Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 40, Number 3

Laboratory Primate Newsletter

VOLUME 40 NUMBER 3 JULY 2001

CONTENTS

Articles and Notes

Retrospective Study of the Causes of Infant Death in a Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) Colony, by G. Rico Hernández & A. Parás García......1

Marking Monkeys - Nyanzol-D......5

Enrichment Discussion: The Sugar Question......6

News, Information, and Announcements

African Primatology Society......8

Division of Quarantine, CDC, Changes Name......8

Announcement from the IPS Bulletin......8

Resources Wanted and Available......10
... Fossil Photographs; Sticks and Logs; Primates in Biomedical Research; Mrs. Windham in Washington, with Washoe; Primate Louse Samples; "3 Rs" Reprints and Ethics Reprint Available On-Line

Information Requested or Available......11
... Becoming Human; Malaria Information on the Web; Sperm Values for Baboons; More Interesting Web Sites

Research and Educational Opportunities......12
... Graduate Fellowships in Environmental Biology; Primate Training and Enrichment Workshops

Editors' Notes: Help!......12

Volunteer Opportunities......15
...African Programs Internship; Field assistant - Costa Rica

Workshop Announcements: ARENA IACUC 101......15

Awards Granted......16
...2000 Harry C. Rowsell Award; Gorillas' Friend Wins Goldman Environmental Prize

Award Nominations: Harry C. Rowsell Award......16

Meeting Announcements......17

Grants Available......18
... Exploratory/Developmental Research Grants; Expanded Awards for SBIR-AT-NIDDK; Bioinformatics and Applied Genomics Program Grants; Exploratory Research: Feasibility Pilot Studies

News Briefs......20
... Western Lowland Gorilla Born at Brookfield Zoo; SCAW Elects Board Members; Golden Lion Tamarin Born in Brazil; ...And at Palm Beach Zoo; Brazil Yellow Fever Outbreak Kills Twelve; Monkey Mortality, Yellow Fever? New AAALAC European Assistant Director; Farmers Moved to Make Room for Monkeys; Lackner to Tulane RPRC; San Diego Zoo Plans Major New Exhibit; Infant Chimps from Coulston to Sanctuary; B. J. McDuffee, Orang Gang Co-Founder

Travelers' Health Notes: International Assn for Medical Assistance to Travelers......22

Another Letter: Howling Howlers......32

Implementation of the Revised AVMA Panel on Euthanasia Report......32

Departments

Primates de las Américas...La Página......9

Address Changes......14

Positions Available......13
... Assistant Director/ Clinical Lab. Animal Veterinarian; Veterinarian - Tulane RPRC; Veterinarian Positions - Cornell University; Veterinary Technician - Yale

Recent Books and Articles......23

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Retrospective Study of the Causes of Infant Death in a Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) Colony

Guillermo Rico Hernández and Alberto Parás García
Africam Safari

Introduction

Callitrichids are small, diurnal South American primates (infraorder Platyrrhini; family Callitrichidae). They weigh less than one kilogram, have a characteristic nonprehensile tail, and are highly adapted to arboreal life. For example, they have claws, which allow them to climb trees much like squirrels (Rowe, 1996).

Free ranging individuals live in secondary forest in which they forage for insects and fruit and seek shelter (Rowe, 1996). Despite being highly adaptable, callitrichids are delicate and require careful management in captivity for proper reproduction and development (Montali & Bush, 1999).

Even though the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) does not list the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) as endangered, its study in captivity is important, because two other species of Callithrix are endangered. C. jacchus is a useful model for the reproduction and management of its threatened and endangered relatives.

Several callitrichid species have proved to be valuable biomedical models in different research areas; many of their biological and behavioral characteristics have been well defined. They are susceptible to oncogenic viruses and infectious hepatitis, as well as viral diseases such as rubella and hematopoietic chimerism, which are important in immunological research. Consequently, there is a great demand for captive colonies of callitrichids (Wolfe et al., 1975; Box, 1995). Callitrichids are also relatively inexpensive to maintain because of their small size (Wolfe et al., 1975).

Common marmosets breed easily in captivity. Female estrous cycles last 16.4 days; the gestation period is 148 ˝ 4.7 days, with two or three offspring commonly delivered. In captivity, interbirth intervals are six months, although intervals of one year have been reported, resembling those of free ranging animals. Females wean their offspring between 31 and 90 days after birth. A study of Africam Safari's colony of common marmosets found a gestation period of 160 days, an interbirth interval ranging from 151 to 164 days, and no birth seasonality (Serio Silva et al., 2000).

Females do not menstruate, and in captivity mate frequently throughout their cycle, having no behavioral or external signs of estrus. Callitrichids do not have lactational anestrus: in fact, conception may occur during the postpartum period. Females reach sexual maturity at 20 to 24 months, while males reach it from 9 to 13 months (e.g., Hearn, 1977; Johnson et al., 1991).

Callitrichid groups are larger than typical monogamous primate families. They have an unusual cooperative breeding system, in which offspring stay within family groups into adulthood, helping to rear new litters of the dominant pair (e.g., Abbott & George, 1991; Box, 1995).

In captivity, breeding pairs mate even after their offspring reach sexual maturity. In family groups, sons are subordinate to their father, showing little reproductive behavior; although in certain circumstances they mount their sisters and mother, without penetration or ejaculation (Abbott, 1993).

Captive callitrichids may suffer infectious and noninfectious diseases that must be controlled or prevented (Montali, 1994; Potkay, 1992). In some nonhuman primate colonies, prenatal mortality may exceed 15% of diagnosed pregnancies (Bunton, 1986).

Because of the economic importance of callitrichids in research and education, more biological and medical data are needed to minimize maintenance and mortality problems. Both conservation and animal welfare must be considered in establishing colonies (Box, 1995).

This retrospective study examines causes of infant death from 1991 to 1999 in the common marmoset colony at Africam Safari. Factors that were evaluated include: age, litter composition, dam's rank in hierarchy and her reproductive experience, group size, enclosure site, and seasonality of deaths.

Material and Methods

The common marmoset colony at Africam Safari was established in February, 1988, with four males and four females; the first litter was born in September, 1989. The average litter has been one or two offspring, but occasionally three or four (Serio Silva et al., 2000).

The colony is kept in two different sections of the zoo. Section A is public, with a great many visitors. This enclosure is about 16 m2. Section B is off display and includes three enclosures of 18 m2 each. All enclosures are constructed of metal and wire mesh and have a grass floor, behavioral enrichment structures, and an artificial heat source. Pathology records of all common marmosets that died during the nine-year period from 1991 through 1999 were reviewed. Following the methodology of Rothe et al. (1992), the data were classified according to age at death: 0 days (abortions and stillbirths), animals which died or were killed within 1 day, 2 to 7 days, 8 to 30 days, and 31 to 150 days. Rank in hierarchy and parity of the mothers, litter composition, and annual and enclosure distribution were analyzed, along with the causes of deaths.

Results

Twenty-six infant deaths were analyzed (Table 1). The causes of death were: reproductive problems (abnormal delivery, abortion, stillbirth), rearing problems (hand rearing problems, starvation, failure to thrive), pneumonia, and trauma (due to aggression by conspecifics, entrapment by some feature of the enclosure, or falling from a caretaker). 92.3% of the deaths occurred within the first month of age.

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                                 Age (days)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Category      Cause of death   0  1  2-7  8-30  31-150  Total  %
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Reproductive  abortion         4  0   0    0       0      4   15.4
             -------------------------------------------------------
              stillbirth       2  0   0    0       0      2    7.7
             -------------------------------------------------------
              abnormal         0  2   0    0       0      2    7.7
              delivery
             -------------------------------------------------------
Total                          6  2   0    0       0      8   30.8
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Rearing       failure to       0  1   1    0       0      2    7.7
              thrive
             -------------------------------------------------------
              starvation       0  0   4    2       0      6   23.1
             -------------------------------------------------------
              hand rearing     0  0   0    2       0      2    7.7
             -------------------------------------------------------
Total                          0  1   5    4       0     10   38.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------
              Pneumonia        0  0   1    0       0      1    3.8
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Traumas       Fall from        0  2   0    0       0      2    7.7
              mother
             -------------------------------------------------------
              Enclosure        0  0   0    0       1      1    3.8
              trauma
             -------------------------------------------------------
              Conspecific      0  1   0    2       1      4   15.4
              trauma
             -------------------------------------------------------
Total                          0  3   0    2       2      7   26.9
--------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL                          6  6   6    6       2     26  100
--------------------------------------------------------------------
% Total                       23 23  23   23       8
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 1: Ages and causes of death.

Reproductive problems caused eight (30.8%) of the infant deaths; six were abortions or stillbirths, the other two were of one-day-olds. Rearing problems caused 10 (38.5%) deaths, all of 1-to-30-day-olds.

One (3.8%) 2-to-7-day old infant died of pneumonia.

Trauma resulted in seven (26.9%) deaths, and was responsible for both 31-150-day-olds' deaths (one caused by an enclosure feature and one by a conspecific). Three one-day-old infants died of trauma, one from a conspecific and two by falling. Conspecific trauma caused two deaths in 8-to-30-day-old individuals.

 
--------------------------------------------------------
               Mother's status       Mother's parity
--------------------------------------------------------
Age (days)  Dom   Sub   Unknown   Prim   Mult   Unknown
--------------------------------------------------------
0            0     0       6        0      0        6        
1            4     2       0        6      0        0
2-7          1     4       1        1      4        1
8-30         1     5       0        4      2        0
31-150       2     0       0        0      2        0
Totals       8    11       7       11      8        7
--------------------------------------------------------

Table 2: Infant deaths and mothers' position in hierarchy and parity.

Most (11/18) of the 1-to-30-day-olds who died were offspring of subordinate females (Table 2). However, both 31-to-150-day-olds who died were offspring of dominant females. Four of six 1-day-olds, one of six 2-to-7-day-olds, and one of six 8-to-30-day-olds were also offspring of dominant females. The dominance status of the mother of one 2-to-7-day-old had not been recorded.

Seven of the 11 infants that died within the first week of life had primiparous mothers; as did all six 1-day-olds (Table 2).

Fourteen (53.8%) deaths were twins: one from a male-male pair; one from a male-unsexed pair; and 12 (46%) from male-female pairs. All 1-day-old and 31-to-150-day-olds who died were born in male-female pairs. All the infants in the sole quadruple litter died.

Six (23.1%) and four (15.4%) deaths were observed in May and March respectively, while there were only one or two deaths in any of the remaining months. In the first half of the study period, 18 of the 26 infant deaths occurred.

Twenty (76.9%) infant deaths occured in B section (off display). All 0-day-old and 2-to-7-day-old deaths were in that section.

Discussion

Many species of captive mammals show more deaths before weaning than in other stages of life. As in other callitrichid colonies (Kilborn et al., 1983; Rothe et al., 1992; Jaquish et al., 1997), most infant deaths in our study occurred in the first week of life. Several factors affecting infant survival are: population density, availability of food, birth seasonality, birth weight, litter size, parental care, and social environment. When studying captive populations, it is necessary to look at all of these factors (Jaquish et al., 1997).

Bunton (1986) mentioned that prenatal mortality in nonhuman primates may exceed 15% of all diagnosed pregnancies. In our study abortions and stillbirths were 23.1% of infant deaths. Potential causes of abortions in nonhuman primates - and in many other mammals - are genetic factors, developmental malformations, ischemic lesions of the placenta, trauma, infections, and hormonal aberrations (King & Chalifoux, 1986). Both maternal stress and infections are important causes of stillbirth. In nonhuman primates, and even in man, ascendent genital infections are responsible for placentitis and subsequent anoxia and fetal death (Andrews, 1974).

Deaths caused by failure to thrive were correlated with hierarchy and parity of the mother and subsequent starvation and hand rearing problems. Some captive callitrichid infants have little chance of survival; to save them, it is necessary to develop an effective hand rearing protocol (See, e.g., Patiño & Borda, 1997; Patiño et al., 1997).

Traumas mainly occurred within the first month of life. Intragroup aggression in callitrichids generally occurs soon after the birth of infants and following removal of families or individuals from one enclosure to another (Box & Hubrecht, 1987). In 1-day-olds, two of the three deaths were caused by infants falling from their mothers - both of whom were subordinate and/or primiparous, lacking maternal experience and conspecific help.

Conspecific trauma, (which represents 15.4% of infant deaths, and which often involved biting), enclosure trauma, and cerebral trauma from falling (commonly associated with maternal neglect) could not only be considered in conjunction with hierarchy and female reproductive experience, but also with different social and environmental factors that could intensify intragroup aggression. Experiments to determine effects of cohesion, social composition, and behavioral changes should help predict these incidents and thus avoid high and persistent aggression levels (Box & Hubrecht, 1987).

There was only one death caused by enclosure trauma: a 31-to-150-day-old individual found trapped between two branches. It is important to provide a safe enclosure with appropriate environmental elements to ensure natural development in the colony. In callitrichids different captive regimens affect behaviors, so it would be useful to evaluate animals under different conditions that might minimize deaths (Box, 1995).

Reproductive biology of females is influenced by social environment. In callitrichids, dominant females are the only troop members that are actively reproductive; they struggle to maintain this status. Subordinate females have their ovarian cycles suppressed and also have detectable estrogens and LH (luteinizing hormone) levels while staying with their family group. This is known as fertility suppression. Subordinate captive females have difficulty reversing suppression unless they are removed from their family group. Nevertheless, in our colony subordinate females gave birth. The possibility for ovulating and mating of a subordinate female is influenced by her relationship with the dominant female. Those daughters with more tolerant and less aggressive mothers may develop a better relationship and consequently have more opportunity to escape from suppression. In intact family groups, this phenomenon is associated with fewer social interaction changes (Saltzman et al., 1997).

In this common marmoset colony, reproductive groups have always been harem-like, in which the young help care for their siblings. Both sections A and B have well-defined dominant pairs with a periodic reproductive pattern. Thus, with enclosure management, group hierarchy has been relatively constant. Under captive conditions no significant correlation between group size and infant survival rate has been seen (Johnson et al., 1991; Rothe et al., 1993); furthermore, it has been suggested that helpers are not required in captivity where food is supplied (Rothe et al., 1993). However, in our data 11 (42.3%) infant deaths were offspring of subordinate mothers and died within the first month of life; surely no helpers were available for their mothers.

Similarly, more deaths occurred in offspring of primiparous mothers, whether dominant or subordinate. This parity effect has been noted in other colonies. In cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, see Johnson et al., 1991) and saddleback tamarins (S. fuscicollis, see Tirado Herrera et al., 2000), infants of primiparous parents had a higher rejection and a lower survival rate. Captive primiparous females often kill and devour their offspring. The number of older offspring helping with rearing, the parity and experience of the breeding pair, and the collaboration of males in rearing their young are all factors that are associated with less rejection of the young in captivity. The deaths of dominant females' offspring were associated with their primiparity.

In our colony, hierarchy was defined by behavioral and reproductive evaluation. Females who regularly mated and gave birth to viable offspring were considered dominant. In order to confirm their dominant status, LH and estrogen levels in serum, feces, and/or urine could be analyzed.

Our colony consisted of established families with siblings sharing care of offspring; low infant mortality would be predicted compared with other colonies where offspring are separated from their parents when they reach puberty (Johnson et al., 1991). In captivity, it is advisable to let offspring stay with their parents until the next litter has been born and weaned. Even if the breeding pair cares for the first litter, the parents will abandon a second litter, forcing members of the first litter to care for their siblings. The result of such a social structure could be that individuals learn complex species-typical reproductive behavior (Hearn, 1977).

More deaths were observed in twin litters. All individuals from the quadruplet litter died. In captive populations the amount and quality of food are quite constant throughout the year. In litters of more than two, the mother has an increased metabolic cost due to lactation; hence, maternal milk supply would be one of the limiting factors in the number of infants that can be reared. Therefore, these deaths could be attributed to lack of nutrition. The quadruplet litter was from a subordinate multiparous female, so these deaths could also be attributed to the mother's status in the hierarchy. High perinatal mortality is a significant problem in captive populations of most callitrichids, more often in triplets and quadruplets than in twins, due to subsequent rearing difficulty. However improving environmental and nutritional conditions might improve offfspring survival (Kilborn et al.,1983; Box & Hubrecht, 1987; Jaquish et al., 1997).

A and B sections had similar husbandry conditions and social composition. Yet twenty (76.9%) of the 26 infant deaths ocurred in B section, which is off display for visitors. The only death caused by pneumonia, commonly associated with viral and bacterial agents, was in this section.

Common marmosets were born in every month of the year. A spring peak of births, similar to that in the wild, was observed in this and other captive colonies of marmosets (see Kilborn et al., 1983), possibly associated with photoperiod. Kilborn also observed an increase in deaths during the first halves of each year.

As we suggested previously, it is important to provide environmental enrichment and a social composition similar to that in nature, to encourage good health and reproduction. Captive callitrichid mortality may diminish radically through improved methods of care and maintenance (Box et al., 1987; Kelly, 1993).

Environmental factors, such as food availability, weather, social composition, and enclosure quality, regulate reproductive success and offspring survival by generating metabolic, behavioral, and reproductive changes.

Further studies in this colony should establish the precise hierarchy and enable evaluation of how variations in habitat quality (e.g., population density and group size) may affect offspring survival, bearing in mind that the most stimulating aspects of an animal's environment are determined by conspecifics (Van Hoof, 1986).

References

Abbott, D. H. (1993). Social conflict and reproductive suppression in marmoset and tamarin monkeys. In: W. A. Mason & S. P. Mendoza (Eds.), Primate social conflict (pp. 331-372). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Abbott, D. H., & George, L. M. (1991). Reproductive consequences of changing social status in female common marmosets. In: H. O. Box (Ed.), Primate responses to environmental change (pp. 295-309). London: Chapman & Hall.

Andrews, E. J. (1974). Pulmonary pathology in stillborn nonhuman primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 164, 715-718.

Box, H. O. (1995). Biological propensities of the Callitrichidae: a much used - little known group. Laboratory Animals, 29, 237-243.

Box, H. O., & Hubrecht, R. C. (1987). Long-term data on the reproduction and maintenance of a colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) 1972-1983. Laboratory Animals, 21, 249-260.

Bunton, T. E. (1986). Incidental lesions in nonhuman primate placentae. Veterinary Pathology, 23, 431-438.

Eisenberg, J. F. (1989). Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. Volume 1. Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hearn, J. P. (1977). The endocrinology of reproduction in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. In D. G. Kleiman (Ed.), The biology and conservation of the callitrichidae (pp. 163-173). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Jaquish, C. E., Tardif, S. D., & Cheverud, J. M. (1997). Interactions between infant growth and survival: Evidence for selection on age-specific body weight in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). American Journal of Primatology, 42, 269-280.

Johnson, L. D., Petto, A. J., & Sehgal, P. K. (1991). Factors in the rejection and survival of captive cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). American Journal of Primatology, 25, 91-102.

Kelly, K. (1993). Environmental enrichment for captive wildlife through the simulation of gum feeding. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, 4(3), 1-2, 5-10.

Kilborn, J. A., Sehgal, P., Johnson, L. D., Beland, M., & Bronson, R. T. (1983). A retrospective study of infant mortality of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in captive breeding. Laboratory Animal Science, 33, 168-171.

King, N. W., Jr., & Chalifoux, L. V. (1986). Prenatal and neonatal pathology of captive nonhuman primates. In K. Benirschke (Ed.), Primates: The road to self-sustaining populations (pp. 763-770). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Montali, R. J., & Bush, M. (1999). Diseases of the Callitrichidae. In: M. E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (Eds.), Zoo and wild animal medicine: Current therapy. (4th ed., pp. 369-375). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Montali, R. J. (1994). Diseases of zoo marmosets, tamarins and Goeldi's monkeys. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Proceedings, 237-240.

Patiño, E. M., & Borda, J. T. (1997). The composition of primates' milk and its importance in selecting formulas for hand-rearing. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 36[2], 8-10.

Patiño, E. M., de Oliveira, C. C. R., Zetterman, C. C. D., Borda, J. T., & Ruiz, J. C. (1997). Hand-rearing Cebus apella. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 36[1], 15-17.

Potkay, S. (1992). Diseases of the callitrichidae: A review. Journal of Medical Primatology, 21, 189-236.

Rothe, H., Darms, K., & Koenig, A. (1992). Sex ratio and mortality in a laboratory colony of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Laboratory Animals, 26, 88-99.

Rothe, H., Koenig, A., & Darms, K. (1993). Infant survival and number of helpers in captive groups of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). American Journal of Primatology, 30, 131-137.

Rowe, N. (1996). The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton, NY: Pogonias Press.

Saltzman, W., Severin, J. M., Schultz-Darken, N. J., & Abbott, D. H. (1997). Behavioral and social correlates of escape from suppression of ovulation in female common marmosets housed with the natal family. American Journal of Primatology, 41, 1-21.

Serio Silva, J. C., Rico Gray, V., Parra Sánchez, M., & Ruiz Guerrero, S. (2000). Notes on the reproductive behavior and early development of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) in a Mexican zoo. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 39[2], 11-13.

Tirado Herrera, E. R., Knogge, C., & Heymann, E. W. (2000). Infanticide in a group of wild saddle-back tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis. American Journal of Primatology, 50, 153-157.

Van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1986). Behavior requirements for self-sustaining primate populations: Some theoretical considerations and a closer look at social behavior. In: K. Benirschke (Ed.), Primates: The road to self-sustaining populations (pp. 307-317). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Wolfe, L. G., Deinhardt, F., Ogden, J. D., Adams, M. R., & Fisher, L. E. (1975). Reproduction of wild-caught and laboratory-born marmoset species used in biomedical research (Saguinus sp., Callithrix jacchus). Laboratory Animal Science, 25, 802-813.

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Corresponding author: A. Parás García, Africam Safari, 11 Ote. 2407 Col. Azcarate, 72007, Puebla Pue., Mexico [e-mail: pago@servidor.unam.mx].
We would like to thank Dr. Roberto Wolff Webels for helping us in the identification of deaths in the records and Dr. Hugo Gálvez Carrillo for his interest and advice on this study.

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Marking Monkeys - Nyanzol-D

In March, Gerald Ruppenthal , of the Washington RPRC, posted to Primate-Science saying that he had tried a dye, Nyanzol-D, which had been recommended for marking primates, but was not happy with the results. "A technician found the product faint and tried a more concentrated mixture on his arm (let's not get into why), where it caused a rather severe, long-lasting rash. Consequently we are unwilling to try it on infants. Would anyone who has experience with the product share information as to success and failure?"

Nancy Megna , of Yerkes RPRC: "Mix 12 cc water, 12 cc over-the-counter hydrogen peroxide, 48 cc rubbing alcohol, and 1 heaping tablespoon of the dye. Stir well, allow to sit a while, stir again, and apply with a sponge-type paint/craft brush. This darkens as it is applied, and lasts for months. It has been used on adults and youngsters, but not on very young infants."

Rich Rawlins , of the Rush Medical Center in Chicago: "Mix dye in boiling water. Add a couple of big squirts of dish soap to act as a surfactant, and some hydrogen peroxide, obtained at the drug store, as a bleaching agent. Cool the mix and apply it to the animal's fur. It has worked well on fur and skin."

(A possible testimonial might be obtained from Steve Schapiro , of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Texas, who, according to Rich, spilled some on himself while marking patas monkeys on La Parguera and lived with it just about forever.)

Editors' notes: Steve says that he *did* wash during the six or more weeks that the dye stayed on. We believe him. We also did a Web search for "Nyanzol-D" and found that the British Columbia Resources Inventory Committee and the Canadian Council on Animal Care recommend it for snowshoe hare, and the U.S. National Park Service for prairie dog identification. We also found reference to its use on rhesus monkeys aged 5 months to 21 years, in C. M. Drea & K. Wallen (1999) ["Low status monkeys 'play dumb' when learning in mixed social groups." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96, 12965-12969].

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Enrichment Discussion: The Sugar Question

Hope Walker, of the Primate Conservation & Welfare Society (PCWS), wrote to the Primate Enrichment Forum : "PCWS is currently sending out 'PCWS Care Packages' to various primate sanctuaries in the United States. Among other things each package contains cardboard tubes filled with newsprint with unsalted peanuts and sunflower seeds sprinkled inside. The ends are crimped, and by all accounts the primates love them. I am writing to ask whether any of you have other ideas of what we can put in and do with the tubes. We have many, and would like to offer the sanctuaries some variety with this small gift."

The resulting discussion went on from April 24 to May 12. The discussants included Rita Bellanca, of the Washington RPRC; Jen Feuerstein and Brooke Wurrey, professional primate keepers; David Seelig, who is working at Brandeis University this year; Cobie Brinkman, of the Australian National University; Katie Eckert, of the University of California, San Francisco; and Sue Johnson, of the Sacramento Zoo.

Oliver (Cebus capucinus) foraging through a cardboard tube. Photo taken at WRR and copyright Tim Ajax/WRR.

Rita, Jen, and David suggested using peanut butter, marmalade, or honey. Rita offered: "smear peanut butter or a water/flour paste on the tubes and roll them in cereals, coconut. Stuff them with marmalade, honey, or peanut butter and some fruits or vegetables and fold the ends shut. Note: We usually freeze our creations; those may not work well without freezing." David thought peanut butter would "give the primates something to do with the cardboard once they get everything on the inside out." Jen also suggested cereals, raisins, other dried fruits, uncooked pasta, mini-marshmallows, shredded coconut, popcorn (popped of course!), mini-pretzels, animal crackers, etc., mixed with shredded paper in the tubes.

Katie wrote: "I'm curious about the use of peanut butter and cardboard: don't the monkeys or apes just eat the cardboard if it's got sticky stuff on it? We've tried it here and had bad results with one macaque. Also, I would think that if you used natural peanut butter (no added sugar), it would tend to go bad." And Rita replied: "Our macaques and baboons tend to lick the peanut butter or honey off the cardboard, and then shred the cardboard and/or toss it aside. A few do swallow small pieces, but we've had no health problems related to this. Has anyone else had problems with animals eating cardboard?"

Hope then said she would appreciate any additional suggestions in which sugar and salt are not included. And David wrote: "A couple of people wrote to me, disagreeing with giving primates peanut butter (or sweet things like honey) as enrichment. I feel that anything is okay in moderation, but perhaps it is better not to give salty things or simple carbohydrates at all, as the primates come to expect them. Once when I was working with a social group of pigtails, I gave one of the juveniles a piece of candy. I doubt he had ever had refined sugar before, and he really liked it! For the next several weeks, if he saw me approach he would chase all of the subordinates away on the off chance he would get another piece, though I didn't reinforce this behavior at all. I regretted giving him the candy, because since such things can't be given daily (for health and practical reasons) - I wasn't sure if the enjoyment he got out of eating the candy balanced out all the time he probably missed having it.

"It's an interesting question: should primates be given jam, peanut butter, honey, molasses, and other sweet and salty things in moderation or not at all? Or perhaps these things should only be given when giving doses (e.g., putting medicine in a marshmallow or fruit juice)? What do you all think?"

Cobie wrote: "I never used sugary foods for my pigtails and cynos for environmental enrichment purposes because of the risk of tooth decay, to which some macaques are very vulnerable (which is why they are an animal model of it!), and of resulting gum disease. We gave a variety of fruits and vegetables - whatever was seasonal - and browse like lucerne (alfalfa) and foliage. Apples were given daily. They also had wooden chewing blocks. Under this regimen, very little cleaning was needed during routine dental care, and most captive-born animals remained without decay for years; in our few wild-caught animals, decay did not proceed excessively, and tartar deposits were reduced, as was gum disease. I worry sometimes when I see how much sugary foods people seem to put into enrichment. Honey, raisins, and peanut butter should be treated with caution: not just because of tooth decay, but because of their high calorie content: animals need foods that meet all their dietary requirements, not just calories."

Rita said: "At our facility, we work closely with our vet staff to ensure that the animals receive their daily nutritional requirements, and that any 'treat' we give them does not interfere with those health/nutritional needs. We do try to limit excess fats/sugars (we go low-fat or sugar-free when possible), and we have quantity guidelines based on age, weight, and species for both produce and non-produce treats. Because our animals do not receive the fatty, sugary treats daily, our vets are satisfied that health (and dental care!) is not being compromised. 'Treats' can also be used in conjunction with health management. E.g., protein-deficient animals might receive higher-protein produce and treats. Our vet staff quite often requests special treats tailored to individual animals' needs." And Brooke said: We use Flintstones vitamins for monkeys with various mineral deficiencies. These contain a lot of sugar but are recommended by our vet."

Rita suggested low fat and sugar treats: * Cut up fresh produce and freeze it for a different texture. * Make plain ice cubes or ice cubes with sugar-free flavorings. Also, add cut produce to the ice cubes. * Increase the variety of produce you try. "We use everything from eggplant to mushrooms to bok choy to pumpkins." And Cobie added: "Other occasional treats were scattered breakfast cereal (without added sugar) in sawdust - even plain oatmeal flakes are great! For large numbers of primates, a cheap alternative is a horse mix (not the molasses-added kind!) made up of barley, corn, oats, and seeds; or a mixture of nuts. Also, try small whole pumpkins and see how they treat them, or whole hardboiled eggs in the shell!" And Brooke: "For those who are skeptical about sugar, it is possible to give slightly sweet treats. For instance, for day-to-day enrichment I mix honey or Pedialyte with a lot of water in a spray bottle and spray parts of the cages or their hands. Our rhesus monkeys spend much time smelling and licking, without ingesting much sugar."

Brooke added: "I find nothing wrong with giving sugar or salt in moderation. Our rhesus colony loves the occasional sweet treat, and our vet has assured us that this is completely acceptable. I even once worked at a sanctuary where the only primate (a rhesus), was continually fed restaurant leftovers (omelets, burritos, etc!), and while I don't agree with that sort of diet, he is still alive and well today, if a couple pounds heavier than he should be. Here, we give an assortment of treats varying from different fruits and vegetables, various monkey-specific manufactured treats (such as Primatreats®), and the occasional bit of honey, peanut butter, molasses, or marshmallows. I would never want to deprive them of this, because of the sheer enjoyment they appear to get out of it."

Now Hope wrote: "The main reason we have tried to limit sweets and salts is that these 'treat tubes' are being sent to several sanctuaries, and it is not our intention to disrupt or change the diets of the primates. Personally, I am in favor of a diet of fresh fruits and veggies (with additional foods appropriate to the species) and not lots of sweets. A mango is sweet enough, at least in my view. We don't include peanut butter, honey, etc., for all the reasons listed above -- also we're mailing (albeit Priority Mail), so don't want to include things that will spoil."

Cobie: "Our animals used to get tubes with their routine hard foods such as corn kernels (why pop them?) and sunflower seeds, or containers such as plastic bottles with their daily rations of hard foods made up of pellets, kernels, seeds, and cat biscuits. After the bottles were empty, they provided lots of fun in their destruction; the animals never tired of them even when given daily."

Hope asked about single-serving plastic water bottles. "The reason we haven't used them is that I have some concerns about ingestion. Those bottles break easily and I worry about these guys swallowing some of the plastic and getting into real trouble while they're trying to get at the goodies inside."

Cobie answered: "I've used plastic bottles (2-liter milk, which are the opaque plastic kind, and 2-liter fruit juice bottles, 'PET', that is, clear plastic) for a long time with pigtails and cynos. They like the PET more, I think, maybe because they can see better what's in them, or because they make more noise when destroyed. It is hard for even these strong guys to tear small pieces off them. Bottles usually ended up reduced from three to two dimensions! And they did not chew bits of plastic off or put pieces in their pouches, as far as I could see; anyway, there was always plenty of real stuff to ingest! Small (200- or 500-cc) bottles may be thinner, though; these might be a problem because they tear more easily."

And Sue wrote: "At our zoo we have a volunteer enrichment group that provides items for our chimps. Until recently there were five adults. We used plastic bottles and froze diluted juice in them or froze water with fruit in them. When a baby was born, the vet had us take these off our list of approved items. They had never been a problem with the adults, but there is concern about the baby ingesting plastic. The adults systematically bit and tore the plastic bottle off of the frozen goodie inside and ate the latter like a Popsicle. Even when we were allowed to use them, we found that the water bottles tended to shatter and were instructed to only use soda bottles, as they are thicker plastic."

Katie suggested trying nuts such as almonds or pistachios. "We give them whole to macaques, and shelled and chopped (or whole peanuts) to the New World monkeys - a little can go a long way. My co-worker, Paula Dvorchak, discovered a bird catalog called Hornbeck's [888-CAGEBIR(D)] that sells nuts and dried fruits in bulk for parrots. We use that in forage mix; it's much cheaper than we could buy in the store."

Hope: "We received a donation of walnuts the other day. Does anyone have any feedback on them? I've never heard of anyone feeding walnuts, and wondered if there was a reason why that I haven't heard."

Cobie has given whole walnuts on occasion: "Many animals played with them, and the bigger ones could crack them open and extract the flesh. One wild caught female would take them up and drop them on the concrete floor, then go inspect them to see if they cracked. No idea where she learned that trick!"

Brooke said: "I also give various interesting fruits and vegetables such as coconuts and corn on the cob (both provide hours of activity)." But Katie questioned corn on the cob, because "the veterinarians here all were very concerned that the monkeys might ingest the cob and that may result in blockages. Also, do you give them whole ears with the fiber still on or do you shuck them first?"

Jen, Cobie, and Brooke all agreed that corn on the cob (raw, whole, uncooked - no need to shuck!) is a great form of enrichment for macaques. Jen refers us to <www.brown.edu/Research/Primate/lpn31-1.html#three>.

Brooke says some rhesus do eat the cob, but seem to chew it into small enough pieces. "Many do eat the outer husks. Our vet has said that they probably can't digest this, but it will just pass through (like celery). Many monkeys here only eat that and leave the corn!" Cobie gave large cobs, thinking small ones might make the possibility of the animals eating the cob, or biting chunks off it, more of a risk.

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African Primatology Society

A group at the Institute of Primate Research in Kenya are planning to form and launch an "African Primatology Society". They are interested in contacting scientists who are working with primates in Africa as well as any scientists of African origin who are interested in primatology. Those interested may contact Dr. Jason Mwenda, Director, Institute of Primate Research, P.O. Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya [254 2 882571-4; e-mail: jmmwenda@arcc.or.ke]. - Posted to alloprimate, May 3, 2001

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Division of Quarantine, CDC, Changes Name

The former Division of Quarantine is now the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine. The new name reflects its broad involvement in the international movement of people, animals (including nonhuman primates [NHP]), and "things". The Division Director is Tony D. Perez, who has worked in the Division for 20 years. NHP import activity is part of the Field Operations Branch, the chief of which is James "Bo" Barrow. Tom DeMarcus [voicemail: 404-498-1617; cellular: 404-625-4209; e-mail: tad1@cdc.gov] continues to head the NHP Import Activity. Activity's newest member is Kristy Murray, DVM [voicemail: 404-498-1634; cellular: 770-778-6075; e-mail: kmurray@cdc.gov], who recently moved from CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service. Dave Rogers [voicemail: 404-498-1638; fax: 404-498-1633; e-mail: dfr1@cdc.gov] assists with NHP Import Activity business when Tom or Kristy are not available. Tom, Kristy, Dave, and Bo all share the phone at 404-498-1670.

The mailing address is Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail stop E03, Atlanta, GA 30333. The street address (for visitors and expedited parcel delivery) is Bldg 57, Rm 5108, Executive Park Drive South, Atlanta, GA 30329. The emergency phone for after-hours urgent business is 404-625-4209; if there is no response, call the CDC duty officer at 404-639-2888 for assistance. For B-virus exposure management consultations only, contact John Stewart, MD, Div. of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, CDC [404-639-3629]. The Division's NHP website is <www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/nonhuman.htm>.

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Announcement from the IPS Bulletin

The Editors of the IPS Bulletin are hoping to include as much original material as possible in future issues. Although abstracts and items from already published material will be used, this will be to a limited extent, and will be restricted to things of interest to an international readership. They are particularly interested in items from the following areas: * Conservation issues; * News from the field and from captive work; * Conference and meeting announcements; * Education - scholarships, internships, graduate programs, funding announcements, research and volunteer opportunities, PhD abstracts; * Book reviews; * Anecdotal material; and * Anything else of primate interest you can think of! Send material to Helen Lantsbury, Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Dept of Anthropology, Social Sciences and Law, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, U.K. [+44 (0)1865-484941; fax: +44 (0)1865-483937; e-mail: hlantsbury@brookes.ac.uk].

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Primates de las Américas...La Página

Para este número, les ofrecemos una invitación a un importante evento sobre Biología de la Conservación a celebrarse en la República de El Salvador; asimismo, les incluimos el resumen de una interesante tesis defendida recientemente y que llena un importante hueco en las investigaciones sobre interacciones ecológicas entre monos silvestres y el género Ficus: una especie considerada "clave" en las selvas tropicales. Les enviamos un cordial saludo y estamos a sus órdenes: Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen, Depto. Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología AC, km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, Ap. 63 CP 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e.mail: serioju@ecologia.edu.mx].

V Congreso de la Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biología y la Conservación
San Salvador, El Salvador, del 15 al 19 de Octubre de 2001

La Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biología y la Conservación (SMBC) es una organización internacional no lucrativa cuyo objetivo es contribuir con la promoción de la biología y la conservación de la naturaleza. Nace en 1996 como iniciativa de un grupo de profesionales de cinco países, interesados en fomentar la comunicación entre conservacionistas e investigadores trabajando en la región mesoamericana. Ésta ha crecido y evolucionado mucho desde su fundación. Para más información sobre la sociedad visite .

La SMBC organiza cada año el mayor congreso científico-conservacionista regional; este congreso constituye una oportunidad regional única, permitiendo la difusión de avances científicos y conservacionistas, estimula la producción de nuevas ideas, promueve la interacción entre actores, tanto mesoamericanos como extranjeros trabajando en la región, permite a los profesionales conocer sobre la realidad de cada país, da oportunidad para la formación de nuevos valores, y nos abre las puertas al mundo, como una región de gran interés para la conservación global y decidida a construir su desarrollo sobre bases sostenibles.

El Salvador, sede del V Congreso

Con el advenimiento de una nueva cultura de paz, que constituye ejemplo de entendimiento para los pueblos del mundo, El Salvador se desarrolla en nuestros días como importante destino turístico, de convenciones y negocios de la Región Mesoamericana. Contamos con modernas y ágiles vías de ingreso, terrestres, marítimas y aéreas; amplia red vial y efectivo sistema de transporte, una variada oferta comercial, hotelera, alimenticia y de diversiones, todas facilidades que le permitirán disfrutar de los atractivos de nuestra historia y cultura, forjada desde los inicios del Imperio Maya y enriquecida con el paso del tiempo, así como del entorno natural que caracteriza a nuestra región y por supuesto del calor de nuestra gente.

Para más información sobre el congreso visite <www.geocities.com/smbc_elsalvador_2001/>; esta página se estará actualizando.

Tesis: Aporte Nutricional de Frutos de Ficus perforata (Pulpa, Semillas y Materia Animal) Consumidos por Monos Aulladores (Alouatta palliata mexicana), defendida por Tania Roswhita Urquiza Haas para obtener el título de Bióloga, Facultad de Ciencias UNAM, México, D.F.
Los frutos de Ficus son un importante recurso para la comunidad frugívora de los bosques tropicales, sin embargo existe incertidumbre acerca de su importancia nutricional. En la mayoría de estudios, los análisis químicos se han hecho de frutos completos, a pesar de que las semillas no pueden ser aprovechadas en la digestión. Se especula también acerca del aporte nutricional de la materia animal alojada en el fruto, por tanto el presente estudio pretende contestar las siguientes preguntas: ¿Cuál es el aporte nutricional del material animal alojado en los frutos de Ficus perforata y que es ingerido incidentalmente por Alouatta palliata mexicana? ¿Qué aporte de nutrientes proporcionan las fracciones de los frutos de Ficus perforata a los monos aulladores? ¿Cuál es la importancia nutricional del fruto de Ficus perforata dentro de la dieta del mono aullador? Durante el período de fructificación de un árbol de Ficus perforata se estimó el consumo de frutos por parte de los monos aulladores y se realizaron análisis químicos para determinar el contenido de proteína cruda, extracto etéreo, cenizas, fibra (celulosa, hemicelulosa, lignina) del fruto completo y de las fracciones pulpa y semillas, asimismo se realizaron análisis para determinar la proteína cruda y extracto etéreo de la fracción materia animal.

Las semillas representaron un gran porcentaje del fruto completo (45%) por lo que los estudios que utilizan el fruto completo sobrestiman las concentraciones disponibles de todos los nutrientes, excepto fibra neutrodetergente, y el impacto es mayor para los lípidos. La materia animal aporta el 0.43% de proteína cruda y el 0.29% de extracto etéreo, esto representa el 11.13% y el 9.04% respectivamente de la fracción disponible (pulpa y materia animal). Se observaron diferencias significativas en el consumo entre las distintas clases sexo-edad (p<0.04), presentándose el mayor consumo de frutos por parte de las hembras adultas. Asimismo existen diferencias en el consumo por períodos del día (p<0.001), el mayor consumo se reporta por la tarde. La importancia del fruto de Ficus perforata para los monos aulladores puede deberse principalmente a los contenidos de calcio y agua.

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Resources Wanted and Available

Fossil Photographs

Anne-Marie Pecha, an editor for the World Book Encyclopedia's annual Science Year Supplement, wrote to Primate-Science on April 3: "I am writing in hope that you can help me find sources for any photographs of fossils of primates from the Paleocene and/or Eocene. We're putting together a feature-length article on early primates and have been having a rough time figuring out where to get photos of fossils of Paleocene Archontans (particularly Plesiadapiforms) and of Eocene primates. It seems that most scholarly journals publish drawings, which are useful in illustrating specific features of fossils to expert academics, but not useful in illustrating simply 'How scientists study fossil primates,' as we want to do. We already have photos of Purgatorius teeth and of Eosimias ankle bones, and are in the process of contacting researcher Christopher Beard's office about some photos we found on the Web. However, if you know of any museums or universities that might have photos of fossils on file, the information would be greatly appreciated. An entire skeletal reconstruction would be a gold mine. Thank you for your time and attention. Sincerely, Anne-Marie Pecha, Staff Editor Annuals and Online Products, World Book Publications, 233 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60601 [312-819-6566 fax: 312-729-5601; e-mail: Anne.Pecha@worldbook.com]."

Sticks and Logs

King Farms, Ct, sells natural wood saplings and small logs. They tell us that their products are used to "promote the psychological well being of nonhuman primates both in research and non-research environments." They offer a variety of woods, the preferred being soft sugar maple and red oak. They do not use pesticides on their trees. They will cut wood to order, such as a 12" x 2" gnawing stick or a 36" x 2" perch or swing. Contact William King, King Farms, Ct, 51 Spruce Mountain Rd, Danbury, CT 06810 [203-744-5207; fax: 203-730-0426; e-mail: KingFarmsCt@AOL.com].

Primates in Biomedical Research

The Primate Info Net, at the Wisconsin RPRC, has added a new feature, Primates in Biomedical Research, at <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/research/index.html>, intended as an information resource for members of the primate biomedical research community. The site focuses on the need to use primates as research models and highlights the role primate studies have played in contributing to human health.

Site contents include: * facts and statistics about animal research (particularly primate research) * links to relevant newsrooms and news articles * links to educational materials, research organizations, and primate welfare and enrichment resources * a listing of pro-research audiovisual materials * suggestions for searching two databases (PubMed and Primate Lit) containing authoritative information on the latest developments in primate research.

Mrs. Windham in Washington, with Washoe

<www.ri.net/schools/Portsmouth/Middle/Windham.htm> is a detailed description of Carolyn Windham's two-week visit in March to the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute at Central Washington University, sponsored by an Earthwatch Education Technology Fellowship grant. Mrs. Windham teaches gifted and talented students at Portsmouth (Rhode Island) Middle School. Her site includes several links to sites about chimpanzees, conservation, and sign language.

Primate Louse Samples

David L. Reed, an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Utah, wrote to Primate Science: "We are in need of louse samples from primates. With the help of several colleagues, I am building a phylogeny based on DNA sequences for the sucking lice of primates. If you regularly come in contact with primates that have lice, we would appreciate your help in collecting them.

"In short, we are building this phylogeny to better understand the evolution of primate-associated lice. This, in turn, will help us to better understand the three taxa of sucking lice associated with humans. Human body lice carry several deadly diseases that could also be carried by human head lice, which are reaching epidemic proportions in school children. Our research efforts are addressing this issue. For more information about our research, see and click on 'primate associated lice.'

"If you can collect lice for us, they are best preserved in 95% ethanol (ethyl alcohol) until they can be frozen in ultra-cold freezers in our lab. I can provide vials of ethanol if you need them and we will certainly pay for shipping. We also need as much information about the primate host as you can provide. We need to know if the animal was wild-caught or captive born. If wild-caught, any collecting information that you have (location, date, collector, etc.) would be most beneficial. If the animal regularly comes in contact with other primate species, that would be important to know too (lice can switch hosts to some degree). Thanks for any help you can offer and don't hesitate to e-mail me if you have questions." - David L. Reed, Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Room 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 [801-585-9130; fax: 801-581-4668; e-mail: reed@biology.utah.edu].

"3 Rs" Reprints and Ethics Reprint Available On-Line

The "3 Rs" Reprints, originally published in 1994 in Laboratory Animals, are now available for download in electronic format in response to requests from organizers of training courses for research workers. Although it was not practicable to redraft the original articles, the authors have provided some supplemental references, which are available as a separate document. "Training research workers in ethics," by Jane Smith and Maggy Jennings, the report of the first year of a project aimed at developing resources to support ethics training for U.K. research workers, is also now available. See <www.lal.org.uk> and select "news". - Posted to CompMed June 6, 2001

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Information Requested or Available

Becoming Human

The Institute of Human Origins has launched an on-line site for paleoanthropology, Becoming Human <www.becominghuman.org>. The centerpiece of the site is an interactive documentary experience that combines a 30-minute cinematic-style documentary with dozens of interactive exhibits. The documentary, guided by Dr. Donald Johanson, will take the viewer across the world and through four million years of history in search of how we became human.

Along the way, viewers will have the opportunity to "dig deeper" into the topics covered in the documentary, such as exploring a virtual archeological dig in Ethiopia, learning how researchers and artists reconstruct our ancient ancestors, listening in as leading scientists debate major issues in human evolution, and examining "virtual fossils" of many key members of our family tree.

Among the various levels of the Becoming Human site, visitors will be able to research the latest news in paleoanthropology and read expert essays in answer to viewer-submitted questions in the "News and Views" section. "Resources" will provide links to a growing collection of related Web sites, an extensive bibliography of books and articles, and a thorough glossary. The "Learning Center" will offer educational activities and lesson plans exploring major concepts in human evolution. For more information, visit <www.becominghuman.org> or call 480-727-6580. The project has been made possible by a generous grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

Malaria Information on the Web

Malaria Foundation International (MFI) has recently acquired an interactive teaching module, created and generously shared by Donald Roberts and Gregory Andre. This module provides not only general malaria information, but also information pertinent to malaria control by use of DDT. It is designed to be useful to people with a wide spectrum of backgrounds.

This module is animated and interactive. It addresses: * The malaria parasite and the mosquito that passes it to humans; * When and how the infected mosquito comes in contact with humans; and * DDT's effectiveness at malaria control (you may independently assess the probability that DDT will reduce malaria transmission based on three factors). The module may be viewed directly at <www.malaria.org/teachingmodules/ddt.html>.

Sperm Values for Baboons

Jane Phillips-Conroy is interested in values of ejaculate volume, sperm number, morphology, etc., for the different baboon subspecies, and wonders whether anyone can point her toward a literature source or to researchers who have worked on the topic. Contact her at: Dept of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Box 8108, Washington Univ. School of Med., 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110 [314-362-3396; Fax: 314-362-4446; e-mail: baboon@pcg.wustl.edu]. - posted to Primate-Science June 7

More Interesting Web Sites

* Animal Info - Information on Rare, Threatened and Endangered Mammals: <www.animalinfo.org/>

* Animal Training Site: <www.clickertrain.com/>

* Australian Orangutan Project: <users.astro.com.au/~leif/>

* e-Skeletons Project, an osteology database including bones of humans, gorillas, and baboons: <www.eskeletons.org>

* Exotic Animal Drug Compendium: <exoticanimal.net>

* Laboratory Animals: <www.lal.org.uk>

* Philippine Department of Health's Research Institute for Tropical Medicine: <www.ritm.gov.ph>

* Primates Online: The Primate Conservation & Welfare Society: <www.primates-online.com>

* Proactive Compliance Site Visits 2000: A Compendium of Findings and Observations: <grants.nih.gov/grants/compliance/compendium_2000.htm>

* Wanted Alive! Great Apes in the Wild (World Wildlife Fund): <www.panda.org/resources/publications/species/greatapes/>

* Web-Agri - The Agricultural Search Engine: <www.web-agri.com/>

* World's Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: <www.conservation.org/Hotspots/report.htm>

* * *

Research and Educational Opportunities

Graduate Fellowships in Environmental Biology

Graduate student fellowships are available to develop expertise in basic environmental biology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The focus of this program is to understand the dynamics and complexity of natural systems through the multidisciplinary efforts of individuals working at different disciplinary interfaces. Our graduate training program seeks highly motivated students looking for creative challenges in uncharted areas, and with a willingness to engage others from different disciplines to search for common ground and new directions. Developing exceptional teaching capabilities is considered an important part of this training. A small number of fellowships are available for Fall, 2001, and Spring, 2002. Five fellowships will be available for Fall, 2002. Program core areas are: * Basic and applied ecology * Evolutionary analysis * Conservation biology and sustainable natural resource management * Behavioral ecology * Geosciences, with an emphasis on paleoclimatology and interactions between geology and recent ecology.

Key elements of this program include: * Nationally recognized research programs and accessible faculty * $18,000 fellowship plus tuition, health insurance, and book stipend * Funds for student graduate research and travel * Core graduate courses and problem solving workshops * Mentored teaching and teaching practica.

For more information on the program or application procedures, contact William E. Wagner, Jr. [402-472-0742; e-mail: wwagner@unlserve.unl.edu] or Anthony Joern [402-472-2724; e-mail: tjoern@unlserve.unl.edu], School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118 [fax 402-472-2083]; and see . - ABSdigest, Vol 7 #17

Primate Training and Enrichment Workshops

The Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Bastrop, Texas, is continuing to host Primate Training and Enrichment Workshops (PTEW). Enrollment is limited to 30 participants. One is scheduled for July 18-21, 2001, and another for February 20-23, 2002. The four-day PTEW emphasizes two areas of concentrated study that are of interest to personnel caring for nonhuman primates in zoos and laboratories: * enriching the environment; and * training nonhuman primates. For both areas, they will focus on a problem-solving approach, addressing the issues and problems that have been identified in participants' pre-workshop questionnaires. In July, for the first time, there will be a scholarship available for a worthy participant. The scholarship is courtesy of Priority One Services, Inc. and is intended to honor the memory of a deceased employee and PTEW veteran, Rodger James. Parts of the PTEW are sponsored by Bio-Serv, Primate Products, LabDiet, LGL Animal Care Products, and Priority One Services, Inc.

In addition, an Introduction to Primate Enrichment and Training workshop and an Advanced Primate Enrichment and Training workshop will be conducted at the national meeting of AALAS in Baltimore, Maryland, on October 22 and 23, 2001.

For additional information regarding PTEW, the Rodger James Scholarship, or related programs, contact Steve Schapiro, PTEW Coordinator, Dept. of Veterinary Sciences, UTMDACC, 650 Cool Water Dr., Bastrop, TX 78602 [512-321-3991; fax: 512-332-5208; e-mail: sschapir@mdanderson.org].

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Editors' Notes: Help!

Dear Friends,

In 1999 We asked you all to consider whether you could get along without the paper edition of the LPN, and whether you would make an annual contribution to our costs of printing and postage if you could read the e-mail or Web-based editions, but preferred the paper. Eventually, We got good results, with nearly three-quarters of our readers "saving a tree", about 13% opting to pay for the ability to read the LPN at the beach or in the bathtub, and about 16% telling us honestly that they could not use either electronic edition for their purposes.

And in that first year, We did receive donations from the 13%. A few of the donations were extremely generous, and We don't want those donors (you know who you are!) to feel that they have to keep on sending Us more money. However, We were hoping that We would not have to do the bookkeeping involved in sending the rest of you annual invoices, and making sure that you responded to them. It was all going to be on the honor system...But that isn't working. So, starting in the October issue, We will enclose invoices for all those who had paid once and only once. And cards to those who said they really, REALLY, needed paper copies, which they will have to return if they want to stay on the mailing list.

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Positions Available

Assistant Director/ Clinical Lab. Animal Veterinarian

BIOQUAL, Inc. seeks a clinical veterinarian to join two other veterinarians in the Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine (DLAM). BIOQUAL is an established contract research laboratory with a national reputation in infectious disease and related research using a variety of laboratory animal species with an emphasis on nonhuman primates.

This position reports to the Vice President of the Division of Primate Biology and Medicine/Director, DLAM, and is responsible for enhancements to, and expansion of, the animal care and use program. Responsibilities include provision of clinical care, surgical support, and preventive medicine programs for approximately 600 nonhuman primates, in addition to rabbits and rodents; consultation and collaboration with NIH scientists for animal model and protocol development in support of vaccine and discovery research; membership on the BIOQUAL ACUC; and development and training for technical staff.

Minimal qualifications for this position are a DVM/VMD degree and license to practice veterinary medicine in at least one state, completion of an ACLAM-recognized residency or postdoctoral training program in laboratory animal medicine, and either board certification by ACLAM or eligibility to take the ACLAM certifying examination. Strong interpersonal and communication skills are essential, and experience with nonhuman primates is preferred.

BIOQUAL, an AAALAC International-accredited facility, is located in the Maryland suburbs of the Washington D.C. Metropolitan area. Many colleges and universities, the NIH, and military laboratories contribute to a dynamic environment for laboratory animal professionals. Opportunities exist for collaborative research, and a local ACLAM board preparation study group is available for interested candidates.

BIOQUAL offers a competitive compensation and benefits package, and is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Individuals interested in this position should submit a letter of application, a CV, and the names, telephone numbers and addresses of three professional references to: Dr. Marisa St. Claire, Vice President, Division of Primate Biology and Medicine, BIOQUAL, Inc., 2501 Research Blvd, Rockville, MD 20850 [301-948-9565].

Veterinarian - Tulane RPRC

The Tulane Regional Primate Research Center (TRPRC) is seeking applications for the position of Head, Department of Veterinary Medicine, with concomitant responsibilities and duties as Associate Director for Veterinary Resources. The TRPRC is an AAALAC International-accredited facility housing approximately 5000 nonhuman primates (NHP) of nine different species. Research programs involve infectious disease with a concentration on the study of AIDS. Other areas of research involve gene therapy, reproduction, vaccine studies, malaria, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, antiviral therapy, and clinical nonhuman primate medicine and surgery.

The Department of Veterinary Medicine consists of 65 employees and includes four clinical veterinarians, two research scientists in the field of reproductive physiology, behavioral and enrichment staff, and 55 administrative, research support, and husbandry personnel. The position of Department Head includes administration of the animal care program; candidates should have extensive experience in nonhuman primate medicine and a thorough knowledge and understanding of the regulations governing the use of animals in research. The additional position of Associate Director for Veterinary Resources requires administrative experience and a strong commitment to providing quality veterinary care and support of the Center's diverse research program. Effective interaction with research faculty is essential.

The candidate must hold a DVM/VMD degree from an AVMA-accredited college of veterinary medicine and be licensed to practice veterinary medicine in one of the 50 states. ACLAM board certification is required. The candidate should have good verbal and written communication skills and the ability to interact positively with others. This position will remain open until a qualified candidate is selected.

Interested persons should submit a letter of interest, a CV, and a list of three references to: James L. Blanchard, Search Committee Chairman, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433. For more information call 504-871-6285; or e-mail bubba@tpc.tulane.edu.

Tulane University is an AA/EOE and encourages applications from women and members of minority groups.

Veterinarian Positions - Cornell University

Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine is seeking an Associate Director for Research Animal Resources and Laboratory Animal Services. This person will be involved in the following duties: advising on research involving animals; appropriate health care and safety involving animals in research; ensuring that animal acquisitions and use are appropriate; coordination, organization, and instruction on laboratory animal care and use to students, investigators, clinicians, technicians, and others using live animals in research, teaching, and testing; oversight of all college animal facilities regarding compliance issues with state, USDA, and AAALAC regulations/guidelines; and setting up and implementing a post-graduate training program for veterinarians in Lab Animal Medicine and Sciences. The successful candidate will join a team of three other veterinarians. S/he should be a graduate of an accredited college of veterinary medicine; preferably an ACLAM diplomate; and experienced with a wide variety of lab animals including transgenic mice, nonhuman primates, and fish. Lab animal residency program training preferred. Proven senior management/supervisory experience, along with financial management experience, is desirable.

A Clinical Veterinarian is also sought, whose job will include routine rounds; diagnosis, treatment, and progress monitoring of sick animals; instruction of animal caretakers and research staff regarding care and treatment; supervision of animal technologists; assisting in teaching/mentoring of students in the Lab Animal Medicine/Science post-graduate training program; advising on research involving animals; monitoring and suggesting improvements to the procedures for the use of all animal facilities, animal procedures, administration, etc.; and reviewing animal protocols prior to IACUC meetings. This position requires a DVM, preferably with an ACLAM diploma, experience with a wide variety of lab animals including transgenic mice, nonhuman primates, and fish. Lab animal residency program training preferred, along with superior verbal/written communication skills, service orientation, and self-motivation.

Cornell University offers a generous benefits package which includes: Health/Dental Insurance, Educational Benefits, Group Life Insurance, Personal Accident Insurance, Vacation/Sick leave, and Retirement. Salary offers will be commensurate with experience, training and education. Please send CV and three professional references to Dr. Michele Bailey, c/o Ms. Donna Monroe, Office of Human Resources, S3 007 Schurman Hall, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Cornell University is an AA/EO Employer and Educator.

Veterinary Technician - Yale

The Section of Comparative Medicine at the Yale School of Medicine requests applications from AALAS-certified veterinary technicians to assist with the health care of research animals at Yale. Yale has an average daily census of 55,000 animals of approximately 20 different species, including rhesus, cynos, baboons, vervets, and squirrel monkeys, and offers a stimulating, fast-paced environment. We are particularly seeking a technician experienced and skilled in working with nonhuman primates used for breeding and research.

Essential duties of this position: * Provide specialized health care for a wide variety of species, particularly non-human primates, utilizing independent judgment in emergency situations to determine treatment needs. ( Provide technical assistance to investigators. * Provide aseptic surgical assistance as needed. * Participate in our primate enrichment program. * Maintain required paperwork on observations, treatments and medical emergencies. Requirements include *Ability to administer medications, collect blood and diagnostic samples from a wide variety of species * General veterinary nursing skills * Ability to intubate and monitor anesthesia of non-human primates * Ability to assess and intervene in a medical emergency * Valid Connecticut driver's license * Participation in evening on-call and occasional weekend * A successful health screening. We also prefer * At least one year's experience working with primates * Ability to make careful observations and assessment of animals' physical condition and report to veterinarian * ability to interact with investigators in a pleasant and knowledgeable manner * good record-keeping skills * knowledge of basic aseptic surgical techniques.

We would prefer a BS degree in lab animal technology, animal science, or veterinary technology, but applicants with an equivalent combination of work experience and education are also encouraged to apply (e.g., six years related work experience, four of them in the same type of job at the next lower level and a high school level education; or four years of related work experience and an Associate's degree; or little or no work experience and a Bachelor's degree in a related field; or an equivalent combination of experience and education).

Applicants should provide evidence of education, technical expertise, and experience, in the form of a cover letter and resume referencing source code EA EACPMD9379, to: Ms. Caryl Mason, Department of Human Resources, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208344. New Haven, CT 06520-8344 [fax: 203-432-9817; e-mail: jobs@yale.edu]. Yale is an AA/EOE; see <www.yale.edu>.

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Address Changes

Joseph L. Wagner, Mannheimer Foundation, 20255 SW 360th Street, Homestead, FL 33034.

Anthony B. Rylands, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 1919 M St NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036.

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Volunteer Opportunities

African Programs Internship

The Jane Goodall Institute is seeking an intern to work in their Washington, D.C., office as part of their creative team, focusing on education, public awareness, and field conservation projects to conserve wildlife in the Congo Basin and East Africa. See <www.janegoodall.org> to review project activities. Main responsibilities will include small library and Internet research projects, office organization and project maintenance, public outreach projects, and processing information requests. Preference will be given to individuals with knowledge of African primate conservation and the commercial bushmeat trade, and who are creative and have lots of ideas to share. This position can be developed to take advantage of the interns' personal and professional interests. Excellent writing ability, and strong communication and computer skills are required; competency in French would be an asset.

There is a minimum commitment of three months, with flexible starting and ending dates. A small stipend is available. Applications will be reviewed as received, for summer, fall, winter, and spring internships. Send resume and a one-page description of special primate conservation interests and ideas to Christina Ellis, Director of African Programs, The Jane Goodall Institute, P.O. Box 14890, Silver Spring, MD 20911-4890 [301-565-0086; fax: 301-565-3188; e-mail: cellis@janegoodall.org].

Field assistant - Costa Rica

Field assistants are needed for a long-term study of social learning and social development in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. The following positions are available beginning August 1, 2001. Additional positions will become available periodically over the next several years. * Field assistant to collect focal animal data on two cohorts of infants, focusing on social development, foraging techniques, and vocal development; carry out group scans of all troop members; and make audio recordings of vocalizations. There will be dawn-to-dusk observations two of every three days, with data transcription and computer data entry on the third day. (No work on five consecutive days per month.) The terrain is very difficult (cliffs, rivers, dense vegetation), so excellent physical condition and patience are essential. A 6-month commitment is required; 12-month commitment preferred. * Field assistant to habituate additional study troops; make maps of study area using Global Positioning System; cut new trails; and help with playback experiments. We will accept volunteers for less than 6 months, but a longer stay is preferred.

For both positions, prior field experience with primates and some knowledge of Spanish are preferred. Room and board will be paid; airfare is contingent on staying for duration of project for the data collection position; airfare is negotiable for habituation positions.

Contact Susan Perry and Joseph Manson, UCLA Anthropology Dept, Haines Hall, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553 [fax: +506-671-1119 (in Costa Rica); e-mail: sperry78@hotmail.com or joemanson77@yahoo.com]. "We are in the field until July 1, 2001. Until then, please send applications to us there, by e-mail or fax."

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Workshop Announcements: ARENA IACUC 101

The Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) co-sponsors one-day workshops, aimed at new IACUC members, administrators, veterinarians, IACUC trainers, animal care staff, researchers, regulatory personnel, and others interested in IACUC roles and responsibilities. These are full day "didactic and interactive" courses. Participants will receive an extensive resources manual plus other valuable reference materials. Cost is $150 until three weeks before the course; $175 thereafter. Participation of women, racial/ethnic minorities, persons with disabilities, and others who have been traditionally underrepresented in science, is encouraged.

On August 13, 2001, an ARENA IACUC 101 will be held in conjunction with Purdue University - West Lafayette, Indiana, and the NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) in West Lafayette. For information and applications, contact Beth C. Scharf - IACUC 101, Conference Assistant, Purdue University, Conference Div., 1586 Stewart Center, Rm 116, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1586 [765-496-3978; e-mail: bcscharf@purdue.edu].

Another ARENA IACUC 101 will be held September 13, 2001, co-sponsored by North Carolina State University, OLAW, GlaxoSmithKline, Piedmont Research Center, Inc., and CIIT Centers for Health Research, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. For more information, contact Kathryn Byrd, Continuing Education & Outreach Coordinator, College of Veterinary Medicine, N.C. State University [919-513-6421; e-mail: kathryn_byrd@ncsu.edu].

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Awards Granted

2000 Harry C. Rowsell Award

The eighth annual Rowsell Award was given to Joe R. Held, DVM, at a reception held at the SCAW/UTHSC conference in San Antonio, Texas, in December.

Dr. Held was born in Los Angeles, California, and received his undergraduate education at Pasadena City College and the University of California at Davis. He earned his Doctorate in Veterinary Medicine at U.C. Davis in 1955. Immediately upon graduation he was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Public Health Service, and was assigned to the Communicable Disease Center as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer. Following EIS assignments to the states of Florida and Minnesota, he returned to his native Pasadena to the private practice of veterinary medicine. Subsequently his interest in the study and control of zoonotic diseases led him back to more graduate studies at Tulane University, in New Orleans, where he was awarded a Master of Public Health degree in 1959. He then returned to active duty in the Public Health Service.

For the next several years he held a variety of positions. In 1962 he was assigned to the National Institutes of Health, first as an administrator responsible for managing grants that established the Regional Primate Research Centers, then as a research parasitologist in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

In 1969 he was reassigned to the NIH in Bethesda, Maryland, to serve as Chief of the Veterinary Resources Branch. In 1972, he became Director of the NIH Division of Research Services. In 1975 he was also designated as the PHS Chief Veterinary Officer, and was elevated to the rank of Assistant Surgeon General. He retired in 1996, and remains in touch with activities of the Public Health Service, and other entities dealing with subjects that have been of special interest to him.

Gorillas' Friend Wins Goldman Environmental Prize

Eugene Rutagarama of Rwanda, a biologist working for the International Gorilla Conservation Program (IGCP), has been honored for his work to save mountain gorillas during and after the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Mr. Rutagarama risked his life to protect the animals and support those caring for them. He is one of this year's recipients of the Goldman Environmental Prize, which the organizers say is "given annually to environmental heroes" representing the different continents. Each recipient received $125,000 at a ceremony in San Francisco on 23 April. Mr. Rutagarama says he will use his prize to help national park staff and people living around two parks in Rwanda, Nyungwe Forest and the Volcano park in the Virunga mountains.

"Virunga straddles three countries, Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)," Rutagarama said. "As the IGCP's program manager I'm responsible for staff in all three. And those in the DRC haven't been paid for the last six years."

He has repeatedly risked his life by traveling in rebel-held territory in the DRC to deliver funds and equipment to park rangers there. He says: "I was lucky not to be ambushed in the forest. Sometimes my staff would warn me to stay out of harm's way.

"It is the militias that are still the threat to the gorillas - they've killed some of them to deter tourists. But the gorilla population has begun increasing because of the courage of the field staff and the support of our partners." - By BBC News Online's environment correspondent Alex Kirby, posted to Alloprimate

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Award Nominations: Harry C. Rowsell Award

The Harry C. Rowsell Award was established by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare in 1992 to honor Dr. Rowsell, who has made major contributions in promoting animal welfare nationally and internationally. The Rowsell Award is given annually to a person who is known for a commitment to fostering the dual goals of good science and humane treatment of animals used in research, testing and teaching. Past winners of the award are: Dr. Temple Grandin, Dr. Leo K. Bustad, Dr. Dale F. Schwindaman, Dr. Richard C. Simmonds, Dr. Charles R. McCarthy, and Dr. Joe R. Held.

Nominations for the 2001 Harry C. Rowsell Award will be accepted by the SCAW office until September 28, 2001. The Awards Committee will then select the recipient, and the 2001 Award will be presented at SCAW's Winter Meeting, to be held in San Antonio, Texas, on December 10-11, 2001. The Award comes with a $1000 honorarium and is sponsored by Glaxo-SmithKline.

To nominate a colleague, please send a description of her/his work that you think exemplifies the goal of this Award as stated above. This should be limited to one single-spaced 81/2 x 11 page. Additional materials, such as a CV or special project description, may be included. Send the information to SCAW, 7833 Walker Dr., Suite 410, Greenbelt, MD 20770 [301-345-3500; fax: 301-345-3503; e-mail: info@scaw.com].

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Meeting Announcements

The 8th International Theriological Congress will be held August 12-17, 2001, in Sun City, South Africa, hosted by the International Theriological Congress, which intends to bring together specialists in science and technology who are focused on preservation and development of mammals on our planet. "The significance and relevance of this sharing of knowledge, thoughts and resources is critical not only to the African continent but to the continued co-existence between mammals and man." Contact: ITC 2001, c/o Event Dynamics, P.O. Box 98009, Sloane Park, 2152 Johannesburg, South Africa [+27 11 706 5010; e-mail: dana@eventdynamics.co.za]; or see <www.eventdynamics.co.za/itc/index.htm>.

The European Society of Laboratory Animal Veterinarians will hold their second scientific meeting September 9-11, 2001, near Milan, Italy. The theme will be "Recent Trends in Health Monitoring and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals". For information, see <www.eslav.org/milan/eslav2001.htm>.

The V International Congress on Handling of Wild Fauna in Amazonia and Latin America - Criteria of Sustainability will be held September 10-14, 2001, at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. The organizers are: Fundación Natura; Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Dirección General de Ecosistemas; Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Estación de Biología Tropical "Roberto Franco" - Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas Alexander von Humboldt; Conservation International - Colombia; and Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas - SINCHI. For more information, contact Polanco Dew Ochoa, Natura Foundation, Street 61, No. 4-26, A.a. 55402, Bogota, Colombia [+57 (1) 248 5820; Fax: +57 (1) 346 1382; e-mail: quintocongreso@internodos.com]; or see <www.vcongresofauna.org/>.

The IV Congreso de la Asociación Primatológica Española will be held September 26-27, 2001, in Madrid. Contact Dr. Susana Sánchez Rodríguez, Dpto. Psicología Biológica y de la Salud, Fac. de Psicología, UAM, 28049 Madrid, Spain [34.91.3978748; fax: 34.91 3975215; e-mail: susana.sanchez@uam.es]; or see <www.uam.es/ape>.

The 3rd Göaut;ttingen Symposium, Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases and Pathology, will be held October 25-26, 2001, at the German Primate Centre, in Göaut;ttingen. The program will focus on progress in the broad field of spontaneous and induced primate pathology and primate diseases. Papers are invited on all fields of veterinary medicine in primates. Deadline for submission of abstracts is July 31, 2001. Contact: Conference secretariat Ingrid Roßbach, German Primate Centre, Dept. of Veterinary Medicine and Primate Husbandry, Kellner-weg 4, 37077, Göaut;ttingen, Germany [++49-(0)551-3851 119; fax: ++49-(0)551-3851 277; e-mail: rossbach@www.dpz.gwdg.de]; or see <www.dpz.gwdg.de>.

100th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, "100 Years of Anthropology: The Transformation of a Discipline," will be held November 28 to December 2, 2001, in Washington, D.C. For more information see <www.aaanet.org/mtgs/mtgs.htm>, or contact the AAA, 4350 North Fairfax Dr., Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203-1620 [703/528-1902; fax 703/528-3546].

A conference on Current IACUC Issues will be held December 10-11, 2001, sponsored by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and the Office for Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH. The conference will be held at the Menger Hotel in San Antonio, Texas. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members, investigators, researchers, regulatory personnel, administrators, veterinarians, animal care staff, and others interested in research animal well-being issues are encouraged to attend. The full program and registration information are available at <www.scaw.com>.

The 3rd Göaut;ttinger Freilandtage: Sexual Selection in Primates, December 11-14, 2001, will be hosted by the German Primate Center (DPZ), Göaut;ttingen. Invited speakers will summarize and evaluate recent empirical and theoretical work dealing with causes, mechanisms and consequences of sexual selection in primates, including humans. In addition, it is hoped to identify general principles through comparison with other mammals. Deadline for submission of abstracts for oral (15 min) and poster contributions is August 1. Guests must register in advance by October 1. Additional details are available from Peter Kappeler [e-mail: pkappel@gwdg.de], and at <www.dpz.gwdg.de/voe_page/GFT2001/freiland01C.htm>.

The 5th Congress of the West African Society of Parasitology will be held February 13-17, 2002, in Dakar, Senegal. The principle topics will be malaria and schistosomiasis in Africa. For information, contact: Pr Samba Diallo, P.O. Box 17617, Dakar, Senegal [fax: +221 825 3668; e-mail: parabiol@refer.sn].

Third Student Conference on Conservation Science, March 25-27, 2002, Department of Zoology, Downing Street, Cambridge. Sir Robert May, FRS, will give one of the plenary lectures. For more information: Andrew Balmford, Conservation Biology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, U.K. [01223 331770; e-mail: apb12@hermes.cam.ac.uk].

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Grants Available

Exploratory/Developmental Research Grants

The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) encourages applications for one-time grants to support innovative, high risk/high impact research requiring preliminary testing or development; exploration of the use of approaches and concepts new to a particular substantive area; research and development of new technologies, techniques or methods; or initial research and development of data upon which significant future research may be built. Applications will be considered as high impact if they demonstrate the potential for ground-breaking, precedent-setting significance, and high risk because they either lack sufficient preliminary data to ensure their feasibility, or involve using a new model system or technique. While this program announcement is intended to encourage innovation and high impact research, and while minimal preliminary data are expected to be described in the application, applications should clearly indicate that the proposed research and/or development is scientifically sound, that the qualifications of the investigators are appropriate, and that resources available to the investigators are adequate.

The research and/or development can be relevant to any of the branches, offices and programs of the NIDCR Division of Extramural Research (DER). The branches, offices and programs comprising the Division of Extramural Research at NIDCR are described in more detail at <www.nidcr.nih.gov/research/extramural/index.htm>.

In brief, the DER at the NIDCR provides support for: * basic and clinical research on the processes that affect normal and abnormal development of craniofacial structures; * basic studies on the ecological, molecular, biological and physiological factors contributing to microbial virulence, colonization and transmission; * genetic determinants of host susceptibility to infection; * oral manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; * basic and applied research related to head and neck cancers; * basic and clinical studies on neurobiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment or prevention of pain; * autoimmunity; * biomimetics, tissue engineering, instrumentation development and refinement (e.g., saliva based diagnostic technologies), and development of methods to improve biomaterials for the repair of orofacial structures; and * clinical, behavioral and health promotion studies related to craniofacial, oral and dental health.

Applicants may request direct costs of up to $100,000 per year for up to two years. Direct inquiries to: Rochelle K. Small, Craniofacial Anomalies and Injuries Branch [301-594-9898; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: rochelle.small@nih.gov]; Dennis Mangan, Infectious Diseases and Immunity Branch [301-594-2421; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: dennis.mangan@nih.gov]; Ann L. Sandberg, Neoplastic Diseases Branch [301-594-2419; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: ann.sandberg@nih.gov]; Eleni Kousvelari, Biomaterials and Biomimetics and Tissue Engineering Branch [301-594-2427; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: eleni.kousvelari@nih.gov]; Kenneth Gruber, Chronic Diseases Branch [301-594-4836; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: kenneth.gruber@nih.gov]; or Guo H. Zhang, Chronic Diseases Branch [301-594-0618; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: guo.zhang@nih.gov]. All have the address NIDCR, Division of Extramural Research, Natcher Building, Rm 4AN, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402.

Expanded Awards for SBIR-AT-NIDDK

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) encourages the small business community to participate in the research and development of cutting-edge approaches, technologies, tools, methods, devices, cells, biomolecules, and biomaterials that can be used in the study and/or treatment of diseases in the mission of the NIDDK. The NIDDK supports research pertaining to diabetes; endocrine and metabolic diseases; nutritional disorders, obesity, and digestive diseases; and kidney, urologic and hematologic diseases. Because the length of time and cost of research involving the development of advanced technologies may exceed those normally awarded for SBIR grants, this announcement serves to expand the allowable time and funding level requested for Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants assigned to NIDDK (SBIR-AT-NIDDK).

Advanced technology projects, for the purpose of the SBIR-AT-NIDDK program, are defined as those that are aimed at developing cutting-edge therapeutic or diagnostic devices, tests, and reagents, as well as projects that involve testing of diagnostics, drugs or therapeutic devices in humans and nonhuman primates. Also read the Omnibus Solicitation of the Public Health Service for Phase I SBIR Grant Applications found at and the instructions for Phase II Grant Applications found at .

Advanced technology projects are also defined as those that develop or employ high-cost new technologies or carry out high-cost, long-term toxicity or efficacy studies in animals, or clinical studies in humans. NIDDK invites applications for SBIR-AT-NIDDK awards in areas that include:

* Development of devices to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes, endocrine and metabolic diseases; nutritional disorders, liver and digestive diseases, and motility disorders; and kidney, urologic and hematologic diseases. The NIDDK encourages development and testing of the following: non-invasive or minimally invasive methods of monitoring blood glucose; improved and miniaturized insulin delivery systems; integration of sensor and delivery systems to create an artificial pancreas (closed-loop system); devices to accurately assess energy intake and/or energy expenditure; and non-invasive measures of hepatotoxicity.

* Development of rapid and sensitive DNA chip technology and protein-protein interaction chip technology to help understand the physiology of disease conditions, and for ultimate use in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and other endocrine disorders, diseases of the blood and kidneys, of the genitourinary and digestive tracts, and their complications. For example, the NIDDK encourages the development of methods to correlate gene and protein expression with disease progression in humans as well as in nonhuman primate and rodent models of diabetes and obesity.

Inquiries regarding programmatic issues may be directed to: Carol Renfrew Haft, NIDDK, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Rm 605, MSC-5460, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460 [301-594-7689; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail: haftC@extra.niddk.nih.gov]; Judith Podskalny, NIDDK, Div. of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Rm 667, MSC-5460, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460 [301-594-8876; fax: 301-480-8300; e-mail: jp53s@nih.gov]; or M. James Scherbenske, NIDDK, Div. of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Rm 613, MSC-5460, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460 [301-594-7719; fax: 301-480-3510; e-mail: js255f@nih.gov].

Bioinformatics and Applied Genomics Program Grants

The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, a program of the World Health Organization) announces program grants to develop training centers/networks for research and training in bioinformatics and applied genomics, for which universities, research institutions and research organizations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are invited to apply. The centers will focus on infectious and parasitic diseases, and will be developed to support and train scientists from the three regions. The ultimate goal is to establish sustainable research and training facilities by promoting utilization of genomics in developing countries that have endemic diseases.

The sum of US$45,000 will be awarded as initial support for improvements in computer, Internet, and local-area network infrastructure in the centers. The grant will also be used to cover the costs of travel and accommodation for students, staff, and at least three facilitators from outside the region to training workshops and courses. Support may be renewed annually subject to satisfactory evaluation.

All applications must be submitted via the Web. E-mail or paper applications will not be accepted, as access to the Web by the Principal Investigator is a major selection criterion. For details, instructions for applicants, and online application, please visit the TDR website: <www.who.int/tdr/grants/grants/bioinformatics.htm>.

Exploratory Research: Feasibility Pilot Studies

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) invites applications for exploratory, initial feasibility pilot studies focused on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language - the scientific mission areas of the NIDCD. Exploratory research involves initial feasibility pilot studies in which the technological, methodological, or theoretical approach to a problem lacks sufficient preliminary/baseline data and a body of peer-reviewed publications, but whose successful outcome would make a significant contribution to a scientific area or field. It is anticipated that most applications will be submitted by investigators with ongoing research programs who wish to change the focus of their current research effort or move into a new area of research within the communication sciences, but need additional funds to complete initial pilot studies. These grants are not intended for the advanced postdoctoral fellow starting to plan an independent research career or for the new investigator at the early stages of independence. Up to two years of support and up to $50,000 in direct costs per year will be provided. Areas of science with sufficient existing preliminary data to support the submission of a regular research grant application do not qualify under this program announcement.

Direct inquiries to: Hearing: Amy Donahue [301-402-3458; e-mail: amy_donahue@nih.gov]; Nancy Freeman [301-402-3458; e-mail: nancy_freeman@nih.gov]; Thomas Johnson [301-402-3461; e-mail: thomas_johnson@ nih.gov]; or Lynn Luethke [301-402-3458; e-mail: lynn_luethke@nih.gov]; Balance: Daniel Sklare [301) 496-1804; e-mail: daniel_sklare@nih.gov]; Taste and Smell: Barry Davis [301-402-3464; e-mail: barry_davis@ nih.gov]. The address for all is: Division of Extramural Research, NIDCD, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rm 400-C, MSC-7180, Rockville, MD 20892-7180 [fax: 301-402-6251]. Application receipt date is August 10, 2001.

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News Briefs

Western Lowland Gorilla Born at Brookfield Zoo

The much-anticipated birth of a western lowland gorilla at Brookfield Zoo occurred early April 4. Baraka, 10, gave birth to a 4- to 5-pound infant around 3 a.m. The infant is named Nadaya, which means "first" in a Nigerian dialect. This birth is very significant for the western lowland gorilla population in zoos, because the father, Ramar, is wild-born and has not previously sired offspring. Ramar, a 33-year-old silverback, is on loan from North Carolina Zoological Park, following a recommendation from the American Zoo and Aquarium Association's Western Lowland Gorilla Species Survival Plan. Ramar arrived at Brookfield Zoo in 1998. At Brookfield, Ramar is the only male among a stable social group of several experienced females, most of whom have successfully produced offspring.

With the birth of this infant, there now are four generations of the same gorilla family at Brookfield. Two of the zoo's other gorillas are related to the infant - Babs, 26, is its grandmother and Alpha, 40, is the great-grandmother. Other members of the zoo's gorilla troop include Beta, 40; Binti Jua, 13; Koola, 6; and Bana, 6.

The newborn is Baraka's first offspring. Although she has witnessed the birth and rearing of other gorillas in the troop, the zoo's animal collection staff wanted to ensure that she was as prepared as possible for motherhood. As soon as the pregnancy was confirmed last September, primate keepers began maternal training sessions with the first-time mom. Using positive reinforcement, keepers have trained Baraka to perform several useful behaviors.

The western lowland gorilla is endangered due to habitat destruction, primarily from illegal and legal logging; the effects of war and refugees in ape habitats; the illegal pet trade; and poaching of apes for bushmeat. There are approximately 110,000 western lowland gorillas in their native land of West Africa and nearly 350 reside in North American zoos. Baraka, her new baby, and the rest of the gorilla troop can be seen in Brookfield Zoo's Tropic World/Africa exhibit.

For more information, see <www.brookfieldzoo.org> or contact Sondra Katzen, the Zoo's Media Relations Manager [708-485-0263; e-mail: sokatzen@brookfieldzoo.org]. - from Environmental News Network, April 11, 2001

SCAW Elects Board Members

At the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) Board of Trustees meeting on December 3, 2000, five new members joined the Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees and Executive Director of SCAW represent a wide spectrum of interests and professional disciplines in biomedical research, agricultural science, wildlife research and ethics. The new members are: Marilyn J. Brown, DVM, MS (Dartmouth College); John G. Miller, DVM, DACLAM (Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Science, International); Melinda A. Novak, PhD (University of Massachusetts); Dorcas P. O'Rourke, DVM, MS, DACLAM (University of Tennessee at Knoxville); and Gilbert M. Slater (Charles River Foundation).

Golden Lion Tamarin Born in Brazil

Environmentalists in Brazil are celebrating the birth of the 1,000th golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) in the wild, a milestone in the fight to preserve the rain forest species. The baby, weighing about 2.5 ounces and measuring 4 inches long, was born in March. Though scientists track the tamarins closely with radio transmitters, the milestone is based on an estimate of the population, said Denise Rambaldi, director of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association, a WWF-affiliated group. Biologists say that the tamarins declined in number during the 1950s and 1960s because of destruction of their habitat, the South American rain forest. They were also captured and sold as pets.

When efforts to save the monkey began 30 years ago, there were only 200 tamarins living in isolated patches of rain forest across Rio de Janeiro state and parts of neighboring Espirito Santo state. Today there are five times that many, concentrated in an area around Poco das Antas Biological Reserve, 80 miles northeast of Rio. Since then the tamarin has had its tufted face printed on everything from T-shirts to postage stamps as a symbol of Brazil's endangered wildlife.

But Rambaldi says the battle is only half won. To ensure genetic diversity, the tamarin population must double over the next 25 years or face extinction from inbreeding. Scientists have been trying to diversify the gene pool. Over the past 17 years, 174 tamarins from foreign zoos have been successfully reintroduced. But conservationists face another problem - where to put the multiplying monkeys. Rambaldi says to sustain a population of 2,000 tamarins would require some 62,000 acres of forest - about twice as much as they now have.

"The next 25 years are going to be more difficult ... Now we have to find more forest for them to inhabit," said Garo Batmanian, director general of the World Wildlife Fund in Brazil. Batmanian says the next phase of the program is to convince local farmers and landowners that it is in their interest to leave some of the remaining forest standing. These efforts received a boost Wednesday, when Brazil's Minister of Environment, Jose Sarney Filho, announced the government would begin studies to declare the area around the reserve an "Environmental Protection Zone." Batmanian said the zoning change gives conservationists more power in negotiating with farmers. - By Michael Astor, Associated Press Writer

...And at Palm Beach Zoo

Jasmine, the Palm Beach Zoo's female golden lion tamarin, gave birth to twins April 3. The birth of the twins is the first for the species at the zoo, although tamarins have been exhibited there for more than 15 years. Jasmine, two years old, came from the Denver Zoo 18 months ago. Her mate is 16-year-old Beau, who came from the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., in 1991. - by Tim O'Meilia for the Palm Beach Post

Brazil Yellow Fever Outbreak Kills Twelve

An outbreak of yellow fever has killed at least 12 people in recent weeks in a rural area of Brazil's eastern state of Minas Gerais, and may have infected another 20, a health official said on March 12. The tropical disease, endemic to South America, causes shakes, fever, nausea and vomiting and can lead to liver and kidney damage, causing hemorrhaging and death.

The new cases of yellow fever are the first in Brazil in the eight months since the government led an aggressive vaccination campaign, the government's National Health Foundation, or Funasa, said. The disease, transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, killed 39 people in Brazil last year and 18 in 1999. Monkeys also carry the virus. Funasa said the recent outbreak was isolated, blaming it on the migration of primates and an increase in tourism in the region by people who had not been vaccinated.

Yellow fever thrives in Brazil's Amazon rain forest and is also present in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, while Peru and Bolivia have registered the most violent outbreaks in the past decade. - By Katherine Baldwin for Reuters, posted to Alloprimate

Monkey Mortality, Yellow Fever?

More than 20 howler monkeys [Alouatta sp.] were found dead this April in forests in the municipalities of Santo Antonio das Missoes and Garruchos, in the Missoes region of Rio Grande do Sul [RGS], Brazil. The cause is suspected to be either yellow fever or poison.

Specialists from [the virus laboratory of] the Evandro Chagas Institute at Belem, Para, the RGS state health secretariat, and Ibama [forestry department] are investigating. Yellow fever vaccination has been carried out among residents of the area near the Rio Uruguai and of the forests inhabited by howler monkeys.

Deaths in howler monkeys in South America have historically indicated the emergence of a new sylvan yellow fever outbreak, transmitted between monkeys by Haemagogus mosquitoes. Humans become tangentially infected when working in or traveling through forests where a monkey epizootic is occurring. - from a ProMED announcement reposted to Alloprimate, May 22

New AAALAC European Assistant Director

The Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) has appointed Dr. Egil Berge of Lasne, Belgium, Assistant Director for European Activities. AAALAC works with the scientific community to promote the responsible treatment of research animals. This is done through a voluntary accreditation program under which organizations demonstrate exceptional levels of humane animal care and use. More than 630 educational, commercial and governmental, and nongovernmental institutions in 16 countries have earned AAALAC accreditation.

Dr. Berge will serve as AAALAC's principal spokesperson throughout Europe, providing valuable information on the role AAALAC accreditation has in ensuring animal well-being and high-quality science. Dr. Berge will play an important role for AAALAC through his involvement with the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA), the European Society of Laboratory Animal Veterinarians, and the European College of Laboratory Animal Medicine.

Dr. Berge is a veterinarian who spent most of his career - 27 years - working as the department manager, and later associate director, for the In Vivo Control Laboratory of RIT/SmithKline Beecham Biologics in Rixensart, Belgium. He is currently president of the Belgian Council for Laboratory Animal Science, a position he has held since 1995. Dr. Berge also served as secretary of FELASA from 1996 through 2000, and currently serves as FELASA's vice president for relations with the Council of Europe and the European Union. For more information about AAALAC, see <www.aaalac.org>.

Farmers Moved to Make Room for Monkeys

More than 200 peasant farmers in Kenya's Tana River district are to be relocated from their ancestral land to create room for the red colubus and crested mangabey monkeys, the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) announced. In return, 247 of 330 families moved out of the 166-square kilometre Tana River Primate National Reserve will be given residential houses in a new settlement scheme.

Some of the peasants, who grow bananas and corn, are reluctant to move from the fertile land, however, and accuse the KWS of being more concerned with the plight of monkeys than of people. "We are against everything that has happened. We will never leave," said Seth Ablo, a 76-year-old man who has farmed on the land all his life. He represents about 100 families who are reluctant to move out of the reserve. KWS corporate communications manager Connie Nkatha-Maina said each family would get 15 acres of farmland with a title deed, a quarter acre land of a housing plot, a fully constructed house and access to clean water. The new resettlement scheme will also include an equipped primary school, police station and a dispensary.

In February this year, several dozen chanting women angrily charged at scientists working on the edge of the reserve. The women exposed their private parts as the highest form of insult.

There are about 2400 rare red colubus and crested mangabey monkeys in the reserve. KWS is currently implementing a US$6.2 million World Bank-funded project to protect the primate reserve. The primate reserve is the last vestige of riverine forest system in Kenya. - By Stephen Mbogo, for the African Eye News Service (Nelspruit), April 17, 2001, posted to primfocus

Lackner to Tulane RPRC

Dr. Andrew Lackner, Associate Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School and Chairman of the Division of Comparative Pathology at the New England Regional Primate Research Center, has been appointed the new Director of Tulane's Regional Primate Research Center. He will replace Dr. Peter Gerone, who has headed the center since 1971.

San Diego Zoo Plans Major New Exhibit

Preparations are under way at the San Diego Zoo to demolish the "monkey yard" to make room for an exhibit that will house several different species in a more natural environment. The new space, called Heart of the Zoo, is a continuation of the zoo's move toward transforming the park into a more ecologically correct exhibition center, the San Diego Union-Tribune reported. The current monkey yard is a concrete block structure with about 36 cell-like enclosures, dating back to the days when designers were simply concerned with sanitation, the newspaper reported. The design made it easy to hose down the cages quickly and efficiently.

"Today, the mental well-being and health needs of the animals are the priority, and people want to see natural looking enclosures, not monkeys hanging off a cement tree," Zoo Curator of Mammals Karen Killmar told the newspaper. The new exhibit will house not only primates, but other mammals as well, including the pygmy hippo, clouded leopard and a forest antelope called the duiker, along with reptiles and birds, the newspaper reported. Walkways leading up to the treetop canopy and down to the forest floor will allow people "to see the space from three levels," zoo architect Robyn Badger said. The Heart of the Zoo project will cost an estimated $25 million. - Posted to primfocus by Linda J. Howard, March 23, 2001

Infant Chimps from Coulston to Sanctuary

Two baby chimpanzees, 11-month-old Samuel and 8-month-old Champ, were released from the Coulston Foundation to Primarily Primates, Inc., of San Antonio, Texas. Samuel has been diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism, which has never before been documented in chimpanzees. If left untreated, congenital hypothyroidism causes deficiencies in motor skills, affects growth rate, and may cause some mental disability. Samuel will require physical therapy and thyroid replacement hormone treatment for the rest of his life. Champ, who is healthy, is Samuel's nursery mate and friend.

Primarily Primates, which cares for more than 800 animals from zoos, research, entertainment, and private homes, has 75 chimpanzees and many other nonhuman primates. - From a press release, April 23, 2001

B. J. McDuffee, Orang Gang Co-Founder

After the 1997 ASP meeting, your Editors visited the San Diego Zoo. At the orangutan exhibit, we met Betty Jo McDuffee, who told us anecdotes about the animals as we watched them. At our request, she wrote the article, "Clyde, the Parenting Orangutan," which we published in the LPN (1998, 37[1], 18-19). We were saddened to read, in issue 16 of the Orang Gang News, that B. J. had died on February 24, 2001, after surgery and illness.

* * *

Travelers' Health Notes: International Assn for Medical Assistance to Travelers

The International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), a volunteer group, compiles an annual list of doctors around the world who meet the organization's criteria, who speak English or another second language, and who agree to charge a specific fee. The 2001 Directory lists the current schedule of fees as US$55 for an office visit, US$75 for a house (or hotel) call, and US$95 for night, Sunday, and holiday calls. These fees do not include consultants, laboratory procedures, hospitalization, or other expenses. The 72-page listing of doctors and centers includes 109 countries. IAMAT also publishes and provides to its members pamphlets on immunization and on malaria. For information, contact IAMAT, 40 Regal Rd, Guelph, Ontario, N1K 1B5, Canada [519-836-0102]; 417 Center St, Lewiston, NY 14092, U.S.A. [716-754-4883]; P.O. Box 5049, Christchurch 5, N.Z.; or 57 Voirets, 1212 Grand-Lancy-Geneva, Switzerland [e-mail: info@iamat.org]; or see <www.iamat.org>.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors, unless otherwise indicated)

Books

* Lucy's Legacy: Sex and Intelligence in Human Evolution. A. Jolly. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. 518 pp. [Price: $29.95]
. . . This book sums up the fascinating and complicated story of human evolution, starting with "the idea that larger wholes evolved from the self-interest of their component parts. Darwinian evolution is all about competition, but the major transitions in evolution have arisen through integration - indeed, cooperation."

* Environmental Enrichment for Caged Rhesus Macaques: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review. V. Reinhardt & A. Reinhardt. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute, 2001. 78 pp. [Free from 15507 Lakeside Dr., Weed, CA 96094; e-mail: viktor@awionline.org]
. . . This collection of 108 annotated photos documents tested environmental enrichment options for caged Macaca mulatta. Recommendations are based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

* A Fauna Ameacada de Extinçao do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, compiled by H. de Godoy Bergallo, C. F. Duarte da Rocha, M. A. dos Santos Alves, & M. van Sluys. Rio de Janeiro: Editora da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (EDUERJ), 2000. 168 pp. [Available from: EDUERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro 2.0550-013, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].
. . . The Red List of threatened animals for the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species of primates listed are: Callithrix aurita (Vulnerable), Leontopithecus rosalia (Endangered), Brachyteles arachnoides (Critically Endangered), Callicebus personatus (Vulnerable), and Alouatta fusca (Presumed Threatened). Of the primates occurring in the state of Rio de Janeiro, only the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella nigritus was not listed as threatened.

* Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior. T. Matsuzawa (Ed.). Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, 2001. [Price: $119, DM 229, or 9,500 yen]
. . . Contents: Foreword, by R. Seyfarth & D. Cheney; Preface, by T. Matsuzawa.
. . . I. Introduction to Comparative Cognitive Science: Primate foundations of human intelligence: A view of tool use in nonhuman primates and fossil hominids, by T. Matsuzawa.
. . . II. Phylogeny of Perception and Cognition: What you see is different from what I see: Species differences in visual perception, by K. Fujita; Investigating visual perception and cognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) through visual search and related tasks: From basic to complex processes, by M. Tomonaga; Processing of the global and local dimensions of visual hierarchical stimuli by humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and baboons (Papio papio), by J. Fagot, M. Tomonaga, & C. Deruelle; How do we eat? Hypothesis of foraging strategy from the viewpoint of gustation in primates, by Y. Ueno.
. . . III. Origin of Human Speech: Auditory Perception and Vocalization: Lemur vocal communication and the origin of human language, by R. Oda; Vocal exchange of coo calls in Japanese macaques, by H. Sugiura; Hearing and auditory-visual intermodal recognition in the chimpanzee, by K. Hashiya & S. Kojima; Early vocal development in a chimpanzee infant, by S. Kojima.
. . . IV. Learning and Memory: Numerical competence in a chimpanzee: Cardinal and ordinal skills. by D. Biro & T. Matsuzawa; Reproductive memory processes in chimpanzees: Homologous approaches to research on human working memory, by N. Kawai & T. Matsuzawa; Establishment of line tracing on a touch monitor as a basic: Drawing skill in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), by I. H. Iversen & T. Matsuzawa; Object recognition and object categorization in animals, by M. Jitsumori & J. D. Delius.
. . . V. Recognition of Self, Others, and Species: Mirror self-recognition in primates: An ontogenetic and a phylogenetic approach, by N. Inoue-Nakamura; The level of self-knowledge in nonhuman primates: From the perspective of comparative cognitive psychology, by S. Itakura; Self- and other-control in squirrel monkeys, by J. R. Anderson; Evolutionary foundation and development of imitation, by M. Myowa-Yamakoshi; Species recognition by macaques measured by sensory reinforcement, by K. Fujita; Evolution of the human eye as a device for communication, by H. Kobayashi & S. Kohshima.
. . . VI. Society and Social Interaction: A review of 50 years of research on the Japanese monkeys of Koshima: Status and dominance, by K. Watanabe; Mother-offspring relationship in macaques, by M. Nakamichi; The myth of despotism and nepotism: Dominance and kinship in matrilineal societies of macaques, by S. Matsumura; Decision making in social interactions by monkeys, by Y. Muroyama.
. . . VI. Culture: "Sweet-potato washing" revisited, by S. Hirata, K. Watanabe, & M. Kawai; Tube test in free-ranging Japanese macaques: Use of sticks and stones to obtain fruit from a transparent pipe, by I. Tanaka, E. Tokida, H. Takefushi, & T. Hagiwara; Tool use by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of the Arnheim Zoo community, by H. Takeshita & J. A. R. A. M. Van Hoopf; Ecology of Tool use in wild chimpanzees: Toward reconstruction of early hominid evolution, by G. Yamakoshi; Emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees: Education by master-apprenticeship, by T. Matsuzawa, D. Biro, T. Humle, N. Inoue-Nakamura, R. Tonoooka, & G. Yamakoshi.

* Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex. D. Falk & K. R. Gibson (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. [Price: $80]
. . . Contents: Prologue: Size matters and function counts, by S. J. Gould.
. . . I. The Evolution of Brain Size: Introduction, by K. R. Gib-son; Encephalization and its developmental structure: How many ways can a brain get big? by P. M. Kaskan & B. L. Finlay; Neocortical expansion and elaboration during primate evolution: A view from neuroembryology, by P. Rakic & D. R. Kornack; In defense of the Expensive Tissue Hypothesis, by L. C. Aiello, N. Bates, & T. Joffe; Bigger is better: Primate brain size in relationship to cognition, by K. R. Gibson, D. Rumbaugh, & M. Beran; The evolution of sex differences in primate brains, by D. Falk; Brain evolution in hominids: Are we at the end of the road? by M. A. Hofman.
. . . II. Neurological Substrates of Species-Specific Adaptations: Introduction, by D. Falk; The discovery of cerebral diversity: An unwelcome scientific revolution, by T. M. Preuss; Pheromonal communication and socialization, by B. Chiarelli; Revisiting australopithecine visual striate cortex: Newer data from chimpanzee and human brains suggest it could have been reduced during australopithecine times, by R. L. Holloway, D. C. Broadfield, & M. S. Yuan; Structural symmetries and asymmetries in human and chimpanzee brains, by E. Gilissen; Language areas of the hominoid brain: A dynamic communicative shift on the upper east side plenum, by P. J. Gannon, N. M. Kheck, & P. R. Hof; The promise and the peril in hominid brain evolution, by P. V. Tobias; Advances in the study of hominoid brain evolution: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3-D reconstruction, by K. Semendeferi; Exo- and endocranial morphometrics in mid-Pleistocene and modern humans, by K. Schafer, H. Seidler, F. L. Bookstein, H. Prossinger, D. Falk, & G. Conroy.
. . . Epilogue: The study of primate brain evolution: Where do we go from here? by H. J. Jetison.

* Tree of Origin: What Primate Behavior Can Tell Us about Human Social Evolution. F. B. M. de Waal (Ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. [Price: $29.95]
. . . Contents: Introduction, by F. B. M. de Waal; Of genes and apes: Chimpanzee social organization and reproduction, by A. E. Pusey; Apes from Venus: Bonobos and human social evolution, by F. B. M. de Waal; Beyond the apes: Reasons to consider the entire primate order, by K. B. Strier; The ape's gift: Meat-eating, meat-sharing, and human evolution, by C. B. Stanford; Out of the pan, into the fire: How our ancestors' evolution depended on what they ate, by R. W. Wrangham; Social and technical forms of primate intelligence, by R. W. Byrne; Brains on two legs: Group size and the evolution of intelligence, by R. I. M. Dunbar; From primate communication to human language, by C. T. Snowdon; The nature of culture: Prospects and pitfalls of cultural primatology, by W. C. McGrew.

* Hunting and Bushmeat Utilization in the African Rain Forest: Perspectives Toward a Blueprint for Conservation Action. M. I. Bakarr, G. A. B. da Fonseca, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, & K. W. Painemilla (Eds.). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2001. 170 pp.
. . . This publication resulted from a series of documents drawn up for a regional workshop on hunting and bushmeat utilization in West Africa, held in Ghana in December 1999.
. . . Contents: I. The Complex Nature of Bushmeat Hunting and Threats to Wildlife: Regional dynamics of hunting and bushmeat utilization in West Africa: An overview, by H.-U. Caspary; Bushmeat hunting in the Congo basin: A brief overview, by D. S. Wilkie; Colonial history, concessionary politics, and collaborative management of Equatorial African rain forests, by P. Auzel & R. Hardin; Impacts of bushmeat hunting on wildlife populations in West Africa's Upper Guinea forest ecosystem, by H. E. Eves & M. I. Bakarr.
. . . II. The Human Dimensions and Conservation Chal-lenges of the Bushmeat Crisis: Social change and social values in mitigating bushmeat commerce, by A. L. Rose; Culture, ethics and conservation in addressing the bushmeat crisis in West Africa, by K. Bowman; Wildlife utilization and the emergence of viral diseases, by R. Hardin & P. Auzel; Legal and institutional mechanisms for wildlife and habitat protection in West Africa - The need for an integrated policy assessment - C. Kormos & M. I. Bakarr.
. . . III. Using Bioeconomic Modeling to Assess Sustainability of Bushmeat Hunting: Potential applications of bioeconomic modeling in West Africa, by J. Cannon; Assessing sustainability of hunting: Insights from bioeconomic modeling, by E. J. Milner-Gulland.

Audiovisual Material

* Veterinary Anesthesia on CD. D. Dyson. [Price: US$50.00; Send check payable to "University of Guelph" to Dr. Doris Dyson, Ontario Vet. College, Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada]
. . . Contents include: History; Pain; Preoperative Evaluation; Premedications; Chemical Restraint; Local Anesthesia; Equipment; Uptake; N2O; Pathophysiology; General Anesthesia; and Emergencies.

* Diseases of Non-human Primates Video Tutorial Reference Library, Volume 1. [Price: US$200 (in the United States); US$250 (outside the U.S.) for a 10-month (5-issue) subscription; individual videotapes are also available for $50 each, Order from the Charles Louis Davis, DVM, Foundation for the Advancement of Veterinary and Comparative Pathology, 6245 Formoor Lane, Gurnie, IL, 60031-4757]
. . . Contents: Primate diseases 1, by L. J. Lowenstine; Primate diseases 2, by L. J. Lowenstine; Diseases of sub-human primates 1, by G. B. Baskin; Diseases of sub-human primates 2, by G. B. Baskin; Diseases of primates, by L. Lowenstine.

Children's Books

* The Science of Primates: Living Science. S. Paterson. Calgary, Alberta: Weigl Educational Publishers, 2001. [Price: $19.95]
. . . Contents: What do you know about primates? Primate features; Life cycles; Primate types; All thumbs; Primate homes; Team players; Special effects; Web of life; Primates of the past; Monkey business; Primates in danger; Sounds and signals; Get the message? Glossary; Index; and Web sites.

Magazines and Newsletters

* Acta Zoologica Mexicana. nueva serie, April 2001, No. 82. [Depto. Publ. y Difusión, Inst. Ecología A.C., Ap. Postal 63, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, México]

* Asian Primates: A Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 2000-2001, 7[3-4]. [A. A. Eudey, 164 Dayton St, Upland, CA 91786-3120]
. . . Includes: Preliminary results of a primate survey in northeastern Vietnam, with special reference to gibbons, by T. Geissmann & V. N. Thanh; Crop raiding by wildlife, especially primates, and indigenous practices for crop protection in Lakuwa area, east Nepal, by M. K. Chalise; The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei khajuria) in India: Ecology and behavior, by R. P. Mukherjee; Comments on the current geographical distribution of the Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii, Fisher) in Kerala, India, by S. Ram & Srinivas V.

* CCC Update, Spring/Summer 2001, 12[1]. [Community Conservation Inc., 50542 One Quiet Lane, Gays Mills, WI 54631]

* Centerline, Spring 2001. [Wisconsin RPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299]

* Connection, Winter/Spring 2001. [AAALAC International, 11300 Rockville Pike, Suite 1211, Rockville, MD 20852-3035]
. . . Includes "Protocol review...How is your IACUC doing?"

* IPPL News, April, 2001, 28[1]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes an article on the primate trade in North Sumatra, and court exhibits from the Mehlman/Lilly case.

* Orang Gang News, Special Edition, 2001, Issue #16.
. . . A memorial issue for the orangutan, Ken Allan, who died December 1, 2000.

* Our Animal WARDS, Winter 2001 [WARDS, Inc., 8150 Leesburg Pike, Suite 512, Vienna, VA 22182-2714].
. . . Includes editorial comments on the "Chimp Sanctuary Controversy".

* Positively Primates, 1999, 5[2-3]. [DuMond Conservancy, 14805 S.W. 216 St, Miami, FL 33170]
. . . Includes an article on forest fragmentation, by L. Merly.

* Primatologie, 2000, 3. Published under the auspices of la Société Francophone de Primatologie. [Price: 65 EUR; US$ 57.77, from ADRSC, CNRS-CRNC, 31 chemin Joseph Aiguier, F-13402 Marseille cedex 20, France]
. . . Contents: Special section on "Mouse lemurs" (edited by M. Perret): Introduction, by M. Perret; The brain of Microcebus murinus: An experimental tool for the study of human cerebral aging, by N. Bons, N. Mestre-Frances, & A. Petter; Determinants of breeding season and reproductive success in a Malagasy prosimian, Microcebus murinus, by M. Perret; Sensory organs and communication in Microcebus murinus, by A. Schilling; Mouse lemur ecology, by P. M. Kappeler; Cognition in Microcebus murinus and other lemurs, by J.-L. Picq.
. . . Special section on "Biological and cultural evolution" (edited by B. Thierry); Introduction, by B. Thierry; Speciation in primates, by C. P. Groves; Phylogenetic processes in macaque social organizations, by B. Thierry; Acquired diversity and tradition in nonhuman primates, by C. Abegg, A. M. Ducoing, M. Drapier, & O. Petit; Was human evolution accelerated by tradition? by G. Guille-Escuret; Variability of social relationships in non-human and human primates: Searching for a general paradigm, by M. Butovskaya, A. Korotayev, & A. Kazankov; The limits of kin discrimination in Japanese macaques, by B. Chapais; Sex, pair bonds, and monogamy in primates, by C. T. Snowdon; The comparative study of speech perception: Recent advances, by F. Ramus; Species recognition and its implications for the "psychological reproductive isolation mechanism'' in macaque monkeys, by K. Fujita.
. . . Debate "Heterochrony": Questions about heterochronies in primates, by M. Godinot; Heterochronies: State of the art, by F. V. Ramirez Rozzi; Examples of heterochrony in primates: From theory to practice, by C. Berge & X. Penin; Strengths and weaknesses of heterochronic hypotheses, by C. Tardieu.
. . . Debate "Knuckle-walking": Did humans evolve from knuckle-walking ancestors? by B. G. Richmond & D. S. Strait; Knuckle-walking redux, by R. Tuttle; When characters become magical, by B. Senut; and When characters are functionally relevant: Reply to Senut and Tuttle, by B. G. Richmond & D. S. Strait.

Reports

* Health, Climate, and Infectious Disease: A Global Perspective. American Academy of Microbiology's Critical Issues Colloquia Program. Available in PDF format at <www.asmusa.org/acasrc/aca1.htm>.
. . . The report examines scientific advances in "bioclimatology" that may soon provide tools for modeling, predicting, and preventing disease outbreaks. Drawing particularly from developments since the El Niño event of 1997-1998, the report looks at the advances in interdisciplinary research that are shedding light on the intricate relationships between climate variability, oceans, the occurrence and prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms and vectors, emerging and re-emerging diseases, and disease outcomes.

Special Journal Issues

* Animal models of hepatitis. ILAR Journal, 2001, 42[2].
. . . Introduction, by W. R. Morton; Nonhuman primates: A critical role in current disease research, by L. R. Sibal & K. J. Sampson; Perspectives on hepatitis B studies with chimpanzees, by A. M. Prince & B. Brotman; The woodchuck model of hepatitis B virus infection, by B. C. Tennant & J. L. Gerin; Animal models of hepatitis delta virus infection and disease, by J. L. Gerin; Hepatitis C: A brief clinical overview, by D. B. Strader & L. B. Seeff; The chimpanzee model of hepatitis C virus infections, by R. E. Lanford, C. Bigger, S. Bassett, & G. Kimpel; New animal models of hepatitis B and C, by M. A. Feitelson & J. D. Larkin; Molecular clones of hepatitis C virus: Applications to animal models, by M. Gale, Jr., & M. R. Beard; GB virus B as a model for hepatitis C virus, by B. Beames, D. Chavez, & R. E. Lanford; and Animal models of hepatitis A and E, by R. H. Purcell & S. U. Emerson.

* Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Lion-Tailed Macaque, Mysore, India (Part 1). Primate Report, 2000, Number 58.
. . . Contents: Status and conservation of lion-tailed macaques and other arboreal mammals in tropical rain forests of Sringeri Forest Range, Western Ghats, Karnataka, India, by M. Singh, H. N. Kumara, M. Ananda Kumar, A. K. Sharma, & K. Defalco; Habitat utilization of lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) in Silent Valley National Park, Kerala India, by K. K. Ramachandran & G. K. Joseph; Phyto-ecology of the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) habitats in Karnataka, India: Floristic structure and density of food trees, by R. Krishnamani & A. Kumar; Faunal component in the diet of lion-tailed macaque, by H. N. Kumara, M. E. Singh, A. K. Sharma, M. R. Singh, & M. A. Kumar; Impacts of the habitat fragmentation on time budget and feeding ecology of lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) in rain forest fragments of Anamalai Hills, South India, by G. Umapathy & A. Kumar; Niche separation in sympatric lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) and Nilgiri langur (Presbytis johnii) in an Indian tropical rain forest, by M. R. Singh, M. E. Singh, M. A. Kumar, H. N. Kumara, A. K. Sharma, & H. S. Sushma.

* Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Lion-Tailed Macaque, Mysore, India (Part 2). Primate Report, 2001, Number 59.
. . . Male migration in lion-tailed macaques, by M. Ananda Kumar, M. Singh, H. N. Kumara, A. K. Sharma, & C. Bertsch; Mounting patterns in the lion-tailed macaque: An analysis based on inter-mount intervals, by A. Kumar; Measurement of faecal steroid metabolites in the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus): A reliable tool for assessing female ovarian function, by M. Heistermann, J. Uhrigshardt, A. Husung, W. Kaumanns, & J. K. Hodges; A long term decline in swelling of the sexual skin in captive lion-tailed macaques, by N. C. Harvey & D. G. Lindburg; A century of involvement with lion-tailed macaques in North America, by D. G. Lindburg; The European lion-tailed macaque population: Status and problems, by W. Kaumanns, C. Schwitzer, P. Schmidt, A. Husung, & C. Knogge; Experimental intergroup encounters in lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), by D. Zinner, J. Hindahl, & W. Kaumanns; Group formation of a captive all-male group of lion-tailed macaques, by D. Stahl, F. Herman, & W. Kaumanns.

* Mouse lemur biology in breeding colonies. International Journal of Primatology, 2001, 22[1].
. . . Contents: Mouse lemur biology in breeding colonies: Introduction, by D. Wrogemann & A. R. Glatston; Regulation by photoperiod of seasonal changes in body mass and reproductive function in gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus): Differential responses by sex, by M. Perret & F. Aujard; Effect of aging on circadian activity in gray mouse lemurs, by A. Schilling, J.-P. Richard, & J. Servière; Effect of ambient temperature on the body temperature rhythm of male gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), by F. Aujard & F. Vasseur; Relevance of studbook data to the successful captive management of grey mouse lemurs, by A. R. Glatston; Dynamics of estrous synchrony in captive gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), by U. Radespiel & E. Zimmermann; Comparison of reproductive characteristics and changes in body weight between captive populations of rufous and gray mouse lemurs, by D. Wrogemann, U. Radespiel, & E. Zimmermann.

Supplements

* NCRR Reporter, 2000, 24.
. . . A cumulative index to Volume XXIV, 2000.

* Experimental Animals, 2000, 49[5].
. . . Abstracts of papers presented at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science, May 21-23, 2000, in Tokushima, Japan.

* Experimental Animals, 2001 50[3].
. . . Abstracts of papers presented at the 48th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science, May 8-12, 2001, in Yokohama, Japan.

Anatomy and Physiology

* Functional specialization in rhesus monkey auditory cortex. Tian, B., Reser, D., Durham, A., Kustov, A., & Rauschecker, J. P. (J. P. R., Georgetown Inst. for Cognitive and Computational Sciences, Dept of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown Univ. Med. Center, Washington, DC 20007 [e-mail: rauschej@georgetown.edu]). Science, 2001, 292, 290-293.
. . ."Neurons in the lateral belt areas of rhesus monkey auditory cortex prefer complex sounds to pure tones, but functional specializations of these multiple maps in the superior temporal region have not been determined. We tested the specificity of neurons in the lateral belt with species-specific communication calls presented at different azimuth positions. We found that neurons in the anterior belt are more selective for the type of call, whereas neurons in the caudal belt consistently show the greatest spatial selectivity. These results suggest that cortical processing of auditory spatial and pattern information is performed in specialized streams rather than one homogeneously distributed system."

* Description of the gastrointestinal tract of five lemur species: Propithecus tattersalli, Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, Varecia variegata, Hapalemur griseus, and Lemur catta. Campbell, J. L., Eisemann, J. H., Williams, C. V., & Glenn, K. M. (Box 7621, Dept of Animal Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh NC 27695-7621 [e-mail: jlcampbe@unity.ncsu.edu]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 133-142.
. . . The objective of this project was to better define the similarities and differences in gastrointestinal morphology present in lemur species. Measurements of the gastrointestinal tract of lemurs were obtained at necropsy from the captive population at Duke University Primate Center. Measurements of body length and weight, as well as gastrointestinal length, were recorded. Photographs and measurements were used to obtain illustrations. Preliminary results suggest differences in gastrointestinal morphology among lemur species that coincide with differences in diet. Distinct sacculations in either the cecum or the colon were present for H. griseus, L. catta, P. verreauxi, and P. tattersalli, but not for V. variegata. The Propithecus specimens possessed a much greater ratio of gastrointestinal length to body length than the other three species. A short, blunt cecum and a shortened and sacculated colon were unique characteristics of the H. griseus specimens. These differences correlate well with a dietary shift from consumption of large amounts of structural plant cell wall (Propithecus sp.) to consumption of variable or moderate amounts (H. griseus, L. catta, and V. variegata). They also suggest that captive groups would benefit from further diet refinement in captivity.

Animal Models

* Control of a mucosal challenge and prevention of AIDS by a multiprotein DNA/MVA vaccine. Amara, R. R., Villinger, F., Altman, J. D., Lydy, S. L., O'Neil, S. P., Staprans, S. I., Montefiori, D. C., Xu, Y., Herndon, J. G., Wyatt, L. S., Candido, M. A., Kozyr, N. L., Earl, P. L., Smith, J. M., Ma, H.-L., Grimm, B. D., Hulsey, M. L., Miller, J., McClure, H. M., McNicholl, J. M., Moss, B., & Robinson, H. L. (H. L. R., Yerkes RPRC, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329 [e-mail: hrobins@rmy.emory.edu]). Science, 2001, 292, 69-74.
. . . Heterologous prime/boost regimens have the potential for raising high levels of immune responses. DNA priming followed by a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) booster controlled a highly pathogenic immunodeficiency virus challenge in a rhesus macaque model. Both the DNA and rMVA components of the vaccine expressed multiple immunodeficiency virus proteins. Two DNA inoculations at 0 and 8 weeks and a single rMVA booster at 24 weeks effectively controlled an intrarectal challenge administered 7 months after the booster. These findings provide hope that a relatively simple multiprotein DNA/MVA vaccine can help to control the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic.

Behavior

* Predictors of social status in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after group formation. Morgan, D., Grant, K. A., Prioleau, O. A., Nader, S. H., Kaplan, J. R., & Nader, M. A. (M. A. N., Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 [e-mail: mnader@wfubmc.edu]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 115-131.
. . . The purpose of the present study was to determine whether various behavioral and hormonal markers obtained in individually housed monkeys would be predictive of social rank following group housing. Body weight, serum cortisol and testosterone levels, and locomotor activity in an open-field apparatus were examined in 20 experimentally naive male cynomolgus monkeys while they were individually housed. It was hypothesized that eventual subordinate monkeys would have higher cortisol levels and increased locomotor activity scores. These monkeys were then placed in social groups of four (five pens of four monkeys), and social rank was determined based on outcomes of dyadic agonistic encounters. Body weight correlated significantly with eventual social rank. In general, the heavier the monkey the higher the social rank. Locomotor activity in an open-field apparatus following administration of a low dose of cocaine (0.01 mg/kg, i.v.), which has been shown to increase CNS dopamine, correlated with eventual social rank such that individually housed monkeys with high levels of locomotion were more likely to become subordinate. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels failed to correlate with eventual social rank. Hypothalamic-pituitary feedback sensitivity and adrenal responsiveness were examined by measuring cortisol levels after administration of dexamethasone and following ACTH challenge. Cortisol responses in these tests were not associated with eventual social rank. These results suggest that, in addition to body weight, the level of reactivity in a novel environment after administration of a low dose of cocaine is a potential trait marker for social rank. This trait is apparently not associated with hormone levels, but may involve other CNS mechanisms.

Conservation

* Conservation conflicts across Africa. Balmford, A., Moore, J. L., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Hansen, L. A., Williams, P., & Rahbek, C. (Conservation Biology Group, Dept of Zoology, Univ. of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, U.K. [e-mail: a.balmford@ zoo.cam.ac.uk]). Science, 2001, 291, 2616-2619.
. . ."There is increasing evidence that areas of outstanding conservation importance may coincide with dense human settlement or impact. We tested the generality of these findings using 1°-resolution data for sub-Saharan Africa. We find that human population density is positively correlated with species richness of birds, mammals, snakes, and amphibians. This association holds for widespread, narrowly endemic, and threatened species, and it appears it will persist in the face of foreseeable population growth. Our results contradict earlier expectations of low conflict based on the idea that species richness decreases and human impact increases with primary productivity. We find that across Africa, both variables instead exhibit unimodal relationships with productivity. Modifying priority-setting to take account of human density shows that, at this scale, conflicts between conservation and development are not easily avoided, because many densely inhabited grid cells contain species found nowhere else."

* Essays on Science and Society: Monkeys in the back garden. Jolly, A. (School of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, U.K. [e-mail: a.jolly@biols.susx.ac.uk]). Science, 2001, 291, 1705-1706.
. . . Love of wild nature appears in many human cultures, and may even be a human instinct. In her essay, Jolly asks if future human species will share that love, as after the current mass extinction it may take at least five million years to recover our present level of biodiversity. The effort to save what we have, in particular our primate relatives the monkeys and great apes, crucially involves scientists in countries where wild primates live.

Development and Aging

* Senile plaques in an aged western lowland gorilla. Kimura, N., Nakamura, S., Goto, N., Narushima, E., Hara, I., Shichiri, S., Saitou, K., Nose, M., Hayashi, T., Kawamura, S., & Yoshikawa, Y. (Dept of Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Univ. of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan). Experimental Animals, 2001, 50, 77-81.
. . . Senile plaques (SPs) were found in the cerebral cortex of a 44-year-old western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). All the SPs were obtained as dense assemblies consisting of fibrous materials by silver impregnation, but were not detected by Congo red. More SPs were detected by immunostaining for amyloidâ protein (Aâ) and a half of Aâ-positive-SPs were also immunoreactive for apolipoprotein E. Moreover, all SPs were immunoreactive for Aâ 42 and Aâ 43, but not for Aâ 40. SPs also did not contain Aâ precursor protein-positive structures. These findings suggested that SPs in this case were diffuse plaques.

Disease

* Polio vaccine samples not linked to AIDS. Blancou, P., Vartanian, J.-P., Christopherson, C., Chenciner, N., Basilico, C., Kwok, S., & Wain-Hobson, S. (S. W.-H., Unité de Rétrovirologie Moléculaire, Inst Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris cedex 15, France [e-mail: simon@pasteur.fr]). Nature, 2001, 410, 1045-1046.
. . . A search through the archives clears early vaccines of starting the AIDS pandemic. Analysis of frozen samples of the suspect vaccine by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify any HIV-1-related nucleic acids or chimpanzee mitochondrial DNA that might be present, failed to detect either.

* Human immunodeficiency virus: Phylogeny and the origin of HIV-1. Rambaut, A., Robertson, D. L., Pybus, O. G., Peeters, M., & Holmes, E. C. (Dept of Zoology, Univ. of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PS, U.K. [e-mail: edward.holmes@zoo.ox.ac.uk]). Nature, 2001, 410, 1047-1048.
. . . The origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is controversial. It is shown that viruses obtained from the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa have a quantitatively different phylogenetic tree structure from those sampled in other parts of the world. This indicates that the structure of HIV-1 phylogenies is the result of epidemiological processes acting within human populations alone, and is not due to multiple cross-species transmission initiated by oral polio vaccination.

* Vaccine safety: Analysis of oral polio vaccine CHAT stocks. Berry, N., Davis, C., Jenkins, A., Wood, D., Minor, P., Schild, G., Bottiger, M., Holmes, H., & Almond, N. (Division of Retrovirology, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, U.K. [e-mail: nberry@nibsc.ac.uk]). Nature, 2001, 410, 1046-1047.
. . . Here we use a molecular analysis to show that two CHAT type-1 polio vaccine stocks were prepared from macaque and not chimpanzee cells, and contain neither human nor simian immunodeficiency virus sequences. Our results do not support the hypothesis that these materials were responsible for the transmission of the AIDS virus to humans.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Leakey, M. G., Spoor, F., Brown, F. H., Gathogo, P. N., Kiarie, C., Leakey, L. N., & McDougall, I. (National Museums of Kenya, Palaeontology Div., Nairobi, Kenya [e-mail: palaeo@swiftkenya.com]). Nature, 2001, 410, 433-440.
. . . Most interpretations of early hominin phylogeny recognize a single early to middle Pliocene ancestral lineage, best represented by Australopithecus afarensis, which gave rise to a radiation of taxa in the late Pliocene. Here we report on new fossils discovered west of Lake Turkana, Kenya, which differ markedly from those of contemporary A. afarensis, indicating that hominin taxonomic diversity extended back into the middle Pliocene. A 3.5 million-year-old cranium, showing a unique combination of derived facial and primitive neurocranial features, is assigned to a new genus of hominin. These findings point to an early diet-driven adaptive radiation, provide new insight on the association of hominin craniodental features, and have implications for our understanding of Plio-Pleistocene hominin phylogeny.

* Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk? Dainton, M. (Dept of Human Anatomy & Cell Biology, New Med. School, Univ. of Liverpool, Ashton St, Liverpool L69 3GE, U.K. [e-mail: mdainton@Liverpool.ac.uk]). Nature, 2001, 410, 324-325.
. . ."All African apes walk on their knuckles. There is no evidence for this behavior in the earliest hominids, however, which conflicts with molecular DNA evidence suggesting that chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than to gorillas. On the basis of a multivariate analysis of four traits of the proximal wrist joint, Richmond and Strait claim that African apes and early hominids do share a common knuckle-walking ancestor. I propose that these traits are not uniquely associated with knuckle-walking and question the basis of their conclusion. It is still possible that no human ancestor knuckle-walked and that this behavior evolved independently in different species."

* Ecological importance of trichromatic vision to primates. Dominy, N. J., & Lucas, P. W. (Dept of Anatomy, Univ. of Hong Kong, 5 Sasoon Rd, Hong Kong, P.R.C. [e-mail: njdominy@hkusua.hku.hk]). Nature, 2001, 410, 363-366.
. . . Trichromatic color vision, characterized by three retinal photopigments tuned to peak wavelengths of 430 nm, 535 nm and 562 nm, has evolved convergently in catarrhine primates and one genus of New World monkey, the howlers (genus Alouatta). This uniform capacity to discriminate red-green colors, which is not found in other mammals, has been proposed as advantageous for the long-range detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves (which frequently flush red in the tropics) against a background of mature foliage. Four trichromatic primate species in Kibale Forest, Uganda, eat leaves that are color discriminated only by red-greenness, a color axis correlated with high protein levels and low toughness. Despite their divergent digestive systems, these primates have no significant interspecific differences in leaf color selection. In contrast, eaten fruits were generally discriminated from mature leaves on both red-green and yellow-blue channels and also by their luminance, with a significant difference between chimpanzees and monkeys in fruit color choice. These results implicate leaf consumption, a critical food resource when fruit is scarce, as having unique value in maintaining trichromacy in catarrhines.

* An evolutionary scaling law for the primate visual system and its basis in cortical function. Stevens, C. F. (Salk Inst., 10010 N. Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037 [e-mail: cfs@salk.edu]). Nature, 2001, 411, 193-195.
. . . A hallmark of mammalian brain evolution is the disproportionate increase in neocortical size as compared with subcortical structures. Because primary visual cortex (V1) is the most thoroughly understood cortical region, the visual system provides an excellent model in which to investigate the evolutionary expansion of neocortex. Here the numbers of neurons in the visual thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus; LGN) and area V1 are compared across primate species. The number of V1 neurons increases as the 3/2 power of the number of LGN neurons. As a consequence of this scaling law, the human, e.g., uses four times as many V1 neurons per LGN neuron (356) to process visual information as does a tarsier (87). It is argued that the 3/2 power relationship is a natural consequence of the organization of V1, together with the requirement that spatial resolution in V1 should parallel the maximum resolution provided by the LGN. The additional observation that thalamus/neocortex follows the same evolutionary scaling law as LGN/V1 may suggest that neocortex generally conforms to the same organizational principle as V1.

Facilities

* Demographic analysis of the Washington Regional Primate Research Center pigtailed macaque colony, 1967-1996. Ha, J. C., Robinette, R. L., & Sackett, G. P. (Primate Center, University of Washington, Box 357330, Seattle, WA 98195-7330 [e-mail: jcha@u.washington.edu]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 187-198.
. . . This work presents the results of a demographic analysis of 30 years of breeding records from the University of Washington's recently closed Primate Field Station at Medical Lake, Washington. Summaries of population growth, age-specific fertility and mortality rates, first-year survival, and seasonality of reproduction are presented, as well as an analysis of survival by decade. In addition, data on interbirth intervals in this population are presented. In general, pigtailed macaques represent a typical Old World monkey pattern of age-specific fertility and mortality, with a few minor exceptions. Pigtailed macaques seem to be most similar to rhesus and Barbary macaques, while Japanese and bonnet macaques differ somewhat in their demographics.

Field Studies

* Troop size and structure in free-ranging Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan. Hsu, M. J., & Lin, J.-F. (Dept of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan 804, R. O. C. [e-mail: hsumin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw]). Zoological Studies, 2001, 40, 49-60.
. . . Among the 19 species of Macaca that are found in southern and eastern Asia, as well as northwestern Africa, the Formosan macaque is one of the least known. A long-term field study to investigate the population dynamics and social behavior of 7-16 troops of free-ranging Formosan macaques at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan, has been conducted since July 1993. Between 1994 and 1997, a systematic census was conducted on a biweekly basis. Focal animal sampling and ad libitum sampling were used twice a week to record data on social behavior, including male replacement and fission processes. The maximum density was estimated as 26 individuals/km2 in October, 1997. The average troop size was 26.1 +/- 9.7 (n = 7) in January, 1995, and reached the highest level, 47.0 +/- 21.2 (n = 13), in August, 1997. Two cases of fission were observed. Births were recorded mainly between April and June (97%) with a peak in mid-April to mid-May. About 88% of alpha male changes occurred between October and February - the peak and end of the mating season, respectively.

* Density and population structure of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) in the Argentinean Chaco. Fernandez-Duque, E., Rotundo, M., & Sloan, C. (104 Herbaria, 22 Divinity Ave, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA 02138 [e-mail: duque@fas.harvard.edu]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 99-108.
. . . Owl monkeys are small monogamous primates ranging over a wide area extending from Panama to the Chaco region of northern Argentina. The Chaco, an alluvial plain covering over one million km2 of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay, consists of a mosaic of grasslands, savannas, xeric thorn forests, and gallery forests. The region shows significant seasonal variation in climate, rainfall, and food availability. The goal of this study was to determine the density, size, and structure of a population of Aotus azarai in the seasonal gallery forests of the eastern Argentinean Chaco. Reported population density, group size, and composition are based on data collected from 11 groups contacted on approximately 900 occasions, and observed for over 2,000 hours during a three-year period. Group and individual densities were 16 groups/km2 and 64 individuals/km2, respectively. Approximately half of the groups (n = 5) were small groups that had three individuals most of the time and never more than four, whereas the remaining groups were large groups composed of four or five, and sometimes even six or seven individuals. This is the first study of A. azarai based on monitoring of a relatively large number of distinct groups. The data suggest that owl monkeys in the seasonal subtropical forests of Formosa live at a density as high as those reported for owl monkey populations observed in tropical forests. The data also show that the social groups in the owl monkey population are comparable in size and composition to those of populations in the tropics.

Instruments and Techniques

* Non-invasive collection of ejaculates from the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) using penile vibrostimulation. Kuederling, I., Schneiders, A., Sonksen, J., Nayudu, P. L., & Hodges, J. K. (J. K. H., Dept of Reproductive Biology, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077, Göaut;ttingen, Germany). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 149-154.
. . . Penile vibrostimulation (PVS), a noninvasive repeatable method, has been shown in the squirrel monkey to yield semen of higher quality than rectal probe electro-ejaculation (RPE). The present study aimed at establishing the conditions for PVS to collect ejaculates from marmoset monkeys. Ten adult males were trained on the appropriate handling before each was subject to six to 12 PVS tests. Ejaculation was stimulated using a FertiCare® personal vibrator fitted with a 2 cm x 0.5 cm i.d. glass tube. The stimulus was repeatedly applied over a frequency of 75-95 Hz and amplitude of 1-2 mm for up to 20 min. Ejaculates were analyzed for volume, total sperm number, sperm concentration, and proportion of living and motile sperm. Ejaculates were obtained in 31 of 88 PVS tests; 87.1% of the ejaculations occurred at 80-85 Hz frequency and 1-1.5 mm amplitude. In 18 tests ejaculates were produced within 49.7 seconds. Ejaculates were characterized by (mean values): volume 31.9l, total sperm number 34.2 x 106/ejaculate, concentration 1,154.2 x 106 sperm/ml, live sperm 74.6%, motile sperm 59.6%. Total number and concentration of spermatozoa were significantly enhanced in singly-living males. PVS yielded three to four times more spermatozoa than comparable previously published values for RPE. Enhancing the success rate by preselecting males for responsiveness may render PVS the sperm collection method of choice in marmoset monkeys.

* Formal method for objective assessment of primate color. Gerald, M. S., Bernstein, J., Hinkson, R., & Fosbury, R. A. E. (NIH, Laboratory of Clinical Studies, NIAAA, NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Bldg 112, Rm 205, Poolesville, MD 20837-0529 [e-mail: geraldme@mail.nih.gov]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, v79-85.
. . . To investigate primate color objectively, it is critical to employ tools that yield reliable measures of color samples. Primatologists have traditionally depended on color assessment methods that lack accuracy, precision, and replicability. In this work, the red, green, and blue (RGB) method, a technique combining digital video cameras and Adobe PhotoShop®, is introduced as a means to assess and graphically represent primate color objectively. The reliability and validity of the RGB method is demonstrated, and color measures obtained from the scrota of adult vervet monkeys are reported in order to outline the steps for assessing color samples.

Reproduction

* Sexual swellings advertise female quality in wild baboons. Domb, L. G., & Pagel, M. (38 Sydenham Rd, Bristol BS6 5SJ, U.K. [e-mail: lgdomb@aol.com]). Nature, 2001, 410, 204-206.
. . ."The females of many Old World primate species produce prominent and conspicuous swellings of the perineal skin around the time of ovulation. These sexual swellings have been proposed to increase competition among males for females or to increase the likelihood of a female getting fertilized, by signaling either a female's general reproductive status, or the timing of her ovulation. We show that sexual swellings in wild baboons reliably advertise a female's reproductive value over her lifetime, in accordance with a theoretical model of honest signaling. Females with larger swellings attained sexual maturity earlier, produced both more offspring and more surviving offspring per year than females with smaller swellings, and had a higher overall proportion of their offspring survive. Male baboons use the size of the sexual swelling to determine their mating effort, fighting more aggressively to consort females with larger swellings, and spending more time grooming these females. Our results document an unusual case of a sexually selected ornament in females, and show how males, by mating selectively on the basis of the size of the sexual swelling, increase their probability of mating with females more likely to produce surviving offspring."

* Sexual swellings in female hamadryas baboons after male take-overs: "Deceptive" swellings as a possible female counter-strategy against infanticide. Zinner, D. & Deschner, T. (Abt. Verhaltensforschung und &OUMLAUT;kologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göaut;ttingen, Germany [e-mail: dzinner@gwdg.de]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 157-168.
. . . In many primate species, male infanticide is assumed to pose a serious risk for infants, and therefore female counter-strategies are expected. These counter-strategies may include changes in the females' reproductive behavior and physiology, e.g., mating with multiple males and prolonged receptivity. Since the risk of infanticide is particularly high when a new male enters the group or when a male rises in rank, the changes in female reproductive conditions, e.g., post-partum amenorrhea and interbirth intervals, were studied following group take-overs by new males in a captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio h. hamadryas). Following take-overs, five out of six lactating females immediately developed sexual swellings, thus shortening their post-partum amenorrhea. However, none of these females conceived during the first cycles after the take-over, their reproduction was not accelerated, and four out of five dependent infants survived. Thus, interbirth intervals did not decrease compared to times with no group take-overs. We therefore suggest that these situation-dependent swellings are used by female hamadryas baboons as a counter-strategy to reduce the risk of infanticide, which exists in this species after male take-overs. By offering new males mating opportunities without allowing them to reproduce, females may increase their infants' probability of survival and at the same time avoid the costs of being pregnant and lactating simultaneously.

* Foraging energetics in patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus): Implications for reproductive seasonality. Nakagawa, N. (Dept. of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Kobe City College of Nursing, 3-4 Gakuen-nishimachi, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2103, Japan [e-mail: nakagawa@tr.kobe-ccn.ac.jp]). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 169-185.
. . . The patas monkeys in Kala Maloue, Cameroon, have their birth season in the mid-dry season, whereas closely related, sympatric tantalus monkeys have their birth season in the wet season. To evaluate the optimality of a species-specific birth season, the daily intake of available energy and gross protein, and energy expenditure were estimated for one individual of each sex of each species between respective birth and mating seasons. The monkeys obtained a larger amount of available energy and gross protein in the birth season than in the mating season. No significant seasonal differences in energy expenditure between the birth and mating season were found. Thus, the birth season appears to be timed to the season when the monkeys can obtain more surplus energy and protein. Interspecific differences in the optimality of birth season were attributed to widely exploitative foraging, supported by the patas' high locomotive ability, which may enable them to obtain more energy from seeds of Acacia seyal and gums of A. sieberiana, and more protein from grasshoppers and seeds of A. seyal in the mid-dry season than the tantalus monkeys. A review of preceding studies suggests that the availability of seeds of Acacia fruiting during the dry season may exert the dominant influence on timing of birth not only in patas but also in savanna monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), which include the tantalus monkeys.

* Midcycle and luteal elevations of follicle stimulating hormone in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) during the estrous cycle. Yeoman, R. R., Wegner, F. H., Gibson, S. V., Williams, L. E., Abbott, D. H., & Abee, C. R. (Dept of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oregon Health Sciences Univ., 1750 S.W. Harbor Way, Suite 100, Portland, OR 97201). American Journal of Primatology, 2000, 52, 207-211.
. . . Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has fundamental importance in reproductive function, but its cyclic pattern has not previously been described in the squirrel monkey, due primarily to the lack of a suitable assay. An homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) based on recombinant cynomolgus FSH measured changes in serum FSH relative to patterns of bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone during the estrous cycle. FSH was observed to have a sharp peak during the late follicular phase coincident with the LH surge and then rose again during the luteal phase. Estradiol was low except for the midcycle rise, suggesting an inhibitory relationship. The rat granulosa cell in vitro FSH bioassay confirmed high levels of this hormone. Measurement of FSH in the squirrel monkey has found a pattern different from Old World primates in the luteal phase, which may provide insight into the reproductive mechanisms of this species.

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Another Letter: Howling Howlers

After reading the Editorial Note published in Laboratory Primate Newsletter (39[4], 15), and the comments in the next issue (40[1], 16), I would like to provide a statement to enrich the discussion about the "howling howlers". It is not my intention to state which must be the "right" English name, but I hope that by looking at the local names given to the "howlers" in their native countries we can add comprehension in order to select an English name for the members of the genus Alouatta.

In Latin America, the "howlers" are well known for some of their particular characteristics, like the reddish color of Alouatta seniculus. From Venezuela to Bolivia this monkey has the Spanish names of mono colorado, mono rojo, or mono vermejo, all meaning red monkey. However, in those countries they are mainly known and named after their particular roaring or howling behavior. Consequently, the most widespread Spanish names, not including those of indigenous roots (like araguato and saraguato), are aullador, berreador, and roncador. The latter three names have been used from Colonial times to the present and are nouns that only mean "howler".

Spanish appellations for "howlers" are mono aullador, mono berreador, and mono roncador, that when translated into English mean "howler monkey". The term "howling monkey" in a Spanish translation means a monkey that is howling. In this sense, it is possible to find sentences from the locals like: "Escuché un mono aullando (I heard a howling monkey)" which, depending on time of day, could be a howler or a night monkey (Aotus spp.). In contrast, the Spanish expression, "Escuché un aullador (I heard a howler)" refers only to a howler. Therefore, I think the use of the term "howler" might resolve the question. - Bernardo Urbani, Departamento de Biología de Organismos, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado 47.028, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela [e-mail: urbani@cantv.net]

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Implementation of the Revised AVMA Panel on Euthanasia Report

The Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals requires that Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees reviewing PHS-conducted or supported research projects determine that the methods of euthanasia used will be consistent with the recommendations of the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia, unless a deviation is justified for scientific reasons in writing by the investigator. The PHS Policy is applicable to all PHS-conducted or supported activities (including research, research training, experimentation or biological testing or related purposes) involving live, vertebrate animals. In addition, USDA Animal Care Policy #3 issued January 14, 2000, and applicable to many PHS awardee institutions, also requires that methods of euthanasia be consistent with the most current Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia unless a deviation is justified for scientific reasons.

The 2000 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia was published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association on March 1, 2001, 281[5] and is posted at: <www.avma.org/resources/euthanasia.pdf>. The Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare expects all PHS-Assured institutions to use the 2000 Panel Report after May 1, 2001. Previously approved projects undergoing continuing review in accordance with IV.C.5. of the PHS Policy, which requires a complete de novo review at least once every three years, must be reviewed in light of the 2000 Panel Report after May 1, 2001.

The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has reviewed and concurs with the guidance provided in this notice. For questions or further information, contact: Carol Wigglesworth, Senior Policy Analyst, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, NIH, RKL 1, Suite 1050, MSC 7982, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-7982 [301-402-5913; fax: 301-402-2803; e-mail: carol_wigglesworth@nih.gov] - Published by NIH on April 3, 2001, in <grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/>..

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address: Judith_Schrier@brown.edu

Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.brown.edu/Research/Primate

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) by Margaret Dannemiller (Warner Lambert/Parke Davis Research)

Copyright (c) 2001 by Brown University


Last updated: June 19, 2001