VOLUME 40 NUMBER 4 OCTOBER 2001
Articles and Notes
Behavioral Differences Between Sexes in Captive Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), by C. Anaya-Huertas and R. Mondragón-Ceballos......1
A Comparison of Methods Used to Census Mantled Howlers in the Dry Tropical Forest of Costa Rica, by M. R. Clarke, C. M. Crockett, and E. L. Zucker......4
Symposium: Critical Issues in Captive Care......7
. . . Primate-Focused Ecotourism: Proceed with Caution, by C. Russell...7
. . . Rehabilitating orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): Behavioral Competence, by A. E. Russon...8
. . . Captive Care in Primates: Application to a Chimpanzee Release Program (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Republic of Congo, by B. Goossens, M. Ancrenaz, C. Vidal, and A. Jamart...10
. . . Potential Solutions to Managing a Population of Surplus Research Chimpanzees, by F. L. Dolins...11
News, Information, and Announcements
Workshop in Tropical Ecology......6
Hal Eyestone, 1918-200......13
Resources Wanted and Available......13
. . .Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis; Revised Red List Criteria; Version 2.0 of Ramas Red List Software Available; Environmental Enrichment Helpers
. . . Antioxidants in Prevention of Diabetic Complications; Cognitive Neuroimaging; Caloric Restriction and Aging in Nonhuman Primates; Fyssen Foundation Research Grants; Aging Research Grants; Extramural Research Facilities Improvement; Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates; Mechanisms in Nutrition and Infection
Research and Educational Opportunities......18
. . . Research Fellowship Program - WCS; Postdoctoral Training in Biomedical Research; Postdoc in Lab Animal Medicine or Pathology; Postdoc - Comparative Field Study of Baboons; Behavior and Ecology, Costa Rica and Nicaragua; Training Opportunities in Comparative Medicine; Teaching Research Ethics
Information Requested or Available......20
. . . Society for Conservation Biology - NeoCons; New On-Line Journals; Bioinformatics Resources and Tools; Recently Described Primate Species and Subspecies; 2000 IUCN Red List; New Species Survival Commission Website; More Interesting Websites
. . . Lemur Sanctuary in Texas; AALAS Appoints New Executive Director; Rhesus Monkeys Drowned in Houston Flood; Man Jumps Into Zoo’s Gorilla Exhibit; Can Wood Labeling Save Asia’s Tropical Forests?
Announcements from Publications......25
. . . Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects; ACLAD Newsletter
Volunteer Opportunity: Research on Spider Monkeys, Yucatan, Mexico......25
Travelers’ Health Notes: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis......26
. . . Deaths Following Inappropriate Chemoprophylaxis; Sudden Death Following Halofantrine Administration
Primates de las Américas...La Página......14
. . . Environmental Enrichment, Tulane RPRC; Clinical Veterinarian, Tulane RPRC; Department of Psychology, University of Chicago; Research Support Supervisor - Washington State; Animal Resources, Oregon RPRC; Colony Manager and Assistant Operations Manager; Environmental Enrichment Coordinator; Laboratory Animal Technician - Maryland; Chimpanzee Trainer - Alamogordo
Recent Books and Articles......27
Behavioral Differences Between Sexes in Captive Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)
C. Anaya-Huertas and R. Mondragón-Ceballos
Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Mexican Institute of Psychiatry “Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz”
Mexico has a large tropical zone: threatened rain forests are found in the southern part of Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Chiapas, and part of the Yucatan Peninsula (Estrada & Coates-Estrada, 1989). Among the animals typical of this ecosystem is the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). The spider monkey is endangered due to a number of factors, principally massive destruction of its natural habitat; poaching for food and the pet market also plays an important role in destroying natural populations.
In the wild, spider monkeys have a fission-fusion social system, different from most Old World monkeys’, but similar to that of the chimpanzee and bonobo. Spider monkey groups form or split as a result of selective pressures, fundamentally access to food. Females travel alone and can be dominant to the males. They are the first to abandon sleeping sites, facilitating their access to food resources, and determining that day’s itinerary and patterns of activity of the group. Because of food competition, the males direct most of their affiliative behavior to other males and are aggressive toward females, sometimes forming coalitions to attack them (Eisenberg & Kuehn, 1966).
Most monkeys rescued from the pet trade have serious biological and behavioral handicaps, because they were reared out of contact with conspecifics. They are often beaten or kept chained. Captivity thus not only inhibits adequate development of sexual identity and behavior, but also elicits a number of bizarre and antisocial behaviors.
The present work is a study of behavioral differences and similarities between males and females in a newly formed heterosexual group of Ateles geoffroyi.
This study was carried out with a group of spider monkeys that had been confiscated by the Mexican Secretary of Urban Development and Ecology (SEDUE) and given to the Ethology Department of the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry. As soon as the animals arrived, we began developing an extensive ethogram, based on behavior catalogues provided by van Roosmalen & Klein (1988). The group consisted of 14 individuals (8 males and 6 females), raised as pets since infancy, that were not acquainted with each other. They are a part of a research program that intends to develop a rehabilitation technique for spider monkeys, so they can be used to colonize areas where natural populations are, or are nearly, extinct. One male was voluntarily given by his owners, who were worried about his psychological well-being, and a female and male were given by a Psychology faculty member, who had kept them for about five years, caged alone (Anaya-Huertas & Mondragón-Ceballos, 1998).
The group is housed in a 6 x 6.2 x 6 m outdoor cage entirely covered with a wire mesh roof from which hang numerous plastic ropes (Anaya-Huertas, 1998). The cage is washed each morning, but the animals are not otherwise disturbed. At 9:00 hours they are fed fresh fruits and vegetables, bread, maize tortillas, and monkey chow. Clean water is always available.
From November, 1990 (arrival of the monkeys at the Ethology Department), to September, 1991, we carried out observations on the monkeys, using scan sampling (Altmann, 1974). For 31 weeks, five days a week, from 8:00 to 18:00 hours, the animals were sampled every half hour. Only nonsocial activities (18 categories) are analyzed for this paper. Student “t” tests were used to evaluate behavioral differences by sex (Siegel, 1990).
Table 1 shows the differences in rates of behaviors between male and female spider monkeys. Only seven of the 18 behaviors were significantly different (38.9%); nine were not statistically different; and in two (masturbation and solitary play), one sex didn’t show the behavior at all.
The nonsocial behaviors reported here were 70% of all behaviors recorded (that is, there were 2.3 times more nonsocial behaviors than social). This is low compared with some species of macaques, which spend up to 90% of the time in social activities. However, other primates, such as Lemur catta, only spend 20% of their time in social activities (Jolly, 1972).
Activity in this species is directly related to food availability; if this problem is resolved, as in captivity, then locomotion is low. It has been observed that, if resources are available, they remain still for long times (Richard, 1970). Males walked more across the cage, probably because they were in smaller spaces before. Apparently a larger space encourages Walking.
Climbing (along a wall) was also observed more frequently in males than in females. This behavior may also be related to feeding, since this species tends to remain in the tops of trees (where they obtain their food) and only go to the forest floor under exceptional conditions (Hladik, 1972).
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Category 8 Males 6 Females t p ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Eating 175 (12.40) 151.43 (11.78) 1.37 n.s. Walking 57.77 (4.56) 30.21 (3.04) 5.02 0.0005 Lying down 57.26 (8.36) 46.36 (7.03) 0.99 n.s. Sitting 187 (12.41) 131.29 (9.31) 3.59 0.003 Climbing 38.51 (3.29) 34.2 (3.23) 0.93 n.s. Acrobatics 1.26 (0.50) 153 (0.50) 2.91 0.064 Swinging 3.04 (1.01) 3.99 (1.14) 0.62 n.s. Brachiating 16.97 (1.52) 16.72 (1.71) 0.10 n.s. Hanging 96.54 (2.08) 77.14 (8.71) 2.3 0.038 Manipulating 1.52 (0.50) 2.09 (0.38) 0.90 n.s. object Solitary play 0 0.19 (0.1) n.s. n.s. Genital self- 1.01 (0.25) 0.19 (0.15) 2.81 0.0015 manipulation Masturbation 0.10 (0.07) 0 n.s. n.s. Genital self- 4.95 (1.01) 1.14 (0.19) 2.83 0.014 grooming Other self- 36.48 (3.54) 14.25 (1.33) 5.87 0.0002 grooming Displaying 0.10 (0.07) 0.38 (0.38) 0.72 n.s. Self-aggression 8.60 (2.02) 6.46 (1.52) 0.84 n.s. Stereotypy 1.52 (0.76) 3.29 (1.14) 1.29 0.21 ------------------------------------------------------------------------Table 1: Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) number of occurrences per individual.
The high incidence of Acrobatics (climbing at high speed while moving among the ropes) in females is probably due to the fact that they are naturally more active and solitary (Fedigan & Baxter, 1984). On the other hand, this kind of behavior and groin presentation to males have been observed when they are in estrous, probably to attract the males (Eisenberg, 1966; 1973).
Hanging is defined here as hanging still by the arms or tail, while Swinging is hanging and swinging in place and Brachiating is hanging with progressive movement.
Genital self-grooming was not very frequent in females. It may be related to the menstrual cycle. It has been observed that males increase this activity when there is an estrous female in the group (Eisenberg, 1973). Genital and Other self-grooming were more frequent in males; however these behaviors are not common in this species (Eisenberg & Kuehn, 1966).
Genital self-grooming involves cleaning small particles off the genitals, while Genital manipulation is touching or manipulating the genitals with hands, mouth, or tongue. Masturbation is defined here as repeated manipulation of penis or clitoris with up-and-down movements, as well as perineal rubs against the floor.
These spider monkeys, reared as pets, once grouped and removed from most human contact, started to show social behavior at rates similar to those described for free-ranging animals (Anaya-Huertas, et al., 1994). Despite having been raised as pets since infancy, isolated from contact with other monkeys, they still show behaviors consistent with those seen by authors working with free ranging animals. This implies good adjustment to their new conditions.
Anaya-Huertas, C., Arenas-Frías, V., Mayagoitia L., & Mondragón-Ceballos, R. (1994). Socialization pat-terns in a group of hand-reared spider monkeys. In J. J. Roeder, B. Thierry, J. R. Anderson, & N. W. Herrenschmidt (Eds.), Current primatology, Vol II, Social development, learning, and behaviour (pp. 303-307). Strasbourg: Université Louis Pasteur.
Anaya-Huertas, C., & Mondragón-Ceballos, R. (1998). Social behavior of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) reared as home pets. International Journal of Primatology, 19, 767-784.
Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-267.
Davis, R. T., Leary, R. W., Smith, M. D. C., & Thompson, R. F. (1968). Species differences in the gross behavior of nonhuman primates. Behaviour, 31, 326-338.
Eisenberg, J. F., & Kuehn, R. (1966). The behavior of Ateles geoffroyi and related species. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 151, i-iv, 1-63.
Eisenberg, J. F. (1973). Reproduction in two species of spider monkeys, Ateles fusciceps and Ateles geoffroyi. Journal of Mammology, 54, 955-957.
Estrada, A. (1988). Comportamiento animal. El caso de los primates. Colección “La ciencia desde México”. No. 65. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Estrada, A. R., & Coates-Estrada, R. (1989). Destrucción de la selva y conservación de los primates silvestres de México (Alouatta y Ateles). In A. Estrada, R. López-Wilchis, R. Coates-Estrada, & D. F. Iztapalapa (Eds.), Primatología en México: Comportamiento, ecología, aprovechamiento y conservación de primates, (pp. 211-233). México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.
Fedigan, L. M., & Baxter, M. J. (1984). Sex differences and social organization in free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Primates, 25, 279-294.
Hladik, C. M. (1972). L’Atèle de Geoffroy ce singe-araignèe. Science et Nature, 111, 1-11.
Jolly, A. (1972). The evolution of primate behavior. New York: Macmillan.
Richard, A. (1970). A comparative study of the activity patterns and behavior of Alouatta villosa and Ateles geoffroyi. Folia Primatologica, 12, 241-263.
Rondinelli, R., & Klein, L. L. (1976) An analysis of adult social spacing tendencies and related social interactions in a colony of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) at the San Francisco Zoo. Folia Primatologica, 25, 122-142.
Siegel, S. (1990). Estadística no paramétrica aplicada a las ciencias de la Conducta. Ed. Trillas, 3a edición. México.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., & Klein, L. L. (1988). The spider monkeys, genus Ateles. In R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, & G. A. B. da Fonseca (Eds.), Ecology and behavior of neotropical primates (pp. 455-537). Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.
First author’s address: Department of Psychobiology, Fac. of Psychology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Somosaguas 28223, Madrid, Spain [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
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The fourth Zoos and Aquariums: Committing to Conservation conference will be held November 28-December 2, 2001, in Melbourne, Florida, in order to bring together field researchers and zoo personnel for greater involvement of zoos’ and aquariums’ support of in situ work. There will be sessions, panel discussions, and round tables, with special emphasis on audience participation and problem solving. The registration fee is $175.00 and includes all sessions, some meals, and social events. Contact: Beth Armstrong [321-454-6285; e-mail: email@example.com] or Margot McKnight [321-254-9453, ext. 23; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. See <www.brevardzoo.org/zacc.cfm> for more details and registration forms.
Primate Society of Great Britain - Winter Meeting 2001, December 5, 2001, Meeting Rooms of the Zoological Society of London. The theme of the meeting will be the Primates of the Western Ugandan Forests, organized by Vernon Reynolds, Institute of Biological Anthropology, Oxford University. Speakers include: Linda Vigilant (Leipzig), Tony Mutebi (Leipzig), Martha Robbins (Leipzig), Tweheyo Mnason (Uganda), Donna Sheppard (U.S.A.), Chie Hashimoto (Kyoto), Duane Quiatt (Colorado), Nick Newton-Fisher (Washington State), Vernon Reynolds (Oxford), Chris Fairgrieve (Edinburgh), John Bosco (Bwindi), Craig Stanford (UCLA). There will also be posters. For further information, please contact: Professor V. Reynolds, Institute of Biological Anthropology, 58 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6QS, U.K. [(0)1865-274693/274700; fax (0)1865-274699; e-mail: email@example.com].
The International Conference on Bioinformatics 2002: North-South Networking, will be held February 6-8, 2002, at Le Royal Meridien, Bangkok, Thailand, sponsored by the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) of Thailand, in collaboration with the National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC) and the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA. Keynote speakers will include Prof. Carlos Morel (Director, TDR/WHO), Prof. Michael S. Waterman (University of Southern California), Prof. Minoru Kanehisa (Kyoto University) and Dr. Tim Hubbard (Sangre Centre). For more information, see <incob.biotec.or.th> or contact the Secretariat of The International Conference on Bioinformatics 2002: North-South Networking, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 539/2 Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 15th Floor, Sri-Ayudhya Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand [662-642-5322-31, ext 219, 224, 117; fax: 662-248-8305; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
The Animal Behavior Management Alliance will be holding their 2nd Annual Conference, “Enhancing Animal Welfare through Positive Reinforcement”, February 26-March 2, 2002, in San Diego, California, hosted by the San Diego Zoo, San Diego Wild Animal Park, and Sea World San Diego. For information, contact Gary Priest [619-231-1515; e-mail: email@example.com].
The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare’s Annual Spring Meeting will be held May 16-17, 2002, in Baltimore, Maryland. Their Annual Winter Meeting will be December 9-10, 2002, in New Orleans, Louisiana. For information regarding program and registration, visit <www.scaw.com> or contact SCAW [301-345-3500; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
The Ecological Society of America’s 87th Annual Meeting will be held jointly with the Ecological Society of Mexico on August 4-8, 2002 in Arizona. For information contact ESA, 1707 H St., NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20006 [202-833 8773; fax: 202-833 8775; e-mail: email@example.com].
The second announcement and registration information for the 19th Congress of the International Primatological Society, to be held August 4-9, 2002, in Beijing, China, can be found at <www.ips.ioz.ac.cn/>.
The Fourth World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Research will be held August 11-15, 2002, in New Orleans. To submit an abstract or get more information, see <www.worldcongress.net>.
* * *
A Comparison of Methods Used to Census Mantled Howlers
in the Dry Tropical Forest of Costa Rica
Margaret R. Clarke, Carolyn M. Crockett, and Evan L. Zucker
Tulane University, University of Washington, and Loyola University
Various census methods have been used to evaluate population parameters for mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) in North and Central America (e.g. Mexico: Estrada, 1982; Guatemala: Cant, 1986; Costa Rica: Heltne et al., 1976; Lippold, 1988, 1989), but comparisons between populations have been limited because different census methods were used.
The howlers on Hacienda La Pacífica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, have been surveyed informally since 1974, and were formally surveyed in 1984 (Clarke et al., 1986), 1991 (Clarke & Zucker, 1992) and 1998 (Clarke et al., 1999). All surveys included a “Transect Method” survey (NRCC, 1981), but the 1991 and 1998 surveys each included two repeat surveys, which we refer to as “Census Walks”. The combined data sets from 1991 and 1998 reveal more groups and more animals than any single survey in those years, suggesting that the combined method was superior (Clarke & Zucker, 1994).
These comparable data sets from 1991 and 1998 (i.e., one transect survey and two walks each year) provide the basis to compare methods. Unlike other reports on this population (Clarke & Zucker, 1992; Clarke et al., 1999, under review), this analysis only includes animals located south of the Tenorio/Tenorito rivers, because the survey north of the rivers consisted of a transect survey only. For the 1991 and 1998 data sets, we will first compare the results of each initial transect survey with the combined total for that year. The next comparison will be between each initial transect survey and the total from both census walks for that year. The final comparison will be for the 1998 data set only, and will compare the results from a) the transect survey, b) the first census walk, c) the second census walk, and finally d) the combined outcome for all three “passes” through La Pacífica.
Site and Subjects: All transect method surveys and census walks were carried out on Hacienda La Pacífica. La Pacífica is a working cattle and rice ranch that is located in the deciduous dry tropical forest zone (Holdridge, 1967) and consists of both riparian and upland habitat. La Pacífica has been only partially deforested, to minimize wind erosion, and a series of windbreaks and forested areas can be found throughout.
Howlers (Alouatta palliata) inhabit the upland habitat windbreaks and forests as well as the riparian forests associated with the three rivers that border the ranch (see Glander, 1992, for a detailed map). Many animals are individually identifiable by colored collars, tags, and leg bands, as well as by white patches on appendages, and unique scars and palmar patterns. These marks have been noted, and collars and leg bands placed, during a series of annual capture-and-mark sessions between 1983 and 1998 and additional capture sessions between 1972 and 1983 (Scott et al., 1976; Glander et al., 1991).
Survey Procedures: The 1991 and 1998 surveys were all carried out during July and August, which is el veranillo (little summer), a drier part of the wet season. The order of areas surveyed during 1998 was identical to that of the 1991 survey (Clarke & Zucker, 1994). Both animal visibility and habitat accessibility were excellent, although overgrowth of trails and increased understory growth due to the removal of many of the larger trees in the upland habitat areas made progress slower in 1998, and additional days were required to complete the transect survey. The methods used in both years are described in detail in Clarke & Zucker (1994).
Transect Survey: The initial transect survey consisted of a “sweep” of a predetermined area of forest. Each fieldworker remained in vocal contact with his nearest neighbor, but once animals were located, everyone converged to identify and count monkeys. All tags, chains, leg bands, and unusual coat colorations were noted, and the group location was noted on a map. The count was considered complete when everyone agreed on the number and age-sex classes of the animals, which took between 30 and 75 minutes. The 1991 transect survey party consisted of four persons and took six days; in 1998 it consisted of seven persons and took seven days.
Census Walks: The two census walks (repeat surveys) each year were done in the same order as the transect survey. The area covered in the first day of that year’s transect survey was divided among survey parties, and the fieldworkers “walked” their designated area two days in a row. This procedure was repeated until all areas were covered. Repeat census walks in 1991 were carried out by two survey parties of one to three persons over a 17-day period, and in 1998 by three parties of one to three individuals over 10 days. Once a group was located, fieldworkers remained with that group for two hours. As with the transect survey, all animals were counted, marks noted, and group locations placed on an additional map.
Data Analysis: Results of the transect surveys and census walks were tallied in an identical manner for 1991 and 1998 to allow direct comparison between them. The data for each year’s transect survey and census walks were combined to produce a “best count” for each howler monkey social group, and represent the total count for La Pacífica for each survey year. While solitary animals are included in the total population, this analysis treats animals in groups and solitary animals separately. Census walks for each year were combined for a “census walk best count” to compare with each transect survey. For the 1998 survey, we also compared the transect survey, census walk 1, and census walk 2 separately with the total best count for the population. While a combination of data undoubtedly would reveal the best overall count, we wanted to determine the best strategy if only one transect survey or only one or two census walks could be completed. Positively identified animals, as well as habitual home range use (Glander et al., 1991; Zucker et al., 1996), were used to identify groups.
Results and Discussion
----------------------------------------------------------------- 1991 1998 Transect Total Transect Total ----------------------------------------------------------------- Animals in Groups 202 341 199 347 Solitary 6 3 4 4 Groups plus Solitary 208 344 203 351 Groups 21 27 22 34 Mean Size 9.6 12.6 9.1 10.2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
Table 1: Transect method vs. total survey
Transect Survey vs. Total Survey: In both 1991 and 1998, the total survey revealed more animals in the total population, more groups, and more animals per group than the transect survey method alone (Table 1). During the census walks in 1991, three of the animals recorded as “solitary” by the transect survey were found to be in groups. The differences are remarkably similar in the two years: with the transect survey, 60% of the total number (in groups plus solitary) were found in 1991, and 58% in 1998. The proportions of groups the transect survey found were less similar: 78% in 1991 and 65% in 1998. Part of this difference is due to the fission of one large group into six smaller groups between 1991 and 1998.
------------------------------------------------------------ 1991 1998 ------------------------------------------------------------ Transect Combined Transect Combined Walks Walks Animals in Groups 202 291 199 273 Groups 21 24 22 27 Groups seen Once 3 2 7 4 Solitary Animals 6 3 4 1 ------------------------------------------------------------
Table 2: Single transect survey vs. two census walks combined
Transect Survey vs. Census Walks combined: The transect survey revealed fewer animals and fewer groups than the two census walks combined in both survey years (Table 2), and the results again were very similar for the two survey years. The combined census walks for 1991 revealed 85% of the grand total of monkeys and 89% of the grand total of groups. The combined census walks for 1998 revealed 78% of the grand total of monkeys and 79% of the grand total of groups. Nevertheless, the transect survey contacted more groups that were seen only once during the total survey, and also located more solitary animals than the census walks combined (Table 2), although a few of the latter were determined by a census walk to be in groups after all.
----------------------------------------------------------------- Survey Seen in Not in Total % Final Count Transect Transect ----------------------------------------------------------------- Animals Transect 199 199 57% in Walk 1 105 63 168 48% Groups Walk 2 130 83 213 61% ----------------------------------------------------------------- FINAL 347 ----------------------------------------------------------------- Number Transect 22 22 65% of Walk 1 10 8 18 53% Groups Walk 2 13 9 22 65% ----------------------------------------------------------------- FINAL 34 -----------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3: 1998 Transect survey vs. each census walk
Transect Survey vs. each Census Walk: While the combined census walks produce a better estimate of the total population, is it the two walks combined or the nature of the walk itself that provides a better estimate? In Table 3 we present, for 1998, the results of the transect and each walk separately to compare each of the three with the total count for the population. Thus, animals may be counted in all “passes”, two “passes” or only one “pass”. The percentages represent the proportion seen in a given pass and are not additive. When the transect survey is compared to each of the census walks alone, the transect survey gives a better estimate of total population and number of groups (Table 3) than the first census walk, and a similar estimate to the second census walk. With each walk there is increasing familiarity with the habitat and group location by the fieldworkers, which probably accounts for the increasing success of locating animals.
1. For animals that are not individually identifiable: * Either the transect survey or a single census walk reduces the chance that an animal will be counted more than once. * The transect survey would be preferred as it misses only about 40% of the animals and groups. * The single census walk misses approximately 50% of the animals and groups, but is usable if the survey party is limited to one or two persons. * Either method provides a basis for comparison of populations already surveyed by the other method.
2. If some animals are identifiable: * The transect survey plus two census walks gives the best estimate of the total population. * If the survey party is limited to one or two persons, then the repeated census walk would be preferred as that underestimates the total population by only 40%, an amount similar to the single transect survey.
Cant, J. G. (1986). Locomotion and feeding postures of spider and howling monkeys: Field studies and evolutionary interpretations. Folia Primatologica, 46, 1-14.
Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L., Crockett, C. M., & Zaldivar, M. (1999). Assessment of the howling monkey (Alouatta palliata) population on Hacienda La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 28, 108-109.
Clarke, M. R., & Zucker, E. L. (1994). Survey of the howling monkey population of La Pacifica: A seven-year follow-up. International Journal of Primatology, 15, 61-73.
Clarke, M. R., Zucker, E. L., & Scott, N. J., Jr. (1986). Population trends of the mantled howler groups at La Pacifica, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. American Journal of Primatology, 11, 79-88.
Estrada, A. (1982). Survey and census of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the rainforest of “Los Tuxtlas”, Veracruz, Mexico. American Journal of Primatology, 2, 363-372.
Glander, K. E., Fedigan, L. M., Fedigan, L., & Chapman, C. (1991). Field methods for capture and measurement of three monkey species in Costa Rica. Folia Primatologica, 57, 70-82.
Glander, K. E. (1992). Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican mantled howling monkeys. International Journal of Primatology, 13, 415-436.
Heltne, P. G., Turner, D. C., & Scott, N. J., Jr. (1976). Comparison of census data on Alouatta palliata from Costa Rica and Panama. In R. W. Thorington, Jr., & P. G. Heltne (Eds.), Neotropical primates: Field studies and conservation (pp. 10-19). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Holdridge, L. R. (1967). Life zone ecology. Costa Rica: Tropical Science Center.
Lippold, L. K. (1988). A census of primates at Cabo Blanco Absolute Nature Reserve, Costa Rica. Brenesia, 29, 101-105.
Lippold, L. K. (1989). A wet season census of primates at Cabo Blanco Absolute Nature Reserve, Costa Rica. Brenesia, 31, 93-97.
National Research Council Committee on Nonhuman Primates: Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural Populations. (1981). Techniques for the study of primate population ecology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Scott, N. J., Jr., Malmgren, L. A., & Glander, K. E. (1978). Grouping behavior and sex ratio in mantled howling monkeys. In D. J. Chivers & J. Herbert (Eds.), Recent advances in primatology, Vol. 1 (pp. 183-185). New York: Academic Press.
Scott, N. J., Jr., Scott, A. F., & Malmgren, L. (1976). Capturing and marking howler monkeys for field behavioral studies. Primates, 17, 527-534.
Zucker, E. L., Clarke, M. R., Glander, K. E., & Scott, N. J., Jr. (1996). Sizes of home ranges and howling monkey groups at Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa Rica: 1972-1991. Bresnesia, 45-46, 153-158.
First author's address: Dept of Anthropology, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA 70118 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
This research was supported by National Geographic Research Grant #6244-98 and a faculty research grant from the Roger
Thayer Stone Center for Latin American Studies, Tulane University. Previous studies have been supported by National
Geographic Research Grant #4546-91, The School for Field Studies, Faculty Grants from Loyola University, and NIH
Grant RR00164 to the Tulane Regional Primate Research Center. We would like to thank the previous and present ownership
of Hacienda La Pacífica for graciously allowing us to work on their property, specifically Fernando Estrada, Luis Herra, and Lilian
and Werner Hagnauer. We gratefully acknowledge the immense support provided by Vreni Hagnauer, Antonio Leigh, Paulina and
Alfredo Chacon, and Luis Herra, and most especially the information and support provided over the years by Ken Glander, Norm
Scott, Jr., Mike Stuart, Mark Teaford, and innumerable undergraduate students, graduate students, and Earthwatch volunteers.
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Workshop in Tropical Ecology A Workshop in Tropical Ecology will be held November 1-10, 2001, at La Suerte Biological Field Station in northeastern Costa Rica. Classes in the rain forests of Costa Rica will give an introduction to a variety of field techniques used by tropical biologists in their studies of biodiversity, ecology and behavior of tropical organisms. Contact La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica [305-666-9932; e-mail: email@example.com]; or see <www.studyabroad.com/lasuerte>.
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Symposium: Critical Issues in Captive Care The following papers were presented at a Symposium of the Captive Care and Breeding Committee of the International Primatological Society, chaired by Hilary Box and Anne Russon, at the XVIIIth meeting of the Society, held January 7-12, 2001, in Adelaide, Australia.
Primate-Focused Ecotourism: Proceed with Caution
Constance Russell, Lakehead University
Boo (1990) defined ecotourism simply as “travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals” (p. xiv). This approach to ecotourism, according to Orams (1995), is a passive one whereby the only responsibility of tourists is to be unobtrusive and not damage the environment. He prefers a more active approach, which emphasizes attitude and behavior change in tourists, such that they depart with a greater commitment to conservation. Obviously then, for Orams, more attention must be paid to the educational potential of ecotourism. More commonly, we hear about the economic rationale for ecotourism, whereby it is hoped that governments and local communities, encouraged by the potential income to be made, tend and protect the wildlife and natural features that are attractive to tourists; much has been written about both the potential and pitfalls of this approach. With the exception of Orams and a few others, much less has been written about the educational aspects of ecotourism. My research on orangutan-focused ecotourism and whalewatching can be seen as an attempt to fill that gap.
Orangutan-focused Ecotourism: In 1992, I conducted research on tourist-orangutan interactions at the Orangutan Research and Conservation Project, located within the Tanjung Puting Reserve of Indonesian Borneo. Both wild and ex-captive rehabilitant orangutans live in the Reserve. Through analysis of data from observing participants, guided conversations, and post-trip questionnaires, three primary ways of perceiving orangutans emerged: orangutan as child; orangutan as the embodiment of pristine nature; and orangutan as photographic collectible. Each approach, quite logical in particular cultural and historical contexts, had different implications for environmental education and conservation practice, not all positive.
For example, some tourists imagined young, ex-captive rehabilitant orangutans to be much like human infants and sought out every opportunity to hold and cuddle them. While these young orangutans undoubtedly did need comfort, many of the tourists seemed unable or unwilling to acknowledge that the orangutans could become infected by human diseases or humans could be hurt by habituated animals (Russell, 1995). Further, I was concerned about the educational message that seemed to prevail: do we really want tourists to think that it is acceptable to cuddle wild animals? Other tourists were more interested in the wild orangutans to the point of dismissing the ex-captives because they were less “real.” Their days were thus spent in the forest seeking out wild orangutans. This emphasis on pristine nature can put increasing pressure on rare and endangered species and can lead to further exploitation of natural areas as tourists push into wilder areas (Russell, 1995). For those tourists fixated on getting the perfect photograph, much on the periphery of their camera lens was overlooked, giving them a decontexualized, fragmented view of nature (Russell & Ankenman, 1996).
Whalewatching: In my most recent research, I conducted a case study of whalewatching in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park in Quebec, Canada (Russell, 2001). Data was collected on whalewatchers through observing participants, interviews, and pre-trip, post-trip, and follow-up questionnaires. Since most whalewatchers showed strong commitment to whale conservation prior to the trip, they did not have their attitudes significantly shifted - it seemed to be a matter, really, of preaching to the converted. In fact, there was little evidence of much learning of any kind on the boats. In pre- and post-expedition tests of whale knowledge, many fared more poorly after whalewatching. Close to a third reported in the interviews that they learned very little or nothing on the trip, and expressed desire for more emphasis to be placed on educational interpretation.
With such minimal educational gains and growing concerns about the negative impacts of whalewatching on whales, one must ask whether it is really worth the potential costs? I am tempted to simply answer “no.” If, however, educational interpretation shifted from only providing basic facts (e.g., naming the species seen, their size, what they eat) to explicit discussion of recent scientific research on the impacts of whalewatching on whales, current threats to whales, and concrete suggestions for activism on behalf of whales, it would hold more possibility.
Conclusion: Ecotourism is unlikely to go away. I thus believe that greater attention must be paid to educational interpretation. A strong educational program ought not to stop with the simple relaying of facts but ought to explore the complexities of the conservation of the particular primate species and other members of the natural community. Further, education needs to explicitly address the negative impacts linked to primate-focused ecotourism (eg. disease transmission, habituation, trash, habitat destruction). This will require an investment of thought, time and money. With few positive role models, one should proceed carefully, if at all.
Boo, E. (1990). Ecotourism: The potentials and pitfalls. Washington, D.C.: World Wildlife Fund.
Orams, M. B. (1995). Towards a more desirable form of ecotourism. Tourism Management, 16, 3-8.
Russell, C. L. (2001). Tales of whales: Whalewatching as environmental education? Unpublished PhD Disserta-tion, Department of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.
Russell, C. L. (1995). The social construction of orangutans: An ecotourist experience. Society and Animals, 3, 151-170.
Russell, C. L. & Ankenman, M. J. (1996). Orangutans as photographic collectibles: Ecotourism and the commod-ification of nature. Tourism Recreation Research, 21, 71-78.
Address: Faculty of Education, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Rehabilitating orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): Behavioral Competence
Anne E. Russon, York University
Orangutan rehabilitation remains a major concern despite continuous operation since the 1960s. One site still receives 100-200 ex-captives annually (Boestani & Susilo, 2000). This paper sketches the strategies, problems, and successes of programs for rehabilitating orangutans behaviorally, i.e., fostering the social and ecological expertise to support feral life. As background, most ex-captives are rescued when still infants, under four years old, after being captured from the wild by killing their mothers (Swan & Warren, 2000). Orangutans gain expertise slowly, mainly by learning during immaturity. Ex-captives are even slower because of the disturbances, handicaps, and developmental disruptions caused by captivity. Behavioral rehabilitation typically entails several years of protective care plus several years of support while ex-captives readapt to forest life.
Ecological rehabilitation: My focus is foraging, although arboreality, navigation, predator avoidance, and nesting are also essential. Orangutans rely on a very diverse diet (>200 species) that is highly site-specific and fluctuates seasonally. Even wild orangutans may not master adult-level foraging until adolescence (van Schaik, Deaner & Merrill, 1999). Captivity-induced delays and damage complicate the task.
How best to foster foraging expertise remains uncertain. Programs commonly rely on ex-captives’ initiatives to learn, through experience, and offer supplemental provisions in support. Some introduce forest foods prior to release (Aveling, 1982; Smits et al., 1994), but which to offer is unclear: mainstay fruits, difficult-to-obtain foods, age-appropriate foods, or permanent foods. Experiential learning is slow, dangerous, and error-prone, however. Social learning is likely more to be effective (Box & Gibson, 1999) but is difficult to orchestrate. As tutors, humans often know little of orangutan foods, so skilled orangutans are preferable. Orangutan tutors’ availability, however, depends on their tolerance for learners, which depends on their relationships with each other (Russon, 2000). Development can complicate the task for foods requiring abilities attained only near maturity.
Ex-captives can learn basic foraging expertise within a few months and those captured late in infancy may retain expertise they acquired in the wild (e.g., Peters, 1995; Rijksen, 1978). Basic, infant-level skills are unlikely to support adults, however. Young ex-captives tend to have narrow diets and can remain ignorant of key foods even after 4-5 years of forest life (personal observation), even though dietary diversity may be critical during food scarcities. After identifying foods, ex-captives can spend another two years learning how to obtain them (Russon, 2000). The implication is that ecological rehabilitation can be a longer, more difficult process than expected.
Social rehabilitation: Evidence suggests that orangutans live in loosely dispersed communities (van Schaik & van Hooff, 1996). Skills in communicating, building relationships, and integrating into a community are then important to readaptation - doubly so, if they underpin social learning (Russon, 2000; van Schaik et al., 1999). Ex-captives’ social skills are commonly lacking or distorted. Social rehabilitation is clearly needed, as early as possible, and it is difficult to achieve (Rijksen, 1978).
The typical strategy is to bring ex-captives together via age-graded social groups or feeding sites, combined with surrogate parenting for young infants and reduced human contact. The orangutan companions available are mainly ex-captives - themselves inept, needy, and immature - so parenting often falls to humans even though it retards resocialization by prolonging human dependency. For similar reasons, tourism retards resocialization. Ex-captives face a final hurdle at release, entering a feral community, because newcomers may be repulsed (Rijksen, 1978). Some programs try to circumvent this hurdle by “creating” communities, i.e., releasing ex-captives in pre-established groups.
Success is mixed. Human-oriented ex-captives may be disinclined to interact with orangutans, foiling efforts to resocialize them. Existing relationships may disintegrate after release, perhaps because the transition stresses partners differentially (Russon, 1996). Community integration is hard to assess, given orangutans’ dispersal habits. Probably it is feasible for juveniles but increasingly difficult after puberty except for adolescent females. It also poses unpredictable challenges in ex-captive communities, which may have atypical social structures, age/sex distributions, etc. Atypical communities may also fail to provide the structures that normally support the acquisition of feral expertise. Insofar as readaptation depends on normal community operation, it may take generations.
Discussion: Statistics are sparse, uneven, and variable (e.g., survival estimates vary from 20-80%: Rijksen & Meijaard, 1999), partly because assessment is difficult. The typical success index, duration of independent survival, is insensitive to major irregular challenges such as droughts. Assessing survival also entails long-term, systematic tracking of highly dispersed, cryptic individuals. The practical difficulties are enormous and remain to be solved. Even reliable statistics would be hard to interpret, because they confound rehabilitation practices, ecological conditions, and orangutans’ capacity to readapt.
What programs commonly report is opportunistic sightings of surviving or reproducing ex-captives years after release. Well-known individual factors, e.g., late capture, brief captivity, moderate captive conditions, and having skilled friends, may remain the best predictors of success. The most effective programs may be individualized ones that simulate species-normal processes, especially the roles of mother and community as conduits of expertise. Given the difficulty of simulating feral problems in pre-release conditions and the stress caused by abrupt change, the best strategies may be post-release programming and graded release. Success also turns on research-guided program enhancement. Programs could benefit from research on long-term monitoring, early detection of problems, assessing release readiness, social learning, individual differences in readapting, and post-release support. Important above all, as new programs replace older ones, is to avoid the errors of the past.
Aveling, R. J. (1982). Orang utan conservation in Sumatra, by habitat protection and conservation education. In L. E. M. de Boer (Ed.), The orang utan: Its biology and conservation (pp. 299-315). The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.
Boestani, A. N., & Susilo, A. (2000). A report on the orangutan status in Kalimantan after the forest fires 1997-1998. Presented at The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century, Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, May 10-13.
Box, H. O., & Gibson, K. R. (eds.), (1999). Mammalian social learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Peters, H. H. (1995). Orangutan reintroduction? Development, use and evaluation of a new method: Reintroduction. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
Rijksen, H. D. (1978). A field study of Sumatran orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1872), Ecology, behavior and conservation. Wageningen: H. Veenman and Zonen B. V.
Rijksen, H. D., & Meijaard, E. (1999). Our vanishing relative : The status of wild orang-utans at the close of the Twentieth Century. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Russon, A. E. (1996). Observations on release group VI. Unpublished report to the Orangutan Reintroduction Project, Wanariset-Samboja, Dec., 1996.
Russon, A. E. (2000). How great apes create their cultures. Paper presented at Culture and the Cultural: New Tasks for an Old Concept? Wenner-Gren Confereence, Sept., Morelia, Mexico.
Smits, W. T. M., Heriyanto, & Ramono, W. (1994). A new method of rehabilitation of orangutans in Indonesia: A first overview. In J. J. Ogden, L. A. Perkins, & L. Sheehan (Eds.), Proceedings of the international conference on “Orangutans: The Neglected Ape” (pp. 29-40). San Diego: Zoological Society of San Diego.
Swan, R. A., & Warren, K. S. (2000). Health, management, and disease factors affecting orang-utans in a reintroduction centre in Indonesia. Presented at The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century, Chicago, May 10-13.
Van Schaik, C. P., Deaner, R. O. & Merrill, M. Y. (1999). The conditions for tool use in primates: Implications for the evolution of material culture. Journal of Human Evolution, 36, 719-741.
Van Schaik, C. P., & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1996). Toward an understanding of the orangutan’s social system. In W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant, & T. Nishida (Eds.), Great ape societies (pp. 3-15). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Address: Psychology Dept, Glendon College of York Univ., 2275 Bayview Ave., Toronto M4N 3M6, Canada [e-mail: email@example.com]
Captive Care in Primates: Application to a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) Release Program
in the Republic of Congo
B. Goossens, M. Ancrenaz, C. Vidal, and A. Jamart
Cardiff University, Kinabatangan Orang-Utan Conservation Project, and HELP Congo
Orphaned chimpanzees have long been illegally offered for sale in central Africa. Today, this traffic continues and is one of the major threats for the long-term survival of the species throughout its entire range. In the Republic of Congo, the pressing need to identify solutions to the problem of orphan chimpanzees led to the creation by Mrs. Aliette Jamart of HELP (Habitat Ecologique et Liberté des Primates), a non-governmental organization. In May, 1991, authorization was obtained from the Congolese Ministry of Wildlife Services to create a sanctuary, made up of three islands located in a lagoon in the Conkouati Reserve. Between 1991 and 1994, 59 young chimpanzees have been confiscated by the Congolese Wildlife Services and entrusted to HELP. All of them were brought to these islands. Their actual reintroduction into the wild in the Conkouati Reserve started in 1996.
This paper describes the evaluation, monitoring, and control of disease agents with potential to jeopardize reintroduction. Disease is here defined as any impairment that interferes with or modifies the performance of normal functions, including responses to environmental factors such as nutrition, toxicants and climate; infectious agents; inherent or congenital defects; or combinations of these factors (Wobeser, 1981). Special emphasis is given here to infectious agents, other agents being extensively discussed elsewhere (Tutin et al., in press).
The release of chimpanzees into the Conkouati Reserve carries with it the risk of introduction of new diseases with the potential to jeopardize the health of native wildlife and human communities, and the risk that the released animals themselves will be vulnerable to diseases normally present at the release site (Griffith et al., 1993).
A strict preventive medical program was designed and implemented since the onset of this project, well before the first reintroduction into the wild. There have been two veterinary evaluations of the whole colony, in 1992 and 1996, by a professional team from the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, in neighboring Gabon. The medical evaluation included body condition assessment (weight, measurements, dental formula, fat deposits, presence of external parasites, etc.); hematological, blood chemical and serological analysis (hepatitis A, B, C, filovirus, retrovirus); as well as collection of hair samples for DNA analysis (Goossens et al., 2000). The preventive veterinary program included deworming, vaccination (tetanus and poliomyelitis), and tuberculin test in the eyelid (old mammalian strain).
At both of these general veterinary screenings, all of the animals appeared in good external body condition. Weights, measurements, and dental formulas were within the physiological norms available for the species. Patches of depilation and superficial interdigital lesions of mycosis were recorded in several animals, and were attributed to the damp conditions on the islands. Hematology and blood chemistry did not show any particular trouble. A blood parasite (Mansonella perstans) was recorded in seven individuals. This filaria is commonly found in wild primates of central Africa and is not pathogenic. All animals were negative for retrovirus (ELISA and Western Blot tests), filovirus, hepatitis A and C, and tuberculosis. Hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) were positive for 15% of the colony. Hepatitis B virus infections in chimpanzees are only diagnosed by the appearance of antigens/antibodies, as clinical symptoms are infrequent. This infection occurs in chimpanzees under natural conditions (Maynard, 1971), so the detection of HBsAg in recently wild-caught and captive chimpanzees is frequent (Brack, 1987). This disease is not considered a major pathogen in this species, and to date there is no evidence of hepatitis B virus transmission from chimpanzee to man (Pattison et al., 1975). Direct analysis of feces showed that 85% of individuals were infested with intestinal parasites. The most common parasites were Ancylostoma duodenale (15% prevalence) and Strongyloides stercoralis (75%). Ivermectine (1 ml/25 kg BW) was administered subcutaneously to all animals.
The general medical screening showed that the colony was free of major pathogens, and according to the “IUCN/SSC Guidelines for Reintroduction”, there was no sanitary objection to the release of these chimpanzees in the Conkouati Reserve.
Before any reintroduction into the wild, each chimpanzee undergoes another veterinary screening. Only those individuals free of major pathogens are reintroduced. So far, four individuals with slight physical and/or behavioral incapacity have been judged to be unsuitable for release. The health of the chimpanzees after their release is also regularly monitored through direct observation and general body condition evaluation, as well as regular collection of fecal samples for intestinal parasite analysis.
B. Goossens, Biodiversity and Ecological Processes Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 915 Cathays Park, Cardiff CF 10 3TL, Wales, U.K. [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Potential Solutions to Managing a Population of Surplus Research Chimpanzees
Francine L. Dolins, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn
At present, approximately 1,800 chimpanzees are maintained in United States laboratory facilities. A significant proportion of these individuals have been determined to be surplus to research requirements. It has been proposed that the retired chimpanzees should live out the remainder of their natural lives in sanctuaries with minimal interference from humans. This paper will discuss the specific problems and efforts towards a solution of how to manage that part of the population.
Many of the same problems face both U.S. and African chimpanzee sanctuary efforts; funding is the main issue. Passage of the Chimpanzee Health Improvement, Maintenance, and Protection Act (the CHIMP bill) was sought to address funding in the U.S. Other questions which must be addressed include: * How many HIV/hepatitis positive chimpanzees are there? * What type of research should be allowed, if any, and how much or how little human interaction should be allowed? * Should breeding be allowed, or should it be controlled by contraceptive implants or by vasectomizing the males? * Should the social groups be all-male and all-female, or integrated male-female?
A History of the Problem: Sufficient similarities exist between chimpanzees and humans that the chimpanzee has served as a human surrogate in research in the U.S. since the mid-1950s. Since then, captive chimpanzees have been bred extensively for use in many types of research, including space exploration, development of infectious disease vaccines, biomedical and behavioral studies, and cognitive research. In the mid-1980s, an initial investigation indicated that chimpanzees might serve as a model to understand HIV. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) established a breeding program in 1986 to assure sufficient numbers of chimpanzees to meet future research requirements. The large numbers of surplus chimpanzees presently in U.S. laboratories are due to a number of factors: * the success of the NIH chimpanzee breeding program; * a decreased need for chimpanzees as a research model; * the ethical considerations posed by such research; and * the high cost of maintaining captive chimpanzees in laboratories.
By the mid-1990s there were approximately 1,700 chimpanzees maintained in research facilities in the United States. At about the same time, the need for the chimpanzee-HIV model in research declined considerably as other and more effective animal models were found. In response to the perceived oversupply of chimpanzees in laboratories, and anticipating a need for a new management plan, in 1994 the NIH requested the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the problem and report on potential ways to address the following issues: * the size of the breeding colony required to support future research needs; * issues of ownership, long-term care, and use in research; and * mechanisms by which non-governmental organizations could assist in achieving appropriate goals and solutions for the long-term care of chimpanzees.
Among the recommendations of the National Research Council’s 1997 report, Chimpanzees in Research - Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use, were: * a five year breeding moratorium (1997-2001); * euthanasia should not be considered a management option; and * sanctuaries should be established.
At about the same time, a number of animal protection organizations requested that those chimpanzees surplus to research needs be “retired” permanently into sanctuaries. The National Chimpanzee Research Retirement Task Force (NCRRTF) was formed, consisting of representatives from a number of these organizations.
In light of the 1997 NRC report, NCRRTF pointed out that the federal government directly and indirectly financially supports hundreds of chimpanzees no longer needed for experimental medical research. The establishment of less costly sanctuaries using federal money would be the most cost-effective and humane solution to a problem created by the federal government. These ideas were summarized in the CHIMP bill, which was introduced to Congress in 1999 by Representative Greenwood, and to the Senate by Senator Bob Smith.
Housing and maintaining chimpanzees in laboratories is costly and poses management problems, including significant challenges to providing appropriate living conditions. Currently, NIH owns and supports nearly 1000 chimpanzees at a cost of between $20 and $30 per day per individual. This amounts to approximately $1 million for the lifetime care of a chimpanzee, given that they can live up to 60 years in captivity. Instead, the surplus chimpanzees could be maintained, at a far lower cost, in better environments where they would be allowed to live the remainder of their natural lives without further invasive research or return to a laboratory. Sanctuary care would cost between $8 and $15 per chimpanzee per day. The design of Chimp Haven, for example, which is destined to be built in Shreveport, Louisiana, under the direction of Dr. Linda Brent, proposes a number of adjacent open, grassy enclosures with trees and indoor areas for protection from the harsher elements. The chimpanzees can be rotated among the enclosures, experiencing different amounts of space and environments, and providing opportunities to clean the enclosures.
Such sanctuaries, designed and maintained by experts in the care and management of this species, are the appropriate solution to the problem of lifetime care for unneeded research chimpanzees, as recommended in the 1997 NRC report and by other experts. Moreover, the creation of these sanctuaries represents a win-win situation for the chimpanzees and the scientific community. By freeing space, care staff, and finances devoted to caring for the chimpanzees, the research facilities can further fulfill their biomedical and scientific missions.
The Structure of the CHIMP Bill: The CHIMP bill provides $30 million over a number of years, with public/private matching funds to help establish and maintain chimpanzee sanctuaries. These sanctuaries could maintain not only ex-research chimpanzees, but also accept ex-pet and ex-entertainment chimpanzees for a fee with prior agreement from the government.
It is important to note that the bill designates that research facilities themselves determine which chimpanzees are no longer needed and can be retired.
The CHIMP bill sets in place minimum standards for sanctuaries, and a nonprofit entity, the Governing Board of Directors, to oversee that standards are met. This Governing Board will determine which sanctuaries will receive establishment grants and grants for long-term operating costs. The Governing Board now being created will be composed of a number of individuals with expertise in the management of sanctuaries for ex-biomedical research chimpanzees. Most notably, no members of the board may have been fined, or signed a consent decree, for any violation of the Animal Welfare Act.
In terms of sanctuary standards, the legislation relies on compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and conditions that provide for the psychological well-being of the chimpanzees. Sanctuaries are also prohibited from breeding the chimpanzees.
Annual physical check-ups, during which physiological data will be collected, are mandated. Any chimpanzee that dies (of natural causes) at a sanctuary will have a complete necropsy conducted by a trained veterinary pathologist to ensure that any useful data are collected. All of these data or samples will be available upon request. There is also a euthanasia clause in the bill, which states that a chimpanzee may only be euthanized if it is in its own best interests.
Where is the CHIMP Bill Now? The politics involved in the chimpanzee retirement issue have been thorny. When President Clinton signed the CHIMP bill into law on December 20, 2000, he was not the only one to have reservations about the final version. A number of animal protection organizations and individuals opposed the final version of the CHIMP bill, objecting strongly to the non-permanency clause that had been added.
The original version of the bill specifically stated that once a chimpanzee entered the sanctuary system, that chimpanzee could never be recalled into research (i.e., invasive, harmful research). Additionally, in the original version of the bill, there were limits placed on the kinds of research that could be done with the chimpanzees at any federally funded sanctuary: only noninvasive or observational research would be allowed. However, members of NCRRTF clearly understood that Congress had, at any time, the ability to overturn this permanency condition; the conditions for this would be a national medical emergency of some type, assumed an unlikely occurrence.
The biomedical community strongly opposed the permanency issue in the original version of the bill, stating that it should not be necessary to go to Congress to retrieve chimpanzees if necessary for some medical emergency. They suggested that such emergencies were likely to occur, necessitating larger numbers of chimpanzees than would be kept in research facilities, and that these decisions should be made at a faster pace. In turn, the animal protection organizations stated that the biomedical community would decide which chimpanzees to retire, thus any chimpanzees possessing value for future research should not be retired if there is a chance they would need to be recalled from a sanctuary. Dr. Jane Goodall stated strongly in her presentation to Congress last year that it would be cruel to remove a chimpanzee from its social group and the sanctuary environment once it had been acclimated. However, the final version of the CHIMP bill does not contain the right of permanency for any chimpanzee entering into the sanctuary system.
In summary, at present there are between 200 and 300 chimpanzees that could be immediately retired to the various existing and proposed sanctuaries - with finances the limiting factor. Funding will take time as the government processes the CHIMP bill, setting into motion the necessary committees and funding mechanisms.
In presenting these details about the U.S. surplus research chimpanzee situation, I hope to have provided an update and a guide for other countries facing similar issues with surplus research primates. While the CHIMP bill does not provide any easy solutions to the problem of how to deal with surplus research animals, it certainly is one step in the right direction.
Address: Dept of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Polytechnic Univ., Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 [e-mail: email@example.com].
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Hal Eyestone, 1918-2001 Dr. Willard “Hal” Halsey Eyestone died February 3, 2001, in Columbia, Missouri. He was 83. Dr. Eyestone played a very significant role in the establishment of the U.S. Regional Primate Research Center program. In the mid-1950s, Dr. James Watt had viewed Dr. Ray Carpenter’s colony on Cayo Santiago and the Russian Primate Center in Suhkumi. He was convinced that the U.S. needed such a primate center system and proposed a national primate center for cardiovascular studies. Later this was expanded to six Regional Primate Research Centers and one National Center. On October 16, 1958, Dr. Eyestone, a veterinary pathologist who was chief of the Laboratory Aids Branch of the Division of Research Services (NIH), was requested to devote at least half of his extramural time to the development of the Regional Primate Research Centers Program. Throughout the following 14 years Eyestone was intimately involved in the writing of applications for Primate Centers and in their subsequent construction, staffing and development. Without Eyestone’s drive and determination, and his ever-vigilant monitoring of the Center program, through good times and bad, it would have faltered. The contributions of this talented and efficient gentleman were enormous.
In 1972, after 23 years of federal service, Eyestone moved to the University of Missouri where he was Chairman of Veterinary Pathology until 1978. He later served as interim dean of the Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine.
Born on January 7, 1918, in Mulberry, Kansas, he married Betty Johnson on June 28, 1952, in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota. He is survived by his wife, two sons, two daughters, and seven grandchildren. He will be missed by all who knew him. - Dick Dukelow
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Resources Wanted and Available
Jonathan Ryan, of the University of Washington, writes: “A few years ago our lab identified what we believe is the causative agent for Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis (RF), a gamma-herpesvirus we have called RFHV. Sequence analysis of a small genomic region reveals that RFHV is the macaque homolog of KSHV or Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus. KSHV is the causative agent for several AIDS-related malignancies, most notably Kaposi Sarcoma.
“Our research has been hindered by not having appropriate samples for doing our work and difficulty identifying samples and infected animals. Our ability to study and understand these viruses could, and most likely will, have a positive effect, not only on people suffering AIDS-related malignancies, but on the animals in the research community. I am asking people with RF samples or RF-diseased animals to contact us at the Dept of Pathobiology, F146 Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Revised Red List Criteria
The new, improved categories and criteria used for listing plants and animals on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species are now available after a four-year review, called for by IUCN members. The review, coordinated by SSC, involving broad consultation with users and organizations from around the world, has produced a clearer, more open, and easy-to-use system for assessing species. With particular attention paid to marine species, harvested species, and population fluctuations, the review has refined the effectiveness of the Red List categories and criteria as indicators of extinction risk. See <www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlists/RLcategories2000.html> for more details. - From: IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin, March 2001. Anna Knee, Communications Officer, SSC/IUCN
Version 2.0 of Ramas Red List Software Available
Version 2.0 of the RAMAS® software, used for assessing the conservation status of species for possible inclusion in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, is now available. The software incorporates the revised Red List Categories (2000). To purchase a copy, contact Isabelle Weber, IUCN/SSC, Rue Mauverney 28, Gland CH-1196 Switzerland [fax: +41-22-9990015; e-mail: email@example.com]; or Applied Biomathematics, 100 North Country Road, Setauket, NY 11733 [fax: 516-751-3435]. Single-user and site-licensed copies of the software are priced US$295 and US$445 respectively. From: IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin - May 2001. Anna Knee, Communications Officer, SSC/IUCN
Environmental Enrichment Helpers
“Friends of Gorillas” is a volunteer enrichment group. “We do not interact with the animals directly but work with our local zoo helping the keepers with enrichment supplies. We bring in enrichment items the keepers request monthly, providing supplies for the various kinds of resident primates. Right now we work with zoos, but it is our belief that laboratory primates might benefit from similar enrichment. We hope to offer our services to local laboratories soon. We are interested in getting in touch with other volunteer enrichment groups who work with zoos or labs to exchange ideas. Please contact Mary Weber, 20 Spalding St, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130 [617 524 2240; e-mail: Annielaure@aol.com].”
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Primates de las Américas...La Página
Estimados amigos, todos nosotros nos hemos acercado a un libro de bioestadística o a un listado regional que permita tener una base para iniciar alguno de nuestros estudios, por lo que estamos seguros que estas publicaciones les serán de utilidad a todos ustedes. Agradecemos al Dr. Anthony Rylands por esta información. Finalmente, les presentamos una nueva opción para publicar nuestras investigaciones: Zoológica Latinoamericana, a la cual le auguramos mucho éxito, y los invitamos a enviar sus manuscritos. Les enviamos un cordial saludo y estamos a sus órdenes: Juan Carlos Serio Silva y Elva Mathiesen, Depto. Ecología Vegetal, Instituto de Ecología AC, km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatepec, Ap. 63 CP 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
BioEstat 2.0 - Um Pacote de Bioestatística para as Ciências Biológicas e Médicas no Brasil
BioEstat 2.0: Aplicações Estatísticas nas &AACUTE;reas das Ciências Biológicas e Médicas, autores Manuel Ayres, Manuel Ayres, Jr., Daniel Lima Ayres, e Alex Santos dos Santos. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico MCT-CNPq, Tefé e Brasília, 2000, 259 pp. ISBN 85-85924-07-1. Acompanha CD-ROM compatível com Windows 95/98/NT.
O livro tem uma história de 13 anos. Em 1987 foi apresentado a primeira versão do Bioestat - Aplicações Estatísticas em Basic - publicada pela editora McGraw Hill. A segunda versão evoluiu para o BioEstat 1.0, editada pelo CNPq-MCT e Sociedade Civil Mamirauá, e reunia 100 testes estatísticos, paramétricos e não-paramétricos. A versão atual - BioEstat 2.0 (2000) - também tem CD-ROM e apresenta 139 testes estatísticos, além de gráficos e tabelas de frequência. Possui também maior número de testes de análise multivariada, regressão logística e polinomial, análise de sobrevivência e modelos de distribuição de probabilidades, dentre outros. O objetivo dos autores é facilitar o acesso e uso da estatística entre os estudantes de graduação e de pós-graduação nas universidades do Brasil, e por isso sua distribuição é gratuita. Deste modo acredita-se que este pacote de bioestatística poderá contribuir com o desenvolvimento do ensino e pesquisa das ciências biológicas e médicas no país. Para maiores informações: Prof. Manuel Ayres, Rua Boaventura da Silva 304, Apto. 1.001, Bairro Reduto, Belém 66053-050, Pará, Brasil [e-mail: email@example.com].
Um Livro Vermelho para o Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Espécies Ameaçadas de Extinção no Município do Rio de Janeiro: Flora e Fauna, editado por Fernando Régis Di Maio e Márcia Botelho R. Silva. Rio de Janeiro: Secretaria Municipal de Meio Ambiente, 2000. 68 pp.
Inclui uma listagem de 50 espécies (27 de plantas e 23 de animais) já extintas no município. A categoria “Criticamente em perigo” inclui 46 espécies (35 de plantas e 14 de animais). “Em perigo” e “Vulnerável” somaram mais 345 espécies (274 plantas e 170 animais). No total foram listadas como ameaçadas 274 espécies da flora e 170 espécies da fauna do munícipio. A parte de mamíferos (pp. 39-43) foi elaborada por uma equipe coordenada por Carla Fabiane de Vera y Conde e incluiu Cecília Bueno (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro), Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino (Instituto Nacional do Câncer), Sérgio Maia Vaz (Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro) e Carlos Esbérard, especialista em Chiroptera (Fundação Rio Zôo). Alouatta fusca, Brachyteles arachnoides e Leontopithecus rosalia foram todas registradas como extintas no município. - Sérgio Maia Vaz, Museu Nacional, Seção de Mamíferos, Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Nueva Revista Zoológica Latinoamericana (Revista Trimestral)
Revista cuya finalidad es difundir la investigación científica realizada en varias áreas con animales silvestres y cautivos, así como las múltiples experiencias de la comunidad zoológica latinoamericana, Zoológica Latinoamericana acepta artículos y notas preferentemente en castellano, si bien admite escritos en inglés, portugués y francés. Todos los manuscritos que se presenten a la revista, serán sometidos a la consideración de científicos o especialistas en el tema, y la decisión final de aceptación es responsabilidad del propio Comité Editorial. Los trabajos sobre fauna neotropical tendrán prioridad de publicación sobre otros de fauna exótica. Los trabajos monográficos tendrán preferencia por sobre los meramente descriptivos. Para instrucciones para los autores y normas editoriales contactar a: Lic. Alejandro D. Scataglini, Director/Editor [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org], y/o Marcia Sabán, Coordinadora Editorial, [e-mail: email@example.com], Zoológica Latinoamericana, República de la India 3000, (C1425FCF) Capital Federal, República Argentina [+54 11) 48067412 int. 113/144; e-mail: Zoologicalatinoamericana@latinmail.com].
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Antioxidants in Prevention of Diabetic Complications
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Eye Institute (NEI), National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) seek basic and clinical research applications to 1) determine the efficacy of vitamin E or other antioxidants in preventing, delaying or ameliorating the micro- or macro-vascular complications of diabetes; and 2) provide insight into the mechanism(s) by which antioxidants might prevent or influence the development of diabetic vascular disease.
Appropriate topics for investigation would include but are not limited to: * Preclinical studies to determine the mechanism(s) by which antioxidant(s) prevent or influence the development of diabetic vascular disease, including neurovascular and cerebrovascular disease; * Studies to define interactions between oxidative pathways and free radical formation and the signaling pathways by which insulin, glucose and other factors affect the endothelium; * Studies to define similarities and differences in the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and anti-oxidant therapies affect microvascular and macrovascular disease in diabetes; * Studies to develop new strategies to inhibit oxidation/glycoxidation and to examine the effect of these strategies on microvascular or cardiovascular disease.
Direct inquiries to: Barbara Linder, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolic Diseases, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Rm 699, MSC 5460, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460 [301-594-0021; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; Peter Dudley, Vision Research Program, NEI, Executive Plaza South, Rm. 350, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-0484; fax: 301-402-0528; e-mail: email@example.com]; Momtaz Wassef, Div. of Heart & Vascular Diseases, NHLBI, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Suite 10186, Bethesda, MD 20892-7956 [301-435-0550; fax: 301-480-2848; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; David B. Finkelstein, Biology of Aging Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 2C231, MSC 9205, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail: email@example.com]; Paul Nichols, NINDS, Neuroscience Ctr, Rm 2118, 6001 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-496-9964; fax: 301-401-2060; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; or Rebecca B. Costello, ODS, Bldg 31, 1B29, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-435-2920; fax: 301-480-1845; e-mail: email@example.com].
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) invite research grant applications that offer the promise of exceptional technical and conceptual advances in our understanding of the nature of the signal being recorded in hemodynamic brain imaging techniques. We currently have a fundamental gap in our knowledge, because we do not truly understand the linkage between the hemodynamic response that is being recorded in imaging techniques and the supporting cellular and molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, the time course of the hemodynamic response, which evolves over 10 to 15 seconds, has made it difficult to apply functional imaging techniques to issues involving temporal sequencing of various cognitive events. Of particular interest would be approaches involving functional imaging and neurophysiological (e.g., single and multi-unit recording) studies conducted entirely in nonhuman primates. Such approaches would address the issue of the neural mechanisms underlying functional activation determined using functional-MRI or PET techniques. Also of interest are proposals that take advantage of improved understanding of the link between hemodynamic and neural events, increasing the ability of functional imaging to assess the temporal sequencing of cognitive activation that cannot be answered, with current technology, in humans. Thus, proposals are sought that will increase the utility of functional imaging techniques by * providing greater understanding of the link to underlying neural activity; and * improving the ability of these techniques to address questions with a significant temporal component.
For more information, see <grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-NS-02-009.html> and direct inquiries to: Emmeline Edwards, Systems & Cognitive Neuroscience, NINDS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Rm 2109, Bethesda, MD 20892-9521 [301-496-9964; fax: 301-402-2060; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; Kevin Quinn, Behavioral & Integrative Neuroscience Research Branch, NIMH, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 7N-7168, Bethesda, MD 20892-9637 [301-443-1576; fax: 301-443-4822; e-mail: email@example.com]; Molly V. Wagster, Neuroscience & Neuropsychology of Aging Program, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Ave., Gateway Bldg., Suite 3C307, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301) 496-9350; fax: (301-496-1494; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; Lynn E. Luethke, Scientific Programs Branch, NIDCD, 6120 Executive Blvd, MSC 7180, Bethesda, MD 20892-7180 [301-402-3458; fax: 301-402-6251; e-mail: email@example.com]; or Thomas G. Aigner, Div. of Neuroscience & Behavioral Research, NIDA, 6001 Executive Blvd., Rm 4282 MSC 9555, Bethesda, MD 20892-9555 [301-435-1314; fax: 301-594-6043; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. Application receipt date is November 28, 2001.
Caloric Restriction and Aging in Nonhuman Primates
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is soliciting applications to utilize the nonhuman primate (NHP) resources maintained by the NIA Intramural Research Program. This Program has developed colonies of rhesus monkeys and squirrel monkeys under either chronic or short-term caloric restriction protocols. These monkeys have been studied extensively and characterized by the NIA Intramural Research Program. NIA will provide support for extramural investigators to perform additional studies on these cohorts of monkeys, thereby extending and expanding on the information about the effects of caloric restriction on the physiology of aging in NHP.
These studies will use the cooperative agreement mechanism, an assistance mechanism in which substantial involvement of the NIA with the recipient is anticipated during performance of the planned activity. Responsibility for the planning, direction, and execution of the proposed project will be solely that of the applicant/awardee.
Caloric restriction is the one paradigm that has been demonstrated through extensive experimentation to extend lifespan in a variety of species, including flies, yeast, and rodents. In addition to increased longevity, caloric restriction also has a positive effect on many metabolic and physiological variables in rodents, such as immune function, stress response, and spontaneous and induced tumor genesis. However, although there is a large body of experimental evidence for the benefits of caloric restriction in rodents, the mechanism by which it effects those benefits has yet to be elucidated. It is also unknown at this time the extent to which the findings in rodents will be recapitulated in NHP. The limited studies that have been done in NHP, primarily examining metabolic variables, have shown a remarkable level of agreement with the rodent data. It is important now to expand these studies in NHP to examine a broad range of variables to determine if caloric restriction has benefits to both lifespan and health-span in NHP and to investigate the mechanism(s) by which it acts.
NIA investigators have already generated a significant amount of data on these colonies, with publications listed at <www.grc.nia.nih.gov/Branches/lns/rfa.htm>. These investigators are available to any applicant for collaborative studies.
The purpose of making this resource available is to stimulate research in all areas of study relating to the mechanism of action of caloric restriction in NHP. One goal is to determine if the health-span and lifespan benefits observed in rodents are also observed in NHP. The second goal is to promote more mechanistic studies to identify target systems, processes or molecules by which caloric restriction exerts its beneficial effects on healthy aging. To this end, many diverse areas of research are relevant, including investigations into maintenance of immune function with aging, behavioral studies, cognitive and motor function, sensory modalities including taste and olfaction, endocrine and neuroendocrine status, reproductive function, renal function, cardiovascular health, and hepatic function. The role of oxidative stress is also of interest, since there is considerable evidence that oxidative stress is a major factor in aging and that caloric restriction reduces the level of oxidative stress in rodents.
Due to the limited nature of the resource, significant coordination of studies may be necessary to facilitate multiple investigations using the same animals. Therefore, experimental protocols and timing of experiments will be coordinated by an Advisory Panel.
Letter of intent receipt date is November 11, 2001, and application receipt date is December 11, 2001. Direct inquiries regarding the application process or technical issues on the cooperative agreement mechanism to Nancy L. Nadon, Head, Office of Biological Resources and Resource Development, NIA, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, GW 2C231, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205 [301-496-6402; fax: 301-402-0010; e-mail: email@example.com]. Direct scientific inquiries regarding the primate colonies, including background information available, the CR protocols, and restrictions to research protocols, to Mark Lane, NIA, Gerontology Research Center, 5600 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore MD 21224 [301-594-1210; fax: 301-480-0504; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Fyssen Foundation Research Grants
The aim of the Fyssen Foundation is to “encourage all forms of scientific enquiry into cognitive mechanisms, including thought and reasoning, that underlie animal and human behavior, their biological and cultural bases, and phylogenetic and ontogenetic development.” The Foundation supports research in ethology, psychology, neurobiology, anthropology, ethnology, human paleontology, and archaeology. The Foundation will award Research Grants, intended to support postdoctoral researchers, under 35 years of age in biological sciences, and under 40 years of age in human sciences, who will settle themselves independently within a laboratory in France, which works in keeping with the Foundation’s goals.
Priority will be given to researchers who will develop their project in a different laboratory from the one they received their doctorate, and from the one they are working in at present. The grant will be from 100,000 to 200,000 FF (15,000 to 30,000 Euros) without renewal.
Applications should consist of 15 copies of the following: a CV; a list of publications; a description of the research project with budget forecasts; a list of people who have been approached about working on the project; and a list of other financial requests. The original letter from the inviting laboratory and original recommendation letters from two senior scientists outside the inviting laboratory should also be sent. The address is Secrétariat de la Fondation Fyssen, 194, rue de Rivoli, 7500l Paris, France [e-mail: email@example.com]. The closing date for proposals is October 31, 2001.
Aging Research Grants
The American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR) is accepting applications for its 2002 Grant Programs. AFAR will award more than $9 million to some 200 junior faculty, fellows, and students. Application materials can be obtained by contacting AFAR, 1414 Avenue of the Americas, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10019 [212-752-2327; fax: 212-832-2298; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; or see <www.afar.org>.
Among the grants available are: * awards for junior faculty to do research that will serve as the basis for longer-term research efforts, and * AFAR/Pfizer Grants in Immunology and Aging, both with December 14, 2001 application deadlines; and * Glenn Foundation/AFAR Scholarships for Research in the Biology of Aging, with a February 26, 2002 application deadline.
Extramural Research Facilities Improvement
The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) is authorized to “make grants or contracts to public and nonprofit private entities to expand, remodel, renovate, or alter existing research facilities or construct new research facilities.” The facilities will be used for basic and clinical biomedical and behavioral research and research training. Applications are encouraged from institutions of emerging excellence, which are defined as recipients of a “Center of Excellence” award in the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year in which an application is submitted. Centers of Excellence awards are made by the Division of Health Professions Diversity, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services. For this Program Announcement, the needs of smaller and developing institutions will be given special consideration.
The principal objective of this program is to facilitate and enhance the conduct of Public Health Service-supported biomedical and behavioral research by supporting the costs of designing and constructing non-federal basic and clinical research facilities to meet the biomedical or behavioral research, research training, or research support needs of an institution or a research area at an institution.
Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues, requests for application Standard Form 424, and application supplemental instructions to: Willie D. McCullough, Div. of Research Infrastructure, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 6132, MSC 7965, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0766; fax: 301-480-3770; e-mail: email@example.com]; direct inquiries regarding engineering and architectural issues to: Esmail Torkashvan, same address [301-435-0766; fax: 301-480-3770; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. Application receipt dates are October 1 and February 1, annually.
Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) recognizes the increasing trend toward the use of interdisciplinary approaches to advance the nation’s research endeavor and thus the need to encourage cross-disciplinary training for the next generation of researchers. Therefore, it is providing opportunities for those in the quantitative and physical sciences to take part in mentored biomedical research experiences with NIH-supported investigators. Such programs should provide innovative, mentored, realistic, eight-to-ten-week, summer laboratory research experiences for an appropriately targeted group of five to ten undergraduate students in biomedical research projects at the institution. The application should include strong faculty involvement, interactive group activities, presentations, and seminars.
Applications may be submitted by domestic, non-profit organizations, public and private, that have a cohort of mentors with NIH support. Mentors should have an active NIH research grant and be able to provide sufficient mentoring and a realistic research experience. The total project period may not exceed four years.
Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to: Hinda Zlotnik, Program Director, Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates, NIGMS, Bldg 45, Rm 2AS.37K, MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 [301-594-2651; fax: 301-480-2554; e-mail: email@example.com]; or see <www.nih.gov/nigms/>. Letter of intent receipt date is January 15, 2002; application receipt date is February 15, 2002.
Mechanisms in Nutrition and Infection
The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) invite grant applications to investigate basic, epidemiological, and clinical research on nutrition (including dietary supplements) and infection. Applicants are encouraged to assemble research expertise in the areas of nutrition, microbiology, and immunology to explore the complex interrelationships between nutrition and infection. Mechanistic studies aimed at understanding the molecular and cellular connections between nutrition and infections, immunity, and inflammation are especially needed.
Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to: Dennis Mangan, Infectious Diseases and Immunity Branch, Div. of Basic and Translational Sciences, NIDCR, Natcher Bldg, Rm 4AN-32F, Bethesda, MD 20892-6402 [301-594-2421; fax: 301-480-8318; e-mail: Dennis.Mangan@nih.gov]; Christopher E. Taylor, Div. of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, Rm 3128, MSC-7630, 6700-B Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892-7630 [301-496-5305; fax: 301-496-8030; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; Michael K. May, DDDN/NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd., 2 Democracy Plaza, Rm 663, MSC 5450, Bethesda, MD 20892-5450 (For UPS and Fed EX use 20817) [301-594-8884; fax: 301-480-8300; e-mail: email@example.com]; or Becky Costello, Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, 31 Center Dr., Rm 1B29, Bethesda, MD 20892-2086 [301-435-2920; fax: 301-480-1845; e-mail: CostellB@od.nih.gov].
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Research and Educational Opportunities
Research Fellowship Program - WCS
The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Research Fellowship Program (RFP) awards small grants to field research projects leading directly to the conservation of threatened wildlife and wildlife habitat. RFP applications must demonstrate strong scientific merit as well as direct relevance to wildlife conservation. The RFP will support fieldwork on a wide spectrum of wildlife species, habitats, and conservation issues. Previous RFP Fellows have conducted surveys of the population status of endangered species, investigated ecological processes in rainforests, savannas, and wetlands, analyzed the effects of habitat disturbance on wildlife, and assessed the impacts of management strategies. The RFP is coordinated through WCS’s core programs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Please note that the RFP does not support research in North America (excluding Mexico), Australia, or Europe and their territories. The RFP will not limit any individual from applying. However, most of the grantees are professional conservationists from the country of research, and/or postgraduates pursuing a higher degree. There are the following restrictions: Organizations are not eligible for funding; previous research fellows are not eligible for funding for the same project; faculty and/or research advisors should not be listed as principal investigators unless they plan to carry out the majority of the field work; the principal researcher must write the proposal (those written on behalf of another individual will be disallowed).
For more information, or an application, contact the Program Coordinator, Research Fellowship Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Blvd, Bronx, NY 10460 [+1 (718) 220-6828; fax: + 1 (718) 364-4275; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; or see <wcs.org/home/wild/researchfellowship/4596>. The application may be downloaded from the Website. Biannual deadlines: Must be post-marked by January 1 or July 1 of every year.
Postdoctoral Training in Biomedical Research
The MIT Division of Comparative Medicine is seeking veterinarians for its NIH-funded training program in biomedical research. The program incorporates a year of clinical training followed by three years of research training. The clinical experience and didactic training in laboratory animal medicine, laboratory animal pathology, and research prepare candidates for the ACLAM board examinations and a career in research. Clinical training will entail daily rounds at the Division’s state-of-the-art, AAALAC-approved animal facilities that include extensive surgical resources and fully equipped transgenic laboratories. Training activities also occur in the Division’s diagnostic laboratory, at the New England Regional Primate Center, and at other biomedical research institutions. Candidates have the option of pursuing a master’s degree or doctorate through MIT’s Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health. See <web.mit.edu/comp-med/postdoc/> for details concerning the program.
Requirements are a DVM from an AVMA-accredited institution, strong interest in research, and U.S. citizenship or permanent residency.
Interested candidates should send a cover letter, CV, and three letters of support to: Dr. James G. Fox, MIT Division of Comparative Medicine, 16-825, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 [e-mail: email@example.com]. MIT is an AA/EOE. - Posted to CompMed, July 5, 2001
Postdoc in Lab Animal Medicine or Pathology
The Department of Comparative Medicine at the University of Washington is inviting applications for postdoctoral training positions starting on July 1, 2002. The training program is designed to provide individuals with a broad foundation to build a career in teaching, research, and service in laboratory animal medicine or laboratory animal pathology, and to prepare them for ACLAM or ACVP board certification. We are seeking candidates with a strong interest in research. One year of clinical and pathology training in laboratory animals supported by the University is followed by three years of research training, which is supported by an NRSA training grant from the National Center for Research Resources, NIH. Financial support for the training includes stipend support, travel, medical/dental insurance programs, and partial support of tuition (in accordance with NIH policies). The stipend rate for the first year internship is approximately equivalent to the stipend levels established by NIH; the NIH stipend is $28,260 to $44,412 per year, commensurate with experience, for the three years of research training. Prerequisite for the program is a veterinary medical degree (DVM) or equivalent. Opportunities exist for qualified trainees to pursue advanced study for a MS or PhD degree. To be eligible for support, individuals must be U.S. citizens or have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the U.S. at the time of appointment. Individuals on temporary or student visas are not eligible. Persons interested in exploring the opportunity further may request a brochure containing a more detailed program description and an application by contacting Ms. Alice Ruff, Dept of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Box 357190, Seattle, WA 98195-7190 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; or see <www.washington.edu/medical/som/depts/compmed/overview.html>. The University of Washington is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
Postdoc - Comparative Field Study of Baboons
A postdoctoral position is available in an ongoing field study of two populations of wild savanna baboons: olive baboons in Kenya and chacma baboons in Botswana. The comparative study investigates intra- and inter-population variation in social behavior, particularly the adaptive significance of male-female “friendships” and male-infant social relationships, and male infanticide. The 2.5-yr postdoctoral position is funded by the National Science Foundation and is for the Kenyan component of the research. The work will involve collecting DNA samples (non-invasively), conducting quantitative observation of olive baboon behavior, and performing playback experiments of vocalizations. Candidates should have field experience and should have completed their PhD by the start date of January (or February), 2002. Applicants with additional experience in the design and execution of playback experiments are preferred. Applicants should send a letter and CV, together with the names of 2-3 people willing to write on their behalf, to: Ryne Palombit, Dept. of Anthropology and the Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, 131 George St, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1414.
Behavior and Ecology, Costa Rica and Nicaragua
Courses in Primate Behavior and Ecology will be given December 27-January 18, 2001, and May 25-June 19; June 22-July 17; and July 20-August 14, 2002, at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, and Ometepe Biological Field Station, Ometepe Island, Nicaragua. These courses cover the behavior and ecology of Old and New World primates from an evolutionary perspective. Emphasis will be given to the three species present at La Suerte: Cebus capucinus, Alouatta palliata, and Ateles geoffroyi. The material and topics covered in this course are equivalent to an upper division university course in primate behavior and ecology. Background in biology or physical anthropology is helpful but not required; it is far more important to have a serious interest in learning about primates and a desire to do field work in a tropical rainforest. Flora and fauna of interest will be pointed out and discussed as they are encountered. Students are encouraged to familiarize themselves in advance with general information about primates, tropical ecosystems, and Costa Rica. A list of books for the course is available at our Website. To request an information pack contact La Suerte Biological Field Station/Ometepe Biological Field Station, P.O. Box 55-7519, Miami Fl 33255-7519 [305-666-9932 (9-5 EST); e-mail: email@example.com]; or see <www.studyabroad.com/lasuerte>.
Training Opportunities in Comparative Medicine
The Section on Comparative Medicine of the Wake Forest University School of Medicine is seeking candidates for postdoctoral fellowships in comparative medicine. These positions offer unique opportunities for highly motivated veterinarians interested in research careers and in the care and study of primates, rodents, and a variety of other species in a research setting. The duration of the NIH-sponsored postdoctoral fellowship is typically three years. The postdoctoral fellowships are designed to provide research training to veterinarians, and may lead to the PhD degree. Training faculty includes 24 faculty, 11 of whom are veterinarians and 6 of whom hold board certification by ACLAM or ACVP. Areas of research include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer biology, and behavioral medicine with an emphasis on research in women’s health and nutrition. Applicants must be U.S. citizens or permanent residents and graduates of AVMA-accredited veterinary schools. Stipends range from $30,000 to $55,000 per year depending on previous experience. Interested applicants should send a statement of career goals and interests, a CV, college transcripts, and three letters of reference to Jan Wagner, Dept of Pathology, Section on Comparative Med., Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040; [336-716-1630; fax, 336-716-1515; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. AA/EOA.
Teaching Research Ethics
Indiana University’s ninth annual Teaching Research Ethics Workshop will convene on the campus at Bloomington, Indiana, May15-18, 2002. Session topics will include an overview of ethical theory; using animal subjects in research; using human subjects in clinical and non-clinical research; and responsible data management. Many sessions will feature techniques for teaching and assessing the responsible conduct of research. For more information, contact Kenneth D. Pimple, Teaching Research Ethics Project Director, Poynter Center, Indiana Univ., 618 East Third St, Bloomington, IN 47405-3602 [812-855-0261; fax: 812-855-3315; e-mail: email@example.com]; or see >poynter/Indiana.edu<.
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Information Requested or Available
Society for Conservation Biology - NeoCons
The Neotropical Conservation Biology Bulletin - NeoCons - is an electronic bulletin produced and edited at <www.conservationbiology.org/> by the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) as a forum for conservation issues in South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. The first issue was released in February, 2001. SCB is an international organization dedicated to promoting the scientific study of phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity. Mac Hunter is the SCB President and Co-Chair of the Internationalization Committee.
NeoCons is distributed electronically and free to all interested individuals, whether or not they reside in the region or are members of the SCB. The purpose of NeoCons is to facilitate information exchange and strengthen the discipline of conservation biology in the Americas. NeoCons is published every two months and has two main sections: * the table of contents of each issue of Conservation Biology in Spanish, and * a compilation of information relevant to the practice of conservation biology. Contributions to NeoCons may be made in Spanish, English, Portuguese, and French. The subscription form and other information are available at <www.conservationbiology.org/SCB/Publications/NeoCons/>. For additional information contact Jon Paul Rodríguez, Editor NeoCons, Centro de Ecología - IVIC, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A, Venezuela [+58 212 504 1194; fax: +58 212 504 1088; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
New On-Line Journals
BioMed Central (BMC) Ecology covers environmental and population ecology of plants, animals, and microbes. The journal is one of 60 or so published by BioMed Central, <www.biomedcentral.com/>, a recently established on-line publishing house that is committed to making original research articles in biological and medical science freely available to all.
BMC believes that communication of original research is the single most important part of the scientific process and that the current publishing model often hinders more than helps because of the limited circulation and high costs of many journals. BioMed Central overcomes this by making papers available on-line to anyone at no cost, while also having them listed in PubMed. Anybody publishing with BMC Ecology (or any of the other BMC journals) will have their article: * made freely available to anyone with Internet access - more people than ever will be able to read the results of your work; * peer reviewed in the normal way but using the speed of the Internet to expedite the process - BMC’s average time from submission to publication is currently 6.5 weeks, and the aim is to reduce this further; * cited in PubMed and archived in PubMed Central, the NIH’s central research repository - this will make your article easily accessible and securely archived; * drawn to the attention of the readers of the two other BioMed Central journals that you deem most appropriate, by including it in their tables of contents as “related papers”; and * once your article is published you will be able to see exactly how many people have accessed it. BioMed Central is guided by an Editorial Directorate, including some of the world’s leading scientists and clinicians. Instructions for submission: <www.biomedcentral.com/manuscript/checklist.asp>. Some recently published research articles in BMC journals are at: <www.biomedcentral.com/biology.asp>. For more information, contact Peter Newmark, Biology Editorial Director, BioMed Central [e-mail: email@example.com]. For updates on research, reviews and editorials published by BioMed Central, register at: <www.biomedcentral.com/registration/>.
Bioinformatics Resources and Tools
Alberto M. R. Davila, of the Lab. de Biologia Molecular de Tripanosomatideos, DBBM/IOC/FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-Brasil 21045-900 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org], announced on the “tdr-scientists list” that he is building a site containing links to “Bioinformatics Resources and Tools”. He intends to include links on * Research centers and departments * People * Jobs and postdoc openings. People working on computational biology, evolutionary genomics, phylogenomics, etc., are invited to e-mail him with links and suggestions. The site is temporarily <www.geocities.com/amrdavila/links.html>, but he hopes it will eventually find an academic home.
Recently Described Primate Species and Subspecies
Anthony Rylands, of Conservation International, has composed a list of nonhuman primates described since 1990. This list, of 36 species and subspecies, is at <www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/newspecies.html>.
2000 IUCN Red List
"The IUCN Red List Website has been revamped, and is now back up on-line again at <www.redlist.org/>. The site looks much the same but the database behind the search function has been moved to a faster, more stable platform. Taking advantage of the opportunity, a number of changes were made: * Correction of some errors in the data, particularly the distributions of the birds; * Improved functionality of the search options by adding some new search 'modifiers' and a list of special animal keywords to help those without any taxonomic knowledge (i.e., it is now possible to search under words like 'bats', 'sharks', etc.); * A complete rewrite of the Help menu to provide improved guidance on the search functions, and printing and saving options; * Updates to many of the static background documents; * Addition of a new static page providing links to a number of other related Websites which contain additional information on species, photographs, and details of conservation programs. We hope that you will all find the revamped site much more accessible and faster. Please report any problems you may encounter. The next major update to the site will be in January, 2002, when the 2002 Red List is launched. The IUCN Red List Programme is sponsored by the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (Conservation International) and the U.K. Dept. of Environment, Transport & the Regions. - Craig Hilton-Taylor, IUCN Red List Programme Officer, IUCN/SSC U.K. Office, 219c Huntingdon Rd, Cambridge CB3 0DL, U.K. [+44-1223-277966; fax: +44-1223-277845; e-mail: email@example.com]. [See also p. 13 of this issue.]
New Species Survival Commission Website
The Sustainable Use Specialist Group has launched its own Website to further raise its profile as IUCN’s major vehicle for promoting understanding of sustainable use. The site <www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/susg> includes 17 regional SUSG Web areas and contact details for chairs and focal points. There are a number of feature articles such as the Pan African Symposium, the IUCN Small Grants Program, and the Lessons Learned in Sustainable Use Case Study Series. Several items are available in French and Spanish. - From IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin, May 2001. Anna Knee, Communications Officer, SSC/IUCN.
More Interesting Websites
* Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program: <www.bioko.org>
* Health, Nutrition, and Population Statistics, a component of the Knowledge Management System of the World Bank’s Human Development Network: <devdata.worldbank.org/hnpstats/>
* Infection, Genetics and Evolution - the Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases: <cepm.mpl.ird.fr>
* International Journal of Comparative Psychology abstracts: <rana.uqam.ca/IJCP>
* International Veterinary Information Service: <www.ivis.org/>
* International Veterinary Information Service Calendar: <www.ivis.org/calendar/calendar.asp>
* IUCN Guidelines for Re-Introductions: <www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/pubs/policy/reinte.htm>
* Nature’s job market site:<www.naturejobs.com>
* Tropical Disease Research News: <www.who.int/tdr/publications/tdrnews/default.htm>
* Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow: <www.vetscite.org>
* Virtual Anesthesia Machine: <www.anest.ufl.edu/vam>
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Environmental Enrichment, Tulane RPRC
The Tulane Regional Primate Research Center is seeking a Veterinary Technician for the following duties: * Implements enrichment procedures in all areas daily, as per departmental procedures; * Prepares and distributes enrichment items to research animals; * Documents compliance with the Environmental Enrichment Plans for all species; * Assists with data management and record keeping; * May assist in developing, reviewing, and revising, and will implement, Standard Operating Procedures relating to environmental enrichment; * Performs behavioral observations and assessments, including compatibility of socially housed animals; * Trains various species to cooperate with basic husbandry and research procedures; * Orders and creates enrichment items.
Qualifications include prior experience working with animals and/or animal behavior; the ability to read and interpret documents such as safety rules, operating and maintenance instructions, and procedure manuals; basic math skills; writing and oral communication skills; the ability to solve problems and deal with a variety of situations; and the ability to work independently and in groups. A bachelor’s degree with a background in behavioral sciences, plus two years of experience in laboratory animal, care are desirable.
The salary will be $18,000 to $22,497 annually ($9.23 to $11.54 per hour), depending on experience. Contact K. Phillippi Falkenstein, Program Coordinator, Dept. of Veterinary Medicine, Tulane RPRC, 18703 Three Rivers Rd, Covington, LA 70433 [985-892-2040, ext. 6317; fax: 985-871-6328; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Clinical Veterinarian, Tulane RPRC
Tulane RPRC is also seeking applications for the position of Clinical Veterinarian within the Department of Veterinary Medicine. The Tulane RPRC is an AAALAC International-accredited facility, housing approximately 5000 nonhuman primates (NHP) of nine different species. The largest research program involves infectious disease research, concentrating on the study of AIDS. Other areas of research involve gene therapy, reproduction, vaccine studies, malaria, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, antiviral therapy, and clinical NHP medicine and surgery.
Responsibilities include general medical and surgical care of breeding colony and research animals; provision of research support; and training of investigators, veterinary students, and technicians. The successful candidate will be provided opportunities to participate in the conduct of independent or collaborative clinical research directed toward nonhuman primate medicine and surgery.
The candidate must hold a DVM/VMD degree from an AVMA-accredited college of veterinary medicine and be licensed to practice veterinary medicine in one of the 50 states. ACLAM, ACVIM, or ACVECC board certification or eligibility is desirable. The candidate should have good verbal and written communication skills and the ability to interact positively with others. This position will remain open until a qualified candidate is selected.
Interested persons should submit a letter of interest, CV, and a list of three references to: Skip Bohm, Associate Director for Veterinary Resources, at the address given above. For more information call 504-871-6362 or e-mail: email@example.com. Tulane University is an AA/EOE and encourages applications from women and members of minority groups.
Department of Psychology, University of Chicago
The Department of Psychology at the University of Chicago is seeking to fill several faculty positions in Biopsychology. Our primary goal is to understand behavior and minds in relation to biological mechanisms. We construe biological mechanisms to include the endocrine and immune systems as well as the nervous system. Biopsychologists who study either animals or humans are encouraged to apply. We are open to a wide range of research areas and will ultimately select a group with diverse and complementary perspectives. Research areas include the reciprocal relations between psychological processes and biological systems, with an emphasis on their evolution, development, or mediating mechanisms. The University of Chicago has established an Institute for Mind and Biology and constructed a new biopsychology research facility to house these research efforts - see <socialpsy.uchicago.edu/imb.htm>. This building includes research laboratories for both human and animal studies, fully accredited animal care facilities, offices, and rooms for equipment to be shared in common. Positions are open at both junior and senior levels. Evaluation of applicants will begin November 1, 2001, and will continue until all positions have been filled. The anticipated start date is Fall, 2002, but is flexible. Applicants should submit a CV, a conceptual summary of research, and representative publications. In addition, junior candidates should have three letters of reference sent to: Biopsychology Search Committee, c/o Gwen Stevenson, The University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Avenue, Green Hall, Room 109, Chicago, IL 60637.
Research Support Supervisor - Washington State
SNBL USA, Ltd., is seeking a research support supervisor to supervise animal technicians in the operation of a centralized animal facility. This person will monitor and maintain animal health under the supervision of the attending veterinarian; oversee activities concerned with feeding and care of animals, and maintenance of animal quarters to ensure compliance with laboratory regulations and quality control standards; maintain an inventory of animal feed and supplies; initiate purchase requisitions as needed; maintain animal records, including records used for research purposes; and act as after-hours emergency contact for the department.
Qualifications include a bachelor’s degree in a related field and 1-3 years of directly related supervisory experience and training; or 4-6 years of related supervisory experience and training. An equivalent combination of education/experience may substitute for these requirements. AALAS certification is preferred. For more information, contact Mark Honda, 6605 Merrill Creek Pkwy, Everett, WA 98203 [425-407-0121; fax: 425-407-8601; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. To apply, please send him a cover letter and resume.
Animal Resources, Oregon RPRC
The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, an institute of Oregon Health and Science University, has reopened the search to fill the position of Head of the Department of Animal Resources. This position provides the leadership and management skills for our AAALAC-accredited Primate Center animal care program. The animal resource department employs five veterinarians and approximately 60 technicians; it provides care for approximately 2,700 nonhuman primates and a small number of other laboratory animals.
Duties of the position include maintaining and enhancing an organizational structure that assures quality research support and animal health care. The individual selected for this position will provide administrative direction and support for the following programs: preventive medicine, pathology, surgery, specific pathogen free breeding, non-human primate psychological well-being, and staff training. In addition, the responsibilities include the design and development of new animal facilities.
Qualifications: A Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent degree from an accredited college of veterinary medicine is required. The successful candidate must be licensed to practice in at least one state and be ACLAM board-certified or board eligible. The candidate must have knowledge of the federal regulations governing the care and use of primates in research, and ideally, extensive experience in managing primate research facilities. The candidate must have strong leadership, communication, and administrative skills, and experience with budgets and cost-accounting issues.
To apply, send CV, letter of introduction, and names and telephone numbers of three references to David Hess, Oregon RPRC, 505 N.W. 185 Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006 [e-mail: email@example.com].
Colony Manager and Assistant Operations Manager
The Mannheimer Foundation, Inc., invites applications for the position of Colony Manager. Candidates must have training and experience as primate behaviorists and be knowledgeable about the biology and social structure of nonhuman primates, with at least three years' experience with macaque behavior and breeding. Individuals must have either a master’s or PhD degree. The position requires maintaining comprehensive demographic records for individuals in our macaque and baboon breeding colonies, and developing breeding strategies that will maximize social harmony and production of the colony. Most animals at the Foundation are housed outdoors, in a variety of housing designs. The Colony Manager will continually monitor all aspects of the environmental enrichment program for all species at the Foundation. Opportunities are available for conducting related research and for postdoctoral training.
Applications are also sought for the position of Assistant Operations Manager. Candidates must have training and experience in primate colony management, and supervisory experience in overseeing the daily operation of a large multi-species nonhuman primate breeding facility. Individuals must have a bachelor’s degree, certification as a Laboratory Animal Technologist, and at least three years’ supervisory experience. Applicants who have had AALAS course training who have and advanced computer skills will be given special consideration.
The Foundation is a not-for-profit organization, located on a 90-acre tract in Homestead, Florida, 20 miles north of Key Largo, which is bordered by Biscayne and Everglades National Parks. A short drive north to Miami and Miami Beach affords a wide variety of cultural and entertainment opportunities. Interested candidates should send a letter of application with a CV and a list of three references to: Joseph L. Wagner, Director, The Mannheimer Foundation, Inc., 20255 SW 360 St, Homestead, FL 33034-4106 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Environmental Enrichment Coordinator
The Wake Forest University School of Medicine is seeking an individual to fill the position of Environmental Enrichment Coordinator in the Animal Resources Program. This full-time job will entail working with nonhuman primates, and possibly a variety of other laboratory animal species, and assisting in the development and implementation of the Wake Forest University Plan for the Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates. Additional responsibilities include consulting with faculty and staff in order to blend environmental enrichment plans with their research needs, and gathering and reviewing relevant literature to provide references in this field. Candidates should be university graduates in the behavioral, biological and/or physical sciences and have two years of related clinical/research experience. Excellent interpersonal and writing skills are essential, in addition to conversance with computer language and techniques. Experience working with nonhuman primates is desired, as is AALAS certification, and a working knowledge of animal welfare regulations and guidelines.
Please send resume, letter of interest, and names of three references to Jan Wagner, Assistant Director, Animal Resources Program, Wake Forest Univ. School of Med., Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040 [336-716-1630; e-mail: email@example.com]. Wake Forest University School of Medicine offers a competitive compensation and benefits package, and is an EO/AA employer.
Laboratory Animal Technician - Maryland
Logicon ROW Sciences has an immediate opening for a lab animal technician, experienced with nonhuman primates, to perform behavioral enrichment, hands-on duties such as feeding and occasional husbandry, and detailed record-keeping. A degree in animal sciences, biology, or other life science is preferred; excellent communication skills are required. This technician should enjoy working in a team environment. Salary is negotiable. For more information, or to apply for this job, contact John Chick, Division Director BRSS, Logicon ROW, 1700 Research Blvd., Suite 400, Rockville, MD [301-294-5566; fax: 301-294-5490; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org].
Chimpanzee Trainer - Alamogordo
A chimpanzee trainer position is available at the Alamogordo Primate Facility (APF) in Alamogordo, New Mexico. This facility houses 288 research veterans. The APF is an NIH-supported colony and no research is performed here. A BS in animal behavior or a related field is required, but a postgraduate degree is preferred. Prior experience in training nonhuman primates using operant conditioning and positive reinforcement is required. The position involves working with HIV- and hepatitis-infected animals. The salary will be commensurate with experience, and excellent benefits are included. Send CV and references to D. Rick Lee, DVM, Alamogordo Primate Facility, P.O. Box 956, Holloman Air Force Base, NM 88330-9056 [505-679-3800; e-mail: email@example.com].
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Lemur Sanctuary in Texas
Primarily Primates, Inc., of San Antonio, announced on May 22 that they received a $27,000 grant from the San Antonio Area Foundation to fund the construction of a naturalistic habitat for 12 red-fronted and ring-tailed lemurs. The lemurs had been housed at Bucknell University, where they were research subjects for student protocols. The new 50’ x 50’ x 17’ enclosure will completely surround a section of trees with intertwined branches, and will include “natural foods such as leaves, grasses, insects, and flowers.” - From a press release
AALAS Appoints New Executive Director
Ann Tourigny Turner, PhD, CAE, was named Executive Director of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Sciences (AALAS) on June 2. Dr. Turner has served as Chief Executive Officer for both the National Rehabilitation Association and the American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics. She has held management positions at the American College of Health Care Administrators and the Association of University Programs in Health Administration. Most recently, Dr. Turner has been Director of Education at the Oklahoma Community Healthcare Alliance, a consultant for the Airborne Law Enforcement Association, and an instructor at the University of Phoenix. A message from AALAS President Richard Simmonds announcing Dr. Turner’s selection may be found at <www.aalas.org>.
Rhesus Monkeys Drowned in Houston Flood
Tropical Storm Allison, the 2001 hurricane season’s first named storm, first came ashore at Houston, Texas, on June 5. Two medical schools lost nearly 35,000 mice, rats, rabbits, dogs and monkeys and countless tissue and cell samples used in medical research that had, in some cases, stretched on for decades. Forty-seven rhesus monkeys were among the thousands of animals drowned in the basement of the University of Texas Medical School. They drowned in water that rushed into the basement with enough force to tear metal doors from their hinges. - From a July 15 Associated Press report by Kristen Hays
Man Jumps Into Zoo’s Gorilla Exhibit
Saying he wanted to be “at one with the monkeys,” a man stripped down to his boxer shorts, scaled a high fence, and jumped into the Bronx Zoo’s gorilla exhibit Wednesday, police said. A quick-thinking zoo employee was able to herd the gorillas into their feeding cages before the man could come near them. “There was no physical contact between the two species,” said Sgt. Andrew McInnis, a police spokesman. The man was taken to a hospital for a psychiatric evaluation. - From an Associated Press report, August 8
Can Wood Labeling Save Asia’s Tropical Forests?
“Lauan” is the trade name for hardwood milled from the rainforest trees that grow in Indonesia and Malaysia. It accounts for about 80 percent of all tropical timber sold in the U.S. And, according to a not-yet-published report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), an estimated seven out of every ten trees cut down in Indonesia are from an illegal or uncontrolled harvest. But a “good wood” certification effort is just getting started, offering hope by laying bare the connection between the chainsaw gangs in Southeast Asia and the wood on store shelves. The goal is to create a market for eco-friendly timber by riding the same wave of environmental consciousness that is starting to build markets for “fair trade” coffee, bananas, and cocoa. Certification systems have been set up to review which forests are being responsibly logged, and to reward their owners with higher prices and more customers.
A coalition of environmentalists and timber executives called the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is actively testing that theory. The Oaxaca, Mexico-based group’s voluntary certification program is the most rigorous in the world - and the only one endorsed by the WWF. The idea is to inform consumers about where wood comes from and at what environmental cost.
In August, 1999, Home Depot President and CEO Arthur Blank promised to eliminate wood sales from environmentally endangered areas and to give preference to certified wood by the end of 2002. Home Depot is the world’s largest lumber retailer; sales for the year 2000 were $45 billion, or about a third of Indonesia’s gross domestic product. As such, it sets the industry standard. Within a year, the world’s second- and third-largest buyers of lumber - Lowes Companies, Inc., and IKEA - had signed up, too.
Time is running short, if the supply of certified wood is going to meet demand. While about 200 patches of global forest have already been certified, they represent a tiny fraction of world demand. “If Home Depot came on board tomorrow, they’d exhaust the global supply of certified wood in about a day,” says the WWF’s Rod Taylor.
Rainforest Relief’s Tim Keating says his big worry now is that the FSC and buyers are going to fudge on their commitments when confronted with the reality that there’s not enough wood. “There’s been this rush to certify, but they’re going to have to water down their standards if they’re going to meet demand.’’ For Keating, the euphoria of the 1999 success is wearing off. He’s begun to doubt Home Depot’s ability to meet its commitment. “This is so big, we’re willing to wait,’’ he says. “But we may end up having to start another campaign.’’ - From an August 23, 2001, article by Dan Murphy in The Christian Science Monitor, posted to PrimFocus
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Announcements from Publications
Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects
Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers is pleased to introduce Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects (formerly Advances in Primatology), a new series under the direction of the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Primatology, Russell H. Tuttle.
This peer-reviewed book series will meld the facts of organic diversity with the continuity of the evolutionary process. The volumes in this series will exemplify the diversity of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches currently employed by primatologists and physical anthropologists. Specific coverage includes: primate behavior in natural habitats and captive settings; primate ecology and conservation; functional morphology and developmental biology of primates; primate systematics; genetic and phenotypic differences among living primates; and paleoprimatology.
Volume authors will be invited to participate based on their expertise in a given area and overall approval by the series editor. Volume authors and editors will receive generous royalties, complimentary copies, and full marketing and editorial support. Contributors will receive complimentary copies rather than royalties. All manuscripts will be “typeset from disk”. Volumes will be approximately 300 printed pages (all page lengths are negotiable) in a 6-1/2" x 9-7/8" format. For further information on how to contribute a volume to this series, please contact Andrea Macaluso [212-620-8007; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. - Russell H. Tuttle, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 1126 East 59th St, Chicago, IL 60637.
The American Committee on Laboratory Animal Diseases (ACLAD) is an AALAS-affiliated organization which was established to advance and communicate knowledge about diseases of laboratory animals for the benefit of laboratory animal science and comparative medicine. See <www.aclad.org/> for more information, including back issues of the Newsletter.
The Newsletter publishes one- to two-page articles on topics such as research relating to laboratory animal diseases, disease reviews, case reports, information on disease incidence and serosurveys, issues in standardization and improvement of diagnostic methodologies, new animal models for disease, and special problems in transgenic animals. Please submit your materials to Craig Franklin, Dept of Veterinary Pathobiology and Research Animal Diagnostic Lab., College of Veterinary Medicine, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 [573-882-6623; fax: 573-884-7521; e-mail: email@example.com].
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Volunteer Opportunity: Research on Spider Monkeys, Yucatan, Mexico
A motivated and dedicated assistant is needed for a study of the social behavior of a wild population of spider monkeys in Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. This is part of a long-term project coordinated by Drs. Filippo Aureli and Colleen Schaffner. Work would include following spider monkey subgroups, working in close coordination with well-trained local assistants, collecting behavioral and ecological data on the monkeys and their habitat, and entering data into computers. This is a great opportunity to gain fieldwork experience and enjoy an area full of wonderful wildlife and fascinating Maya culture.
Applicants should ideally have a degree in biological sciences, psychology or a related subject. Experience with fieldwork, collection of behavioral data, primates, and tropical countries is preferable. Knowledge of Spanish is essential. Applicants should commit themselves to stay for a period of one year and be able to start no later than January, 2002, possibly earlier. Depending on the applicant’s experience, a training period at Chester Zoo, U.K., may be required before going to Mexico.
Research fees and lodging will be paid for; a contribution toward monthly food expenses will be provided as well, but the assistant will have to cover his/her own flight, insurance, and other costs. The assistant will also have to supply basic field equipment such as walking boots, compass, binoculars, and suitable clothing. Applicants must be prepared to work in fairly harsh conditions and live in a small village with primitive facilities.
To apply send a CV and cover letter stating your qualifications, experience, and reasons for applying (preferably by e-mail) to: Filippo Aureli, Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, James Parson Building, Byrom St, Liverpool L3 3AF, U.K. [fax: (-44) (0)151-207-3224; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]; or Colleen Schaffner, Department of Psychology, University College Chester, Parkgate Rd, Chester CH1 4BJ, U.K. [fax: (-44) (0)1244-392823; e-mail: email@example.com].
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Travelers’ Health Notes: Malaria Chemoprophylaxis
Deaths Following Inappropriate Chemoprophylaxis
During January-March, 2001, two U.S. citizens died from malaria after taking chloroquine alone or with proguanil for malaria chemoprophylaxis in countries with known chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Chloroquine-containing chemoprophylaxis regimens are not recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for persons traveling to areas with known chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum.
In one case, the patient had traveled to Nigeria for three weeks; the other had been in “East Africa” for 11 days. Seven malaria-related deaths among U.S. citizens who had traveled abroad following inappropriate chemoprophylaxis regimens have been reported to CDC since 1992. In all cases, the travelers received prescriptions for chloroquine compounds to be taken for travel to sub-Saharan Africa, where antimalarial resistance to this drug is widespread. The geographic spread of P. falciparum resistance to chloroquine is increasing. Chloroquine resistance exists throughout sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and over large portions of South America, including the Amazon basin.
Since 1990, CDC has recommended mefloquine as antimalarial prophylaxis in regions with chloroquine-resistant malaria; doxycycline has been the recommended alternative. Chloroquine, ideally taken with daily proguanil (an antimalarial not marketed in the United States except in co-formulation with atovaquone), had been recommended only for persons unable to take mefloquine or doxycycline. In July, 2000, Malarone© (Glaxo Wellcome Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC), a combination of atovaquone and proguanil, was approved for use in the United States. Since November, 2000, CDC has recommended Malarone, mefloquine, or doxycycline as options for malaria chemoprophylaxis in areas with chloroquine-resistant malaria, and no longer recommends chloroquine combined with proguanil.
Travelers and health-care workers who provide medical advice to travelers should be aware that chloroquine is effective for malaria prophylaxis only in a few areas of the world. Recommending and prescribing inappropriate chemoprophylaxis can result in travelers becoming ill or dying from malaria. Information on malaria prevention and chemoprophylaxis is available in Health Information for International Travel, CDC’s handbook for travelers, which is published biannually and is available and updated online at <www.cdc.gov/travel>. Information also is available by telephoning 877-394-8747. - From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2001, 50, 597-599
Sudden Death Following Halofantrine Administration
A previously healthy 22-year-old U.S. student collapsed and died suddenly last year while leading a teenage exchange group in West Africa. Investigations of this incident implicate use of halofantrine for treatment of malaria as the cause of death. Travelers should be warned that halofantrine treatment may be dangerous in persons with cardiac abnormalities or in those taking mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis. Although this patient had no family history of heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was discovered at autopsy.
In the case of this traveler, who had been taking mefloquine for prophylaxis and had been in a malarial area for only one week, the diagnosis of malaria probably was erroneous. The patient in this report also received dirithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic that may have exacerbated the cardiac effects of mefloquine and halofantrine.
Halofantrine is a synthetic phenanthrene-methanol antimalarial and is chemically related to quinine and mefloquine. The drug has been approved for use in the United States and is marketed internationally but not in the U.S. Although halofantrine is an efficacious treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, it can cause rare but serious cardiac complications.
Prescribing information for halofantrine warns against its use in those taking mefloquine. The manufacturer and others also recommend that halofantrine be used for treatment only in persons who have a normal electrocardiogram, which makes its use in many less-developed settings impractical.
Travelers to remote areas should consider carrying antimalarials for self-treatment should they become ill with symptoms of malaria and are unable to obtain prompt medical care. Both sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar©, Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ) and Malarone are acceptable options for presumptive self-treatment, depending on local drug resistance patterns. However, all travelers should be cautioned that presumptive self-treatment for malaria is not a substitute for a prompt medical evaluation.
Halofantrine treatment may be dangerous in those with cardiac abnormalities or in those taking mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis. However, because P. falciparum malaria is a potentially life-threatening illness, the benefit of halofantrine treatment may outweigh the risks in the case of laboratory-confirmed P. falciparum infection if no other effective therapies are available. - From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2001, 50, 169-170, 179
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Recent Books and Articles
(Addresses are those of first authors unless otherwise indicated)
* Primate Taxonomy. C. P. Groves. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. [Price: $65]
. . . Contents: Part I: The Theory of Primate Taxonomy. What taxonomy is meant to do and how it should do it; Taxonomic ranking and nomenclature; A brief history of primate taxonomy; Taxonomy of primates above the family level. Part II: Putting Primate Taxonomy into Practice. A review of taxonomy to subspecies level of the Malagasy lemurs, the Loriformes, the Tarsiiformes, the Platyrrhini, the Old World monkeys - Superfamily Cercopithecoidea, and the Hominoidea. Appendix: A word about fossil primates. Although 360 species and 601 taxa are listed, a number have been described since the book went to press.
* Genetics and the Search for Modern Human Origins. J. H. Relethford. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001. [Price: $69.95]
* Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Mammals. M. E. Fowler & Z. S. Cubas (Eds.). Ames, IA: Iowa State Univ. Press, 2001. 536 pp. [Price $89.95]
. . . A compilation of continent-specific coverage of amphibians, birds, reptiles, and all South American mammals arranged by order and genus. Topics include conservation efforts, diseases in free-ranging populations, and management of animals in captivity. Special coverage is given to general health topics such as nutrition, ophthalmology, and dentistry. Contents about primates include: Biology of the Cebidae, by A. B. Rylands; Biology and conservation of the Callitrichidae, by C. Valladares-Padua; Nutrition, by R. da Rocha e Silva; Behavior and environmental enrichment, by V. Boere; Medicine, by J. L. Catão Dias; Medicine, selected disorders, by A. Pissinatti; Reproduction, by M. A. de B. V. Guimarães.
* Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton. M. A. Katzenberg & S. R. Saunders (Eds.). New York: Wiley-Liss, 2000. [Price: $95]
. . . Contents: I: Theory and Application in Studies of Past Peoples. Bioarchaeological ethics: A historical perspective on the value of human remains, by P. L. Walker; Methodological considerations in the forensic applications of human skeletal biology, by D. H. Ubelaker.
. . . II: Morphological Analyses and Age Changes. Biomechanical analyses of archaeological human skeletons, by C. B. Ruff; Dental morphology: Techniques and strategies, by J. T. Mayhall; Subadult skeletons and growth-related studies, by S. R. Saunders; Reading between the lines: Dental development and subadult age assessment using the microstructural growth markers of teeth, by C. M. FitzGerald & J. C. Rose; Histomorphometry of human cortical bone: Applications to age estimation, by A. G. Robling & S. D. Stout.
. . . III: Prehistoric Health and Disease. Paleopathological description and diagnosis, by N. C. Lovell; Dental pathology, by S. Hillson; Palaeohistology: Health and disease, by S. Pfeiffer.
. . . IV: Chemical and Genetic Analyses of Hard Tissues. Stable isotope analysis: A tool for studying past diet, demography, and life history, by M. A. Katzenberg; Trace element research in anthropology: New perspectives and challenges, by M. K. Sandford & D. S. Weaver; Ancient DNA from skeletal remains, by A. C. Stone.
. . . V: Quantitative Methods and Population Studies. Metric analysis of skeletal remains: Methods and applications, by M. Pietrusewsky; Building the bases for paleodemographic analysis: Adult age determination, by M. Jackes; Paleodemography, by G. R. Milner, J. W. Wood, & J. L. Boldsen.
* Hominoid Evolution and Climate Change in Europe. Volume 2: Phylogeny of the Neogene Hominoid Primates in Eurasia. L. de Bonis, G. D. Koufos, & P. Andrews (Eds.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001 [Price: $95]
. . . Contents: I: Chronology and Environment. Chronology and zoogeography of the Miocene hominoid record in Europe, by J. Agusti, L. Cabrera & M. Carces; The trophic context of hominoid occurrence in the later Miocene of western Eurasia: A primate-free view, by M. Fortelius & A. Hokkanen.
. . . II: Methods and Phylogeny. Computer-assisted morphometry of hominoid fossils: The role of morphometric maps, by C. P. E. Zollikofer & M. S. Ponce de Leon; Comparative analysis of the iliac trabecular architecture in extant and fossil primates by means of digital image processing techniques: Implications for the reconstruction of fossil locomotor behaviors, by R. Macchiarelli, L. Rook, & L. Bondioli; Dental microwear and diet in Eurasian Miocene catarrhines, by T. King; How reliable are current estimates of fossil catarrhine phylogeny? An assessment using great apes and Old World monkeys, by M. Collard & B. Wood; Cranial discrete variation in the great apes: New prospects in palaeoprimatology, by J. Braga.
. . . III: Miocene Hominoids: Function and Phylogeny. Eurasian hominoid evolution in the light of recent Dryopithecus findings, by M. Kohler, S. Moya-Sola, & D. M. Alba; Functional morphology of Ankarapithecus meteai, by P. Andrews & B. Alpagut; African and Eurasian Miocene hominoids and the origins of the Hominidae, by D. R. Begun; Phylogenetic relationships of Ouranopithecus macedonienis (mammalia, Primates, Hominoidea, Hominidae) of the late Miocene deposits of Central Macedonia (Greece), by L. de Bonis & G. D. Koufos; Phylogeny and sexually dimorphic characters: Canine reduction in Ouranopithecus, by J. Kelley; Heterochrony and the cranial anatomy of Oreopithecus: Some cladistic fallacies and the significance of developmental constraints in phylogenetic analysis, by D. M. Alba, S. Moya-Sola, M. Kohler, & L. Rook; The late Miocene hominoid from Georgia, by L. Gabunia, E. Gabashvili, A. Vekua, & D. Lordkipanidze; Forelimb function, bone curvature and phylogeny of Sivapithecus, by B. G. Richmond & M. Whalen; Sivapithecus and hominoid evolution: Some brief comments, by D. R. Pilbeam & N. M. Young.
* Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 8th Edition. H. R. Adams (Ed.). Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 2001. [Price: $149.95]
* The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist. F. de Waal. Boulder, CO: Basic Books, 2001. [Price: $26]
* The Proud Achievements of Animal Research: And the Consequences of Halting It.
* Fact vs. Myth: About the Essential Need for Animals in Medical Research. Foundation for Biomedical Research, 2001. [Each brochure is $.25 ($.10 for orders over 200). Both are also available free at <www.fbresearch.org>.]
Magazines and Newsletters
* Boletín de la Asociación Primatológica Española, January, 2000, 8. [Available at <www.uam.es/otros/ape/>, or from Depto. de Psicobiología, Buzón 150, Facultad de Psicología, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid, Spain.]
. . . Contents include “Chimpanzees, chimpanzee cultures, and the role of zoos in research”, by F. Guillén-Salazar & S. Corte Cortazzo; “New World, new monkeys: On neotropical primates in the 15th and 16th centuries”, by B. Urbani; and “Extinction of one subspecies of primate and the probable extinction of another”, by M. Martín Esteban.
* Noldus News, 2001, 8 . [Noldus Information Technology, 751 Miller Dr. S.E., Suite E-5, Leesburg, VA 20175]
. . . Includes information on EthoVision 2.1.
* Ecology and Social Organization of the Bearded Saki Chiropotes satanas chiropotes (Primates: Pitheciinae) in Venezuela. A. Peetz. Ecotropical Monographs, No. 1, May 20, 2001. [Price: EURO 55 + EURO 5 for postage outside Europe; from GTOE, Zoological Research Inst. and Museum of Zoology, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany]
* Chimpanzee Mind: 1995-2000. T. Matsuzawa (Ed.). Kyoto: Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, 2001. (Free from T. Matsuzawa, Dept of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, PRI, Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org])
. . . A progress report of the long-term study of chimpanzees’ intelligence, especially of the acquisition of linguistic and cognitive skills and social transfer across generations. It is a collection of reprints from various journals, by researchers at the PRI.
* IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group: Triennial Report 1997-2000. October, 2000.
Special Journal Issues
* Origins of HIV and the AIDS epidemic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B (Biological Sciences), June, 2001, 356.
. . . Contains the papers of a discussion meeting organized by W. Hamilton, R. Weiss, & S. Wain-Hobson; edited by R. Weiss & S. Wain-Hobson.
* Program and abstracts of the 24th annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, August 8-11, 2001. American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 54[Suppl. 1].
* Mouse Lemur Biology in Breeding Colonies. International Journal of Primatology, 2001, 22.
. . . Contents: Mouse lemur biology in breeding colonies: Introduction, by D. Wrogemann & A. R. Glatston; Regulation by photoperiod of seasonal changes in body mass and reproductive function in gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus): Differential responses by sex, by M. Perret & F. Aujard; Effect of aging on circadian activity in gray mouse lemurs, by A. Schilling, J.-P. Richard, & J. Servière; Effect of ambient temperature on the body temperature rhythm of male gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), by F. Aujard & F. Vasseur; Relevance of studbook data to the successful captive management of grey mouse lemurs, by A. R. Glatston; Dynamics of estrous synchrony in captive gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), by U. Radespiel & E. Zimmermann; and Comparison of reproductive characteristics and changes in body weight between captive populations of rufous and gray mouse lemurs, by D. Wrogemann, U. Radespiel, & E. Zimmermann.
Anatomy and Physiology
* A neural correlate of working memory in the monkey primary visual cortex. Supèr, H., Spekreijse, H., & Lamme, V. A. F. (Grad. School Neurosciences Amsterdam, Dept of Visual System Analysis, Academic Med. Center, Univ, of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 12011, 1100 AA, Amsterdam, Netherlands [e-mail: email@example.com]). Science, 2001, 293, 120-124.
. . . The brain frequently needs to store information for short periods. In vision, this means that the perceptual correlate of a stimulus must be maintained temporally once the stimulus has been removed from the visual scene. It is not known how the visual system transfers sensory information into a memory component. Here, we identify a neural correlate of working memory in the monkey primary visual cortex (V1). We propose that this component may link sensory activity with memory activity.
* An overview of animal models in experimental schistosomiasis and refinements in the use of non-human primates. Farah, I. O., Kariuki, T. M., King, C. L., & Hau, J. (J. H., Div. of Comp. Med., Dept of Physiology, Uppsala Univ., Biomed. Centre, Box 470, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden). Laboratory Animals, 2001, 35, 205-212.
. . . The complex nature of the schistosome parasite and its interaction with the mammalian host necessitates the continued use of live intact animal models in schistosomiasis research. This review acknowledges this necessity and highlights some of the important insights into the pathogenesis of the disease that have been gained from using various animal models. The use of nonhuman primates as more relevant models of human schistosomiasis is stated. In addition, the importance of animal welfare considerations when using primates for research is emphasized. Finally, some guidelines for the refined capture, handling and early humane endpoints for nonhuman primates to be used in experimental schistosomiasis are suggested.
* Immunobiology of the reproductive tract in a female baboon. D’Hooghe, T. M., Pudney, J., & Hill, J. A. (Leuven University Fertility Center, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [e-mail: Thomas.Dhooghe@uz.kuleuven.ac.be]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 47-54.
. . . The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of various antihuman antibodies directed against immunocomponent cells to identify components involved in cellular and humoral immune responses in the immune organs of a female baboon, and to use these reagents to analyze the immunobiology of its reproductive tract. A female baboon of reproductive age was euthanized in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and samples of spleen, intestines, tonsil, lymph nodes, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and vagina were removed. Tissue sections were reacted with antihuman antibodies, using routine immunohistology techniques. Human tissues (spleen, small intestine, lymph node, and tonsil) were used as positive controls. All antihuman antibodies crossreacted with baboon tissues, except neutrophil elastase, CD15, CD45RO, CD57, and CD1A. The distribution of immune cells in the reproductive tract of the female baboon was comparable to that in the human and offers the potential for this primate to be used as a model for the study of human reproductive immunology.
* The selection of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) in pharmaceutical toxicology. Smith, D., Trennery, P., Farningham, D., & Klapwijk, J. (Safety Assessment UK, AstraZeneca, Mereside, Alderley Pk, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG, U.K.). Laboratory Animals, 2001, 35, 117-130.
. . . Prior to controlled clinical trials in human volunteers or patients it is required that novel pharmaceuticals be evaluated for pre-clinical safety in a rodent and a non-rodent (“second”) species. In most cases the rodent species used has been the rat and the second species has been the dog or macaque (usually cynomolgus or rhesus) monkey. However, there is an increasing trend within the United Kingdom pharmaceutical industry to use the common marmoset for pre-clinical toxicology programs. This paper examines the practicality of using the common marmoset in toxicological testing and reviews metabolic and pharmacodynamic similarities between this species and humans. It discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of this species compared with the ferret and minipig.
* Empty nest: A case study of maternal response to separation from a juvenile offspring in a captive Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Tarou, L. R., Bashaw, M. J., & Maple, T. L. (Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, S.E., Atlanta, GA 30322). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2000, 3, 203-213.
. . . "Improving the welfare of captive nonhuman primates requires evaluating the stressors created by the captive environment and reducing their negative effects. Social separation, although sometimes necessary for managing the genetic diversity of captive populations of animals, causes both psychological and physiological stress in human and primate monkey infants. Few studies have examined the response of great ape mothers to separation from their offspring. This article describes the behavioral changes of a mother orangutan after separation from her juvenile daughter. We collected data on measures of proximity and social behavior before the separation of the dyad and of locomotion, arboreality, abnormal behavior, solitary behavior, and vocalization both before and after separation. We observed no behavioral indications of protest but observed some indications of depression after separation: decreased locomotion, increased inactivity, and increased self-directed behavior. In addition, we observed increases in arboreality and object-oriented behavior during morning sessions. These findings suggest that mother-juvenile separation in orangutans might be less stressful for mothers than expected."
* Environmental enrichment for New World primates: Introducing food-irrelevant objects and direct and secondary effects. Renner, M. J., Feiner, A. J., Orr, M. G., & Delaney, B. A. (Dept of Psychology, West Chester Univ., West Chester, PA 19383). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2000, 3, 23-32.
. . . This study examined methods of environmental enrichment for four New World primate species: pygmy and Geoffroy’s marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea and Callithrix geoffroyi), red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus), and golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelus), housed in groups at the Philadelphia Zoo. Baseline behavioral time budget data were collected, and stimulus objects were then introduced in succession to each enclosure. Each object included multiple manipulable subcomponents. Overall time budgets were significantly altered in only the red-bellied tamarins, the least active of the species, solely due to a shift from social grooming to passive social contact; when categories were collapsed into broader categories, this effect disappeared. Object contact occurred within the first hour for all species and ranged over nearly two orders of magnitude, from approximately 10 sec per subject (red-bellied tamarins) to approximately 700 sec per subject (Geoffroy’s marmosets). Habituation was not evident within any first hour of observation but was shown when first hour observations were compared with those from subsequent days. This article discusses implications for environmental enrichment in zoos.
* Legal space requirement stipulations for animals in the laboratory: Are they adequate? Reinhardt, V., & Reinhardt, A. (Animal Welfare Inst., P.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2001, 4, 143-149.
. . . Animals in the laboratory need the legally required “empty space” to meet their basic spatial requirements for postural adjustment, but they also deserve structured space for species-typical locomotor behavior and dynamic interaction with their environment. Primary enclosures of these animals traditionally are unfurnished, and there is no reason to believe that the biomedical research industry will change the status quo of its own accord. Rather than counting on the professional judgment of attending veterinarians, investigators, and facility administrators, the U.S. Department of Agriculture should explicitly require primary enclosures of laboratory animals to provide not only a specific volume of space, but also species-appropriate space structured for optimal use by the confined subject.
* Reliability of protocol reviews for animal research. Plous, S., & Herzog, H. (Dept of Psychology, Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT 06459-0408 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). Science, 2001, 293, 608-609.
. . . A random sample of 50 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees participated in a study of the protocol review process. Each committee submitted three animal behavior protocols it had recently reviewed, and these protocols were reviewed a second time by another participating committee. The results reported in this Policy Forum showed low levels of reliability in protocol judgments within and between committees. In addition, a majority of approved research protocols were disapproved or deferred by the second committee.
* Philosophy of environmental enrichment: Past, present, and future. Mellen, J., & MacPhee, M. S. (Disney’s Animal Kingdom, P.O. Box 10,000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830 [e-mail: Jill.Mellen@disney.com]). Zoo Biology, 2001, 20, 211-226.
. . . The brief tenure of environmental enrichment has been influenced both directly and indirectly by the field of psychology, from the work of B. F. Skinner to that of Hal Markowitz. Research on enrichment supports the supposition that an enriched environment does indeed contribute to captive animals’ well-being. Critical elements of effective environmental enrichment are: 1) assessing the animal’s natural history, individual history, and exhibit constraints; and 2) providing species-appropriate opportunities, i.e., the animal should have some choices within its environment. This paper presents a historic perspective of environmental enrichment, proposes a broader, more holistic approach to the enrichment of animals in captive environments, and describes a framework or process that will ensure a consistent and self-sustaining enrichment program.
* The rehabilitation of captive baboons. Kessel, A., & Brent, L. (L. B. Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78245-0549 [e-mail: email@example.com]). Journal of Medical Primatology, 2001, 30, 71-80.
. . . Eleven baboons that had been singly housed indoors for an average of five years were moved to outdoor social groups in an attempt to provide a more species-typical environment and reduce high levels of abnormal behavior. Nine of the baboons were observed while in single housing and, over a 6-month period, while housed outdoors socially. Abnormal behavior decreased significantly from an average of 14% of the observation time in single cages to 3% in the sixth month of social housing. Cage manipulation and self-directed behaviors also significantly decreased, while social behavior, enrichment-directed behavior, and locomotion increased in social housing. Baboons that had been in long-term indoor single housing were able to reproduce and form stable social groups without injury.
* Capturing and toying with hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Bossou, Guinea. Hirata, S., Yamakoshi, G., Fujita, S., Ohashi, G., & Matsuzawa, T. (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi, 484-8506 Japan [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 93-97.
. . . Chimpanzees were observed capturing and toying with western tree hyraxes at Bossou, Guinea. An adolescent female carried one hyrax for 15 hr, slept with it in her nest, and groomed it. The captive was not consumed. Nearby adults ignored it. In another case, two adolescent males timidly inspected a small hyrax. These observations indicate that the chimpanzees at Bossou do not regard the hyrax as prey, supporting the idea that lack of opportunity does not seem to be the only reason that chimpanzees do not consume an individual of a potential prey species.
* Effects of nonmaternal restraint on the vocalizations of infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Jovanovic, T., & Gouzoules, H. (Department of Psychology, Emory University, 532 N. Kilgo Cir., Atlanta, GA 30322 [e-mail: email@example.com]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 33-45.
. . . This study explored the effects of restraint by females other than the mother on the vocalizations of infant rhesus macaques in a captive social setting. In this species, females are very attracted to young infants and will frequently approach, groom, and hold them. Incompetent handling, abusive behavior, or extended periods away from the mother that prevent the infants from nursing represent potentially significant risks for infants. The association between the severity of the threat posed to the infant, and the nature of its vocal response to restraint, and whether the infants’ calls influenced the behavior of their mothers or their captors, were examined. The results suggest that situations posing greater risks for the infants, i.e., longer periods of restraint, were associated with a greater use of noisy screams. Furthermore, mothers’ responding was associated with a greater use of noisy screams as well. The mothers’ reactions, however, could be described as cautious, and consisted mostly of closer monitoring; such tempered response might be related to the risk of injury to the infant that could result from a more forceful and direct attempt at retrieval.
* Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) fail to show mirror-guided self-exploration. Hauser, M. D., Miller, C. T., Liu, K., & Gupta, R. (Dept of Psychology, Harvard Univ., 33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 131-137.
. . . To investigate the problem of inter- and intraspecific differences on the mirror test, we conducted two experiments on cotton-top tamarins. Experiment 1 employed a technique similar to one used recently on chimpanzees, and provided no evidence of mirror-mediated touching of the marked area. In a control condition, involving colored dye applied to one arm, two subjects also failed to show self-directed touching, even though they clearly looked at their newly dyed arms. Under these test conditions, cotton-top tamarins fail to show mirror-guided self-exploration. Experiment 2 examined whether this failure was due to insufficient mirror exposure, as well as other details of the testing conditions. In particular, we replicated the design of a previously successful experiment on mirror-mediated recognition in tamarins, providing four new animals with a protracted period (three weeks) of mirror exposure prior to dyeing their hair. We observed no evidence of mirror-mediated behavior (recognition) in Experiment 2.
* Amodal completion of acoustic signals by a nonhuman primate. Miller, C. T., Dibble, E., & Hauser, M. D. (Address same as above [e-mail: ctmiller@wjh.Harvard.edu]). Nature Neuroscience, 2001, 4, 783-784.
. . . Evidence of amodal completion exists for both visual and auditory stimuli in humans. The importance of this mechanism in forming stable representations of sensory information suggests that it may be common among multiple modalities and species. Here we show that cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) amodally complete biologically meaningful acoustic stimuli, which provides evidence that the neural mechanism mediating this aspect of auditory perception is shared among primates, and perhaps other taxonomic groups as well.
* Determining the value of social companionship to captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Dettmer, E., & Fragaszy, D. (Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2000, 3, 293-304.
. . . This study used a method similar to one introduced by Dawkins in 1990 to assess the magnitude of the psychological need for social companionship in pair-housed tufted capuchin monkeys. This method permits classification of commodities as necessities or luxuries. The study directly compared the commodity of social companionship to the commodity of food, a known physiological necessity, in a series of preference tests following commodity deprivations. The majority of subjects chose their social companion over food at baseline and persisted in this preference even after several hours of food deprivation. In addition, subjects’ preferences shifted from one commodity to the other with manipulation of social and food deprivation levels. Capuchin monkeys perceived social companionship as a necessity at a level similar to that of food.
* Animal behaviour: An unusual social display by gorillas. Parnell, R. J., & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (Scottish Primate Research Group, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, U.K. [e-mail: email@example.com]). Nature, 2001, 412, 294.
. . . “We have observed wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) using water to generate spectacular ‘splash displays’. Most of these displays were made by silverbacks in an agonistic context, and we propose that they are primarily linked to the intimidation of potential rivals for female acquisition. This unusual behavior may have developed only in gorillas that visit open swampland, where visibility greatly exceeds that encountered in the forest and highly visual, long-distance displays are therefore of value.”
* A preliminary behavioral comparison of two captive all-male gorilla groups. Stoinski, T. S., Hoff, M. P., Lukas, K. E., & Maple, T. L. (TECHlab, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, Atlanta, GA 30315 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Zoo Biology, 2001, 20, 27-40.
. . . Gorillas live in polygamous harem groups, generally composed of one male, several adult females, and their offspring. With an equal numbers of male and female gorillas born in captivity, however, housing gorillas in social breeding units inevitably means that some males will not have access to female social partners. Thus, the future of the captive gorilla population depends on the collective ability of zoos to house equal numbers of males and females. This study examined the behavioral profiles of two all-male groups of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). One group consisted of three subadult individuals, while the other consisted of two subadults and a silverback. Data were collected during two 6-month intervals, for a total of 284 hr. Behavioral profiles of the animals were stable over the course of the study but proximity patterns changed. Differences in feeding, solitary play, and object-directed behavior were found between groups, while no significant differences were observed in affiliative or agonistic social behavior. At both institutions, group cohesion appeared to be high, particularly between subadults: these individuals spent approximately 10% of their time engaging in social behavior and 25-50% of their time within 5 m. However, the Zoo Atlanta males spent significantly more time within 1 m and 5 m of each other than the Santa Barbara males, which may reflect a higher level of cohesiveness among members of the former group. The behavioral profiles of the animals in this study were similar to those found in bachelor groups of wild mountain gorillas. One notable exception was the absence of homosexual behavior between the silverback and subadults in Santa Barbara and the low frequency of this behavior between subadults in both groups. Although more longitudinal data are needed, these data suggest that all-male groups can be feasible for males at certain periods of their life span.
* Long-term proximity relationships in a captive social group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Nakamichi, M., & Kato, E. (Lab. of Ethological Studies, Fac. of Human Sciences, Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan [e-mail: email@example.com]). Zoo Biology, 2001, 20, 197-209.
. . . To visualize long-term social relationships among 12 gorillas in a captive breeding group at the San Diego Wild Animal Park, the multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure was applied to proximity (within 5 m) values collected in five different periods over 2.5 years. The resulting two-dimensional representations clearly show that in samples taken during this 2.5-year period, the silverback male was surrounded by five adult females, while three infant or young juvenile females, gathered in a body, remained between the silverback male and adult females. Some adult females maintained proximity to the silverback male more frequently than other adult females throughout the five periods. Unlike mountain gorillas in the wild, females with dependent offspring did not tend to stay near the silverback male more frequently than other females, and related females did not tend to spend more time near each other than non-related females. Three older juvenile or young adult males were plotted the furthest from the silverback male, with gradual changes with increasing age. The usefulness of the MDS procedure, which can be used to visualize easily and clearly the social relationships among individuals, is discussed from the viewpoint of the management of breeding groups of captive gorillas.
* Seasonal anointment with millipedes in a wild primate: A chemical defense against insects? Valderrama, X., Robinson, J. G., Attygalle, A. B., & Eisner, T. (Dept of Anthropology, Columbia Univ., New York, NY 10027 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 2000, 26, 2781-2790.
. . . “Members of a wild group of wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus) intentionally anoint themselves with millipedes (Orthoporus dorsovittatus). Chemical analysis revealed that these millipedes secrete two benzoquinones, compounds known to be potently repellent to insects. We argue that the secretion that rubs off on the monkeys in the course of anointment provides protection against insects, particularly mosquitoes (and the bot flies they transmit) during the rainy season. Millipede secretion is so avidly sought by the monkeys that up to four of them will share a single millipede. The anointment must also entail risks, since benzoquinones are toxic and carcinogenic. We suggest that for capuchins the immediate benefits of anointment outweigh the long-range costs.”
* Self-induced increase of gut motility and the control of parasitic infections in wild chimpanzees. Huffman, M. A., & Caton, J. M. (PRI, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan [e-mail: email@example.com]). International Journal of Primatology, 2001, 22, 329-346.
. . . When physiological adaptation is insufficient, hosts have developed behavioral responses to avoid or limit contact with parasites. One such behavior, leaf-swallowing, occurs widely among the African great apes. This behavior involves the slow and deliberate swallowing without chewing of whole bristly leaves. Folded one at a time between tongue and palate, the leaves pass through the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract visibly unchanged. Independent studies in two populations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) showed significant correlations between the swallowing of whole leaves and the expulsion of the nodule worm Oesophagostomum stephanostomum and a species of tapeworm (Bertiella studeri). We integrate behavioral, parasitological, and physiological observations pertaining to leaf-swallowing to elucidate the behavioral mechanism responsible for the expulsion and control of nodule worm infections by the ape host. Physical irritation produced by bristly leaves, swallowed on an empty stomach, increases motility and secretion resulting in diarrhea, which rapidly moves leaves through the GI tract. In the proximal hindgut - the site of third-stage larvae (L3) cyst formation and adult worm attachment - motility, secretion, and the scouring effect of rough leaves is enhanced by haustral contractions and peristalsis-antiperistalsis. Frequently, at the peak of reinfection, a proportion of nonencysted L3 is also vulnerable. These factors should result in the disruption of the life cycle of Oesophagostomum spp. Repeated flushing during peak periods of reinfection is probably responsible for long-run reduction of worm burdens at certain times of the year. Accordingly, leaf-swallowing can be viewed as a deliberate adaptive behavioral strategy with physiological consequences for the host.
* Economic incentives for rain forest conservation across scales. Kremen, C., Niles, J. O., Dalton, M. G., Daily, G. C., Ehrlich, P. R., Fay, J. P., Grewal, D., & Guillery, R. P. (Center for Conservation Biology, Dept of Biological Sciences, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA 94305). Science, 2000, 288, 1828-1832.
. . . Globally, tropical deforestation releases 20 to 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Conserving forests could reduce emissions, but the cost-effectiveness of this mechanism for mitigation depends on the associated opportunity costs. We estimated these costs from local, national, and global perspectives using a case study from Madagascar. Conservation generated significant benefits over logging and agriculture locally and globally. Nationally, however, financial benefits from industrial logging were larger than conservation benefits. Such differing economic signals across scales may exacerbate tropical deforestation. The Kyoto Protocol could potentially overcome this obstacle to conservation by creating markets for protection of tropical forests to mitigate climate change.
* Molecular analyses of oral polio vaccine samples. Poinar, H., Kuch, M., & Pääbo, S. (S. P., Max Planck Inst. for Evolutionary Anthropology, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). Science, 2001, 292, 743-744.
. . . "It has been suggested that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and thus the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) it causes, was inadvertently introduced to humans by the use of an oral polio vaccine (OPV) during a vaccination campaign launched by the Wistar Institute, of Philadelphia, in the Belgian Congo in 1958 and 1959. The “OPV/AIDS hypothesis” suggests that the OPV used in this campaign was produced in chimpanzee kidney epithelial cell cultures rather than in monkey kidney cell cultures, as stated by H. Koprowski and co-workers, who produced the OPV. If chimpanzee cells were indeed used, this would lend support to the OPV/AIDS hypothesis, since chimpanzees harbor a simian immunodeficiency virus, widely accepted to be the origin of HIV-1. We analyzed several early OPV pools and found no evidence for the presence of chimpanzee DNA; by contrast, monkey DNA is present."
* A spontaneously occurring mammary gland ductal carcinoma in situ in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and a review of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in rhesus monkeys. Cohen, M., Saidla, J. E., & Schlafer, D. H. [Dept of Clinical Sciences, College of Vet. Med., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849]. Journal of Medical Primatology, 2001, 30, 121-126.
. . . “A spontaneous mammary gland ductal carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in a 6-8-year-old female rhesus macaque. To our knowledge, this is only the tenth case of spontaneous mammary gland tumors to be reported in rhesus monkeys. Despite the paucity of case reports, several theories exist to explain the occurrence of mammary tumors. The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, a type D retrovirus similar to the virus that causes simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, has been implicated as a possible etiologic agent. Because this virus has been isolated from normal primate mammary tissue, it is unlikely to be the sole etiologic agent. Other theories include the tumorogenic effects that androgens, growth hormones, irradiation, and aging have on the mammary gland.”
Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy
* Phylogenetic history of sifakas (Propithecus: Lemuriformes) derived from mtDNA sequences. Pastorini, J., Forstner, M. R. J., & Martin, R. D. (Dept of Biology, Southwest Texas State Univ., 601 University Dr., San Marcos, TX 78666 [e-mail: email@example.com]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 1-17. The sifakas (Propithecus) include three species containing up to 10 described subspecies, whose evolutionary relationships remain contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether P. verreauxi deckeni and P. v. coronatus populations are differentiated at the subspecific level. Furthermore, the taxonomic status of the recently discovered P. tattersalli and its phylogenetic position also require further examination. About 2,400 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from part of the COIII gene, together with complete genes for ND3, ND4L, ND4, and five tRNAs, were used to clarify relationships among Propithecus species and subspecies. All analyses group Avahi as the sister group to all sifakas. P. diadema is placed as a sister group to all other Propithecus. Among the remaining sifakas, one subclade is formed by P .v. coquereli and P. tattersalli, while P .v. verreauxi, P .v. deckeni, and P. v. coronatus form the second subclade. All analyses fail to resolve P. v. coronatus and P. v. deckeni into separate monophyletic lineages. Based on pairwise distance comparisons and tree topology, it is concluded that P. tattersalli does not represent a distinct species and that P. v. deckeni and P .v. coronatus do not deserve subspecific rank. On the other hand, analyses indicate that P. v. coquereli may well represent a separate species.
* African origin of modern humans in East Asia: A tale of 12,000 Y chromosomes. Ke, Y., Su, B., Song, X., Lu, D., Chen, L., Li, H., Qi, C., Marzuki, S., Deka, R., Underhill, P., Xiao, C., Shriver, M., Lell, J., Wallace, D., Wells, R. S., Seielstad, M., Oefner, P., Zhu, D., Jin, J., Huang, W., Chakraborty, R., Chen, Z., & Jin, L. (L. J., Human Genetics Center, University of Texas-Houston, 1200 Herman Pressler E547, Houston, TX 77030 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). Science, 2001, 292, 1151-1153.
. . . To test the hypotheses of modern human origin in East Asia, we sampled 12,127 male individuals from 163 populations and typed for three Y chromosome biallelic markers (YAP, M89, and M130). All the individuals carried a mutation at one of the three sites. These three mutations (YAP+, M89T, and M130T) coalesce to another mutation (M168T), which originated in Africa about 35,000 to 89,000 years ago. Therefore, the data do not support even a minimal in situ hominid contribution in the origin of anatomically modern humans in East Asia.
* Geology and palaeontology of the Late Miocene Middle Awash valley, Afar rift, Ethiopia. Giday, G. W., Haile-Selassie, Y., Renne, P. R., Hart, W. K., Ambrose, S. H., Asfaw, B., Heiken, G., & White, T. (Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, MS C303, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545 [e-mail: email@example.com]). Nature, 2001, 412, 175-178.
. . . The Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia’s Afar rift has yielded abundant vertebrate fossils (~ 10,000), including several hominid taxa. The study area contains a long sedimentary record spanning Late Miocene (5.3-11.2 million years [Myr] ago) to Holocene times. Exposed in a unique tectonic and volcanic transition zone between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Afar rift, sediments along the western Afar rift margin in the Middle Awash have now yielded the earliest hominids, described in an accompanying paper and dated here to between 5.54 and 5.77 Myr. Here it is shown that these earliest hominids derive from relatively wet and wooded environments that were modulated by tectonic, volcanic, climatic and geomorphic processes. A similar wooded habitat also has been suggested for the 6.0 Myr hominoid fossils recently recovered from Lukeino, Kenya. These findings require fundamental reassessment of models that invoke a significant role for global climatic change and/or savannah habitat in the origin of hominids.
* Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Haile-Selassie, Y. (Dept of Integrative Biology and Lab. for Human Evolutionary Studies, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 3060 VLSB, U.C., Berkeley, CA 94720 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). Nature, 2001, 412, 178-181.
. . . Molecular studies suggest that the lineages leading to humans and chimpanzees diverged approximately 6.5-5.5 Myr ago, in the Late Miocene. Hominid fossils from this interval, however, are fragmentary and of uncertain phylogenetic status, age, or both. New hominid specimens from the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia that date to 5.2-5.8 Myr and are associated with a wooded paleoenvironment are reported here. These Late Miocene fossils are assigned to the hominid genus Ardipithecus and represent the earliest definitive evidence of the hominid clade. Derived dental characters are shared exclusively with all younger hominids, indicating that the fossils probably represent a hominid taxon that postdated the divergence of lineages leading to modern chimpanzees and humans. The persistence of primitive dental and postcranial characters in these new fossils indicates that Ardipithecus was phylogenetically close to the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. These new findings raise additional questions about the claimed hominid status of Orrorin tugenensis, recently described from Kenya and dated to 6 Myr.
* Neanderthal cranial ontogeny and its implications for late hominid diversity. Ponce de León, M. S., & Zollikofer, C. P. E. (C. P. E. Z., Anthropologisches Inst, Universität Zürich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland [e-mail: email@example.com]). Nature, 2001, 412, 534-538.
. . . “Homo neanderthalensis has a unique combination of craniofacial features that are distinct from fossil and extant ‘anatomically modern’ Homo sapiens. Morphological evidence, direct isotopic dates, and fossil mitochondrial DNA from three Neanderthals indicate that the Neanderthals were a separate evolutionary lineage for at least 500,000 years. However, it is unknown when and how Neanderthal craniofacial autapomorphies (unique, derived characters) emerged during ontogeny. Here we use computerized fossil reconstruction and geometric morphometrics to show that characteristic differences in cranial and mandibular shape between Neanderthals and modern humans arose very early during development, possibly prenatally, and were maintained throughout postnatal ontogeny. Postnatal differences in cranial ontogeny between the two taxa are characterized primarily by heterochronic modifications of a common spatial pattern of development. Evidence for early ontogenetic divergence together with evolutionary stasis of taxon-specific patterns of ontogeny is consistent with separation of Neanderthals and modern humans at the species level.”
* Effect of enclosure size and complexity on the behaviors of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Jensvold, M. L. A., Sanz, C. M., Fouts, R. S., & Fouts, D. H. (Chimpanzee and Human Communication Inst., CWU, Ellensburg, WA 98926). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2001, 4, 53-69.
. . . This study documents changes in behavior of five adult chimpanzees upon transfer from the Psychology Building Facility to the large and complex chimpanzee enclosure within the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) in Ellensburg. In 1993, the chimpanzees were relocated from a facility with a 27.87-m-sq indoor suite of enclosures to a new 587-m-sq indoor and outdoor facility. The first study compares the activity budgets of the chimpanzees before and after the transfer. The second study compares patterns of locomotion at the two facilities. The third study examines the chimpanzees’ patterns of use of the features at the new facility. They traveled more and exhibited more species-typical behaviors at the CHCI, including climbing and leaping. The pattern of locomotion and postures at the CHCI was similar to those observed in free-ranging chimpanzee populations. The chimpanzees used all structures and all areas in the facility, especially elevated structures and the outdoor enclosure.
* Habitat use and structural preferences of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): Effects of environmental and social variables. Stoinski, T. S., Hoff, M. P., & Maple, T. L. (TECHlab, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, Atlanta, GA 30315 [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). International Journal of Primatology, 2001, 22, 431-447.
. . . Exhibit naturalism has become the architectural standard for new zoo exhibits, yet our scientific understanding of how animals interact with naturalistic environments is very limited. Given the expense incurred in building new exhibits, it is essential that more information on animal-environment interactions be obtained and incorporated at the outset into exhibit designs. We documented four years of habitat use and structural preferences of western lowland gorillas at Zoo Atlanta. We found that quality, rather than quantity, of space was important, as subjects spent 50% of their time in <15% of the exhibits. Subjects showed strong preferences for the areas near structures, particularly the holding building, and spent significantly less time away from structures than expected. Temperature interacted with structural preferences: the subjects spent more time away from structures when temperatures were cold and more time near them when temperatures were hot. There was no difference in habitat use and structural preferences due to age, sex, and rearing history, but social factors appear to play a role. Our results are similar to those found a decade earlier in the same population and to other studies of space use in apes, but are the first to include significant temperature effects. Additionally, they suggest that managers and designers need to take into account factors such as quality of space, attractiveness of the holding building, and interaction with variables such as temperature and social factors when designing exhibits.
* Ranging behavior and intraspecific relationships of masked titi monkeys (Callicebus personatus personatus). Price, C. P., & Piedade, H. M. (Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Les Augrès Manor, Trinity, Jersey, JE3 5BP, Channel Islands, G.B. [e-mail: email@example.com]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 87-92.
. . . Two neighboring groups of masked titi monkeys (Callicebus personatus personatus) were observed for nearly 240 hours over a 5-month period. Minimum home range estimates for the groups were 10.7 and 12.3 ha; daily path length averaged 1 km. Each group shared a minimum of nearly 20% of its range with neighbors, and encounters between groups were rare and exclusively vocal. There was no strong evidence that titis called at the edge of their ranges or used non-overlap areas more intensively. Masked titis at this site were therefore not markedly territorial, in contrast to other descriptions of this genus. However, this study was carried out at a time of unusually low rainfall, which may have influenced behavior. Further longer-term studies of adjacent groups are therefore required to assess environmental, specific, and subspecific factors affecting territoriality in this genus.
Instruments and Techniques
* Blood collection procedure of laboratory primates: A neglected variable in biomedical research. Reinhardt, V., & Reinhardt, A. (Animal Welfare Inst., P.O. Box 3650, Washington, DC 20007). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2000, 3, 321-333.
. . . A survey of 75 biomedical articles dealing with stress-dependent blood parameters in caged primates revealed that the conditions under which blood collection occurred were in most cases described either not at all or so haphazardly that it would be impossible to determine if humane handling procedures were used and basic principles of scientific methodology applied. These findings were unexpected because there is ample scientific evidence not only that stress-sensitive research data are influenced by traditional blood sampling procedures, but also that those data-biasing effects can be avoided. If dependent variables of the blood collection procedure are not controlled, data variability will increase, automatically increasing the number of animals needed for statistical analysis.
* Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa collected by needle biopsy from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Feradis, A. H., Pawitri, D., Suatha, I. K., Amin, M. R., Yusuf, T. L., Sajuthi, D., Budiarsa, I. N., & Hayes, E. S. (E. S. H., Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). Journal of Medical Primatology, 2001, 30, 100-106.
. . . "We have examined the motility, morphology, and cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa collected by needle biopsy from cynomolgus monkeys. At collection, epididymal sperm (23×106 ± 4×106 sperm/sample; 611×106 ± 116×106 sperm/ml; n=18) were alive (79 ± 2%), motile (67 ± 2%), and exhibited intact membranes (65 ± 2%). Sperm maintained at room temperature in handling medium exhibited decreased motility over time, but head-to-head agglutination was limited. Tris egg-yolk extender containing 6% glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) did not significantly affect functional morphology, whereas extender containing propanediol significantly reduced motility, survival, and membrane integrity. Cryostorage reduced all measures of functional morphology independent of cryoprotectant. Post-thaw motility was superior for glycerol and DMSO compared to propanediol. Variation in glycerol concentration (4, 6, and 8%) produced equivocal effects on sperm functional morphology post-thaw. Needle biopsy may be useful for laboratory and field-based collection of spermatozoa from nonhuman primates."
* Circannual changes in the secondary sexual adornments of semifree-ranging male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Setchell, J. M., & Dixson, A. F. [School of Life Sciences, University of Surrey Roehampton, West Hill, London SW15 35N, U.K. [e-mail: email@example.com]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 109-121.
. . . Male mandrills have spectacular secondary sexual adornments. These include red and blue sexual skin on the face, rump, and genitalia; a sternal scent-marking gland; and a fatted rump. Mandrills are seasonal breeders, and in other seasonally-breeding primate species members of both sexes may show increased expression of secondary sexual characteristics during the mating season. Changes in male secondary sexual adornments and testosterone levels were examined in relation to seasonal changes in the female reproductive cycle and sexual skin morphology, in two semifree-ranging mandrill groups. Females showed circ-annual changes in sexual skin tumescence, and periods of tumescence peaked from May-July in a long-established group. However, formation of a second, smaller group, two years previous to commencement of the study, disrupted the seasonal pattern of sexual skin tumescence and births. As the groups occupied adjacent enclosures, it appears that social factors, as well as physical environment, affected the seasonal patterning of reproduction in females. Male mandrills, by contrast, did not exhibit marked circannual changes in secondary sexual traits. Although adult male testicular volume and circulating testosterone levels increased significantly during the mating season, sexual skin coloration and rump fatness showed no consistent changes with season. There was some evidence to suggest that maturing males (ages 5-8 yr) showed increased development of red sexual skin during mating periods, but once males had fully developed secondary sexual adornments, they remained stable throughout the year. The possible reasons for this are discussed in relation to inter-male competition and social organization in mandrills.
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein in primates. Bowman, M. E., Lopata, A., Jaffe, R. B., Golos, T. G., Wickings, J., & Smith, R. [R. S., Mothers and Babies Research Centre, John Hunter Hospital, Locked Bag 1, Hunter Region Mail Centre, N.S.W. 2310, Australia). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 53, 123-130.
. . . “In humans, placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) production has been linked to the determination of gestational length, and a late gestational fall in CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) has been linked to the onset of parturition. Expression of placental CRH mRNA is limited to primates, and only in man has a circulating CRH-BP been described. As the fall in CRH-BP in late gestation has been associated with parturition in humans, we sought to determine whether CRH-BP circulated in the plasma of other primates. It is unclear whether maternal plasma CRH concentrations are elevated in New World monkeys and prosimians. We have therefore performed CRH plasma measurements in the blood of pregnant marmosets, in several species of lemur, and in pregnant and fetal rhesus monkeys as a positive control. Using gel chromatography, CRH-BP was detected in the human, gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, squirrel monkey, and marmoset, but was absent in the mandrill, spider monkey, and lemur. CRH was detected in the plasma of pregnant marmosets and rhesus monkeys. CRH was also detected in the fetal rhesus monkey, but at lower concentrations than in maternal plasma. CRH immunoreactivity was not detectable in the plasma of pregnant lemurs or in extracts of lemur placenta. Thus, a circulating binding protein for CRH exists in all species of apes but occurs variably among New World and Old World monkeys and is absent in lemurs. The variable occurrence of the CRH-BP does not support a role for this protein in the mechanism of parturition in primates. Maternal CRH is elevated in the pregnant marmoset and rhesus, and may play a role in the pregnancy of New and Old World monkeys.”
* Birth of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) after artificial insemination with cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa collected postmortem. Kusunoki, H., Daimaru, H., Minami, S., Nishimoto, S., Yamane, K.-I., & Fukumoto, Y. (Experimental Farm, Kobe Univ., Uzurano-cho 1348, Kasai 675-2103, Japan [e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]). Zoo Biology, 2001, 20, 135-143.
. . . A male chimpanzee suddenly died of acute hemorrhagic enteritis at the age of 18 years. Within 24 hours after death, a large quantity of spermatozoa of excellent quality was recovered from the distal cauda epididymides and was subsequently cryopreserved. After storage for 67 days, the frozen spermatozoa were thawed and inseminated into an adult, normally cycling, nulliparous female. The optimal day for insemination was estimated by monitoring the swelling of the female’s sex skin and urinary luteinizing hormone concentrations. Pregnancy was confirmed by a urinary chorionic gonadotropin test, and a normal female infant was born after 214 days’ gestation.
* Aspects of reproduction in the eastern rufous mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) and their implications for captive management. Wrogemann, D., & Zimmermann, E. (Inst. of Zoology, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany [e-mail: Dorothea.Wrogemann@zoologie.tiho-hannover.de]). Zoo Biology, 2001, 20, 157-167.
. . . The eastern rufous mouse lemur is one of the smallest primate species. It inhabits the eastern rain forest of Madagascar. Its reproductive biology has not been examined because of its rarity in laboratories. This is the first data on reproduction and variation in reproductive success from a breeding colony of wild-caught Microcebus rufus.
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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
e-mail address: Judith_Schrier@brown.edu
Current and back issues of the Newsletter are available on the World Wide Web at
The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.
Cover illustration of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) by Margaret Dannemiller (Warner Lambert/Parke Davis Research)
Copyright (c) 2001 by Brown University
Last updated: September 19, 2001