia Naumann, Swiss Tropical Institute, P.O. Box 4002, Basel, Switzerland [e-mail:].

Conservation and Behavioral Ecology Field Course

One of the inaugural classes at El Zota Biological Field Station, in Limón Province of Costa Rica, will be a field course, including lectures; field exercises; article presentation; and the design, execution, analysis, and presentation of an independent student research project. As part of their field techniques exercises, students will be participants in the first systematic census of primates at El Zota. El Zota is committed to conservation through preservation of pristine habitat and sustainable use of land that has been previously disturbed. Several reforestation projects are in progress, in conjunction with Fundación Neotrópica of Costa Rica. This field site boasts jaguars, tapirs, macaws, and a host of other indigenous flora and fauna. Primates occurring at El Zota are the black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), white-fronted capuchin (Cebus capucinus), and mantled howling monkey (Alouatta palliata).

Students should have taken at least one class in a related field, such as animal behavior or ecology, zoology, or biological anthropology. The course fee is $1,400, excluding airfare to Costa Rica, for 28 class days, from July 1 to 28, 2001. The application deadline is June 1, 2001. Contact Dr. Jill D. Pruetz, Miami University, Dept. of Zoology, Oxford, OH 45056 [570-426-1205; fax: 570-426-1205; e-mail:]. Individuals interested in teaching a course or conducting research at El Zota are invited to contact Dr. Pruetz. - Posted to Primate-Science, February 13, 2001

Behavioral Research Internship - Arizona

The Primate Foundation of Arizona (PFA) is accepting applications for its Behavioral Research Internship program. PFA is a private, non-profit corporation devoted to the preservation, propagation, and study of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). It is currently home to more than 70 socially-housed chimpanzees, and conducts behavioral research with a goal of improving captive management, environmental enrichment, and well-being.

The Behavioral Research Internship provides college students in the behavioral and biological sciences the opportunity for behavioral research experience. It includes three basic components: * an introduction to chimpanzee behavior and behavioral observation data collection; * training in chimpanzee psychological wellness and environmental enrichment; and * research support tasks such as data entry. The introduction to chimpanzee behavioral observation is the primary component of the internship and includes data collection on an assigned project, entering the data into a spreadsheet program, conducting preliminary analysis, and completion of a background literature review. At the end of the internship, the intern presents the results of his/her project to the full staff, thus acquiring presentation experience.

This is a volunteer internship, so no tuition is required and no stipend is given. Students should have completed at least two years of a four-year program in the behavioral or biological sciences. Both undergraduate and graduate students are encouraged to apply. Previous course work and/or experience in primatology/animal behavior is required for all students. Applications are accepted for three 3-month-long internships: Summer: June 1 to August 31; Fall: September 1 to November 28; and Spring: March 1 to May 30. Applications should be submitted at least 6 weeks in advance of the internship start date. Please submit your application as soon as possible, as we receive as many as 100 applicants per position.

For further information and application materials, please send a letter, including your full name and mailing address, to: Sue Howell, Research Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027 [e-mail:].

* * *

News Briefs

Monkey Business in the Corridors of Power

Delhi - Thousands of monkeys are creating havoc in the corridors of power in the Indian capital, barging into government offices, stealing food, threatening bureaucrats, and even ripping apart valuable documents. The increasingly aggressive animals swing effortlessly between the offices of the defense, finance and external affairs ministries, and have even been spotted in the prime minister’s office, government officials say.

According to estimates by officials, there are at least 10,000 monkeys scampering in and around the stately red sandstone buildings just a stone’s throw from the grand presidential palace. But officials say there is little they can do to deal with the monkey invasion of the government buildings, built by the country’s British rulers before India won independence in 1947. Killing the animals is not an option because monkeys have a sacred status in India’s main religion, Hinduism. - From Reuters, January 9, posted to Alloprimate

Chimpanzee Retirement Bill

The complete text of the Chimpanzee Health Improvement, Maintenance, and Protection Act, passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Clinton on December 20, 2000, is available at <>, through the University of Wisconsin’s Primate Info Net.

East African Community Proposed

The East African Community is a proposed political and economic union for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, aimed at forging a single market, among other propositions. The three heads of state, Daniel Arap Moi, Benjamin Mkapa, and Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, were expected to sign the East African Community treaty on January 15 in Arusha, Tanzania.

In a press release, the President of the Uganda National Chamber of Commerce, Boney Katatumba, said that the business community in the region would be the biggest beneficiary of this renewed cooperation. The first East African Community fell apart in 1997 due to political differences amongst the three countries. The press release reads in part: “It will now open to manufacturers, farmers and the entire business community a larger market of more than 100 million people. Business people will be able to move freely within the region without need of visas, and they will be able to trade and work in the whole region wherever opportunities are best.”

Katatumba said that the Community would in future enable the three nations to have a common currency, and that tour operators would also benefit as their tourists would enjoy a wider variety of interests, from mountain gorilla tracking to sun bathing in Mombasa and touring Serengeti National Park. - From a report by Edris Kisambira in Uganda’s New Vision, January 15, 2001

Rise in Number of Mountain Gorillas

Despite the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), conservationists report an increase in the population of the highly endangered mountain gorillas.

According to a joint press release by the African Wildlife Foundation, the Worldwide Fund for Nature, and Fauna and Flora International, the number of mountain gorillas in the Virunga region of eastern DRC has risen by over 10 percent. Monitoring data provided by the International Gorilla Conservation Programme and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund-International indicate that the population has increased from 320 individuals in 1989 to at least 355 currently.

Conservationists stress that the increase can be directly attributed to the sheer dedication of field staff whose work has limited damage to the habitat of gorillas. The Virunga mountain range, which straddles the borders of DRC, Rwanda, and Uganda, has been used as a theater of operations between militia groups such as the Rwandan Interahamwe and the Rwandan army soldiers who are pursuing them. Furthermore, thousands of displaced civilians have sought refuge in the mountains. About 15 gorillas are known to have been killed as a direct consequence of the war, the press release said. It warned that despite the positive trends, more work was needed to secure the long-term protection of the forests and their gorilla population. “Widespread poverty and continued violence, as well as habitat encroachment, poaching, and lack of resources for conservation are still tangible threats.” - from the UN Integrated Regional Information Network, January 24, 2001, reported on Alloprimate

Recent Zoo Gorilla Deaths

Sam, a western lowland gorilla that had lived at the Knoxville Zoo since 1992, died November 24, 2000, from complications of chronic heart disease, at age 30. He had been seriously ill since March with dilated cardiomyopathy. Sam was one of three gorillas living at the zoo. He belonged to Boston’s Franklin Park Zoo but was on loan to Knoxville. At his death, Sam was receiving six medications to battle the condition that enlarged his heart and reduced its ability to properly contract. Born at the Cincinnati Zoo, Sam was one of two male gorillas loaned to the Knoxville Zoo in 1992 for its then new gorilla exhibit. The two came to Knoxville as part of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association’s Species Survival Plan for gorillas. - From a report in the Knoxville News-Sentinel

Tammy, a gorilla who made her home at the Little Rock Zoo for almost a decade, died November 25, 2000. Tammy and her male partner, Rocky, were on loan from the Memphis Zoo. Rocky and Tammy generated negative publicity for the zoo when they embarked on an after-hours escape in 1997. The couple was found eating apples in a zookeeper’s work area, and nobody knows how they got out. Tammy was 41 years old at the time of her death. Gorillas can live up to 45 years in captivity, Dr. Marilynn Baeyens, the zoo’s veterinarian, said. “We didn’t expect her to live, the way she was last night,” Baeyens said. “She wasn’t in pain, so we elected to let her go ahead and go to sleep.” - From a report in the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Both posted to primfocus

Oregon Capuchins Move to Texas

Thirteen capuchin monkeys traded their lives as research animals in Oregon for a roomy new pen Thursday at the Austin Zoo. Their new home is an open-air pen with a high roof and hay-lined boxes.

Native to the jungles of South America, where the monkeys normally wouldn’t live beyond their teens, the latest Austin simians range in age from 17 to 31, said Dr. Gary Heckman, the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center veterinarian who brought them to Texas.

Zoo workers set up temporary heating lamps and cut up fresh fruit while the 12 females and one male explored their new surroundings and got to know one another. Monkeys are social animals, but these have seldom been out of individual cages. Taking advantage of this rare situation, anthropology students from Southwest Texas State University (SWT) will be observing the monkeys as they make their first friends and form groups. “They’ll learn about things like friendships, dominance hierarchies, and kin relationships,” said anthropologist Beth Erhart of SWT.

Ninety percent of the animals - from parrots to tigers - at the Austin Zoo, a nonprofit, private facility about six miles west of Austin, are “rescues” that were pets or came from breeding farms or research facilities, said zoo co-founder Jim Carroccio. The Zoo has two other groups of capuchin monkeys - former pets and former research animals. The research veterans were used for animal behavior and breast cancer studies, Carroccio said.

Under federal regulations, the Oregon center has the choice of putting the animals into other studies, using them to breed more research monkeys, or giving them to zoos, Heckman said. “We believe in research, but we also believe in kindness to the animals,” he said. “They’ve paid their dues to research.” - by Janet Jacobs, in the Austin, Texas, American-Statesman, February 23, 2001

Kalangala Residents Told to Kill Monkeys

Kalangala (Uganda) District Chairman Daniel Kikora recently ordered the killing of monkeys on the islands making up this district, saying this would reduce the destruction of food and other crops. Kikora told New Vision that monkeys have become the main inhabitants of Kalangala, which he said was becoming dangerous, in terms of both health and economics.

“The biggest problem we are facing now is the monkeys’ presence in greater numbers. We are about 18,000 people on the islands and (the monkeys) are more than 80,000. We are looking for possible means to get rid of them,” he said.

He said with only one gun at the district headquarters, nothing can be done apart from poisoning the monkeys. Residents expressed dismay about environmentalists’ restrictions on monkeys. They said monkeys had become a problem to all since they feed on coffee and palm oil. They said monkeys had destroyed their coffee plantations and the district was now in economic crisis. “We are just tired of the so-called environmentalists. They restrict us from killing the monkeys. We have not received anything from these organizations ever since we were hit by famine. It is these monkeys causing us to suffer by eating our food and other crops,” a resident said. Residents said they would use any means to get rid of the monkeys. - © 2001 by New Vision; distributed March 6 by AllAfrica Global Media <>

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Resources Wanted and Available

Obese, Diabetic, & Aging Animal Resource (ODAAR)

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) supports a colony of aged rhesus macaques, many of which are obese and/or diabetic. This is a long-term colony of monkeys housed at the University of Maryland. They have been extensively and longitudinally characterized for general health variables, blood chemistry, food intake, and body weight. Diabetic monkeys are tested daily for urine glucose and ketone levels; prediabetic monkeys are tested weekly. Data for some of the monkeys extends as far back as 15 years.

This unique resource is available for collaborative studies. ODAAR has a significant amount of stored tissue collected at necropsy and stored blood collected longitudinally. Serial blood collection or tissue collection at necropsy can also be performed prospectively. Testing and imaging can also be performed on the monkeys.

Inquiries regarding collaborative studies using the ODAAR colony should be directed to Barbara C. Hansen, Director, Obesity and Diabetes Research Center, University of Maryland, 10 South Pine St., #6-00, Baltimore, MD 21201-1192 [410-706-3168; fax: 410-706-7540; e-mail:].

Materials Available for Research

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) Aging Cell Repository has assembled panels of primate materials for distribution. These panels contain samples from the following nonhuman primates: ring-tailed lemur, black-handed spider monkey, woolly monkey, red-bellied tamarin, pig-tailed macaque, rhesus macaque, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, and bonobo. These samples are available either as fibroblast cultures or DNA. Additional information can be obtained at <> or by contacting The NIA Aging Cell Repository, Coriell Cell Repositories, 401 Haddon Ave, Camden, NJ 08103 [800-752-3805 (U.S.); 856-757-4848 (other countries); fax: 856-757-9737; e-mail:]. - From the AWIC Bulletin, 2000, 11, 30.

Simple, Practical Fly Trap

The Nzi (Swahili word for “fly”) trap is a simple, safe and economical cloth trap for the capture of biting flies (tsetse flies, horse flies, deer flies, stable flies). It was developed at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi, Kenya, as an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of insecticides, following many years of research on appropriate and sustainable technology for African farmers. It is a passive killing device that works through the attraction of flies to large blue and black objects. Flies simply die from exposure after entering an innovative configuration of cloth and netting. A publication on the research leading up to the development of the trap is in preparation, and will be submitted to a journal this year. In the interim, <> will provide resources for people who are interested in practical aspects of using the trap. - Information posted to the TDR-Scientists list by Dr. Steve Mihok, 388 Church St, Russell, Ontario, K4R 1A8 Canada [e-mail:]

Taxonomic Software

Jevgeni Meike, a biology student from the University of Helsinki, Finland, has created a database software system for managing the information he developed and used in his own research. TAXIS (Taxonomic Information System) has been used in the development of a “CD Guide to the Polypores of Finland” at the University of Finland’s Department of Mycology. The published CD-ROM is now available. TAXIS is free for students: just visit <TAXIS.VirtualAve.Net> to register and download it. Others are asked for $59, which includes updating and user support. For more information contact Jevgeni at Peltokylantie 3 m 123, 00740 Helsinki, Finland [+358 9 3455927; e-mail:]; or see the Web site. - From Absdigest 7[2]

Wisconsin RPRC Coordinated Info Services Grant

In August, 2000, the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (RPRC) was awarded a grant to coordinate both information services among the RPRCs and outreach to the international primatological community.

Recently, an interim update was published, indicating progress that has been made:

If you have any comments or questions about progress on the grant, please contact Larry Jacobsen, Library and Information Services, Wisconsin RPRC, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715 [e-mail:]; or see <>.

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Primates de las Américas...La Página

Esta vez incluimos información sobre una importante dirección Web que facilita la localización de literatura primatológica (PrimateLit), no duden en utilizarla en sus investigaciones. Asimismo, hacemos una cordial invitación al próximo Congreso de la Asociación Mexicana de Primatología, quienes tendrán su reunión bianual en el mes de septiembre de 2001. Les enviamos un cordial saludo y estamos a sus órdenes: Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen, Depto. Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología AC, km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, Ap. 63 CP 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México. [e-mail:].

PrimateLit Database

Sin duda, una de las mejores opciones a las que se puede acceder para obtener información sobre las investigaciones primatológicas en cualquiera de sus campos, es la denominada PrimateLit. Esta base de datos es mantenida por el Washington Primate Research Center y permite, vía una dirección Web, obtener un login que da un acceso inmediato a un sistema de búsqueda de toda la información publicada sobre diversos aspectos de la primatología mundial. No duden en utilizarla, es de acceso gratuito y sin complicaciones para su uso, vayan a la dirección Web <>.

1er Congreso Mexicano de Primatología
Septiembre 2-5, 2001. Mérida, Yucatán, México
Primer Anuncio

En un esfuerzo por reunir a investigadores y estudiantes relacionados con el estudio y conservación de primates en México, así como definir las tendencias y prioridades de investigación al respecto, la Asociación Mexicana de Primatología (AMP) y el Departamento de Ecología Humana del Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Unidad Mérida, convocan a la comunidad científica del país a participar, en el marco de la reunión bianual 2001 de la AMP, en el 1er Congreso Mexicano de Primatología, a efectuarse del 2 al 5 de septiembre de 2001 en las instalaciones de la Unidad del CINVESTAV-IPN, con sede en Mérida, Yucatán, México.

El comité organizador convoca a participar en el Congreso, para presentar resultados de investigación científica en cualquier área de la primatología. Los resúmenes de los trabajos aceptados serán organizados para presentarse en sesiones temáticas a definirse en su oportunidad para cada modalidad.

Presentaciones orales y cartel

Las presentaciones orales tendrán una duración de 15 minutos (10 min. de exposición y 5 min. para preguntas). En general, datos preliminares, estudios piloto y descripciones de aparatos, técnicas o equipos, no serán recomendados para presentarse en esta modalidad. En la modalidad cartel, contarán con un espacio en mampara de 2.5 m x 1.5 m aprox. Los resúmenes de los trabajos bajo esta modalidad deberán prepararse bajo los mismos lineamientos para las presentaciones orales.

Simposios dentro del Congreso

Los interesados en organizar algún simposio sobre tópicos relacionados con primates nativos, deberán enviar al comité organizador el título del simposio y una breve descripción del mismo mencionando su relevancia en el contexto del Congreso. A pesar de que la dinámica de los simposios será responsabilidad de cada organizador, se recomienda que las ponencias para esta actividad no excedan de 20 mínutos, considerando un tiempo máximo de 2.5 h para el simposio.

La recepción de solicitudes para la realización de simposios queda abierta a partir de esta fecha, cerrándose el 30 de mayo de 2001. Las propuestas serán revisadas por el comité organizador del evento y los resultados de dicha evaluación serán dados a conocer a los organizadores en un plazo no mayor a dos semanas. Los organizadores de los simposios aceptados, deberán enviar el programa detallado del simposio a más tardar un mes después de su aceptación.

La elaboración y envío de resúmenes, deberá apegarse a las recomendaciones contenidas en el formato que será proporcionado por el comité organizador. Los resúmenes de trabajos, las propuestas para simposios o cualquier solicitud de información adicional del Congreso, deberán enviarse vía electrónica a la siguiente dirección: <>.

Toda la información detallada sobre el evento se presentará gradualmente en los próximos comunicados del comité organizador.


M. en C. Domingo Canales Espinosa, Presidente, Asociación Mexicana de Primatología [e-mail:]; y Dr. Salvador Montiel Ortega, Presidente, Comité Organizador Local, Departamento de Ecología Humana, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mérida [e-mail:].

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors)


*Assisted Fertilization and Nuclear Transfer in Mammals. D. P. Wolf & M. Zelinski-Wooten (Eds.). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2001. 320 pp. [Price: $145]

* Human Paleobiology. R. Eckhardt. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. [Price: $80]

* Infanticide by Males and Its Implications. C. P. Van Schaik & C. H. Janson (Eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. [Price: Hardback $130; Paperback $47.95]
. . . Contents: Foreword, by S. B. Hrdy; Infanticide by males: Prospectus, by C. P. Van Schaik & C. H. Janson.
. . . Part I. Introduction: The holy wars about infanticide. Which side are you on? And why? by V. Sommer; Infanticide by male primates: The sexual selection hypothesis revisited, by C. P. Van Schaik; Vulnerability to infanticide by males: Patterns among mammals, by C. P. Van Schaik.
. . . Part II. Infanticide by males: Case studies: Infanticide in red howlers: Female group size, male membership, and a possible link to folivory, by C. M. Crockett & C. H. Janson; Infanticide in hanuman langurs: Social organization, male migration, and weaning age, by C. Borries & A. Koenig; Male infanticide and defense of infants in chacma baboons, by R. A. Palombit, D. L. Cheney, J. Fischer, S. Johnson, D. Rendall, R. M. Seyfarth, & J. B. Silk; Infanticide by males and female choice in wild Thomas’s langurs, by R. Steenbeek; The evolution of infanticide in rodents: A comparative analysis, by D. T. Blumstein; Infanticide by male birds, by J. P. Veiga.
. . . Part III. Behavioral consequences of infanticide by males: Prevention of infanticide: The perspective of infant primates, by A. Treves; Infanticide and the evolution of male-female bonds in animals, by R. A. Palombit; The other side of the coin: Infanticide and the evolution of affiliative male-infant interactions in Old World primates, by A. Paul, S. Preuschoft, & C. P. Van Schaik; Female dispersal and infanticide avoidance in primates, by E. H. M. Sterck & A. H. Korstjens; Reproductive patterns in eutherian mammals: Adaptations against infanticide? by M. A. Van Noordwijk & C. P. Van Schaik; Paternity confusion and the ovarian cycles of female primates, by C. P. Van Schaik, J. K. Hodges, & C. L. Nunn; Social evolution in primates: The relative roles of ecology and intersexual conflict, by C. L. Nunn & C. P. Van Schaik.
. . . Part IV. Infanticide by females: Infanticide by female mammals: Implications for the evolution of social systems, by L. Digby; “The hate that love generated” - Sexually selected neglect of one’s own offspring in humans, by E. Voland & P. Stephan.
. . . Part V. Conclusion: The behavioral ecology of infanticide by males, by C. H. Janson & C. P. Van Schaik.

* Primate Brain Maps: Structure of the Macaque Brain. A Laboratory Guide with Original Brain Sections, Printed Atlas and Electronic Templates for Data and Schematics. R. F. Martin & D. M. Bowden. Software by J. Wu, M. F. Dubach, & J. E. Robertson. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2000. [Price: $154.40, including CD-ROM]

Audiovisual Material

* Topics in International Health CD-ROM Series - Malaria. New York: CABI Publishing, 2000. [Price: Institutions: £120/$195; Individuals: £30/$55; Developing countries: £45/$80. Contact]
. . . Thirteen interactive tutorials covering all aspects of malaria. A special price of £20/$35 is available for certain countries, listed at <>.

* Primates in Art: Stephen Nash Lecture. Madison: Wisconsin RPRC, 2000. 49 minute videotape. [Available on loan from Ray Hamel, WRPRC Library, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53705-1299; e-mail:]
. . . Artist Stephen Nash presents a slide lecture detailing the history of how primates have been represented in sculpture, painting, illustration, and other art forms.

* The Life and Times of Willie B. Zoo Atlanta. [Price: $14.95 at <>]
. . . A videotape of the gorilla who sat alone in a tiled enclosure at the old Atlanta Zoo for 27 years. When improvements in the 1980s led to the construction of natural habitats, “Willie B.” was finally released in the Ford African Rain Forest and “became a real gorilla again”.

Field Guides

* Histoire Naturelle des Primates d’Afrique Centrale. A. Gautier-Hion, M. Colyn, & J.-P. Gautier. Libreville, Gabon: ECOFAC, 1999. 174 pp. plus CD-ROM. [Price: NLG 96.00 / US$40.00]
. . . The authors have studied primates for thirty years in central Africa. The CD-ROM has material on 60 of the species described in the text.

Magazines and Newsletters

* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, September, 2000, 7[3]. [Depto. de Psicobiología, Buzón 150, Facultad de Psicología, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid, Spain]
. . . Contents include “La zoonosis del SIDA: Una coevolución de virus-huésped versus transmission en cruce de especies,” by G. Bustelo; and “Los chimpancés que trituran la comida: Un ejemplo de transformación del alimento en primates no humanos,” by S. Fernández-Carriba.

* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, January, 2001, 8[1]. Available at <>
. . . Includes “Los chimpancés, la cultura y la investigación en los zoológicos”, by F. Guillén-Salazar & S. Corte Cortazzo; and “Nuevo mundo, nuevos monos: Sobre primates Neotropicales en los siglos XV y XVI”, by B. Urbani.

* CCC Update, Fall/Winter 2000, 11[2]. [Community Conservation Consultants, Howlers Forever, Inc., RD 1, Box 96, Gays Mills, WI 54631]

* The Gibbon’s Voice, December, 2000, 4[1]. [International Center for Gibbon Studies, P.O. Box 800249, Santa Clarita, CA 91380]
. . . Includes “The Kloss’s gibbon (Hylobates klossii)”, by D. J. Whittaker; and a report on a gibbon conservation workshop.

* Gorilla Gazette, December, 2000, 14[1]. [Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, 9990 Riverside Dr., Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400]
. . . Includes: The Little Rock Zoo: Social gorilla groups, by A. Rademacher; Surveying chimpanzees: The Goualougo Triangle in northern Congo, by D. Morgan; Mbeli Bai: Gorilla study, northern Congo, by E. Stokes; The gorillas at Apenheul, the Netherlands, by R. van der Beek; Getting acquainted: Gorilla introductions at Apenheul, the Netherlands, by S. van der Nieuwendijk; Zoos and their role in great ape conservation, by B. Armstrong; Formation of a bachelor group: Gorillas at Loro Parque, and Introducing gorillas to a naturalistic environment, both by M. Downman; and articles about the Columbus Zoo’s in situ support of various great ape projects in Africa.

* Hominid: Origins Humans. [Available by e-mail from Jordi Serrallonga <>]
. . . A newsletter, in Catalan, from the Grup d’Origens Humans and the University of Barcelona, including course descriptions and announcements of lectures and meetings.

* IPPL News, December, 2000, 27[3]. [International Primate Protection League, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes an article on saving a zoo group of Herpes B-positive Macaca fuscata in Australia from being killed, by L. Shanley.

* Neotropical Primates: A Newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, March, 2000, 8[1]. [CABS/CI, 2501 M St, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037]
. . . Contents: An editorial, by A. B. Rylands & E. Rodrí-guez-Luna; Two new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Tapajós/Madeira interflavium, south central Amazonia, Brazil, by M. G. M. van Roosmalen, T. van Roosmalen, R. A. Mittermeier, & A. B. Rylands; Reconocimiento de la población del mono aullador negro (Alouatta pigra) en Palenque, Chiapas, México; by A. Estrada, R. Coates-Estrada, L. Castellanos, A. Rivera, H. González, A. Ibarra, Y. García, D. Muñoz, & B. Franco; Primate diversity, distribution and relative abundances in the Rios Blanco y Negro Wildlife Reserve, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia, by R. B. Wallace, R. L. E. Painter, D. I. Rumiz, & A. B. Taber; Novos registros de Alouatta no estado do Ceará (Primates, Atelidae), by P. G. Guedes, D. M. Borges-Nojosa, J. A. G da Silva, & L. O. Salles; Nova ocorréncia de Brachyteles arachnoides no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo, Brasil, by P. Auric-chio & M. A. Ferreira da Silva; Female dispersal in the Belizean black howling monkey (Alouatta pigra), by R. C. Brockett, R. Horwich, & C. B. Jones; Update on the status of the Margarita Island capuchin, Cebus apella margaritae, by R. A. Martinez, R. A. Moscarella, M. Aguilera, & E. Márquez; Primate records from the Potaro Plateau, Western Guyana, including the first for Cebus albifrons east of the Rio Branco, Brazil, by A. A. Barnett, B. Shapley, S. Lehman, M. Mayor, E. Henry, P. Benja-min, M. McGarrill, & R. Nagala; Survey of Alouatta palliata at the Bilsa Biological Reserve, north-west Ecuador, by S. Charlat, O. R. Thatcher, N. Hartmann, Y. G. Patel, M. Saillan, & E. Vooren; and Demography of a group of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) at the Estaçáo Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, by J. W. Lynch & J. Rímoli.

* The Newsletter, 2000, 11[3]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
. . . Includes: I’m forever blowing bubbles! by J. Fritz; More bubbles power: A bubble machine, by J. Fritz; and The Primate Foundation of Arizona Education Program, by S. Howell & J. Fritz.

* Orang Gang News. Summer, 2000, #15. [368 Anita St, #64, Chula Vista, CA 91911-4128]

* Pongo Quest: Orangutan Foundation International Newsletter, Fall, 2000, 10[1]. [O.F.I., 822 S. Wellesley Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90049]

* PrimeApes, Fall 2000, 5[2]. [Center for Orangutan and Chimpanzee Conservation, P.O. Box 488, Wauchula, FL 33873]


* Cost Analysis and Rate Setting Manual for Animal Research Facilities. Bethesda, MD: NCRR Office of Science Policy and Public Liaison, 2000. 84 pp. [Available as <>]


* Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 22, 2000. [Price: $15 (U.S) and $20 (foreign) from the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20418]
. . . The aim of this ILAR/NIH joint workshop was to provide feedback from the scientific community to the USDA regarding the lack of a functional definition of “distress” as well as the efficacy of continuing to use current categories to report pain and distress. The speakers’ areas of expertise and perspectives ranged from scientific research to animal welfare policy and protocol review.


* IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group: Triennial Report 1997-2000. Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B., Konstant, W. R., Eudey, A. A., Butynski, T., Ganzhorn, J. U., & Rodríguez-Luna, E. Species, 2000, 34, 82-88.
. . . Summaries of key activities of the PSG, including the global status of primates; funding for primate conservation; action plans; membership; publications; media coverage; meetings and workshops; the Primate Taxonomy Workshop; new primate species; and the IUCN/SSC Red List.

* The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [Book with analysis and CD-ROM. English only. Price: £30 or US$45 from IUCN Publication Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Rd, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, UK e-mail:; or order at: <>].
. . . Also available free, in English, French, and Spanish, at <>.

Special Issues

* Laboratory animal allergy. ILAR Journal, 2000, 42[1].

* Impact of noninvasive technology on animal research. ILAR Journal, 2000, 42[4].

* Diversity and speciation in the prosimii. Part I. International Journal of Primatology, 2000, 21[5].
. . . Contents: Introduction to diversity and speciation in the prosimii, by E. Zimmermann, J. Masters, & Y. Rumpler; Morphological correlates of speciation in bush babies, by J. C. Masters & N. P. Bragg; Penile morphology and classification of bush babies (subfamily galagoninae), by M. J. Anderson; Use of vocal fingerprinting for specific discrimination of gray (Microcebus murinus) and rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus), by E. Zimmermann, E. Vorobieva, D. Wrogemann, & T. Hafen; Genetic differentiation among natural populations of Lepilemur ruficaudatus, by L. Bachmann, Y. Rumpler, J. U. Ganzhorn, & J. Tomiuk; What cytogenetic studies may tell us about species diversity and speciation of lemurs, by Y. Rumpler; Genetic variation in prosimian species, by W. Scheffrahn, L. Fausser, & C. Rabarivola; Mitochondrial sequences as indicators of generic classification in bush babies, by M. DelPero, J. C. Masters, D. Zuccon, P. Cervella, S. Crovella, & G. Ardito; and Chromosome painting technique contributes to constructions of evolutionary trees of lemurs, by S. Warter, M. Hauwy, & Y. Rumpler.

* Diversity and speciation in the prosimii. Part II. International Journal of Primatology, 2000, 21[6].
. . . Contents: Distribution and geographic variation in the western woolly lemur (Avahi occidentalis) with description of a new species (A. unicolor), by U. Thalmann & T. Geissmann; The genus Cheirogaleus: Unrecognized biodiversity in dwarf lemurs, by C. Groves; Taxonomic revision of mouse lemurs (Microcebus) in the western portions of Madagascar, by R. M. Rasoloarison, S. M. Goodman, & J. U. Ganzhorn; Origins, diversity and relationships of lemurs, by R. D. Martin.

* An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotropical Primates, 2000, 8[2]. [CABS/CI, 2501 M St, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037]
. . . A taxonomic listing of the Platyrrhini; and results of the workshop “Primate Taxonomy for the New Millennium”, organized by the Primate Specialist Group, and hosted by the Disney Institute in Orlando, Florida, in February, 2001.

* Evolution of non-maternal care in primates. Folia Primatologica, 2000, 71[1-2].
. . . Contents: Hormones associated with non-maternal infant care: A review of mammalian and avian studies, by T. E. Ziegler; Prolactin levels of fathers and helpers related to alloparental care in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, by M. T. Mota & M. B. C. Sousa; Effects of allocare-givers on fitness of infants and parents in callitrichid primates, by K. Bales, J. Dietz, A. Baker, K. Miller, & S. D. Tardif; Allocare in a nocturnal primate: Data on the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum, by S. Gursky; Allocare patterns among cercopithecines, by J. Chism; Allocare, predation risk, social structure and natal coat colour in anthropoid primates, by C. Ross & G. Regan; A prisoner’s dilemma model of the evolution of paternal care, by C. Key & L. C. Aiello; and The evolution of non-maternal care in anthropoid primates: A test of the hypotheses, by C. Ross & A. MacLarnon.


* Primate Behavior: An Exercise Workbook and CD-ROM (2nd Ed.). J. D. Paterson. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 2001. [Price: $23.95]
. . . Detailed descriptions, instructions, and data sheets for students to perform observation projects, plus chapters on data analysis and computer-aided data collection. The projects are described in terms of primate species living in zoos, but could be carried out with other species in other settings. There is also a suite of field ecology exercises. Updates for the CD-ROM will be available from <>.

Anatomy and Physiology

* Neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex that track past or predict future performance. Hasegawa, R. P., Blitz, A. M., Geller, N. L., & Goldberg, M. E. (Lab. of Sensori-motor Research, NEI, Bethesda, MD 20892-4435 [e-mail:]). Science, 2000, 290, 1786-1789.
. . . Although the frontal cortex is thought to be important in controlling behavior across long periods of time, most studies of this area concentrate on neuronal responses instantaneously relevant to the current task. In order to investigate the relationship of frontal activity to behavior over longer time periods, we trained rhesus monkeys on a difficult oculomotor task. Their performance fluctuated during the day, and the activity of prefrontal neurons, even measured while the monkeys waited for the targets to appear at the beginning of each set of trials, correlated with performance in a probabilistic rather than a deterministic manner: neurons reflected past or predicted future performance, much more than they reflected current performance. We suggest that this activity is related to processes such as arousal or motivation that set the tone for behavior rather than controlling it on a millisecond basis, and could result from ascending pathways that utilize slow, second-messenger synaptic processes.

Animal Models

* Development of a preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates. Sullivan, N. J., Sanchez, A., Rollin, P. E., Yang, Z.-Y., & Nabel, G. J. (G. J. N., Vaccine Research Center, NIH, 40 Convent Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-3005) Nature, 2000, 408, 605-609.
. . . Outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever caused by the Ebola virus are associated with high mortality rates that are a distinguishing feature of this human pathogen. The highest lethality is associated with the Zaire subtype, one of four strains identified to date. Its rapid progression allows little opportunity to develop natural immunity, and there is currently no effective antiviral therapy. Therefore, vaccination offers a promising intervention to prevent infection and limit spread. Here we describe a highly effective vaccine strategy for Ebola virus infection in nonhuman primates. A combination of DNA immunization and boosting with adenoviral vectors that encode viral proteins generated cellular and humoral immunity in cynomolgus macaques. Challenge with a lethal dose of the highly pathogenic, wild-type, 1976 Mayinga strain of Ebola Zaire virus resulted in uniform infection in controls, who progressed to a moribund state and death in less than one week. In contrast, all vaccinated animals were asymptomatic for more than six months, with no detectable virus after the initial challenge. Thus, it is possible to develop a preventive vaccine against Ebola virus infection in primates.

* Transgenic monkeys produced by retroviral gene transfer into mature oocytes. Chan, A. W. S., Chong, K. Y., Martinovich, C., Simerly, C., & Schatten, G. (G. S., Ore-gon RPRC, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006 [e-mail:]). Science, 2001, 291, 309-312.
. . . Transgenic rhesus monkeys carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were produced by injecting pseudotyped replication-defective retroviral vector into the perivitelline space of 224 mature rhesus oocytes, later fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Of the three males born from 20 embryo transfers, one was transgenic when accessible tissues were assayed for transgene DNA and messenger RNA. All tissues that were studied from a fraternal set of twins, miscarried at 73 days, carried the transgene, as confirmed by Southern analyses, and the GFP transgene reporter was detected by both direct and indirect fluorescence imaging.

* Categorical representation of visual stimuli in the primate prefrontal cortex. Freedman, D. J., Riesenhuber, M., Poggio, T., & Miller, E. K. (E. K. M., Dept of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA 02139 [e-mail:]). Science, 2001, 291, 312-316.
. . . The ability to group stimuli into meaningful categories is a fundamental cognitive process. To explore its neural basis, we trained monkeys to categorize computer-generated stimuli as “cats” and “dogs.” A morphing system was used to systematically vary stimulus shape and precisely define the category boundary. Neural activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex reflected the category of visual stimuli, even when a monkey was retrained with the stimuli assigned to new categories.

* Nontropic actions of neurotrophins: Subcortical nerve growth factor gene delivery reverses age-related degeneration of primate cortical cholinergic innervation. Connor, J. M., Darracq, M. A., Roberts, J., & Tuszynski, M. H. (M. H. T., Dept of Neurosciences, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093-0626 [e-mail:]). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 2001, 98, 1941-1946.
. . . Normal aging is associated with a significant reduction in cognitive function across primate species. However, the structural and molecular basis for this age-related decline in neural function has yet to be defined clearly. Extensive cell loss does not occur as a consequence of normal aging in human and nonhuman primate species. More recent studies have demonstrated significant reductions in functional neuronal markers in subcortical brain regions in primates as a consequence of aging, including dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, although corresponding losses in cortical innervation from these neurons have not been investigated. In the present study, we report that aging is associated with a significant 25% reduction in cortical innervation by cholinergic systems in rhesus monkeys (P < 0.001). Further, these age-related reductions are ameliorated by cellular delivery of human nerve growth factor to cholinergic somata in the basal forebrain, restoring levels of cholinergic innervation in the cortex to those of young monkeys (P = 0.89). Thus, (i) aging is associated with a significant reduction in cortical cholinergic innervation; (ii) this reduction is reversible by growth-factor delivery; and (iii) growth factors can remodel axonal terminal fields at a distance, representing a nontropic action of growth factors in modulating adult neuronal structure and function (i.e., administration of growth factors to cholinergic somata significantly increases axon density in terminal fields). These findings are relevant to potential clinical uses of growth factors to treat neurological disorders.

* Effects on human and nonhuman primate immune response of a new rat anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody. Dehoux, J.-P., Talpe, S., Dewolf, N., Otsuka, M., Oike, F., Jamar, F., de la Parra, B., Latinne, D., Bazin, H., & Gianello, P. (P. G., Lab of Experimental Surgery, Fac. of Medicine, Univ. catholique de Louvain, Ave Hippocrate, 55, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium [e-mail:]. Transplantation, 2000, 69, 2662-2633.
. . . A rat monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes the CD2 molecule (LO-CD2b) on both human and nonhuman primate cells has been developed. In vitro inhibition of immune responses LO-CD2b was assessed after both mitogenic and allogeneic stimulation in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR). Several LO-CD2b dose and time responses were tested. In vivo, peripheral and lymph node T-cell depletion was examined in 10 baboons that received intravenous injection of LO-CD2b at different doses and time courses. Xenosensitization (anti-rat) was assessed by ELISA. Renal allograft survival was followed in two baboons treated with iterative LO-CD2b injections. Results show that LO-CD2b is a nonactivating rat anti-CD2 mAb able to strongly inhibit both mitogenic and allogeneic responses in human and nonhuman primates. In vivo, LO-CD2b provides a rapid peripheral T-cell depletion, which is reversible within days after the cessation of injections. This rat mAb represents a very important tool for in vivo experimental investigation in nonhuman primates because it similarly reacts against human T cells in vitro.

* Non-human primates play a crucial role in the search for safe and effective HIV vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents: Notes from the 17th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS, October 6-9, 1999, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Guhad, F. A. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Ctr, Dept of Vet. Sciences, Science Park, Rte 2, P.O. Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602). Infectious Disease Review, 2000, 1, 274-276.


* On the evolution of handedness: A speculative analysis of Darwin’s views and a review of early studies of handedness in “the nearest allies of man”. Harris, L. J. (Dept of Psychology, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 [e-mail:]). Brain and Language, 2000, 73, 132-188.
. . . A review of studies of animal handedness in the period before 1859, when Darwin published On the Origin of Species, and through the first decade of the 20th century. Since Darwin’s published writings contain few statements about handedness and none at all about its evolution and continuity across species, the author speculates about what Darwin might have said on the subject, drawing on his statements on related matters, such as the form and structure of the hand and the transition from quadrupedal to bipedal stance, on other writers’ reports and opinions about handedness with which he was familiar or likely to have been familiar, and finally, on clues from his only statement about animal handedness, in an unpublished letter.

* Spatial patterns of scent marking in wild moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax: No evidence for a territorial function. Heymann, E. W. (Abt. Verhaltensforsch. und Ökologie, DPZ, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany [e-mail:]). Animal Behaviour, 2000, 60, 723-730
. . . “I investigated whether scent marking has a territorial function in wild moustached tamarins. I examined the spatial distribution of scent marking within the home ranges of four groups of this neotropical primate and tested predictions from Gorman & Mills’ model for border and ‘hinterland’ marking. Although home ranges were economically defensible, no evidence was found for increased marking along the territorial boundary or in areas of home range overlap, but there was also no evidence for hinterland marking. Observed distributions of scent marking in exclusively used and overlapping areas of the home range did not deviate from distributions that would be expected if scent marking occurred at random (expectation based both on size of area and on frequency of quadrat occupation), and there was a strong correlation between frequency of quadrat occupation and frequency of scent marking per quadrat. These results indicate that scent marking has no territorial function in moustached tamarins. This is in line with mainly qualitative findings from the majority of other studies on wild marmosets and tamarins. These and other findings on scent marking in moustached tamarins suggest that this behavior functions mainly in intersexual communication.”

* The relationship between duet songs and pair bonds in siamangs, Hylobates syndactylus. Geissmann, T. & Mathias, O. (Inst. für Zoologie, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, Bünteweg 17, D-30559 Hannover, Germany [e-mail:]). Animal Behaviour, 2000, 60, 805-809.
. . . One of the most commonly cited functional explanations for animal duet songs is strengthening of the pair bond. However, the evidence to support this view is, at best, limited. This study provides support by documenting a relationship between pair bonds and duet singing in siamangs. As a working hypothesis, we assume that if duetting were related to pair bonding, we might expect to see a relationship between duetting intensity and indicators of pair bond strength. Like most gibbon species, siamang pairs produce loud, long and well-coordinated duet songs. We recorded daily frequency and duration of duetting and three generally accepted indicators of pair bond strength (mutual grooming, behavioural synchronization and distance between mates) in 10 siamang groups in zoos. Duetting activity was positively correlated with grooming activity and behavioral synchronization, and negatively correlated with distance between mates. These results suggest that the production of coordinated duets by siamang pairs is related to pair bonding.

* Variation in steroid hormones associated with infant care behaviour and experience in male marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). Nunes, S., Fite, J. E., & French, J. A. (J. A. F., Dept of Psychology, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE 68182 [e-mail:]). Animal Behaviour, 2000, 60, 857-865
. . . We describe temporal patterns of change in paternal behavior and urinary concentrations of the steroid hormones testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) in male black tufted-ear marmosets, relative to the birth of their young, and test predictions of the hypotheses that (1) high levels of T are incompatible with paternal care and (2) levels of T and E2 vary with a father`s prior experience in his family group. After young were born, levels of urinary T and E2 remained near prepartum concentrations and rates at which fathers carried infants were below peak levels until the approximate time that postpartum mating ordinarily occurs. This suggests a possible trade-off between readiness to mate and paternal behavior in C. kuhlii. Infant-carrying behavior of fathers occurred at its highest rate 3-4 weeks after parturition and coincided with significant declines in urinary levels of T and E2, providing preliminary support for the hypothesis that these hormones are antagonistic to paternal behavior. Urinary T and E2 declined among fathers regardless of whether their young survived to weaning or died at birth, indicating that variation in these hormones after parturition occurs even in the absence of continued stimuli from infants. When adjusted for declines ordinarily associated with aging, urinary T tended to be lower among fathers with a great deal of prior experience caring for young compared with fathers having little or no experience, suggesting that either experience affects T levels of fathers, or that T levels influence fathers’ chances of successfully rearing infants. Overall, our results suggest that, in male C. kuhlii, T, and possibly E2, play an important role in balancing the expression of paternal care with that of other reproductive behaviors.

* Responses of captive single- and mixed-species groups of Saguinus to novel nonthreatening objects. Hardie, S. M. & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (Div. of Psychology, Univ. of Abertay Dundee, Marketgait House, 158 Marketgait, Dundee, DD1 1NJ, UK [e-mail:])). International Journal of Primatology, 2000, 21, 629-648.
. . . We compared the responsiveness to novel objects in captive single- and mixed-species groups of saddleback (Saguinus fuscicollis) and red-bellied (S. labiatus) tamarins to determine the influence of a congener. We tested groups with novel objects placed near the top, middle, and on the floor of their enclosures and measured latency to approach and touch them. As we predicted, S. labiatus, which usually occur higher in the forest than their congeners, responded to objects placed near the top of the enclosure significantly more quickly in both single- and mixed-species groups. S. fuscicollis responded to objects placed on the floor more quickly, and in mixed-species groups S. fuscicollis approached them before S. liabiatus did. Reaction times decreased in mixed-species trials for both species.

* Infanticide and cannibalism by male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Watts, D. P. & Mitani, J. C. (Dept of Anthropology, Yale Univ., P.O. Box 208277, New Haven, CT 06520-8277 [e-mail:]). Primates, 2000, 41, 357-365.
. . . Report of two new cases of infanticide by male chim-panzees. Both happened during boundary patrols, which are frequent in Kibale. Patrolling males attacked solitary females who were unable to defend their infants successfully. The victims were almost certainly not members of the males’ community. The observations are discussed in the context of the sexual selection hypothesis and other proposed explanations for infanticide by male chimpanzees. The observations support the arguments that infanticide has been an important selective force in chimpanzee social evolution and that females with dependent infants can be at great risk near range boundaries, but why male chimpanzees kill infants is still uncertain.

* Early maternal recognition of offspring vocalizations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Jovanovic, T., Megna, N. L., & Maestripieri, D. (Dept of Psychology, Emory Univ., 532 Kilgo Circle, Atlanta, GA 30322 [e-mail:]). Primates, 2000, 41, 421-428.
. . . Distress vocalizations of fifteen rhesus infants, ranging in age from several hours to 28 days, were recorded and played back to their mothers simultaneously with those of an age-matched control infant. The proportion of time looking at, but not the proportion of orientations to, the speaker playing the offspring’s vocalizations increased significantly as a function of infant age. Specifically, mothers of infants older than 1 week of age responded longer to the playback of their own infant’s calls than did mothers of younger infants. This is the first evidence that offspring recognition in macaques develops between the first and second week of the infant’s life, consistent with the hypothesis that mothers need to be exposed to their infants’ calls in order to learn their acoustic characteristics.


* Monitoring hormones in urine and feces of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Jurke, M. H., Hagey, L. R., Jurke, S., & Czekala, N. M. (CRES, Zool. Society of San Diego, P.O. Box 120551, San Diego, CA 92122 [e-mail:]). Primates, 2000, 41, 311-319.
. . . Urinary and fecal hormones were analyzed on average every other day in 17 female bonobos kept at four U.S. zoos. Ovarian cycle activity was monitored throughout the 15-month study period using estrogen and progesterone profiles and charts of swelling. Behavioral data on sexual activity were also collected daily. Fecal and urinary samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nanoelectrospray.

* Environmental enrichment-related injury in a macaque (Macaca fascicularis): Intestinal linear foreign body. Hahn, N. E., Lau, D., Eckert, K., & Markowitz, H. (Office of Lab Animal Care, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7150). Comparative Medicine, 2000, 50, 556-558.
. . . A three-year-old male cynomolgus macaque presented with clinical signs of anorexia and depression that de-creased over a 48-hour period. Results of abdominal radiography, abdominocentesis, blood biochemical analysis, and CBC suggested septic peritonitis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple perforations along the mesenteric border of the small intestine. Necropsy revealed masses of fibrous material in the stomach and cecum.. Multiple mucosal ulcerations, as well as linear fibrous material, were found in the small intestine. The ulceration, perforations, and septic peritonitis were attributed to the ingestion of rope that had been attached to the animal’s cage as an environmental enrichment device.

* Behavior, appetite, and urinary cortisol responses by adult female pigtailed macaques to cage size, cage level, room change, and ketamine sedation. Crockett, C. M., Shimoji, M., & Bowden, D. M. (Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7330 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 63-80.
. . . Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) show behavioral, ecological, and possible temperament differences, and their responses to the laboratory environment might therefore be quite different. We tested pig-tailed macaques under the same conditions that were investigated in a previous study with long-tailed macaques, using the same comprehensive set of physiological and behavioral measures of stress. First, eight adult females’ adaptation to a new room in regulation-size cages was monitored, and in the third week their responses to ketamine sedation were measured. Then they spent two weeks singly housed in each of four cage sizes (USDA regulation size, one size larger, one size smaller, and a very small cage). Half of the subjects were in upper-level cages and the remainder in lower-level cages for the entire study. Cage size, ranging from 20% to 148% of USDA regulation floor area, was not significantly related to abnormal behavior, self-grooming, manipulating the environment, eating/drinking, activity cycle, cortisol excretion, or biscuit consumption. Locomotion and frequency of behavior change were significantly reduced in the smallest cage, but did not differ in cage sizes ranging from 77% to 148% of regulation size. The only manipulation to produce an unequivocal stress response, as measured by cortisol elevation and appetite suppression, was ketamine sedation. Room change and cage changes were associated with minimal cortisol elevation and appetite suppression. Wild-born females showed more appetite suppression after room change than captive-born females. No differences were related to cage level. Pig-tailed macaques strongly resembled long-tailed macaques except they showed weaker responses to the new room and cage change, probably because the pig-tails had spent more time in captivity. These findings support the conclusion that increasing cage size to the next regulation size category would not have measurable positive effects on the psychological well-being of two species of laboratory macaques.


* Extinction of a West African red colobus monkey. Oates, J. F., Abedi-Lartey, M., McGraw, W. S., Struhsaker, T. T., & Whitesides, G. H. (Dept of Anthropology, Hunter College, CUNY, 695 Park Ave, New York, NY 10021 [e-mail: john.oates@hunter.cuny,edu]). Conservation Biology, 2000, 14, 1526-1532.
. . . The first documented case of the extinction in the 20th century of a widely recognized primate taxon. During surveys in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire in 1993-1999, we were unable to find any surviving populations of Miss Waldron’s red colobus monkey (Procolobus badius waldroni), a primate taxon endemic to the forests of this part of West Africa. We conclude that this monkey, which at least one authority considers worthy of species status, is probably extinct. Hunting by humans appears to be the ultimate cause of the extinction. The extinction of other large animals in the Upper Guinea rainforest region is likely to follow soon unless more attention is paid to the full range of endangered forms and more resources are devoted to their rigorous protection.

* Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Bruner, A. G., Gullison, R. E., Rice, R. E., & da Fonseca, G. A. B. (Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International, 2501 M Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037 [e-mail:]). Science, 2001, 291, 125-128.
. . . We assessed the impacts of anthropogenic threats on 93 protected areas in 22 tropical countries to test the hy-pothesis that parks are an effective means to protect tropical biodiversity. We found that the majority of parks are successful at stopping land clearing, and to a lesser degree effective at mitigating logging, hunting, fire, and grazing. Park effectiveness correlates with basic management activities such as enforcement, boundary demarcation, and direct compensation to local communities, suggesting that even modest increases in funding would directly increase the ability of parks to protect tropical biodiversity.

* Coping with forest fragmentation: The primates of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Onderdonk, D. A., & Chapman, C. A. (Univ. of Florida, Dept of Zoology, Gainesville, FL 32611). International Journal of Primatology, 2000, 21, 87-611.
. . . We studied 20 forest fragments to address the question of which types of species are most susceptible to habitat disturbance and which types of disturbed habitats can support particular species. At each patch, we determined the presence of primate species, tree species, patch size, and distance to the nearest patch. No species characteristics - home range, body size, group size, or degree of frugivory - predicted the ability of species to live in patches. No characteristics of patches - area, distance to the nearest patch, distance to Kibale, or number of food trees present - predicted the presence of a particular species in a patch, but distance to Kibale may have influenced presence of red colobus. The lack of strong predictive variables as well as differences between other studies of fragmentation and ours caution against making generalizations about primate responses to fragmentation.

* Genetic comparison between different populations of Eulemur macaco flavifrons in northwest Madagascar using RAPD markers. Fausser, J. L., Rabarivola, C., Meier, B., Hahn, T., & Rumpler, Y. (Y. R., Univ. Louis Pasteur, Inst. d’Embryologie, Fac. de Médecine, 11 r. Humann, F-67085 Strasbourg, France]. American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 51, 249-255.
. . . Eulemur macaco flavifrons, Sclater’s black lemur, is a critically endangered subspecies which is not yet protected by any reserve. To study the feasibility of creating such a reserve, an area of outstanding biological importance in Maromandia-Sahamalaza was selected which is probably the only remaining place that would permit the long-term survival of this lemur. To determine whether genetic management is needed for the population in that area, its genetic variability was estimated with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and compared with other populations, demonstrating that the Sahamalaza black lemurs have a genetic variability equivalent to those in other areas. Thus we conclude that no genetic management is required at the present time.

Development and Aging

* Weaning, body weight, and postpartum amenorrhea duration in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Maninger, N., Sackett, G. P., & Ruppenthal, G. C. (Department of Psychology, California RPRC, Univ. of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 81-91.
. . . Early permanent infant separation or weaning decreases the time interval between pregnancies and interbirth intervals for many female primates. At least part of the interpregnancy interval consists of postpartum amenorrhea, a period of non-menstruation lasting from the time of birth until the female begins to ovulate. This study investigated the effects of weaning age and dams’ body weight on the duration of the interval between pregnancies, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea, and the number of cycles to conception in a year-round breeder. Female pigtailed macaques have an observable perineal swelling that fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle and provides a means of detecting ovulation. The perineal swelling records of socially housed pigtailed macaques were studied from July, 1996, to September, 1998. Postpartum amenorrhea data were obtained on 44 females who gave birth to normal, viable infants. As weaning age increased and dams’ weight decreased, postpartum amenorrhea, and consequently the interval between pregnancies, increased in duration. The interpregnancy interval consisted almost entirely of the postpartum amenorrhea phase. Our finding that a higher dams’ body weight decreased the length of postpartum amenorrhea duration lends support to the hypothesis that a minimum body weight is necessary for menstrual cycles to occur. Most females became pregnant on their first ovulation regardless of weaning age and whether or not they were carrying an infant. As the weaning age of the infant and the dams’ weight increased, ovulation went from occurring after separation to occurring before separation.

* Prehension in infant capuchins (Cebus apella) from six weeks to twenty-four weeks: Video analysis of form and symmetry. Adams-Curtis, L., Fragaszy, D., & England, N. (D. F., Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 55-60.
. . . The spontaneous prehensile activity of two infants living with their mothers in social groups was analyzed, using videotapes taken once weekly from weeks 5 to 24. Prehensile activities were laterally symmetric. Unimanual activity predominated, although bimanual activity appeared at the same ages as unimanual activity. In most bimanual activity the two hands performed the same action, but complementary actions occurred from the onset of bimanual activity. Extrusion of the tongue towards objects out of reach was observed occasionally, as was precision grasping. Early prehension in capuchins is organized, as in human infants, in a matrix of exploratory activity integrated with visual and oral exploration. Capuchins present a useful model system for the study of manipulative development.


* Macrophage are the principal reservoir and sustain high virus loads in rhesus macaques after the depletion of CD4+ T cells by a highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV type 1 chimera (SHIV): Implications for HIV-1 infections of humans. Igarashi, T., Brown, C. R., Endo, Y., Buckler-White, A., Plishka, R., Bischofberger, N., Hirsch, V., & Martin, M. A. (M. A. M., Lab. of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-0460 [e-mail:]). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 2001, 98, 658-663.
. . . The highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV type 1 (SHIV) chimeric virus SHIVDH12R induces a systemic depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys during the initial 3-4 weeks of infection. Nonetheless, high levels of viral RNA production continue unabated for an additional 2-5 months. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that tissue macrophage in the lymph nodes, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney sustain high plasma virus loads in the absence of CD4+ T cells. Quantitative confocal immunofluorescence analysis indicated that greater than 95% of the virus-producing cells in these tissues are macrophage and less than 2% are T lymphocytes. Interestingly, the administration of a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor blocked virus production during the early T cell phase but not during the later macrophage phase of the SHIVDH12R infection. When interpreted in the context of HIV-1 infections, these results implicate tissue macrophage as an important reservoir of virus in vivo. They become infected during the acute infection, gradually increase in number over time, and can be a major contributor to total body virus burden during the symptomatic phase of the human infection.

* A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. Djimde, A., Doumbo, O. K., Cortese, J. F., Kayentao, K., Doumbo, S., Diourte, Y., Dicko, A., Su, X.-z., Nomura, T., Fidock, D. A., Wellems, T. E., Plowe, C. V., & Coulibaly, D. (C. V. P., Malaria Section, Center for Vaccine Development, Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 W. Baltimore St., HSF 480, Baltimore, MD 21201 [e-mail:]). New England Journal of Medicine, 2001, 344, 257-263.
. . . Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been associated in vitro with point mutations in two genes, pfcrt and pfmdr 1, which encode the P. falciparum digestive-vacuole transmembrane proteins PfCRT and Pgh1, respectively. To assess the value of these mutations as markers for clinical chloroquine resistance, we measured the association between the mutations and the response to chloroquine treatment in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Mali. The frequencies of the mutations in patients before and after treatment were compared for evidence of selection of resistance factors as a result of exposure to chloroquine. Results indicate that the pfcrt T76 mutation can be used as a marker in surveillance for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria.

* Hepadnavirus infection in captive gibbons. Lanford, R. E., Chavez, D., Rico-Hesse, R., & Mootnick, A. (Dept of Virology and Immunology, Southwest RPRC, 7620 N.W. Loop 410, San Antonio, TX 78227 [e-mail:]). Journal of Virology, 2000, 74, 2955-2959.
. . . The recent isolation of a nonhuman primate hepadnavirus from woolly monkeys prompted an examination of other primates for potentially new hepadnaviruses. A serological analysis of 30 captive gibbons revealed that 47% were positive for at least one marker of ongoing or previous infection with a hepatitis B virus (HBV). The amino acid sequences of the core and surface genes of human and gibbon virus isolates were very similar. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gibbon isolates lie within the human HBV family, indicating that these HBV isolates most likely stem from infection of gibbons from a human source.

* Diverticulitis with rupture and fatal peritonitis in a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Murray, S., Zdziarski, J. M., Bush, M., Citino, S. B., Schulman, F. Y., & Montali, R. (Fort Worth Zoo, 1989 Colonial Pkwy, Fort Worth, TX 76110). Comparative Medicine, 2000, 50, 452-454.
. . . A 30-year-old male Sumatran orangutan presented with signs of depression, lethargy, anorexia, and diarrhea that progressed to acute colic. Exploratory laparotomy revealed fibrinopurulent peritonitis and 50 cm of devitalized small intestine. The surgically resected small intestine contained several mucosal diverticula along the mesenteric attachment; one had ruptured, resulting in peritonitis. Fifteen days after surgery, the orangutan’s abdominal incision dehisced. Repeated laparotomy revealed dehiscence of the distal intestinal anastomosis site, as well as extensive adhesions and purulent exudates. The defect was repaired, and the abdomen was extensively irrigated and closed, but the animal died within 24 hours. Diverticulosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for great apes that present with signs of depression, lethargy, anorexia, and/or diarrhea.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: A test of the replacement theory. Wolpoff, M. H., Hawks, J., Frayer, D. W., & Hunley, K. (Dept of Anthropology, Univ. of Michigan, 500 South State, Ann Arbor, MI 49109-1382 [e-mail:]). Science, 2001, 291, 293-297.
. . . The replacement theory of modern human origins stipulates that populations outside of Africa were replaced by a new African species of modern humans. Here we test the replacement theory in two peripheral areas far from Africa by examining the ancestry of early modern Australians and Central Europeans. Analysis of pairwise differences was used to determine if dual ancestry in local archaic populations and earlier modern populations from the Levant and/or Africa could be rejected. The data imply that both have a dual ancestry. The diversity of recent humans cannot result exclusively from a single Late Pleistocene dispersal.

* Allelic variation of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region in apes. Inoue-Murayama, M., Niimi, Y., Takenaka, O., Okada, K., Matsuzaki, I., Ito, S., & Murayama, Y. (Dept of Biological Diversity and Resources, Fac. of Agriculture, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan). Primates, 2000, 41, 267-273.
. . . To assess the change of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region that has occurred during the process of hominization, we examined the allelic variation of 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in anthropoid apes such as chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons, and determined the DNA sequences of the alleles in each species. All chimpanzees examined shared only the 17.5 repeat allele, while polymorphism was observed in the other apes, and the 16 and 20 repeat alleles were most frequent in gorillas and orangutans, respectively. 6-HTTLPR was highly polymorphic in gibbons and the 17 and 23 repeat alleles were most common among 5 alleles. Alleles with extra-long repeated (22 and 23) sequences were found in orangutans and gibbons, and the alleles of these Asian apes were similar to the rhesus monkey allele.

* Evidence of termite foraging by Swartkrans early hominids. Backwell, L. R., & d’Errico, F. (F. d’E., Inst. de Préhistoire et de Géologie du Quaternaire, Unité Mixte de Recherche, 5808 du CNRS, Bâtiment 18, Ave des Facultés, 33405 Talence, France [e-mail:]). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 2001, 98, 1358-1363.
. . . Previous studies have suggested that modified bones from the Lower Paleolithic sites of Swartkrans and Sterkfontein in South Africa represent the oldest known bone tools and that they were used by Australopithecus robustus to dig up tubers. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the wear patterns on the purported bone tools, pseudo bone tools produced naturally by known taphonomic processes, and experimentally used bone tools confirm the anthropic origin of the modifications. However, our analysis suggests that these tools were used to dig into termite mounds, rather than to dig for tubers. This result indicates that early hominids from southern Africa maintained a behavioral pattern involving a bone tool material culture that may have persisted for a long period, and strongly supports the role of insectivory in the early hominid diet.


* Cost analysis and rate setting manual for animal research facilities. Shalev, M. Lab Animal, 2001, 30[1], 15-16.
. . . A review of the new NCRR Cost Analysis and Rate Setting Manual (see p. 22).

* A cart cage for transferring macaques, capuchins, and small dogs. Lowery, T., Dinterman, S., Weigand, K., Brown, B., & Walker, L. (L. W., NIHAC Shared Facility, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD 20837-0529) Lab Animal, 2001, 30[1], 45-46.
. . . A mobile monkey transport cart/cage designed to provide secure holding and to allow convenient transfer of monkeys between floor-level run doors and bottom cage doors.

* Disaster planning for research and laboratory animal facilities. Heath, S. E. (1650 Harvard Street, NW, Washington, DC 20009-3727 [e-mail:]). Animal Welfare Information Center Bulletin, 2000, 11[1-2], 1-8.
. . . “Disaster preparedness activities that institutions can engage in are: establish a disaster planning committee, identify a legal basis for an Emergency Operations Plan, define the assumptions under which a plan would be activated, conduct a vulnerability assessment, define and organize Emergency Support Functions, and train.” This will be available at <>.

Field Studies

* Estimating primate densities using home range and line transect methods: A comparative test with the black colobus monkey Colobus satanas. Brugiere, D., & Fleury, M.-C. (UMR 6552 “Ethologie, Evolution, and Ecologie,” Univ. de Rennes I-CNRS, Station Biologique, 35380 Paimpont, France [e-mail:]). Primates, 2000, 41, 373-382.
. . . Several protocols have been proposed to analyze the data recorded by line transect, but none of them have been widely accepted since there is a considerable controversy about their respective accuracy. In this study, densities of C. satanas calculated using eight different protocols were compared with the actual density given by the home range method.

* Life history and demography of wild moor macaques (Macaca maurus): Summary of ten years of observations. Okamoto, K., Matsumura, S., & Watanabe, K. (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 1-11.
. . . Data on the life history and demography of individual species are indispensable when we discuss social behavior from an evolutionary perspective, and when we attempt to make adequate conservation plans. This is the first report on the life history and demography of moor macaques in their natural habitat. Moor macaques in the Karaenta Nature Reserve, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, have been observed since 1981. Individual identification of group members began in 1988. The size of the study group increased continuously, from 20 to 43, over this 10-year period of observation (1988-1998). The average population growth rate was 8.0%, and 45 births were confirmed during this period. They were categorized as moderately seasonal breeders. Mortality rate within one year after birth was 17.1%. Average inter-birth interval following surviving infants was 24.1 months, while that following early infant death was 15.0 months. As is the case in other species of macaques, males moved between groups while females stayed in their natal groups. Females seemed to exhibit their first perineal swelling at 4-6 years of age, and to have their first infant at 6-7 years. Males left their natal group at 7-9 years. Solitary males were seldom observed around the study group. The late dispersal of males from their natal groups and their infrequent movement between groups contrast with patterns in well-known macaque species such as Japanese macaques. Recently, differences in social characteristics among macaque species have attracted the attention of researchers. Our findings would be useful to further understanding of such social differences.

Instrumentation and Techniques

* Techniques for collecting saliva from awake, unrestrained, adult monkeys for cortisol assay. Lutz, C. K., Tiefenbacher, S., Jorgensen, M. J., Meyer, J. S., & Novak, M. A. (Harvard Medical School, New England RPRC, One Pine Hill Dr., P.O. Box 9102, Southborough, MA 01772 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 93-99.
. . . Cortisol levels serve as an index of pituitary-adrenal activity in nonhuman primates. In adult monkeys, cortisol is normally measured in blood (typically requiring restraint or sedation) or urine (reflecting a state rather than point estimate). In contrast, saliva collection is less invasive than drawing blood and allows for repeated sampling within a short period of time. Although protocols exist for collecting saliva from young monkeys, these procedures are inadequate for awake, unrestrained adult animals. Our laboratory has developed two methods for collecting saliva from adult rhesus monkeys: a screen method, which involves licking screen-covered gauze, and a pole method, which involves sucking and chewing on an attached rope. Twenty-three adult male rhesus monkeys were used to evaluate these two methods. After a period of adaptation, saliva samples were collected from 21 of 23 subjects. Saliva collection was faster with the pole than with the screen method (P < 0.01), but the pole method was not suitable for some animals because of their tendency to bite off the attached rope. An analysis of 19 saliva samples revealed a mean cortisol concentration of 0.84 g/dl (range 0.27-1.77 g/dl). There was no statistically significant difference in cortisol value between methods used (P > 0.22). The influence of the flavoring on the cortisol assay was tested, and was found to have no significant effect (P > 0.28). Our results indicate that either technique can be used to safely collect saliva from unrestrained adult monkeys. Choice of technique will depend on the proclivities of individual monkeys.


* Food preferences and nutrient composition in captive spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi. Laska, M., Hernandez Salazar, L. T., & Rodríguez Luna, E. (Dept of Med. Psychology, Univ. of Munich Med. School, Goethestr. 31, D-80336 Munich, Germany [e-mail:]). International Journal of Primatology, 2000, 21, 671-683.
. . . “Using a two-alternative choice test, we repeatedly presented 7 Ateles geoffroyi with all possible binary combinations of 12 types of food that are part of their diet in captivity. They exhibited the following rank order of preference: avocado > sapodilla > pineapple > mango > papaya > melon > banana > apple > tomato > orange > carrot > cucumber. This preference ranking is significantly positively correlated with total energy content, irrespective of the source of energy, as neither total carbohydrate content nor protein or lipid content is significantly correlated with food preference. Further, food preferences are significantly negatively correlated with water content and positively correlated with the content of magnesium, copper, and manganese.”


* 1999 North American Regional Studbook: Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea). D. D. Aden, Studbook Keeper [Denver Zoological Gardens, 2900 East 23rd Ave., Denver, CO 30205].

* Lifetime reproductive success, longevity, and reproductive life history of female yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Rhine, R. J., Norton, G. W., & Wasser, S. K. (G. W. N., Dept of Life Sciences, Anglia Polytech. Univ., East Rd, Cambridge, CB1 1PT U.K. [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 51, 229-241.
. . . Seventy-two free-ranging adult females were studied over 24 years, until all were dead and all of their offspring were either dead or at least 6 years old. The relationship of longevity to lifetime reproductive success (LRS) was statistically significant, with 70% of the total variance in LRS accounted for by longevity. A severe population decline occurred between the 12th and 20th years of the study. Appreciable sample sizes from long-term studies are shown to be important for understanding the dynamics between life history estimates and ecological conditions in variable environments.

* Urinary progesterone in free-ranging red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus): Preliminary observations of the estrous cycle and gestation. Herrick, J. R., Agoramoorthy, G., Rudran, R., & Harder, J. D. (J. D. H., Dept of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State Univ., 1735 Neil Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 51, 257-263.
. . . The goals of this study were to develop and validate a radioimmunoassay for measurement of unconjugated progesterone (P) concentrations in the urine of red howler monkeys and to use urinary P profiles to characterize the reproductive cycle of this species. Analysis of P profiles from two females provided a preliminary estimate of the length of the estrous cycle (29.5 +/- 1.5; n = 2), and indicated that one female red howler copulated throughout two apparent estrous cycles. Urinary P concentrations during two confirmed pregnancies (211.8 +/- 29.7 ng P/ml) were higher (P < 0.05) than during the luteal phase (77.4 +/- 10.6 ng P/ml; n = 4) of the cycle.

* Variations in seminal parameters over a 12-month period in captive bonnet monkeys. Kholkute, S. D., Gopalkrishnan, K., & Puri, C. P. (Inst. for Research in Reproduction, Jehangir Merwanji St, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India). Primates, 2000, 41, 393-405.
. . . Semen samples were collected from adult fertile bonnet monkeys twice a month by penile electroejaculation. Various parameters like semen volume, weight of ejaculate and coagulum, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and functional parameters (e.g. plasma membrane integrity, in vitro nuclear chromatin decondensation and acrosomal status) were evaluated to assess within and between animal variations. Effects of seasonality, if any, were also studied. Results show lack of seasonality in exocrine and endocrine testicular functions and further suggest that motility, morphology, and functional parameters are the best indicators of semen quality in captive bonnet monkeys.

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Workshop Announcements

Alternatives to Animal Drug Testing

A workshop titled “TestSmart - Pharmaceuticals: An Efficient and Humane Approach to Predictors of Potential Toxic Effects of Drugs” will be held May 7-9, 2001, at the Pier 5 Hotel, Baltimore, Maryland, sponsored by the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. The goal of the workshop is to evaluate the status of humane and efficient tests, which can be applied to pharmaceutical development, efficacy and toxicity testing, and advance screening. The focus will be on methods that can reduce animal use, refine current procedures, or replace animals with nonanimal tests. For further information, or to receive a brochure, contact Workshop Coordinator, Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, 111 Market Place, Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709 [410-223-1617; fax: 410-223-1603; e-mail:]; or see <;.

Workshop on Aging

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and the National Institute on Aging are pleased to announce a workshop entitled Nonhuman Primate Models of Aging: Evaluating Their Current Status and Future Potential, to be held in conjunction with the 30th Annual Meeting of the American Aging Association at the Monona Terrace Convention Center, Madison, Wisconsin, May 31 to June 1, 2001. The American Aging Association meeting will be held on June 2-4, 2001, at the same venue.

The cost of the workshop will be $35.00 ($25.00 for students) without food; $65.00 ($45.00) with food. For information on both the pre-conference workshop and the meeting of the American Aging Association, please contact Donna Cini, Sally Balin Medical Center, 110 Chesley Dr., Media, PA 19063 [610-627-2626; fax: 610-565-9747]; or see <>.

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address:

Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the World Wide Web at


The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) by Margaret Dannemiller (Warner Lambert/Parke Davis Research)

Copyright (c) 2001 by Brown University

Last updated: March 19, 2001