Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 41, Number 1

Laboratory Primate Newsletter



Articles and Notes

A Protective “Puzzle Ball Loader” for Safe Provisioning, by C. M. Crockett, R. U. Bellanca, D. R. Koberstein, & D. Shaw......1

Pathogenic Agents Found in Barbados Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus and in Old World and New World Monkeys Commonly Used in Biomedical Research, by J. Baulu, G. Evans, C. Sutton, & A. Reader......4

News, Information, and Announcements

Announcements from Publications......3
. . . New Editors and Publisher for Gorilla Gazette; PFA Newsletter

News Briefs......6
. . . Life Expectancy Hits New High; Report Castigates Indian Lab Animal Care Practices; Barbara Rich leaves NABR; Melissa Gerald at Cayo Santiago; Explosion at the Coulston Foundation; Hylander Director of Duke Primate Center; New Directors at Yerkes and Tulane; And at the Caribbean Primate Center; New Administrators at IUCN/SSC Species Program; Mountain Gorilla Project Employee Health Program; Africa’s “Last Eden” to Become National Park; Mining Operations Plague World Heritage Sites; Corrientes Biological Station

Travelers’ Health Notes......9
. . . Health Information for International Travel; Combined Hepatitis A and B Vaccine

Awards Granted......10
. . . Animal Welfare Prize to Leah Scott; ASP Student Award Winners; NSF Announces Institutional Transformation Awards

Award Nominations: Gorilla Haven Announces the Debbie McGuire Grant......10

Meeting Announcements......11

Information Requested or Available......12
. . . New NABR Member Service, Newly Launched Wildlife Community Website, SSC Publications Catalogue, Pain Management Database, More Interesting Websites

Resources Wanted and Available......13
. . . Announcing the Callicam Website; Capuchins on the Web; Web-Based Investigator/IACUC training; Three Rs Articles Available; CITES: A Conservation Tool Updated Edition; PFA Skeletal Collection; SIV Viral Load and NHP Gene Transcription

Research and Educational Opportunities......15
. . . Undergraduate Summer Research Internships; Veterinary Technician Anesthetist Examination; Summer Apprentices: Chimpanzees and ASL

Grants Available......16
. . . NHP Models of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Research Training Grant for Veterinary Students; Role of Infectious Agents in Vascular Diseases; Pilot and Feasibility Program in Urology; ACLAM Research Grants; Imaging Diabetic Microvascular Complications

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Studies......18

Workshop and Symposium on Lab Animal Diseases......36


Positions Available......26
. . . Director, Vivarial Science and Research - Tulane; Animal Laboratory Technician, North Carolina; Project Manager, Maryland

Recent Books and Articles......27

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A Protective “Puzzle Ball Loader” for Safe Provisioning

Carolyn M. Crockett, Rita U. Bellanca, Diella R. Koberstein, and Dan Shaw
Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington

Providing environmental enrichment to laboratory primates presents potential risk to personnel. Monkeys of the genus Macaca are among the nonhuman primate vectors for Herpes B virus, infrequently transmitted but usually fatal to humans (Ostrowski et al., 1998; Wolfe et al., 1998). The use of primates such as M. nemestrina in AIDS research (Agy et al., 1992) means that some laboratory primates are infected with HIV or other infectious diseases transmittable to humans. Personnel who work with these animals are at risk of disease if they are bitten or scratched. One of the circumstances exposing personnel to risk is the provisioning of foraging devices used for environmental enrichment. Although it rarely happens, such personnel can experience a skin-breaking injury owing to an animal’s impatience or aggression. Bloodborne exposure requires immediate scrub protocol, an incident report, a visit to the campus health service clinic, blood draws from patient and monkey, samples sent to the CDC, follow-up blood draws, and in some cases, preventive antiviral medications. These procedures cause stress to the employee and expense to the employer. Methods leading to the reduction of such incidents should be of interest to facilities with nonhuman primates.

At the Washington Regional Primate Research Center (WaRPRC), the Environmental Enhancement Plan (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1991) is overseen by the Psychological Well-being Program (C. Crockett, Coordinator). PWB Program staff and animal husbandry staff provide most of the enrichment to the monkeys. The rest is given by researchers and veterinary staff. The PWB Program is also responsible for developing and evaluating enrichment items. Previously we published a design for a Puzzle Ball foraging device developed, fabricated, and tested at the WaRPRC (Crockett et al., 2001). In that article, we mentioned that we had been experimenting with various “loading” devices but had not yet found a successful one. Because the Puzzle Ball is permanently attached to the cage, no risk is associated with attaching or removing it while a monkey is in the cage.

Recently, one of us received a minor scratch from a monkey while provisioning its Puzzle Ball. The monkey, a M. fascicularis inoculated with SIV, scratched through two latex gloves, but barely broke the skin. This incident prompted us to develop a device for loading the puzzle without risk of contact with the animals (Figure 1). From a full-scale cardboard model developed by C.C., D.S. created a lightweight aluminum prototype. The prototype was tested with more than 400 juvenile and adult primates, including the monkey whose behavior inspired the invention. The animals represented the four species housed at the WaRPRC, namely, pigtailed macaques (M. nemestrina), longtailed macaques (M. fascicularis), rhesus macaques (M. mulatta) and baboons (Papio cynocephalus). In all cases, the puzzle was provisioned without incident. Minor modifications suggested by testing included increasing the diameter of the handle and widening the chain slot and the opening to the slot.

Figure 1: Puzzle Ball Loader in use.

The Puzzle Ball Loader is a combination protective device and storage receptacle. It holds enough peanuts and cereal to provision one or two rooms. At each cage, the desired amount of peanuts or cereal is taken from the storage section with the dominant hand while holding the handle of the loader with the other. The provisioner tilts the loader toward the cage and scoops the ball into it, trapping the chain in the slot, and then pulls the loader into a vertical position. Then the provisioner puts the peanuts or cereal into the hole (Figure 1). The slot is wide enough to accommodate the chain in its narrow dimension, but not its width, so as to prevent monkey fingers from poking through the slot.

The chain can be scooped on the straight link closest to the Puzzle Ball if the user wants to pull the foraging device farther from the cage. This position also provides more support of the Ball. The Ball can be rotated with the free hand to position the loading hole upwards. Some types of cereal and large peanuts fit easiest in the 1”-diameter hole. Our Puzzle Ball has one 1” hole and two 3/4” holes drilled above midline and approximately equidistant from each other (Crockett et al., 2001).

Figure 2a: Puzzle Ball Loader parts.

The plan for the final version of the Puzzle Ball Loader is presented in Figure 2. All parts are cut from sheet stock (Figure 2a). The body, front, and handle are cut from .050 aluminum. The bottom is perforated mesh. The handle support is 1/8”-thick aluminum. The body is slotted and radiused while flat. Dotted line folds are 90 degrees except the grip, which bends to accommodate handle insert (Figure 2b). All construction is fastened with 1/8”-diameter rod aluminum rivets except for the bottom perforated mesh, where 1/8”-diameter pop rivets are used for easier mounting. All rivets are hammered flat. As all rivet holes are countersunk for strength, the rivets are flush with the surface. All edges and rivets are deburred.

Figure 2b: Puzzle Ball Loader assembly.

During the initial exposure to the loader, a few monkeys gave alarm vocalizations or seemed apprehensive. A few grasped the top of the loader. Some seemed not to know that the Puzzle Ball had been provisioned. However, after several exposures, the monkeys were habituated. The few monkeys that occasionally grasp the loader pose no risk to the provisioner.

The Puzzle Ball Loader would probably work with other foraging devices installed on cages with a single chain. Facilities that do not have access to a shop that can fabricate an aluminum loader might try similar ideas using recycled plastic bottles. In fact, this was our first approach, but because none proved to be particularly satisfactory, we developed the device described here. The fabricated aluminum Puzzle Ball Loader is lightweight, durable, and easily sanitized. It has reduced personnel risk at our facility and is a convenient receptacle for holding provisioning items. References

Agy, M. B., Frumkin, L. R., Corey, L., Coombs, R. W., Wolinsky, S. M., Koehler, J., Morton, W. R., & Katze, M. G. (1992). Infection of M. nemestrinaby human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Science, 257, 103-106.

Crockett, C. M., Bellanca, R. U., Heffernan, K. S., Ronan, D. A., & Bonn, W. F. (2001). Puzzle ball foraging device for laboratory monkeys. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 40[1], 4-7.

Ostrowski, S. R., Leslie, M. J., Parrott, T., Abelt, S., & Piercy, P. E. (1998). B-virus from pet macaque monkeys: An emerging threat in the United States? Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4, 117-121.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (1991). Animal Welfare, Standards, Final Rule (Part 3, Subpart D: Specifications for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of nonhuman primates). Federal Register, 56, 6495-6505.

Wolfe, N. D., Escalante, A. A., Karesh, W. B., Kilbourn, A., Spielman, A., & Lal, A. A. (1998). Wild primate populations in emerging infectious disease research: The missing link? Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4, 149-158.

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Announcements from Publications

New Editors and Publisher for Gorilla Gazette

After thirteen years of publishing Gorilla Gazette, the Columbus Zoo has decided to discontinue publication. Since 1987 there have been over twenty-five issues published, the last being in December, 2000. The Gazette was conceived, initiated, and edited by the keepers at the Columbus Zoo and served as a networking forum for such topics as alternative husbandry, introduction protocols, diets, differing husbandry philosophies, enrichment, socialization of older animals, birth protocols, reports from the field, and collection updates. Another intent of the Gazette was to highlight the important role of keepers in decision-making processes and to recognize the incredible knowledge base that keepers possess.

Fortunately, Jane and Steuart Dewar, founders of the Dewar Wildlife Trust and builders of Gorilla Haven, have agreed to sponsor the continued publication of Gorilla Gazette. Jane and Steuart recognize the continuing need for some form of printed material that can be distributed to all interested parties, most especially those who may not have access to e-mail. An electronic edition will also be published and distributed via e-mail.

Gorilla Gazette will be published once a year; the length will be approximately forty pages. Co-editors Beth Armstrong and Pete Halliday will oversee gathering articles from keepers as well as reports from colleagues in the field. They are looking for articles one to two pages long, accompanied by two or three photos or slides with captions and photo credits. They also welcome shorter announcements - ½ page of text ­- as well as appropriate artwork by keepers.

Some of the topics they will be looking for are: bachelor group updates, exhibit designs that really work (and what doesn’t work), field reports from Mbeli Bai and elsewhere, collection updates from Canadian and European zoos as well as U.S. zoos, the role of ape sanctuaries in Africa, how to support field projects and/or in situ education projects, and husbandry innovations. The deadline for the next issue is December 31, 2001; they will publish as early as possible in 2002. They should then be able to produce another issue at the end of 2002. Please send articles and photos to Pete Halliday, 2031 Lowery Rd, Morganton, GA 30560; or as e-mail attachments to: Beth Armstrong [] or Pete [].

PFA Newsletter

The Primate Foundation of Arizona writes: “In the last couple of years, we’ve been slow to publish new issues of The Newsletter. We would like to increase our rate of publication by hearing from you. We have published many articles from PFA researchers and care staff. Now we would like to provide a vehicle to publish brief reports containing information prepared by colleagues and students in the chimpanzee research and care community. Submissions should be no more than 1000 words and may be accompanied by black and white illustrations or photographs. PFA does not assume rights to materials submitted and authors retain ownership of their work. If you have questions regarding the applicability of a topic or piece for inclusion in The Newsletter, contact Jo Fritz, Editor, PFA, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027 [e-mail:].”

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Pathogenic Agents Found in Barbados Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus and in Old World and New World Monkeys Commonly Used in Biomedical Research

Jean Baulu, Graham Evans, and Carlisle Sutton
Barbados Primate Research Center and Wildlife Reserve


African green monkeys, or vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), were introduced to the Caribbean islands of Barbados, St. Kitts and Nevis during the 17th century on ships running the slave trade from Africa. The animals are believed to have originated from the Senegal/Gambia region of Africa (Van Der Kuyl et al., 1996). The introduced animals either escaped or were released in gullies on the islands. Barbados, a 166-square-mile island, was sparsely populated at that time and the animals found much flora for cover and food. There were no natural predators and the monkey population grew.

Since 1680, the monkeys have been considered a serious agricultural pest, and no other monkeys have been introduced to Barbados, isolating the population for over 300 years. Despite the humane culling of an average 800 monkeys per year, studies suggest that the wild monkey population on the island has remained at approximately 14,000 since 1980 (Baulu & Everard, 1987a,b; Olson, 1991).

The isolation from their African cousins, which includes other subspecies of C. aethiops, has affected the current health status of the C. aethiops sabaeus found on the island of Barbados, and is the basis for this paper.


The Barbados Primate Research Center and Wildlife Reserve has closely monitored the wild population of African green monkeys since 1980. More than 14,400 animals have been tested for foamy virus. Random samples of these animals have been tested for a number of other pathogens; our data on the pathogens present within the island population are based on these samples (BPRC, unpublished). Additional data have been collected, collated, and compared with published data of primate species most commonly used in Europe and North America (Baulu et al., 1987a). In the present article we compare the types of naturally occurring viral, parasitic, and bacterial agents in New World and Old World monkeys with those of the introduced population of C. aethiops sabaeus in Barbados to determine the safest nonhuman primate available for biomedical research. (“Safest”, based on the presence of the fewest and least harmful pathogens of significance to man.)

We have considered 16 major viruses including retroviruses and filoviruses; 13 species of parasites and protozoa, including yellow fever and filiariasis; and eight major bacteria, including Shigella, Salmonella, E. coli, and Yersinia. The results are compared with information gathered from individual scientists, published research, and interviews with international biomedical establishments and reference laboratories.


The data are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Numbers refer to the References section below. Presence of pathogen is indicated by (+); absence by (-). Where we were unable to locate data for a particular species, we have indicated this by a (*).

            Macaca   M.     Saimiri  Callithrix    Papio   C. atheiops    C. a.
           mulatta  fascic-   spp.      spp        spp.    African gr.   sabaeus
            Rhesus  ularis  Squirrel  Marmoset    Baboon     monkey      Barbados 
                     Cyno    monkey                                     gr.monkey     
Cercopith-    *        *        *        *         + 9,       + 9,        False 
icine herpes-                                     12,15      12,15        +3,5
virus (SA 8)                                         
Herpesvirus  +7,9     +7        *        *          *          *          -3,5
simiae       12,15    9,15
'B' Virus
Herpes-       *        *     +6,9,12     +6         *          *           -5
virus t.                     13,15      13,15
Hepati-     +9,12   +9,12    +8,11      +6,12      +9,         +9,         -5
tis 'A'       15    13,15    12,13      13,15      12,15      12,15
Hepati-      +15     +15     +8,11      -8,11       *          +15         -5
tis 'B'
SHFV         +15     +15,      *          *        +15         +15         -5 
Marburg       *       *        *          *         *         +9,15        -5
Reston        *     +9,15      *          *         *           *          -5
SIV          +15     +15       *          *       +9,12,      +9,12,       -5
                                                   15          15
STLV       + 9,15   + 9,15     *          *       +12,15      +15         -3,5 
HTLV          *       *        *          *          *          *        - 2,3,
Pox virus     *       *        *         +12        +15      +12,15        -5
SV40       +9,11,15  +15       *          *          +9        +9          -5
fever         *       *     +12,15       +15        +15       +15          -5
virus      +6,9,15  +6,9,15   +6,15       *       +6,9,15    +6,9,15      +5,6
(Measles)  +6,9,10  +6,9,10   +6,9,10  +6,9,10     +6,9,10   +6,9,10       -5

Table 1: Viruses

            Macaca   M.     Saimiri  Callithrix    Papio   C. atheiops    C. a.
           mulatta  fascic-   spp.      spp        spp.    African gr.   sabaeus
            Rhesus  ularis  Squirrel  Marmoset    Baboon     monkey      Barbados 
                     Cyno    monkey                                     gr.monkey     
E. histo-
lytica      +15      +15      +15      +10,15     +10,15      +15           *
T. gondii   +15      +15      +15      +10,15     +10,15      +15           *
Giardia spp.+15      +15      +15       -15        -15        +15           *
spp.        +15      +15       *        +15         *          *            * 
loides     +12,15   +12,15    +15       +10        +10        +15          +16
orchis       -15     -15      -15      +10,15     +10,15,     -15          -15
yssus       +5,15    +15      +15         *          *          *           *
Malaria       *       *        *         +10        +10         *          -5
Hookworm      *       *        *          *          *          *         +3,5
Ascaris       *       *        *          *          *          *          +5
Tapeworm      *       *        *         +10        +10         *         +3,5
Filaria       *       *        *         +10        +10         *          -5
Trichuris     +15    +15      +15       +10,15     +10,15      +15         +5

Table 2: Parasites and protozoa

            Macaca   M.     Saimiri  Callithrix    Papio   C. atheiops    C. a.
           mulatta  fascic-   spp.      spp        spp.    African gr.   sabaeus
            Rhesus  ularis  Squirrel  Marmoset    Baboon     monkey      Barbados 
                     Cyno    monkey                                     gr.monkey     
Shigella    12,14,   +15      +15       +10        +10        +15          +5
ella         +15     +15      +15       +10        +10         +3         +3,5
E. coli      +18     +18      +18       +10        +10        +18          +6
Yersinia     +15     +15      +15       +15        +15        +15          -5
bacterium    +15     +15      +15       +15        +15        +15          -5
lobacter     +15   +12,15     +15       +15        +15        +15          -5
Leptospira   +15     +15      +15       +15        +15        +15         +4,5
monas        +15     +15       *         *          *          *            *

Table 3: Bacteria


The African green monkey found in Barbados is free of many of the pathogens associated with other primates of biomedical interest. This includes hepatitis A and B; simian hemorrhagic fever; all filoviruses; all known poxviruses; SIV; STLV; SV40; and yellow fever. This may be due to the isolation of this vervet population, which has been shown to be less genetically diverse than its African counterpart (Baulu & Everard, 1987b).


1. Baskin, G. B. Pathology of nonhuman primates. <>.

2. Blakeslee, J. R., Jr., Sowder, W. G., & Baulu, J. (1985). Wild African green monkeys in Barbados are HTLV negative. Lancet, 8427 [1], 525.

3. Baulu, J., Everard, C. O. R., & Everard, J. D. (1987a). The African green monkey (C. aethiops sabaeus) as a carrier of diseases on Barbados. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 26[2], 2-4.

4. Baulu, J., Everard, C. O. R., & Everard, J. D. (1987b). Leptospires in vervet monkeys (C. aethiops sabaeus) on Barbados. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 23[1], 60-66.

5. BPRC unpublished data (in conjunction with VRL Inc., San Antonio, TX; MABioservices, Rockville, MD; PMC, Ontario, Canada, & Marcy l’Etoile, France; SBBio, Rixensart, Belgium; Spectrol Laborotories, Belleville, Barbados; Government veterinary diagnostic labs, The Pine, Barbados; BPRC in-house testing, Farley Hill, Barbados, W.I.)

6. Gibbs, C. J., Jr., & Gajdusek, D. C. (1976). Studies on the viruses of subacute spongiform encephalopathies using primates, their only available indicator. (1976). In First Inter-American Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of American Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research (pp. 83-109). Washington, DC: PAHO.

7. Guidelines for prevention of Herpesvirus Simiae (B-virus) infection in monkey handlers. (1988). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 27[1], 9-12.

8. Hilleman, M. R., Provost, P. J., Villarejos, V. M., Buynak, E. B., Miller, W. J., Ittensohn, O. L., Wolanski, B. S., & McAleer, W. J. (1976). Infectious hepatitis (Hepatitis A) research in nonhuman primates. In First Inter-American Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of American Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research (pp. 110-124). Washington, DC: PAHO.

9. Kalter, S. S., Heberling, R. L., Cooke, A. W., Barry, D. B., Tian, P. Y., & Northam, W. J. (1997). Viral infection of nonhuman primates. Laboratory Animal Science, 47, 461-467.

10. King, N. W. (1976). Synopsis of the pathology of New World monkeys. First Inter-American Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of American Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research (pp. 169-198). Washington, DC: PAHO.

11. Lapin, B. (1988). Permissiveness and scientific grounds for the use of primates in biomedical research. XIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Brasilia. Abstracts Supplement (p. 12).

12. Lowenstine, L. J. (1997) Pathology of laboratory non-human primates (selected diseases). Conference on Pathology of Laboratory Animals, Bethesda, MD, 11-13 August, 1997.

13. Meléndez, L. V. (1976). Natural history of Herpesvirus T. and H. Saimiri in South American Monkeys. In First Inter-American Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of American Non-human Primates in Biomedical Research (pp. 75-82). Washington, DC: PAHO.

14. Olson, L. C. (1991) Resistant shigella in a quarantined group of domestically raised Macaca mulatta. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30 [4], 4-6.

15. FELASA (1999). Health monitoring of non-human primate colonies: Recommendations of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Working Group on Non-Human Primate Health, accepted by the FELASA Board of Management, 21 November 1998. Laboratory Animals, 33[Suppl 1], S3-S18.

16. Rhynd, K. (Unpublished). Study of parasites in C. aethiops sabaeus on the Barbados wild and captive populations.

17. Van Der Kuyl, A. C. Dekker, J. T., & Goudsmith, J. (1996). St. Kitts Green Monkeys originate from West Africa: Genetic evidence from feces. American Journal of Primatology, 40, 361-364.

18. Vandermeersch, C. N. (1990). Diagnostic differential des principales affections rencontrees chex les primates non humains et controle des zoonoses. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Faculté de Médecine de Creteil, France.

19. WHO (1990). World Health Organization Ebola fever alert. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29[2], 1-2.

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News Briefs

Life Expectancy Hits New High

Life expectancy for the U.S. population reached a record high of 76.9 years in 2000 as mortality declined for several leading causes of death, according to preliminary figures from a report released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The report shows that age-adjusted death rates continued to fall for heart disease and cancer, the two leading causes of death in the U.S., which account for more than half of all deaths in the country each year. Age-adjusted death rates also fell for other leading causes of death, including: homicide, suicide, accidents or “unintentional injuries”, stroke, diabetes, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.

The estimates are featured in a new CDC report, “Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2000”, an analysis of over 85 percent of the death certificates recorded in the United States for 2000. The report is available at <>. - From an Americans for Medical Progress mailing

Report Castigates Indian Lab Animal Care Practices

NEW DELHI - Almost three years after the government imposed more stringent rules on the use of animals in experimentation, most Indian laboratories that use animals in research are failing to care for them adequately, a new survey by a government watchdog group finds. The team of inspectors found violations ranging from a failure to obtain approval for planned experiments to the use of sick and dying animals. - From a report by Pallava Bagla in Science, 2001, 293, 2186-2187

Barbara Rich leaves NABR

On October 1, 2001, Barbara A. Rich, Executive Vice President of the National Association for Biomedical Research, announced her resignation in a letter to the NABR membership, Board of Directors, President, and staff, as well as the Foundation for Biomedical Research and other colleagues. She wrote: “After seventeen years, the time has come to make a change. The nation’s unprecedented crisis and my recent health concerns have caused me to reevaluate my professional life…By leaving the staff, I am in no way abandoning the Association’s important mission. In choosing future employment, I hope to continue to contribute to the success of biomedical research. Whatever I do and wherever I go, please know that I am a lifelong, vocal advocate for responsible animal research.”

Melissa Gerald at Cayo Santiago

Primate-Science has announced that Dr. Melissa Gerald is the new Scientist-in-Charge of Cayo Santiago and Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus. On Cayo Santiago, she will be collecting hormonal, behavioral and demographic data to investigate sexual selection and variability in female reproductive success on a longitudinal basis.

Dr. Gerald expresses an interest in welcoming new researchers and returning researchers to Cayo Santiago and is accepting proposals at this time. You can contact her at Cayo Santiago, Caribbean Primate Research Center, P.O. Box 906, Punta Santiago, PR 00741 [787-285-1201 or 787-852-0690; fax: 787-852-0690; e-mail:].

Explosion at the Coulston Foundation

The Associated Press has reported that an incendiary device exploded early Thursday morning, September 20, inside a Coulston Foundation storage building. The Coulston Foundation is a research enterprise that uses chimpanzees in biomedical research. According to AP, the device ignited just after 4:15 a.m. and gutted the maintenance building at White Sands Research Center, part of the Coulston Foundation, located in Alamogordo, New Mexico. No animals were kept in the building, and nobody was hurt in the fire that destroyed numerous tools, Coulston spokesman Don McKinney said. A small bomb that did not detonate was found in the same general area. Police and fire officials said a portion of the roof collapsed while firefighters battled the blaze. McKinney estimated damage at more than $1 million. He said the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and the FBI were summoned and are investigating the incident, as is the Otero County sheriff’s department. - Reported by the National Association for Biomedical Research

Hylander Director of Duke Primate Center

William Hylander, Duke professor of biological anthropology and anatomy whose research focuses on the evolution of the face in primates, has been appointed director of the Duke University Primate Center, Provost Peter Lange announced. Hylander succeeds Kenneth Glander, also a professor of biological anthropology and anatomy, who stepped down after two five-year terms. In announcing the three-year appointment, Lange said Hylander is being asked to develop plans to significantly enhance research and teaching at the Primate Center, while maintaining its conservation and community service missions.

The Duke Primate Center houses the world’s largest collection of endangered primates, as well as an extensive fossil collection of primates and other animals. Duke is also the only university-operated center that concentrates solely on studying and protecting prosimians such as lemurs, lorises, and galagos. - From a June 19, 2001, Duke News Service press release

New Directors at Yerkes and Tulane

Both the Yerkes and the Tulane RPRCs got new directors in the autumn of 2001. Dr. Stuart Zola came from the University of California, San Diego, to Yerkes on September 1, while Dr. Andrew Lackner moved from the New England RPRC to Tulane on October 1. - From the NCRR Reporter

And at the Caribbean Primate Center

Dr. Edmund Kraiselburd has been appointed Director of the Caribbean Primate Center, which is attached to the University of Puerto Rico’s Department of Medical Sciences. Dr. Kraiselburd is a Professor of Microbiology in the School of Medicine. - From an announcement by José R. Carlo, M.D., Interim Director, Dept of Med. Sciences, School of Medicine, U.P.R.

New Administrators at IUCN/SSC Species Program

Dr. Sue Mainka has been appointed the new Coordinator for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s Species Program, responsible for supporting an increasingly active 7,000-member Species Survival Commission. Mainka is already familiar with the role, having served as Acting Coordinator for the past four months while her predecessor, Dr. Simon Stuart, served as IUCN’s Acting Director General. He has a new position at the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (CABS) at Conservation International, Washington, DC, where he will help expand the activities of the IUCN/SSC Red List Program.

Mainka, a veterinarian with 16 years of experience in wildlife conservation, has worked on giant panda conservation in China, and captive management of wildlife in several countries. Her particular field of interest is species conservation related to traditional medicine. She has written several reports on the effectiveness of CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) submitted to previous Conferences of the Parties, and headed the IUCN delegation at the 11th CITES Conference of the Parties in April, 2000.

Dr. Jean-Christophe Vié has been appointed as the new Deputy Coordinator of the IUCN Species Program. He started work in Gland, Switzerland, on 15 October 2001. Jean-Christophe is French, a qualified veterinarian, and has a PhD in evolutionary biology and ecology. He has worked for IUCN as the Program Coordinator of the Guinea-Bissau office; his broad-ranging expertise includes coastal planning, managing protected areas, and translocation of species. Vié will be responsible for general operations and management of the Species Program and network support. - From IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin - August 2001

Mountain Gorilla Project Employee Health Program

As part of its long-term strategic plan, the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP) staff instigated an employee health program for gorilla conservation personnel. The program’s goal is to assess and improve the health status of trackers, guides, scientists and veterinarians in an effort to reduce the risk of disease transmission between workers and mountain gorillas. The program was planned and executed by MGVP staff with the help and direction of Dr. Lynne Gaffikin, a human epidemiologist from Johns Hopkins University; Dr. Robbie Ali, a physician from Pittsburgh; and Dr. Leon, a doctor from Ruhengeri. The program includes background surveys, medical histories, physical examinations, diagnostic tests, treatments, prophylactic management, and health education sessions.

Over 100 people took part in the program, which will continue with regular treatment and educational components. Hopefully, with the help of other human health organizations, a health insurance program for the employees and their families will be established. One of the most surprising findings of the study was that 23 people needed glasses, which should help tremendously with their jobs. The MGVP would like to thank Drs. Gaffikin, Ali and Leon for their dedication to the program. - from the Morris Animal Foundation’s Wildlife Animal News, Fall 2001

Africa’s “Last Eden” to Become National Park

The Minister of Forestry Economy of the Republic of Congo announced on July 6th the protection of what scientists are calling the most pristine rain forest left in Africa. With a troop of lowland gorillas watching from the Bronx Zoo’s Congo Gorilla Forest exhibit, Minister Henri Djombo was joined by officials from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), the zoo’s parent organization, and CIB, a private timber company. The agreement marks the first time a timber company working in Africa has voluntarily turned over virgin forest in the name of conservation.

Known as the Goualogo Triangle, the 100-square-mile rain forest contains some of the highest densities of gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants in central Africa. According to WCS, which along with CIB conducted intensive wildlife surveys of the region, it also contains vast tracts of mahoganies and other valuable hardwoods. After learning of the Goualogo’s biological richness, CIB gave up its legal rights to harvest the forest, which were leased from the government. Instead, the government of Congo will add the Goualogo Triangle to the already existing Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, which WCS helped create in 1993.

The northern forests of the Republic of Congo remain one of the last remote areas of central Africa. Pressures to develop the country through timber harvesting and processing have increased exponentially over the past ten years. For the past several years, WCS and CIB have worked to improve forest and wildlife management in logging concessions and buffer zones. - From Wildlife Conservation, September/October 2001, 104[5]

Mining Operations Plague World Heritage Sites

Park guards and military personnel have recently started shutting down illegal coltan mining operations in the Okapi Faunal Reserve in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Wildlife Conservation Society has learned. According to WCS conservationist Terese Hart, the miners were given one week to leave, but abandoned their camps even before guards reached them. Coltan mining has resulted in widespread poaching of bushmeat to feed miners in the Okapi Faunal Reserve, Kahuzi-Biega National Park and other areas. Hart cautions that although some mines have been shut down, the risk to the area’s wildlife has not disappeared, as new mining camps have recently opened up in the reserve’s northern and eastern sections.

Coltan (short for colombo-tantalite) is a basic component of cell phones and the key to their small size. The principal sources of coltan are found in Australia and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. With the worldwide use of cell phones skyrocketing - over 500 million expected to be sold in 2001 - the price of coltan has also exploded. In 1990 it was about $20 per pound, in 1997 about $40, and in 2001 peaked just over $350 before recently falling in price.

WCS is now working to ensure that the coltan miners stay out of the Okapi Wildlife Reserve permanently. At the same time, the Congolese Government needs to make a similar commitment to removing miners from Kahuzi-Biega National Park, which contains the world’s last stronghold of Grauer’s gorillas, one of four gorilla sub-species. In 1994, a WCS team working in the park found that it contained the highest concentration of Grauer’s gorillas in the world - approximately 86 percent of the world’s estimated population of 17,000.

Kahuzi-Biega currently contains huge numbers of coltan miners, more than 10,000 people according to WCS estimates. The need to feed these workers has caused a drastic increase in the poaching of wildlife. Without enforcement, WCS researchers predict that the number of coltan mining operations will continue to grow, as will the pressure on the park’s fauna. - From Wildlife Conservation, July-August 2001, 104[4]

Corrientes Biological Station

In 2001 Argentina established the Corrientes Biological Station, administered by the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences (MACN), under the terms of an agreement with the Department of Fauna and Flora of Corrientes Province. When the Argentine Primate Center (CAPRIM) ceased its activities several years ago, the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences asked Argentina’s scientific funding agency, the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), to transfer its facilities, equipment, and personnel to the Museum with the goal of creating a biological field station. In May, 2001, CONICET approved the proposal, and in September, 2001, the Museum began developing scientific and educational activities at the new station.

The station, which is located on the site of the former CAPRIM, will continue to maintain the colonies of Saimiri sciureus and Cebus apella founded by CAPRIM. The goals and purposes of the station, however, have been expanded to include additional activities relating to education and conservation; it will also serve as a study site and will provide lodging for researchers.

More information on “Biological Station Corrientes” can be found at <>. - Dr. Gabriel E. Zunino [e-mail:]

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Travelers’ Health Notes

Health Information for International Travel

CDC’s Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Infectious Diseases, has released the 2001-2002 edition of Health Information for International Travel (The Yellow Book). The new edition contains updated vaccination information; updated information on malaria risk and prophylaxis (by country); updated and revised disease-specific text and tables; new sections on altitude sickness and international adoption; updated country listings; and improved maps and indexing. The Yellow Book can be purchased from the Public Health Foundation [877-252-1200; or see <>] for $25. - From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2001, 50[24], 517

Combined Hepatitis A and B Vaccine

On May 11, 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix®) for use in persons aged at least 18 years. Twinrix is manufactured and distributed by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Rixensart, Belgium), and is made of the antigenic components used in Havrix and Engerix-B (GlaxoSmithKline). The antigenic components in Twinrix have been used routinely in separate single-antigen vaccines in the United States since 1995 and 1989 as hepatitis A and B vaccines, respectively.

For international travel, hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for travelers to areas of high or intermediate hepatitis A endemicity; hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for travelers to areas of high or intermediate hepatitis B endemicity who plan to stay for at least 6 months and have frequent close contact with the local population. Primary vaccination with Twinrix consists of three doses, given on a 0-, 1-, and 6-month schedule, the same schedule as that used for single-antigen hepatitis B vaccine.

Adverse experiences were evaluated in clinical trials in which 6594 doses of Twinrix were administered to 2165 persons. Observed adverse experiences generally were similar in type and frequency to those observed after vaccination with monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. The frequency of adverse experiences did not increase with subsequent doses of Twinrix. No serious vaccine-related adverse experiences were observed (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, unpublished data, 2001). Twinrix is contraindicated in persons with known hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine. Additional information is available from the manufacturer’s package insert and GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines [(800-366-8900]. - From Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2001, 50[37], 806-807.

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Awards Granted

Animal Welfare Prize to Leah Scott

Dr. Leah Scott, a pharmacologist and specialist in nonhuman primates, has been awarded the GlaxoSmithKline Laboratory Animal Welfare Prize for 2001. The prize, Europe’s premier laboratory animal welfare prize, is awarded annually by the U.K.’s Research Defence Society for significant contributions to improving the welfare of animals in laboratories, or for techniques that reduce the number of animals required. Dr. Scott has, over a number of years, developed and encouraged the use of remote, minimally invasive monitoring of animals in laboratories. More recently she has championed the use of radiotelemetry techniques to monitor behavioral and physiological responses in various experimental situations. Such techniques contribute to animal welfare by reducing stress and often the number of animals used. For more information, visit the news pages on the Research Defence Society’s Website at: <>.

ASP Student Award Winners

The Education Committee of the American Society of Primatologists reviewed 22 papers and 17 posters presented by students at the 2001 meeting in Savannah, Georgia. The Outstanding Paper Presentation was by Sarah Brosnan, for “A concept of value in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)”, by S. Brosnan & F. de Waal; the Outstanding Poster Presentation was by Corina Ross, for “Genetic mosaics across tissues in callitrichids (Callithrix kuhlii, black-tufted ear marmosets)”, by C. Ross, G. Orti, & J. A. French; and Honorable Mention for an Outstanding Presentation went to Becky Raboy, for “Immigration patterns and group stability in wild golden-headed lion tamarins in southern Bahia, Brazil”, by B. Raboy & J. Dietz. - From the ASP Bulletin

NSF Announces Institutional Transformation Awards

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced the first set of ADVANCE institutional transformation grants which seek to ensure fuller participation and advancement of women faculty in science and engineering. NSF’s ADVANCE program will support eight universities that will address these needs through multi-year grants of $3- to $4 million each. The institutions selected for the new awards have examined their current policies and practices and developed plans to pursue new organizational strategies to make access by women to the senior and leadership ranks of university faculties a priority.

Although women earn 40 percent of all doctorates in the United States, they continue to be underrepresented in almost all science and engineering fields. Women make up 22 percent of the science and engineering workforce in general and less than 20 percent of the science and engineering faculty in four-year colleges and universities.

ADVANCE Institutional Transformation Awards have been made to the Georgia Institute of Technology; New Mexico State University; the University of Washington; the University of Puerto Rico, Humacao; the University of Colorado-Boulder; the University of Michigan; the University of Wisconsin-Madison; and the University of California, Irvine.

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Award Nominations

Gorilla Haven Announces the Debbie McGuire Grant

Debbie McGuire was a long-time gorilla keeper at the Pittsburgh Zoo, who helped organize the Third International Gorilla Workshop in 1997. In June, 2001, Debbie died suddenly at her home at the age of forty-one. Her death was a shock and great loss to everyone who knew her.

When Jane Dewar was a newcomer to the “gorilla world”, with a strong desire to learn more about gorillas and their caregivers, Debbie McGuire was consistently friendly, open, and enthusiastic, encouraging Jane to learn more about gorillas - which eventually led to the creation of Gorilla Haven, a project of the Dewar Wildlife Trust. In honor of Debbie, and generous keepers like her, Jane and her husband Steuart decided to fund this award - as a small way of saying “thank you” for sharing love, knowledge, and enthusiasm for this wonderful animal and the people who work with them. It is in recognition of Debbie McGuire’s generosity of spirit, professionalism, commitment to the welfare of gorillas, and sharing her enthusiasm and knowledge with others that The Debbie McGuire Gorilla Keeper Grant is announced.

The Grant itself will total $1,000 annually, given to any gorilla keeper, anywhere in the world, for use to travel to other zoos, to attend conferences, visit gorillas in Africa, promote keeper exchanges, etc. - as long as long as it will benefit gorillas and their caregivers. Depending on the merits of the applications received, the grant will either be awarded to one individual for $1,000 or to two individuals for $500 each. Any gorilla keeper - or former gorilla keeper still actively involved in the welfare of gorillas - is qualified to apply.

The first grant will be given for the year 2003, based on applications received by September 1, 2002. The recipient(s) will be announced on November 2, 2002, which would have been Debbie’s birthday. While the first grant is set for 2003, applications received early in 2002 might be able to be funded this year, based on merit and timing. Application forms are available from Gorilla Haven, P.O. Box 210, Morganton, GA 30560 [e-mail:]. For additional information on Gorilla Haven, see <www.gorilla-haven.org7gt;.

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Meeting Announcements

The Leakey Foundation and the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco will present programs at the Commonwealth Club, 595 Market St, San Francisco, this spring. An Orangutan Traditions Workshop will be held February 14-17. On March 20 and 21, 2002, Ian Tattersall will speak on “Becoming Human”; and on May 23, Cheryl Knott will speak on “Fat, Famine and Fertility: Orangutan Reproductive Ecology”; both as part of the Speaker Series. For information, phone 415-597-6705; or see <>.

The 3rd Student Conference on Conservation Science will be held March 25-27, 2002, in Cambridge, U.K. Plenary lectures will be presented by Sir Robert May PRS, Prof. William Bond, Dr. Cristian Samper, and Dr. Russell A. Mittermeier. For more information, contact Andrew Balmford, Conservation Biology Group, Dept of Zoology, Univ. of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, U.K. [01223 331770; e-mail:].

The 23rd African Health Sciences Congress will be held April 22-26, 2002, in Kampala, Uganda. The Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, will host the Congress in collaboration with the African Forum for Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya, and the Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi. The theme is “Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases Facing Africa in the 21st Century”. The scientific program will include: * Hemorrhagic fevers with emphasis on Ebola; * Mycobacterial diseases, malaria, and HIV; * Immunity and vaccine development; * Biodiversity and the discovery of natural products for improvement of health; * Epidemiology and disease control; * Other health related topics. Abstracts in English should be submitted before March 8 and should not be more than 300 words long. Details can be obtained from The Secretariat, 23rd AHSC, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda [+256-41-531126/530021 and +256-77-613620; fax. +256-41-531126/530412/534314; e-mail: and]; and see <>.

The 15th National Congress of the Italian Primatological Association will be held in Rome May 30 to June 1, 2002, hosted by the Istituto di Psicologia del CNR. Contact Dott. Annarita Wirz, CNR, Istituto di Psicologia del CNR, Via Ulisse Aldovandi 16/B, 00197 Rome, Italy [06-3221252 and 3221437; fax: 06-3217090; e-mail:]; or see <>.

The 3rd International Canopy Conference will be held in June, 2002, in Cairns, Australia, sponsored by the Queensland government and the Smithsonian Institution. The conference theme is “Science, Policy and Utilisation”, intended to bring together scientists, environmental managers, and policy makers concerned with the discovery and sustainable use of forests around the world. For more information, phone: +61 7 3224 2055; fax: +61 7 3404 3681; e-mail: ; or see <>.

The 16th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology will be held July 14-18, 2002, in Canterbury, England, at the University of Kent campus. The theme will be “People and Conservation”, and it will be co-hosted by the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, based in the Department of Anthropology at the University, and by the British Ecological Society. For more information contact: Nigel Leader-Williams, Program Chair [e-mail:], or Andrew Pullin, [e-mail:]; or see <>.

The American Association of Zoo Veterinarians will hold its annual conference in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, October 6-10, 2002. Program sessions include Primates, Case Reports, Pathology, Conservation Medicine, Emerging Diseases, Reproduction and Contraception, Behavior, Enrichment and Conditioning, and Biomaterial Banking. There will also be a poster session, veterinary and graduate student paper competitions, and workshops/wet labs. The deadline for authors to contact session chairs is February 15. For information regarding presentation of papers, see <> or contact Randy Junge, St. Louis Zoo, Forest Park, St. Louis, MO 63110 [314-768 5487; fax: 314-768-5454; e-mail:]. For other information, contact Wilbur Amand, 6 North Pennell Rd, Media, PA 19063 [610-892-4812; fax: 610-892-4813; e-mail:].

The Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW) Annual Winter Meeting will be held December 9-10, 2002, in New Orleans. For more information, visit <>; or contact SCAW [301-345-3500; e-mail:].

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Information Requested or Available

New NABR Member Service

The National Association for Biomedical Research is offering an e-mail news and information service containing a summary of each day’s top stories as reported by the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and other newspapers, as well as information gathered from Websites and chat rooms maintained by animal activists. If you would like to be added to the distribution list, contact Jennifer Henderson [e-mail:].

Newly Launched Wildlife Community Website announces its online wildlife community Website, <>. The site gives access to specialized information for the wildlife professional, including rehabilitators, veterinarians, ranchers, researchers, game capturers, managers, and students. It includes the full text of the current edition of the Capture and Care Manual, which is out of print, and enables people to share their knowledge and experiences with one another in an interactive, immediate manner. Topics covered include: capture and care issues (darting, handling, loading, transportation, temporary accommodation, etc.); husbandry in more permanent captivity (zoos, safari parks, etc.); wildlife management issues; rehabilitation; capture and translocation equipment; and telemetry-techniques and technology. Further, a regular newsletter is sent to members which includes: reviews or lists of recent articles in journals/magazines; notes on updates to the community Website; reviews of new products and publications (e.g., book reviews); who’s who: people and NGOs; NGO news (especially serious conservation/management projects); letters to the Editor; equipment, electronics, etc.; reports, symposia, etc.; meetings and conferences; and other issues of interest to the wildlife professional. For more information, visit the Website, or contact Riley O’Brien [012-991-3083; e-mail:].

SSC Publications Catalogue

The Species Survival Commission (SSC) Publications Catalogue (July 2001) is now available. An electronic version can be downloaded from: <>. This catalogue provides a comprehensive list of SSC publications, but may not include some of the early titles from the 1950s or ‘60s, which are no longer available. It includes short summaries of all Action Plans and Occasional Papers. SSC Publications can be ordered from: IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, U.K. [+44 1223 277894; fax: +44 1223 277175; e-mail:]; or <>. Some of the out-of-print titles may be available on CD-ROM or as photocopies; for information, contact: Cécile Thiéry, Librarian, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland [+41 22 999 01 35; fax: +41 22 999 00 10; e-mail:].

Pain Management Database

A new database on pain management is available at <>: the Altweb Pain Management Database. It includes information about anesthesia and analgesia for most commonly used laboratory animals, including primates. It provides information about available drugs and the side effects of commonly used drugs. Citations are from publications that have published laboratory animal studies or human clinical studies with relevance to animal research. This database covers the period 1990 to the present, and is updated quarterly. Almost all of the records - 98% - have abstracts. Records have been drawn from three major databases: MEDLINE (with records from TOXLINE as well), AGRICOLA, and AGRIS. About 50% of the records include dose information. These records will discuss the effects of dose on physiological parameters. The database contains approximately 10,000 records. However, entering as few as two or three keywords will narrow your results quickly to a manageable number of citations.

More Interesting Websites

* AESOP-Project [Allied Effort to Save Other Primates] Listing of Primate Sanctuaries: <>

* American Society of Health-System Pharmacists’ shortages list: <>

* Database of medical, pharmaceutical, veterinary, and biotech abbreviations: <>

* FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research’s drug shortage site: <>

* Great Apes Project: <>

* Laboratory Primate Advocacy Group: <>

* Morris Animal Foundation: <>

* National Biosecurity Resource Center for Animal Health Emergencies: <>

* Posters to demonstrate decision-making strategy for considering alternative approaches: <> <>

* Primates: A Journal of Primatology: <>

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Resources Wanted and Available

Announcing the Callicam Website

The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) has announced the Callicam <>, a new Web resource available through the Primate Info Net (PIN). The Callicam allows site visitors to see a live image from a camera focused on a family of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) at the WRPRC. By clicking on the screen image, camera users take control of the Callicam for two minutes at a time and can pan, zoom, and focus the camera at will.

A series of informational pages, developed with Dr. David Abbott and other members of the common marmoset group at the WRPRC, accompanies the Webcam window and gives users the opportunity to learn about the species and its behavior as they view the animals live on their screens. Also available from the Callicam window are links to the PIN “Common Marmoset” Website, which offers general information about C. jacchus, its behavior, current research, a bibliography of print and audiovisual resources, and a link to search for more Websites through PIN. Images from the WRPRC’s Audiovisual Archive, <>, are included on the site as well. Students and instructors are encouraged to use this site in conjunction with the Callicam to learn more about the common marmoset and as a guide to observing primate behavior.

Capuchins on the Web

The Living Links Center of Emory University an-nounces a new Website for their Capuchin Laboratory: <>. The site gives viewers a unique look into the lab’s research, which has recently led to breakthroughs in our understanding of reciprocal altruism and cooperation with a paper published in the journal Nature. This and other articles are available for download at the site. Viewers will also be able to learn about the capuchin colony, see videos from cooperation tests with the monkeys, and meet our research staff. General capuchin information and links are also provided within the pages of the Website.

Web-Based Investigator/IACUC training

Mike Fallon, of the Atlanta Veterans’ Administration (VA) Medical Center and Emory University School of Medicine, announced on CompMed the availability of free Web-based training for investigators and IACUC members at the “Working with Laboratory Animals” Website <>, made available by the Medical Research Service in the Department of Veterans Affairs. “The purpose of this Website is to help institutions meet the training mandates for research staff and IACUC members found in the USDA Animal Welfare Act regulations and Public Health Service policy.

“The first component is an area where research staff and IACUC members can take Web courses and exams. Once signed in, staff members will be able to take Web courses or watch training videotapes (courtesy of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare), and take exams that cover the material in those courses and videotapes. VA and non-VA versions of a comprehensive Web course entitled ‘Working with the IACUC’ are available. This course focuses on information needed by investigators to fill out animal protocol forms, and doubles as a training tool for IACUC members, research staff, veterinarians, and advanced animal husbandry staff. A second course, primarily for IACUC members, entitled ‘Essentials for IACUC Members’, is in the final stages of development. The second component is an IACUC Administrator’s site, where administrators can review the records of staff members who have passed an exam. This approach allows the entire training documentation burden to be shifted to the Web server. IACUC administrators can print lists of staff members who have passed exams, and also print completion certificates for staff members. Finally, a custom course and exam design site component is available. This site allows a person with minimal html experience to customize an existing course/exam, or to create new courses, from his own computer. Once ready for use, only his staff can use the customized courses and exams. Staff of other institutions do not see and do not have the option to choose courses customized for other institutions.

“The Website has been in beta testing for some months and, as of today, well over 1000 exams have been taken by staff at 55 institutions. Continuing support for the site is provided by the VA. For additional information, visit <>, or contact me at to receive institutional passwords.”

Three Rs Articles Available

The journal Laboratory Animals has made reprints of its 1994 series of articles on the “Three Rs” available for downloading. The authors have provided some supplemental references to update their work, and which are available online as a separate document. The articles and URLs are:
* Replacement of animal procedures: Alternatives in research, education, and testing, by M. Balls: <>;
* Reduction of animal use: Experimental design and quality of experiments, by M. F. W. Festing: <>;
* Refinement of animal use: Assessment and alleviation of pain and distress, by P. A. Flecknell: <>; and
* The three Rs: A supplementary selection of references: <>.

CITES: A Conservation Tool Updated Edition

The IUCN/SSC Wildlife Trade Program has completed the 7th edition of CITES: A Conservation Tool, a guide to amending the Appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This publication guides the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Parties through the Convention’s articles and resolutions. It covers the process for the submission, presentation, and adoption of proposals to amend the Appendices for the 12th CITES Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, November 3-15, 2002, in Chile. This edition has been produced in booklet form and on CD. Both CDs and booklets have been distributed to CITES Parties in time for their preparations for the 12th Conference of the Parties. The guide is available in pdf format in English, French, and Spanish at: <>.

PFA Skeletal Collection

The chimpanzee skeletal collection at the Primate Foundation of Arizona (PFA) is unique and is maintained as a collection of important information for scientific inquiry. Specimens include some PFA chimpanzees that have died over a period of 30 years and additional specimens that have been donated to the collection. The collection presently includes 13 females (6 years to 30 years), seven males (4 to 27 years), and nine infants (younger than one year of age). Each bone in the collection has been labeled in black indelible ink with the chimpanzee’s PFA identification number.

Large bones have been individually wrapped in foam wrapping. Small bones and the bones of hands and feet are separated into zip-lock plastic bags. Left and right hand and feet bones have been bagged separately. Each skeleton has been carefully inventoried and stored in 2’ x 5’ cardboard boxes with low acid content. In addition, we have detailed health and behavior records for the collection, which truly makes it valuable.

We welcome proposals from interested investigators and have recently renovated an area to include a laboratory for intensive study. On-site use of the collection by students and professionals is encouraged. Proposals are reviewed by the PFA Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), and data collection cannot be initiated without their prior written approval. Please note that specimens cannot be transported off the site and that projects that include destruction of bone tissue will not be considered. For further information on the collection, and to submit a research project proposal, contact Sue Howell, Research Director, PFA, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85287-0027 [e-mail:].

SIV Viral Load and NHP Gene Transcription

The TaqMan® Service at the University of California, Davis, is an independent Molecular Core Unit at the School of Veterinary Medicine, created from a grant by a private foundation to stimulate veterinary-related research. Among our services we offer TaqMan Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems to quantify SIV viral RNA load and rhesus macaque gene transcription. These assays were designed to meet needs in the nonhuman primate research community at UC Davis and the California Regional Primate Research Center. Plasma viral RNA load is a key parameter in disease progression and one of the most useful markers to determine vaccine and antiviral therapy efficiency. Quantitative PCR based on the TaqMan principle is a new and improved method to quantify nucleic acids, allowing the analysis of large numbers of samples with high sensitivity and specificity, short turn-around time, and low risk of cross-contamination. In addition, TaqMan PCR for quantification of gene transcription is an efficient method to define the gene profile in any type of disease or pathology. * SIV viral load determination by real-time TaqMan PCR: Our published SIV TaqMan PCR protocol has an analytical sensitivity of five molecules with a threshold of 50 viral RNA molecules/ml plasma. The TaqMan PCR system is quantitative with most derivatives of the SIVmac239 family. For more distantly related SIV isolates, redesign of the TaqMan PCR system is possible. * Sample analysis for quantification of gene expression: We analyze your samples with highly optimized protocols: RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and TaqMan analysis. New TaqMan systems’ design and optimization for the genes of your interest are integrated into this service. A panel of 25 TaqMan systems is available for the rhesus macaque. * Sample requirements: (a) SIV viral load assay: 600 microliters plasma from EDTA or Na-Citrate anticoagulated blood. (a) Sample analysis for quantification of gene expression: cells (PBMCs, cultured cells): 5 million; tissues: 100 mg (solid soft organs) or 300 mg (cartilage, lung, fat, fibrous tissues; snap frozen). Contact us if you are interested in RNA extraction from bone. (c) Paraffin-embedded tissues: two 50-µ sections. Place sections directly into a 1.5 ml tube, do not mount on glass slide.

For more information, contact Christian M. Leutenegger, Dept of Med. & Epidemiology, School of Vet. Med., TaqMan® Service, Tupper Hall, Rm 2108, UC, Davis, CA 95616 [530-752-7991; fax: 530-752-0414; [e-mail:]; or see <>.

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Research and Educational Opportunities

Undergraduate Summer Research Internships

The Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior (CISAB) at Indiana University invites applications to their National Science Foundation-supported Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program in Animal Behavior. Subject to renewed support from NSF, a total of 10 internships will be awarded to students to participate in this program from May 28 through August 3, 2002. We expect each internship to provide a stipend of approximately $3000, room & board, and transportation costs to and from Indiana University or the study site. Undergraduates from groups underrepresented in science (women, racial/ethnic minorities, first generation college, low income families, or persons with disabilities) are especially encouraged to apply, but all applicants will be considered. Applications will be accepted until all positions are filled. For further information and application forms contact Linda Summers [812-855-9663; e-mail:]. More information and application materials are available at: <>. Applications must be received by February 15, 2002.

Veterinary Technician Anesthetist Examination

The Academy of Veterinary Technician Anesthetists (AVTA) announces the availability of applications for the 2002 certification examination, to take place in October, 2002, in Orlando, Florida. The exam will be administered in conjunction with the ACVA/AVTA meetings. The certification process consists of two parts, the application and the examination. The application requires you to provide proof of the length and depth of your experience as a veterinary technician and in the practice of veterinary anesthesia, as well as proof of your mastery of anesthesia skills and the amount of advanced training you have received in anesthesia. Applicants must submit four case reports, which will provide insight on what you were thinking and what you did in challenging cases that you managed. Only candidates whose applications have been approved by the AVTA credentials committee will be eligible to take the examination.

Other eligibility requirements for the AVTA examination are: * Candidates must be credentialed to practice as a veterinary technician from a state or province or have graduated from an American Veterinary Medical Association-approved technician program. * Candidates must have at least 6000 hours (5 years) of experience working as a veterinary technician, with 75% (4500 hours) of that time spent providing anesthesia care as defined by the AVTA. * Candidates must complete a skills list. * Candidates must have attended 40 hours of continuing education in anesthesia-related topics provided by a diplomate specialist (ACVA, ACVS, ACVECC, etc.) or AVTA Organizing Committee member. * Candidates must provide a letter of recommendation from an ACVA, ACVS, ACVECC diplomate or VTS (ECC). * Candidates must provide a case log of at least 50 cases for which you provided anesthesia and be the author of four case reports in the case log. These cases must include cases ranging from ASA I to ASA V.

If you meet these eligibility requirements and would like to receive an application, request a packet from the AVTA Executive Secretary. P.O.Box 426, Rossville, IN 46065. Your completed packet must be received by the Executive Secretary no later than February 11, 2002.

Summer Apprentices: Chimpanzees and ASL

The Chimpanzee & Human Communication Institute (CHCI) is taking applications for our 10-week Summer Apprentice Program, June 16 to August 23, 2002. Graduates, undergraduates, and postgraduates from various academic backgrounds (e.g., anthropology, biology, psychology, linguistics, philosophy) are encouraged to apply.

The research at CHCI involves a group of five chimpanzees who use the signs of American Sign Language (ASL). Four of the five, Washoe, Moja, Tatu, and Dar, were part of the cross-fostering research that began with Drs. R. A. & B. T. Gardner. Each chimpanzee was raised in an enriched environment, in which human family members used only ASL, much like the environment in which a deaf child grows up. The fifth chimpanzee, Loulis, was adopted by Washoe in 1978 and learned his signs from other chimpanzees as a focus of research done by the co-directors of CHCI, Dr. Roger and Deborah Fouts. Currently, the chimpanzees reside at the CHCI on the campus of Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington, in a large state-of-the-art facility.

Apprentices are at the institute daily, cleaning enclosures, preparing meals and enrichment, making observations, and participating in one or more research projects. The first week is intensive training in laboratory jobs and chimpanzee behaviors. The philosophy of CHCI is that the needs of the chimpanzees come first. Apprentices are trained in humane care and research techniques. After several weeks, each apprentice becomes more autonomous and has more responsibilities in the research project.

The program fee is $1800, which does not include housing and transportation, and there is a non-refundable $25 processing fee. Inexpensive housing is available on campus. A course in ASL is highly recommended. The deadline to apply is March 25, 2002. For information, see <>; or contact Dr. Mary Lee Jensvold, CHCI, CWU, Ellensburg, WA 98926 [e-mail:].

* * *

Grants Available

NHP Models of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) invites applications using nonhuman primate models to focus on the following areas: * neurobiological mechanisms and risk factors for alcoholism during late childhood through adolescence; * the relative contribution and/or interaction of genetic, environmental, and social factors (e.g., stress, peer influences) with neurobiological mechanisms in the development of adolescent alcohol abuse; * evaluation of the immediate and long-term consequences of heavy drinking during adolescence on cognitive/brain functioning; and * the contribution of early alcohol exposure (juvenile and adolescent periods) to excessive drinking and abnormal cognitive and social functioning during subsequent developmental stages. It is intended to foster interdisciplinary research (e.g., behavior, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuroimaging). Therefore, good integration among components with diverse scientific disciplines is essential. NIAAA strongly encourages investigators with expertise in primate developmental biology and behavior to seek collaborations with established alcohol researchers in order to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of adolescent alcohol abuse and alcoholism. A high priority will be given to applications that include integrated research.

Letter of intent receipt date is January 21, 2002; application receipt date is February 19. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to Ellen D. Witt, Neuroscience and Behavioral Research Branch, NIAAA, Willco Bldg., Suite 402, 6000 Executive Blvd., MSC 7003, Bethesda, MD 20892-7003 [301-443-6545; fax: 301-594-0673; e-mail:].

Research Training Grant for Veterinary Students

The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) will award National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Training Grants to eligible institutions to develop or enhance animal-oriented, hypothesis-based biomedical research training opportunities for individuals pursuing a degree in veterinary medicine (DVM or VMD). The purpose of this program is to help ensure that highly trained comparative medical scientists will be available to meet collaborative research needs in animal-based, biomedical research. This award provides support for one year of supervised research experience to introduce veterinary students with an interest in biomedical research at a formative stage of their veterinary medical science education to pursue training in research careers.

Veterinarians of the future will need increased scientific skills and specialty training to take full advantage of current and evolving biomedical technologies. At present, there is a serious shortage of trained veterinary scientists to meet the independent and collaborative research needs of biomedical science in such fields as genetics, pathology, and epidemiology of diseases in laboratory animal models.

Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to: Franziska Grieder, Div. of Comparative Medicine, NCRR, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Suite 6050, MSC 7965, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965 [301-435-0744; fax: 301-480-3819; e-mail:]; and see <>. Application receipt dates are January 10, May 10, and September 10.

Role of Infectious Agents in Vascular Diseases

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) invites research grant applications to conduct studies on the role of infectious agents in the development of vascular disease. A potentially important role of infectious agents in the development of vascular disease is suggested by studies showing an association between vascular diseases and certain bacterial and viral infections. The objective of this program is to encourage in vitro and in vivo research on the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which infectious agents contribute to atherogenesis. The secondary objective is to encourage the development of the biological basis for therapeutic interventions that target these molecular mechanisms.

For a number of years, observational studies in humans have provided intriguing hints linking certain viral and bacterial infections to atherosclerosis, coronary events, or restenosis after arterial intervention. Recent studies combining animal models of atherosclerosis with animal models of infectious disease have produced results consistent with a vasculopathic role for infectious agents in mammals.

Several animal models have been developed for vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, in nonhuman primates, rabbits, and mice. Cytomegolovirus infection has been studied in numerous animals including rats, mice and guinea pigs, and chlamydia infection has been studied in rabbits and mice. More recent studies combining infectious-agent and atherosclerotic animal models have shown increases in various measures of vascular disease such as prevalence of arterial inflammatory cell infiltrates or accelerated arterial intimal thickening. While the development of these models is essential, it is critical that animal models be established that mimic the subclinical status of these pathogens in man.

Some areas of research that would be considered include: * Development and characterization of models of atherosclerosis in which the infectious agent is the primary cause of atherosclerosis. Specific aims should include studies elucidating the underlying mechanisms. In addition, plans to disseminate the animal models and willingness to share these models and tissue from the models with the scientific community are expected to be part of these proposals. * Studies in animal models of infection and atherosclerosis that define the status of the infectious agent including pathogen load, temporal and spatial distribution, and state of latency/activation with the aim of precisely determining and substantiating in vivo pathobiologic mechanisms of atherogenesis. These studies may be done either in existing models or in models developed specifically for this purpose.

Applications that propose development of animal models without plans to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and prevention or treatment modalities, will not be considered.

The application receipt date is February 12, 2002. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to Eser Tolunay, Div. of Heart and Vascular Diseases, NHLBI, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Rm 10-186, MSC 7956, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-435-0550; fax: 301-480-2858; e-mail:].

Pilot and Feasibility Program in Urology

The Division of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases (DKUHD) of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the Division of Cancer Biology of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) invite exploratory/developmental grant applications that serve the mission of NIH from investigators with research interests in urology. The primary intent of this initiative is to foster the development of high-risk pilot and feasibility research by investigators developing a new line of research.

Areas in which such scientific opportunities exist include, but are not limited to, development, characterization, and utilization of novel cellular and animal models of urologic diseases.

For information, contact Leroy M. Nyberg, Urology Program, DKUHD, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Rm 627, Bethesda, MD 20892-5458 [301-594-7717; fax: 301-480-3510; e-mail:]; or Suresh Mohla, Tumor Biology and Metastasis Branch, Div. of Cancer Biology, NCI, 6130 Executive Blvd, 5038 EPN, Suite 5000, Bethesda, MD 20892 [301-435-1878; fax: 301-480-0864; e-mail:]; or see <>.

ACLAM Research Grants

The American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) Foundation Committee announces a solicitation of research proposals in laboratory animal science and medicine. The deadline for letters of intent is February 5, 2002. The Foundation will focus its funding on research in the following fields of laboratory animal science and medicine: * analgesia/anesthesia; * animal behavior/well-being; * diagnostics/diseases of laboratory animals; * laboratory animal husbandry; * refinement of animal models, including toxicology; * zoonotic disease. Successful grantees are encouraged to publish their results in peer-reviewed journals and must agree to provide summary research reports in lay language suitable for inclusion in ACLAM Foundation communications, fund-raising solicitations, and the ACLAM Newsletter.

Contact Martin Morin, Chairman, ACLAM Foundation, 208 Byford Dr., Chestertown, MD 21620 [410-810-1870; fax: 410-810-1869; e-mail:]; and see <>.

Imaging Diabetic Microvascular Complications

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) solicit applications for studies designed to apply imaging techniques that measure perfusion or tissue oxygenation at the level of the microvasculature to the study of diabetes and its complications. Although the etiology of peripheral microvasculature complications in diabetic patients is not known, defective perfusion may be an early event. If so, very early detection of changes in perfusion or oxygenation may help to identify those patients that are at risk for the microvascular complications of diabetes such as neuropathy that can lead to loss of sensation and the development of foot ulcers. The intent is to support research using animals or human subjects, development of equipment to help manage diabetes in the clinic, and limited clinical trials to test the utility of potential methodologies for monitoring microvascular disease in the diabetic population. Collaborations between scientists with expertise in imaging and those with expertise in diabetic complications, or with animal models of diabetes, are encouraged.

Letter of intent receipt date is February 15, 2002; the application receipt date is March 15, 2002. The letter of intent is to be sent to: Chief, Review Branch, Div. of Extramural Activities, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Rm. 752, MSC 5452, Bethesda, MD 20892-5452 [301-594-8897; fax: 301-480-3505]. Direct inquiries regarding programmatic issues to Maren R. Laughlin, Div. of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, NIDDK, 6707 Democracy Blvd, Rm. 6101, MSC 5460, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460 [301-594-8802; fax: 301-480-3503; e-mail:]; or Alan N. Moshell, Director, Skin Diseases Branch, NIAMS, Bldg 45, Rm 5 AS-25L, 45 Center Dr., MSC 6500, Bethesda, MD 20892-6500 301-594-5017; fax: 301-480-4543; e-mail:].

* * *

Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research (2002)


* Arizona State University, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: PhD in Anthropology (with MA awarded in the process). Within physical anthropology, specializations in primatology are available. Areas of concentration include primate social behavior and ecology, primate positional behavior and functional and evolutionary morphology, and primate evolution. Interdisciplinary training is available in musculoskeletal and neural adaptations in form and function. Facilities include extensive fossil casts and skeletal collections, a variety of specimens for dissection, 3D imaging and analysis capabilities, and excellent computing capabilities. Faculty interests include relationships between social organization and ecology, infant socialization, parental behavior, primate community ecology, and comparative primate functional and evolutionary morphology. Faculty also maintain an association with the Primate Foundation of Arizona, a private chimpanzee breeding colony. Research on chimpanzee social behavior, growth, and development are underway. Financial aid may be available to graduate students on a competitive basis. Aid is in the form of teaching or research assistantships and graduate fellowships.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Leanne T. Nash (social behavior and ecology of primates, socialization, nocturnal prosimians, experimental analysis of behavior); Mary W. Marzke (comparative primate functional morphology, paleoanthropology, human evolution, growth and development); Kaye E. Reed (primate community ecology, primate paleoecology, primate evolution, paleoanthropology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Drs. Leanne T. Nash, Mary W. Marzke, or Kaye Reed, Dept of Anthropology, Box 872402, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402 [480-965-6213; fax: 480-965-7671; Dr. Nash: 480-965-4812; e-mail:; Dr. Marzke: 480-965-6237; e-mail:; Dr. Reed: 480-727-6580; e-mail:].

* Primate Foundation of Arizona
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: A private, non-profit, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) colony pursuing behavioral research with a goal of improving captive management and the well-being of individual animals. Internships: Behavioral Research Internships provide college students in the behavioral and biological sciences the opportunity for behavioral research experience. There are three basic components: 1) an introduction to chimpanzee behavior and behavioral observation data collection; 2) chimpanzee psychological wellness program and environmental enrichment training; and 3) research support tasks such as data entry. Introduction to chimpanzee behavioral observation is the primary component of the internship and includes data collection on an assigned project, entering the data into a spreadsheet program, conducting preliminary analyses, and completing a background literature review. Results of the intern project are presented at the end of the internship to the full staff to provide presentation experience. Internships are on a volunteer basis and provide no stipend. Students should have completed at least two years of a four-year program (junior-level standing) in the behavioral or biological sciences. Both undergraduate and graduate students are encouraged to apply. Previous course work and/or experience in primatology/animal behavior is required for all students. Applications are accepted for three internship periods: Summer (June 1 to August 31), Fall (September 1 to November 28), and Spring (March 1 to May 30). Applications should be submitted at least 6 weeks before the desired starting date.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Jo Fritz, Director (captive management and behavior); Sue Howell, PhD, Research Director (environmental enrichment and well-being, chimpanzee behavior, individual differences and personality).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jo Fritz, Director, Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027 [480-832-3780; fax: 480-830-7039; e-mail:]. CALIFORNIA

* California State University, San Marcos, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME: Master of Arts in General Experimental Psychology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Nancy Caine (callitrichid behavior), with possibilities for collaboration with primatologists at the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Nancy Caine, Dept. of Psychology, CSU San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096 [e-mail:].

* University of California, Davis, Psychology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Psychobiology is an area of specialization within the Psychology graduate program.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: John P. Capitanio (primate social behavior and development, personality/temperament, psychoneuroimmunology); Richard G. Coss (developmental psychobiology, evolution, experimental aesthetics, antipredator behavior); Leah A. Krubitzer (evolutionary neurobiology); William A. Mason (primate social behavior); Sally P. Mendoza (behavioral endocrinology, physiological basis of primate social relationships, stress, and reproduction); Jeffrey C. Schank (social behavior, individual-based modeling, development).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Department of Psychology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616.

* University of California, Davis, Anthropology Department
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Alexander H. Harcourt (primate behavioral ecology); Lynne A. Isbell (primate behavioral ecology); Peter S. Rodman (evolution of primate behavior, behavioral ecology, and primate evolution).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept of Anthropology, One Shields Ave, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8522; or see <>.

* University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Biological Anthropology focuses on the evolution of social behavior in humans and nonhuman primates.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan Silk (female-female relationships, infant handling, sex ratios, post-conflict behavior, coalition formation, the structure of social relationships, communication; species studied: chimpanzees, bonnet macaques, savanna baboons; current field site: Amboseli, Kenya); Joseph Manson (sexual selection and social relationships, infant handling, lethal aggression, negotiation of social relationships; species studied: rhesus macaques, white-faced capuchin monkeys; current field site: Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica); Susan Perry (the dynamics of social relationships, social learning, infant development, evolution of culture, social intelligence, communication, coalitionary aggression; species studied: white-faced capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys; current field site: Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553. Application procedures: contact Ann Walters, Graduate Advisor for Anthropology [310-825-2511; e-mail:]. Faculty e-mail addresses: , , and ; or see <>.


* University of Florida, Psychology Department
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Marc N. Branch (behavioral pharmacology, experimental analysis of behavior; squirrel monkeys).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Marc N. Branch, Psychology Dept, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 [352-392-0601 x205; e-mail:].


* Georgia Institute of Technology, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: MS and PhD in Psychology. Program operates in direct conjunction with Zoo Atlanta. A variety of taxonomic groups are studied (carnivores, ungulates, birds, primates), but specialization is in primates.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dr. Terry Maple, Professor (behavior, environmental psychology); Dr. Jack Marr, Professor (experimental analysis of behavior); Dr. Mollie Bloomsmith, adjunct professor (behavior, enrichment, well being); Dr. Debra Forthman, adjunct professor, (behavior and conservation); Dr. Tara Stoinski, adjunct professor, (behavior and cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Terry Maple, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; or Dr. Mollie Bloomsmith, Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Avenue, Atlanta, GA 30315.

* Emory University, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: The program in Neuroscience and Animal Behavior approaches topics within the traditional areas of physiological psychology, acquired behavior, and ethology as a unified entity.
FACULTY: Stephan Anagnostaras, Ron Boothe (retiring 2002), Frans de Waal, David Edwards, Harold Gouzoules, Jack J. McDowell, Darryl Neill, Hillary R. Rodman, Donald Stein, Kim Wallen, Michael Zeiler
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Please contact Ms. Terry Legge, Graduate Program Specialist [404-727-7438; e-mail:]; or Dr. Robyn Fivush, Director of Graduate Studies [404-727-4124; e-mail:]; both at the Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.

* University of Georgia, Athens, Psychology Department
PROGRAM NAME: Biopsychology with a specialty area in primatology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Irwin S. Bernstein (primatology, social organization, aggression, sex, dominance); Dorothy Fragaszy (primate behavior, cognition, development, motor skills, social behavior). We also enjoy full cooperation with other departments and universities within the University of Georgia system, as well as collaboration with the Yerkes RPRC of Emory University and the Atlanta Zoo.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Biopsychology Program, Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3013 [706-542-2174; fax: 706-542-3275]; <>.

* Georgia State University, Language Research Center, Dept of Psychology or Dept of Biology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Social/Cognitive (with comparative cognition emphasis) in Psychology; biobehavioral, cognitive, and language studies with primates in Biology
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Departmental faculty include David A. Washburn (Director; comparative cognitive psychology) and E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh (PI for culture and communication; biopsychology, primatology, apes and language). LRC faculty include Duane M. Rumbaugh (primate intelligence and cognition), Charles Menzel (ethology and spatial cognition), and other co-investigators in various disciplines at GSU and other universities.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303-3083 [fax: 404-244-5752; e-mail:]; see also <> or <>.


* The University of Chicago, Dept. of Anthropology, Dept. of Ecology and Evolution, Dept. of Psychology, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Committee on Human Development, Institute for Mind and Biology
PROGRAM NAMES: Doctoral programs: Committee on Evolutionary Biology, Committee on Human Development, Department of Anthropology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Department of Psychology.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: David Bradley (Psychology: vision and neuroscience); Dario Maestripieri (Human Development; Psychology; Evolutionary Biology: behavior, development, evolution); Robert D. Martin (Evolutionary Biology: evolution, behavior, reproduction, genetics, ecology and conservation); Martha McClintock (Psychology; Evolutionary Biology; Human Development: menstrual synchrony, hormones, pheromonal communication); Russell Tuttle (Anthropology; Evolutionary Biology: primate morphology, locomotion, and behavior); Leigh Van Valen (Evolutionary Biology: population biology and evolutionary theory); Carole Ober (Human Genetics: genetics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dario Maestripieri, The University of Chicago, 5730 S. Woodlawn Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 [e-mail:].

* Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
PROGRAM NAME: Integrated Graduate Program in the Life Sciences
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: L. R. Cochard (dental allometry); M. Dagosto (prosimian evolution, systematics, locomotion); M. J. Ravosa (experimental functional morphology, skull form); B. T. Shea (growth, allometry, Miocene and recent hominoids).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Any of the above faculty at the Dept of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern Univ. Med. School, 303 E. Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611-3008; <>.

* Southern Illinois University, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Biological Anthropology: We offer BA, MA, and PhD degrees in Anthropology with a focus on biological anthropology, including primate studies. Primary areas of specialization include general and functional morphology (both dental and skeletal), and evolution and systematics, particularly of platyrrhines (as well as Eocene/Oligocene primates) and hominoids. We also offer a campus-wide Graduate Certificate in Systematics.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dr. Robert Corruccini: dental anthropology, hominoid and hominid evolution, epidemiology of human populations, statistics; Dr. Susan M. Ford: skeletal anatomy, platyrrhine and early primate evolution and systematics, evolutionary theory. A third position is being filled (was Dr. Brenda Benefit: dental and cranial morphology, catarrhine evolution and systematics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept of Anthropology, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL 62901-4502.


* Boston University School of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Doctoral and post-doctoral training in anatomy and neurobiology. The Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology offers a PhD in anatomy and neurobiology. In addition, there is an active post-doctoral training program, with emphasis on multidisciplinary neurobiological studies. While a variety of species are utilized in the research projects conducted within the department, a number of members of the faculty (Drs. Kemper, Luebke, Moss, Pandya, Peters, Rosene, and Sandell) have programs focused on the brain of the rhesus monkey with particular emphasis on the neurobiological basis of cognitive impairments in normal aging, age-related diseases, and developmental disabilities.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: T. L. Kemper (neuropathology of the forebrain in aging, dementia and autism); J. I. Luebke (in vitro patch clamp neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of the hippocampus and neocortex); M. B. Moss (neurobiology of memory and its function in normal and pathological conditions); D. N. Pandya (the organization of the cerebral cortex and associated white matter pathways); A. Peters (the intrinsic and ultrastructural organization of the cerebral cortex and aging changes in the monkey cerebral cortex); D. L. Rosene (morphology, neurophysiology and chemical neuroanatomy of the limbic system, particularly the hippocampus and amygdala); J. H. Sandell (ultrastructure and chemical neuroanatomy of the retina and the basal forebrain).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Mark Moss, Chairman, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118.


* University of Minnesota, Graduate Program in Ecology, Evolution and Behavior
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The program offers MS and PhD degrees. Activity in the program focuses on the biology of organisms, specifically how they interact in social groups, in populations, in communities, and in ecosystems; and how such interactions have influenced the distribution of organisms in space and time. The program provides for a great breadth of training and encourages the interrelation of two or more fields of specialization, including animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, vertebrate ecology, population biology, invertebrate ecology, plant-animal interactions, plant ecology, paleoecology, limnology, and wetland ecology. Opportunities exist for field research in various parts of the world, including Gombe. The Department has recently established the Jane Goodall Institute’s Center for Primate Studies, housing all the field-notes and checksheets from Goodall’s 35-year study of chimps and the 28-year study of baboons at Gombe.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Anne Pusey (behavioral ecology, parent-offspring interaction, sex differences in development, dispersal patterns, mating systems) and Craig Packer (evolution of cooperative behavior, conflicting reproductive strategies of males and females, comparative mammalian reproductive strategies).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Ecology Bldg., 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108; Terri Alston [e-mail:]; or see <>.


* Antioch New England Graduate School, Department of Environmental Studies and Center for Tropical Ecology and Conservation
PROGRAM NAME: Conservation Biology and Environmental Studies
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Beth Kaplin, Ph.D. Specialty: primate seed dispersal behavior, interactions between nonhuman primates and people (use of habitats, crop raiding, hunting), guenon ecology and biogeography, primate conservation.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Antioch New England Graduate School, 40 Avon St., Keene, NH 03431-3516 [603-357-3122; e-mail:].


* City University of New York, Anthropology PhD Program
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

* Columbia University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology

* New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: NYCEP is a graduate training program originally funded by NSF. It consists of three degree-granting institutions - City University of New York (CUNY), Columbia University (CU), and New York University (NYU) - in collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). Our focus is on nonhuman as well as human primates from the perspectives of comparative morphology, paleontology and systematics, molecular and population genetics, behavior and ecology, and conservation biology. Students in the program take courses in all of these areas at the three universities, attend seminars that draw upon the staff of all five cooperating institutions, and have the opportunity to engage in original research in laboratories, museums, and in the field. Detailed information is available at . NYCEP provides funds for research and travel support and coordinates course programs and seminars. The graduate programs of the three collaborating universities offer full financial aid programs with regular fellowships as well as special opportunities for minority students and all highly qualified applicants regardless of nationality. Members of groups underrepresented in science are especially encouraged to apply. Appropriate undergraduate majors for NYCEP applicants include biological anthropology and other life sciences. Students apply to one or more cooperating universities and send a one-page “application” or tracking form to NYCEP; this is available from the Website or from Dr. Delson (see below). Annual application deadline is early January.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: CORE FACULTY are those with whom students will take most courses and who will be likely dissertation supervisors: Tim Bromage, CUNY (paleo-anthropology and developmental morphology); Marina Cords, CU (primate behavior, especially African cercopithecids); Eric Delson, CUNY (paleoanthropology; catarrhine systematics and evolution, biochronology); Tony DiFiore, NYU (primate behavior and ecology, population and molecular genetic applications); Todd R. Disotell, NYU (molecular systematics and evolution, catarrhine primates); Terry Harrison, NYU (catarrhine systematics, comparative morphology, and primate paleontology); Katerina Harvati, NYU (paleoanthropology, later human evolution and variation, geometric morphometrics); Ralph L. Holloway, CU (paleoneurology, human evolution); Clifford J. Jolly, NYU (genetics, systematics, and comparative morphology of primates); Jeffrey T. Laitman, CUNY (paleoanthropology, evolution of speech); Don J. Melnick, CU (population genetics and molecular evolution of higher primates); John F. Oates, CUNY (ecology and behavior of catarrhine primates, tropical forest conservation); Tom Plummer, CUNY (paleoanthropology, hominid paleontology and paleoecology/behavior, Paleolithic archeology); Vincent Stefan, CUNY (forensic anthropology, human osteology, craniometry); Sara Stinson, CUNY (population biology of living humans); Karyl Swartz, CUNY (comparative psychology, primate cognition); Larissa Swedell, CUNY (primate, especially cercopithecid, social behavior; population genetics); Frederick S. Szalay, CUNY (morphology, paleontology, and systematics of primates and other mammals).
RESOURCE FACULTY are available for consultation, may supervise internships and participate on dissertation committees: Walter Bock, CU (vertebrate functional and evolutionary morphology, biomechanics, systematics, evolutionary theory); Rob De Salle, AMNH (molecular systematics); Patrick J. Gannon, Mount Sinai/NYU (Primate brain evolution and relationship to communication, neurochemistry); Patrick Hof, Mount Sinai/NYU (neurobiology); Ross D. MacPhee, AMNH (development and systematics of primates and other mammals); Leslie F. Marcus, CUNY (geometric morphometrics, multivariate statistical methods); Colleen McCann, WCS (conservation biology, behavior and ecology of cercopithecids, hormonal mediation of behavior); Juan Carlos Morales, CU (molecular and population genetics, conservation); Michael Novacek, AMNH (systematics of mammals and early primates); David Reddy, AMNH (computer visualization, morphometrics); John G. Robinson, WCS (conservation biology, Neotropical primates); Robert Rockwell, CUNY (population genetics, population ecology and dynamics, conservation biology); Mitchell Schaffler, Mount Sinai/NYU (functional and comparative morphology); Eleanor J. Sterling, AMNH (primate social behavior, ecology, and conservation, especially in Madagascar); Ian Tattersall, AMNH (systematics and evolution of lemuriform primates and hominids); John A. Van Couvering, AMNH (geochronology and stratigraphy of the Old World Cenozoic); John Wahlert, CUNY (mammalian, especially rodent, paleontology, morphology and evolution); Ward Wheeler, AMNH (molecular systematics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Eric Delson, Dept of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 [212-769-5992; fax: 212-769-5842; e-mail:]; or see <>.

* New York University, Anthropology Department
See under: The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology


* Oregon Regional Primate Research Center
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: We do not have a formal program in primatology, but we do train pre- and postdoctoral students in using primates for biomedical research. The Oregon Regional Primate Research Center (ORPRC) is one of eight federally funded centers designed to advance knowledge about human health and disease through research with nonhuman primates. The ORPRC encourages scientists and students from the Northwest and other regions to make use of its unique research opportunities in several disciplines, including reproductive biology, neuroscience, perinatal physiology, and immunology and infectious diseases. The Center is an institute of the Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, and most ORPRC scientists have faculty appointments at the Oregon Health Sciences University School of Medicine. The Center staff includes about 50 scientists with PhD, MD, or DVM degrees, as well as 220 technical, support, and service employees. Among the services provided are veterinary care, surgery, pathology, image capture by laser scanning confocal, and electron, microscopy image analysis, molecular and cell biology, radioimmunoassays, flow cytometry, data processing, bibliographic and other library searches, and medical illustration.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The scientific expertise of the faculty is focused on molecular and cellular aspects of reproductive biology, neuroscience, and infectious diseases. The Center also employs seven full-time veterinarians who are involved in the daily care of 3200 nonhuman primates and 4000 small laboratory animals.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, 505 N.W. 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006 [503-690-5301].


* Miami University, Department of Zoology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Master’s and PhD degrees in Zoology, specializing in primatology. Strong links to Biological Anthropology (which has no graduate program). No nonhuman primates on campus, but connections to local zoos. (Ohio is the only state to have two breeding colonies of Pan paniscus, at Cincinnati and Columbus Zoos.) Focus on ethology and ecology of anthropoids in Africa.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Linda F. Marchant (affiliate in Anthropology: laterality of hand function, chimpanzee behavior, videography); William C. McGrew (laterality of hand function, cultural primatology, ape behavioral ecology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Admissions, Dept. of Zoology, Miami Univ., Oxford, OH 45056 [513-529-3100; fax: 513-529-6900]; and see <>.


* University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Anthropology, Biology, and Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Students may enroll for a PhD with a specialization in primatology in one of the three sponsoring departments; graduate programs will conform in structure and content to the requirements of each department. A group of core interdisciplinary courses is also offered for primatology students, in addition to courses that pertain to their specialty (e.g., cognition, ecology, behavior). Other resources include faculty in ecology and conservation within the Department of Biology; faculty in psycholinguistics and cognitive science in the Department of Psychology and at the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science; and faculty in neuroscience and neuroethology in the Medical School. Cheney and Seyfarth maintain a long-term study of baboons in the Moremi Game Reserve, Okavango Delta, Botswana; in past years their graduate students have also conducted fieldwork in Mexico, Costa Rica, and the Ivory Coast.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Dorothy L. Cheney (Biology: behavior, communication, cognition); Robert M. Seyfarth (Psychology: behavior, communication, cognition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Contact Dr. Cheney or Dr. Seyfarth, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 [e-mail: or].

* University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM NAME: Physical Anthropology Graduate Program
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Steven J. C. Gaulin (evolution of behavioral adaptations, particularly those that differ between the sexes; use of evolutionary theory, behavioral ecology, and comparative psychology to model the evolution of human behavior); Mark P. Mooney (craniofacial and developmental biology, comparative anatomy, experimental morphology, physiological adaptations to extreme environments, development of animal models for facial clefts); Jeffrey H. Schwartz (method, theory, and philosophy in evolutionary biology; origin and diversification of primates; human and faunal skeletal analysis; dentofacial growth and development); Michael I. Siegel (craniofacial biology, with a clinical speciality in cleft palate; functional anatomy; animal models; physiological adaptation).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Phyllis J. Straub, Graduate Admissions Coordinator, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 [e-mail:]; and see .

* Bucknell University, Department of Psychology and Program in Animal Behavior
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Bucknell University Animal Behavior Program offers Masters degrees (MS or MA) in animal behavior. The program does not offer a formal degree in primatology, but primate behavior is an area of specialization offered within the program. Bucknell maintains three social colonies of primates for use in observational studies and noninvasive experiments of behavior and cognition. The Masters program is designed as an apprenticeship for one or two students to work closely with a sponsoring faculty member.
FACULTY: Dr. Peter G. Judge (specializes in conflict resolution behavior, social cognition, cognitive abilities).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Graduate Studies, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 [570-577-3655]; or see <>.


* University of Texas, Austin, Anthropology Department
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: MA and PhD degrees are offered in Anthropology, with specialization in physical anthropology, including primate anatomy, ecology, evolution, and behavior.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Claud A. Bramblett (physical anthropology, primate behavior, osteology); John Kappelman (physical anthropology, paleobiology, primate evolution, functional morphology, stratigraphy; Africa and Asia); Deborah Overdorff (physical anthropology, primate behavior, ecology, Madagascar); Liza Shapiro (physical anthropology, primate evolution, functional morphology, locomotion).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712; or see <>.


* University of Washington, Department of Psychology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Animal Behavior Program at the University of Washington is dedicated to providing the best possible graduate training including research techniques, theory, and investigative work with animals both in the laboratory and in natural habitats, preserves, or progressive zoos. The program leads to the PhD in Psychology, with special training in animal behavior (including primate social behavior). It is administered by the core faculty in animal behavior, who are listed below. One of the great assets of this Animal Behavior Program is the interest and competence of faculty in departments other than Psychology. Cordial and cooperative relationships exist with behavior-oriented colleagues in Zoology, Biology, Anthropology, Wildlife Science (College of Fisheries and School of Forest Resources), the Conservation Biology Program, the Neurobiology Program, the Regional Primate Research Center, and the Human Development and Disabilities Center’s interdepartmental pathway in primatology. Excellent rapport and research affiliations also exist with the Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, Point Defiance Zoo, the Seattle Aquarium, Northwest Trek, the Friday Harbor biology and marine research laboratories, and colleagues in the greater Puget Sound area.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Joan S. Lock-ard (primate social behavior, human ethology, sociobiology, zoo animal behavior, neurobehavior); Michael D. Beecher, (animal communication, avian sociobiology and ecology); Gene P. Sackett (primate development and behavior); David P. Barash (sociobiology, behavioral ecology, animal behavior and evolution); Eliot A. Brenowitz (avian behavior, neuroethology, neuroendocrinology, animal communication); Sean O’Donnell (social behavior, especially of insects; evolution of eusociality, particularly division of labor and task allocation; behavioral genetics; and physiology); Ellen Covey (comparative neural bases, anatomy, physiology, function, and modeling of audition; auditory-motor pathways; echolocation; and auditory temporal patterns and processing networks). Also available to facilitate student projects are James Ha (DNA studies in animal behavior), Randall Kyes (Indonesian macaque field site), and Julie Worlein (primate AIDS research), all of which are graduate faculty with primary appointments at the Regional Primate Center.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joan S. Lockard, PhD, Dept. of Psychology, Box 351525, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98l95-1525 [e-mail:].

* Central Washington University, Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, Experimental Psychology-Primatology, Dept. of Psychology.
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: MS in Experimental Psychology-Primatology includes opportunity for research in the following areas: chimpanzee language, cognition, communication, and post-conflict interaction.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Roger S. Fouts, PhD (chimpanzee language and communication dialects - Psychology), Agustin Fuentes, PhD (post-conflict interaction - Biological Anthropology) and Mary Lee Jensvold, PhD (chimpanzee sign language studies - conversation repair - Psychology).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dr. Roger S. Fouts, Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, Central Washingon University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7573 [e-mail: or]; or see: <>.


* University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Ecology, population genetics, comparative anatomy, and aging in primates, especially African monkeys. DNA analysis for paternity determination of nonhuman primates. Evolution, behavior, and functional morphology of nonhuman primates. The Department of Anthropology has graduate programs leading to MS and PhD degrees.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Fred Anapol (primate functional morphology, muscle biology, skeletal analysis); Trudy R. Turner (DNA analysis, nonhuman primate population genetics, ecology and evolution, medical genetics); Neil C. Tappen, emeritus (primate anatomy, ecology, and evolution; structure and function of bone and muscle). In the Department of Biological Sciences: R. J. Hutz (regulation of ovarian function in monkeys, effects of xenobiotics on estrogen receptor signaling).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201.

* Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Graduate School
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The research program at the Wisconsin RPRC currently has opportunities for graduate studies in several areas, especially reproductive and developmental biology, immunogenics and vaccine development, aging, neurobiology, and biogerontology. Students may conduct research at the WRPRC by enrolling in an appropriate academic department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and choosing a faculty advisor with WRPRC affiliation. Current faculty have appointments in various departments in the Medical School, College of Letters and Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, and College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, as well as such interdisciplinary programs as the Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program, Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, the Biology of Aging and Age-Related Diseases Training Program and the Neuroscience Training Program. For information about these departments and programs, potential students should write to The Graduate School, Bascom Hall, UW-Madison, Madison, WI 53706; or visit <>.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: The Wisconsin RPRC has approximately 50 doctoral-level scientists on campus and approximately 100 affiliates based at other academic institutions. Faculty on the WRPRC Executive Committee and their academic departments are: Joseph W. Kemnitz, Director, Physiology; David H. Abbott, Obstetrics and Gynecology; Christopher Coe, Psychology; Thaddeus Golos, Obstetrics and Gynecology; Ei Terasawa, Pediatrics; James Thomson, Anatomy; David Watkins, Pathology; Richard Weindruch, Medicine (Geriatrics).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Joseph W. Kemnitz, Director, WRPRC, 1220 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715-1299. Director’s Office and general information: [608-263-3500; fax: 608-263-4031]; or see: <>.


* Australian National University, Canberra, School of Archaeology and Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: MA (by course work and thesis), MPhil (by thesis alone) and PhD programs in Biological Anthropology, including primatology. The PhD consists solely of research; no course work is involved. Graduates of this program have worked on colobine dentition, primate digestive strategies, Southeast Asian macaque variation, European Miocene hominoids, and gibbon social organization and ecology in central Borneo. The Physical Anthropology Laboratory of the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology has a collection of primate skulls and skeletons, Australian mammal skulls, and casts of fossil primates including hominids. Students from overseas wishing to study at Australian Universities are charged a Foreign Students’ Fee, currently A$13,500 (or, for a lab-based PhD, A$17,000); there are a few Overseas Student Scholarships which cover this fee. Further scholarships are available to cover living expenses.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Colin P. Groves (primate taxonomy, evolution, functional morphology, behavior, ecology); Robert Attenborough (behavior, genetics, epidemiology). Collaboration is also possible with Simon Easteal (John Curtin School of Medical Research, same university), specializing in primate genetics, including DNA.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Professor C. P. Groves, School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.


* Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande Do Sul, Faculdade de Biociências
PROGRAM NAMES: MSc & PhD Program in Zoology
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Julio Cesar Bicca-Marques (ecology, behavior, and conservation of New World monkeys).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Secretaria do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biociências, Av. Ipiranga 6681 - Prédio 12C Sala 254, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil [Phone/Fax (51) 3320-3568; e-mail:].


* University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Masters and Doctoral programs available in primatological studies, principally oriented towards behavioral and behavioral ecology approaches. Work in systematics and palaeoprimatology is also acceptable. Both programs require course work, a formal research proposal defense, a candidacy examination for doctoral students, field research minimum of 4 and 12 months respectively, and preparation and defense of a thesis. The department has research relationships with various primate research centers and zoos in the USA; the Monkey River, Belize site at which an annual field school is conducted; the Budongo Forest Project in Uganda; Boabeng Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in Ghana; and other field sites.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: Linda Fedigan (life histories, sexual selection, and behavioral ecology of monkeys living in multi-male, multi-female societies; field sites in Costa Rica, Japan, and the U.S.; research on gender and science); Usher Fleising (sociobiology, methodology, ethology); James Paterson (behavioral ecology, thermobiology, allometry and bioenergetics, postural studies, evolutionary and taxonomic theory, methodology and data acquisition); Mary McDonald Pavelka (aging and reproduction; social relationships; behavioral ecology; Japanese macaques; Belizean black howlers); Pascale Sicotte (social relationships, ape socioecology, male reproductive competition).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4, [e-mail: or or]; or see <>.


* Universities of St Andrews, Stirling, Edinburgh, and Abertay
PROGRAM NAME AND DESCRIPTION: Scottish Primate Research Group (SPRG). The SPRG is a joint enterprise between four Scottish universities, each about an hour’s travel time from the others. Each institution provides funds for regular attendance at joint research and seminar meetings. At present the group includes seven core members, together with over 30 postgraduate students, research assistants, and associates. Field studies are carried out at several African and South American sites; studies of captive primates rely on well-housed groups at Edinburgh and Belfast Zoos, as well as sanctuaries in Africa.
FACULTY AND THEIR SPECIALTIES: James R. Anderson (Stirling, Psychology: Social behavior, learning and cognition; environmental enrichment); Hannah Buchanan-Smith (Psychology, Stirling: Polyspecific associations, environmental enrichment); Richard Byrne (Psychology, St Andrews: Cognition in primates, manual skill and laterality, foraging behavior); Juan-Carlos Gomez (Psychology, St Andrews: Communication, joint attention, theory of mind); Scott Hardie (Psychology, Abertay: Social behavior of New World primates); Andrew Whiten (Psychology, St Andrews: Social learning, culture and cognition); Klaus Zuberbuhler (Psychology, St Andrews: Communication in African primates).
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Postgraduate Admissions, School of Psychology, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland; or Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland; and see <>

* * *

Positions Available

Director, Vivarial Science and Research - Tulane

Tulane University seeks a laboratory animal veterinarian to direct and manage its New Orleans-based laboratory animal program. The Department of Vivarial Science and Research supports the research activities of approximately 100 principal investigators with appointments in the Tulane Health Sciences Center and the Uptown Campus. There are three facilities included in the Department. The applicant is expected to participate in all relevant accreditation processes and research programs, and to maintain fiscal accountability. Requirements include a DVM or equivalent from an AVMA-accredited school of veterinary medicine, diplomate status in the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, and eligibility for a Louisiana veterinary license.

The Health Sciences Center facility has over 32,000 sq-ft of animal housing and research support space including a virus antibody-free (VAF) rodent facility, surgical suites, a multipurpose teaching lab, and a cardiac catheterization lab. The Uptown Campus facility has a 2,000-sq-ft VAF rodent facility with research support labs and surgery rooms. The facility at Belle Chasse has 1,500 sq-ft of rodent housing and labs. The successful candidate must be able to manage a multi-location research support program, and have excellent communication skills and a strong background in transgenic/knockout mouse technology. The position has outstanding opportunities for growth and career development, including a close interaction with veterinarians at the Tulane Regional Primate Research Center. The position will remain open until a suitable candidate is hired.

Interested persons should submit a letter of interest, CV, and list of three references to: James L. Blanchard, Executive Director for Comparative Medicine Programs, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Ave, SL62, New Orleans, LA 70112 [985-871-6285; e-mail]. Tulane is AA/EOE.

Animal Laboratory Technician, North Carolina

Wake Forest University School of Medicine is seeking a lab technician to implement, under general supervision, previously developed experimental procedures in a research laboratory. These procedures include animal handling, clinical techniques, computer data compilation, collection of behavioral data, and chemical and/or biological testing. This person will also monitor the animals’ care and help train them. This is a hands-on job, working with both male and female cynomolgus macaques and, at times, with rodents.

Qualifications include a bachelor’s degree in biology, psychology, anthropology or a related life science; or four years’ experience working with primates or research animals. Some projects are terminal. Microsoft Office computer skills are helpful. The ability to work as a team member is a must. Weekend work may be required. Salary will be commensurate with knowledge, experience and education.

Contact Melissa Ayers, Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Pathology/Comparative Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 [336-716-1676; fax: 336-716-1515; e-mail:].

Project Manager, Maryland

Priority One Services, a government contracting company, is seeking a Project Manager for a position at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda. The Project Manager will act as a liaison between Priority One Services and the government; supervise, assist, and support floor supervisors, trainers, and administrative personnel; assist in communication with investigators; be responsible for budget assessment and projections; and coordinate all issues dealing with animal facility equipment, supplies and personnel. Requirements include a bachelor’s degree, preferably in management or life science; laboratory animal technologist (LATG) certification through AALAS; and six years’ experience in a laboratory animal facility, with at least four years in a supervisory capacity. Experience with mice, rats, nonhuman primates, dogs, etc., and proficiency in a wide variety of technical procedures, scheduling, and database management are also desirable. We offer competitive salaries and excellent benefits, including tuition reimbursement, to all our employees. Contact: Lisa Secrest, 6600 Fleet Dr., Alexandria, VA 22310 [fax 703-971-5440; e-mail:]; or see <>.

* * *

Recent Books and Articles

(Addresses are those of first authors unless otherwise indicated)


* The Care and Management of Captive Chimpanzees. Special Topics in Primatology, Volume 2. L. Brent (Ed.); J. Wallis (Series Ed.). American Society of Primatologists, 2001. [Price: $25.00 + Shipping (U.S. $4.00, non-U.S. $9.00). Payment must be in U.S. funds. Make checks payable to ASP and send to Steve Schapiro, UTMDA Science Park, Rt. 2, Box 151-B1, Bastrop, TX 78602]
. . . Contents: Foreword, by F. B. M. de Waal; Preface, by L. Brent; A brief history of captive chimpanzees in the United States, by L. Brent; What does a chimpanzee need? Using behavior to guide the care and management of captive populations, by J. D. E. Pruetz and W. C. McGrew; Chimpanzee facility design, by J. C. Coe, R. Fulk, and L. Brent; Chimpanzee medicine and health care program, by D. R. Lee and F. A. Guhad; Reproductive management of captive chimpanzees: Contraceptive decisions, by T. L. Bettinger and K. E. DeMatteo; Behavior and environmental enrichment of individually housed chimpanzees, by L. Brent; Captive chimpanzee social group formation, by J. Fritz and S. Howell; Social management of captive chimpanzees, by M. A. Bloomsmith and K. C. Baker; Training for cooperative behaviors and enrichment, by G. Laule and M. Whittaker; How much will it cost to keep our chimpanzees? by B. Dyke; Laws, policies, and guidelines on the care and use of captive chimpanzees in the United States, by S. Williams-Blangero and J. L. VandeBerg.

* New Directions in Lemur Studies. B. Rakotosamimanana, H. Rasamimanana, J. U. Ganzhorn, & S. M. Goodman (Eds.). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1999. [Price: $125.00]
. . . A series of chapters based on presentations made at the XVIIth Congress of the International Primatology Society, Antananarivo, Madagascar, August 10-14, 1998.

* Assisted Fertilization and Nuclear Transfer in Mammals. D. P. Wolf & M. Zelinski-Wooten (Eds.). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2001. [Price: $145.00]
. . . Contents include: Developments in animal reproductive biotechnology, by R. H. Foote; Advances in animal in vitro fertilization, by B. G. Brackett; Imaging technology in assisted reproduction, by R. A. Pierson; Application of ARTs and nuclear transfer in exotic or endangered species, by K. L. White, T. D. Bunch, S. Mitalipov, & W. A. Reed; and Assisted fertilization and nuclear transfer in nonhuman primates, by N. Ouhibi, M. B. Zelinski-Wooten, J. A. Thomson, & D. P. Wolf.

* Economics in Nature: Social Dilemmas, Mate Choice and Biological Markets. R. Noe, J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff, & P. Hammerstein (Eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. [Price: $80.00]
. . . Contents include: Games and markets: Economic behaviour in humans and other animals, by P. Hammerstein; Cooperation and collective action in animal behaviour, by C. L. Nunn & R. J. Lewis; Conflict, reconciliation and negotiation in non-human primates: The value of long-term relationships, by J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff; The utility of grooming in baboon troops, by L. Barrett & S. P. Henzi; and The economics of male mating strategies, by R. I. M. Dunbar.

* Baboon Mothers and Infants. J. Altmann. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. [Price: $17.00]
. . . This 2nd edition of the 1980 book has a new forward.

* Brain Evolution and Cognition. G. Roth & M. F. Wullimann (Eds.). New York: Wiley, 2001. [Price: $125.00]

* Body Mass in Cercopithecidae (Primates, Mammalia): Estimation and Scaling in Extinct and Extant Taxa. E. Delson, C. J. Terranova, W. L. Jungers, E. J. Sargis, N. G. Jablonski, & P. C. Dechow. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 83, 2000. [Price: $16.50, from Publications, Dept of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St, New York, NY 10024]
. . . The development of reliable methods for determining body size in extinct taxa is an important prerequisite to more detailed paleobiological analyses. Here we develop a series of equations to be used in such estimation as well as a protocol for the selection of the “best” such equations.

* Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use. Prins, H. H. T., Grootenhuis, J. G., & Dolan, T. T. (Eds.). Preface by R. Leakey. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000. [Price: $165.00]

* The State of the Animals: 2001. D. J. Salem & A. Rowan (Eds.). Gaithersburg, MD: Humane Society Press, 2001. 220 pp. [Price: $29.50]
. . . “How has the state of the animals improved in the last half century? How has it worsened? Where are gains made on behalf of animals under threat? Scholars and experts examine these questions, and offer often provocative answers, for farm animals, companion animals, laboratory animals, zoo animals, and wildlife worldwide.”

* Forest (and) Primates: Conservation and Ecology of the Endemic Primates of Java and Borneo. V. Nijman. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Tropenbos International, 2001. [Price: EUR 20 (US$18)]

* Great Apes and Humans: The Ethics of Coexistence. B. B. Beck, T. S. Stoinski, M. Hutchins, T. L. Maple, B. Norton, A. Rowan, E. F. Stevens, & A. Arluke (Eds.). Herndon, VA: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. [Price: $34.95]
. . . Contents: Forward: Problems faced by wild and captive chimpanzees: Finding solutions, by J. Goodall. Section 1: Great Apes in the Wild. Africa’s Great Apes, by T. M. Butynski; The orangutan and the conservation battle in Indonesia, by H. D. Rijksen; Bushmeat hunting and the great apes, by K. Ammann; Bushmeat trade in the Congo Basin, by D. S. Wilkie. Section 2: Great Apes in Captivity. Captive apes and zoo education, by T. S. Stoinski, J. J. Ogden, K. Gold, & T. L. Maple; Sanctuaries for ape refugees, by G. Teleki; The retirement of research apes, by T. L. Wolfle. Section 3: History and Evolution. Negotiating the ape-human boundary, by R. Corbey; Phylogenies, fossils, and feelings, by R. H. Tuttle; Darwinian reflections on our fellow apes, by R. Fouts. Section 4: Ethics, Morality, and Law. Conceptual capacities of chimpanzees, by S. T. Boysen and V. Kuhlmeier; Moral decisions about wild chimpanzees, by R. W. Wrangham; The grand apes, by D. M. Rumbaugh, E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh, and M. J. Beran; Cognitive relatives and moral relations, by C. Allen; A great shout: Legal rights for great apes, by S. M. Wise; Inclusivist ethics, by P. Waldau; The moral status of great apes, by M. A. Warren; Rights or Welfare: A response to the Great Ape Project, by M. Hutchins, B. Smith, R. Fulk, L. Perkins, G. Reinartz, and D. Wharton; and Perspectives on the ethical status of great apes, by A. Arluke.

* Hominoid Evolution and Climate Change in Europe, Volume 2. Phylogeny of the Neogene Hominoid Primates of Eurasia. L. de Bonis, G. D. Koufos, & P. Andrews (Eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. [Price: $95.00]
. . . Contents: Part I. Chronology and Environment; Part II. Methods and Phylogeny; Part III. Miocene Hominoids: Function and Phylogeny.

Audiovisual Material

* Primates in Art, by S. Nash. Videotape of the opening lecture of the 2000 Primate Pathology Workshop held in Madison, Wisconsin. 49 minutes. (Available on loan from Ray Hamel, Wisconsin RPRC Library, 1223 Capitol Ct, Madison, WI 53715 [e-mail:])


* Comparative Medicine Resources: 2001 Directory. National Center for Research Resources, NIH. [Office of Science Policy & Public Liaison, NCRR/NIH, 6705 Rockledge Dr., Rm 5046, Bethesda, MD 20892-7965. See <>].
. . . This publication directs scientists to resources that can provide the appropriate research model or material needed for research. It includes, among other sections: Primate, Genetic Analysis, Biological Materials, and Information Resources; Institutional and Short-term Training Awards; and Comparative Medicine Activities.


* Male Behavior and Endocrinology in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus. J. W. Lynch. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2001. (To borrow this document, contact Joanne Brown, WRPRC Library and Information Service, U.W.-Madison (fax: 1-608-263-3512; e-mail:].)


* The IACUC Handbook. J. Silverman, M. A. Suckow, & S. Murthy (Eds.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2000. [Price: $59.95]
. . . Provides “Question and Answer” format for common and complex problems facing IACUCs; includes Regulatory sections reviewed by staff at NIH/OPRR and APHIS/AC for consistency with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and USDA Animal Welfare Act regulations. * The Laboratory Nonhuman Primate. J. D. Fortman, T. A. Hewett, & B. T. Bennett (Eds.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001. [Price: $49.94]
. . . Contents: “Important biological features”, “Husbandry”, “Management”, “Veterinary care”, “Experimental methodology”, and “Resources”. Magazines and Newsletters

* ASP Bulletin, September, 2001, 25[3]. [Janette Wallis, Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73104-5020]
. . . Includes reports by recipients of ASP Conservation Awards and Grants: “Survey of black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliates) in Shimba Hills National Reserve and Maluganji Sanctuary, Kenya”, by E. M. Kanga; and “Population survey of the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) at the Ujung Kulon National Park West Java, Indonesia”, by E. Iskandar.

* IPPL News, August, 2001, 28[2]. [IPPL, P.O. Box 766, Summerville, SC 29484]
. . . Includes articles by Viktor Reinhardt and Jane Dewar.

* The Newsletter, 2001, 12[1]. [Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ 85277-0027]
* The Newsletter, 2001, 12[2].
. . . Contents include an article on holiday materials used for environmental enrichment, by S. Howell, J. Fritz, & J. Murphy; and a synopsis of an Alloprimate discussion of food preparation among nonhuman primates.
* The Newsletter, 2001, 12[3].
. . . Contents include “Introducing males to form all-male ‘bachelor’ groups at PFA” and “On the use of pre-employment questionnaires to select chimpanzee care staff”, both by J. Murphy, J. Fritz, & S. Howell.
* The Newsletter, 2001, 12[4].
. . . Contents include “New chimpanzee research site in Senegal, West Africa: Brief report”, by J. Pruetz; and “Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA) workshop report”, by U. Seal.


* Bioethics and the Use of Laboratory Animals: Ethics in Theory and Practice. A. L. Kraus & D. Renquist (Eds.). Proceedings of the 1998 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Forum. [Price: $30.00, including shipping, from Mel Balk, 96 Chester St., Chester, NH 03036]

* The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century: Conference Proceedings. Compiled by the Brookfield Zoo. Chicago Zoological Society, 2001. [Price: $25.00; Proceedings are also available at <>]
. . . Proceedings of the May, 2000, conference.


* Chimpanzee Sanctuaries: Guidelines and Management Workshop Report. May 1-5, 2000; Entebbe, Uganda. Hosted by the Uganda Wildlife Authority, in collaboration with the Primate Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN) and the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN). [Price: $35.00 from CBSG, 12101 Johnny Cake Ridge Rd, Apple Valley, MN 55124]
. . . Important issues taken up by participants in the Workshop include: 1) the orphanage crisis which is creating problems regarding the size and dynamics of the existing social groups; 2) appropriate size of sanctuaries; 3) animal relocation issues; and 4) effective fundraising initiatives.

* Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA) Workshop Report. Second Meeting. May 28-30, 2001; Limbe, Cameroon. Hosted by Limbe Wildlife Centre/Pandrillus, in collaboration with the Primate Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN) and Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN). [Price: $35.00 from address above]
. . . Five central themes served as the basis for forming working groups. These were: * Organizational issues for PASA; * Health in the primates and people associated with them; * In situ conservation and bushmeat issues; * Education at the sanctuary, local, national, and international levels; and * Management needs of sanctuaries. Participants were distributed among the groups by their own choice.

* Bonobo Conservation Assessment: Workshop Report. November 21-22, 1999, Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, Inuyama, Japan. S. Coxe, N. Rosen, P. Miller & U. Seal (Eds.). [Price: $35.00 from address above]
. . . The Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (IUCN/ SSC) conducted a two-day conservation assessment workshop. The workshop was held in preparation for a full-scale Population and Habitat Viability Analysis (PHVA) to be conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The objective was to identify current threats to wild bonobo communities and set priorities for action. Because PHVA workshops are not usually conducted outside of the range country and no Congolese were present, the meeting focused on sharing data, producing a first draft of a population modeling exercise using a simulation modeling package, and synthesizing available information on the status of research, protected areas, and conservation activities.

* Primate Report, July, 2001, 60. [German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany]
. . . The German Primate Center’s Annual Report for 2000.

Anatomy and Physiology

* Morphological differences between minicolumns in human and nonhuman primate cortex. Buxhoeveden, D. P., Switala, A. E., Roy, E., Litaker, M., & Casanova, M. F. (Downtown VA Medical Center, 116-A, Psychiatry Service, 3B-121, Augusta, GA 30904 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2001, 115, 361-371.
. . . This study performed a quantitative investigation of minicolumns in the planum temporale (PT) of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey brains. The analysis distinguished minicolumns in the human cortex from those of the other nonhuman primates. Human cell columns are larger, contain more neuropil space, and pack more cells into the core area of the column than those of the other primates tested. Because the minicolumn is a basic anatomical and functional unit of the cortex, this strong evidence showed reorganization in this area of the human brain. The relationship between the minicolumn and cortical volume is also discussed.

* Enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of great apes: Variation in prevalence and timing of defects. Lukacs, J. R. (Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1218 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2001, 116, 199-208.
. . . The prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of great apes has the potential to reveal episodes of physiological stress in early stages of ontogenetic development. However, little is known about enamel defects of deciduous teeth in great apes. Unresolved questions addressed in this study are: Do hypoplastic enamel defects occur with equal frequency in different groups of great apes? Are enamel hypoplasias more prevalent in the deciduous teeth of male or female apes? During what phase of dental development do enamel defects tend to form? And, what part of the dental crown is most commonly affected? Infant and juvenile skulls of two sympatric genera of great apes (Gorilla and Pan) were examined.

Animal Models

* Segregation of human neural stem cells in the developing primate forebrain. Ourednik, V., Ourednik, J., Flax, J. D., Zawada, W. M., Hutt, C., Yang, C., Park, K. I., Kim, S. U., Sidman, R. L., Freed, C. R., & Snyder, E. Y. (Beth Israel Deaconess Med. Center, Dept of Neurology, 855 Harvard Inst. of Medicine, 77 Ave. Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115 [e-mail:]). Science, 2001, 293, 1820-1824.
. . . “Many central nervous system regions at all stages of life contain neural stem cells (NSCs). We explored how these disparate NSC pools might emerge. A traceable clone of human NSCs was implanted intraventricularly to allow its integration into cerebral germinal zones of Old World monkey fetuses. The NSCs distributed into two subpopulations: one contributed to corticogenesis by migrating along radial glia to temporally appropriate layers of the cortical plate and differentiating into lamina-appropriate neurons or glia; the other remained undifferentiated and contributed to a secondary germinal zone (the subventricular zone) with occasional members interspersed throughout brain parenchyma. An early neurogenetic program allocates the progeny of NSCs either immediately for organogenesis or to undifferentiated pools for later use in the ‘postdevelopmental’ brain.”

* Protection of rhesus macaques against disease progression from pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD by vaccination with phage-displayed HIV-1 epitopes. Chen, X., Scala, G., Quinto, I., Liu, W., Chun, T.-W., Justement, J. S., Cohen, O. J., van Cott, T. C., Iwanicki, M., Lewis, M. G., Greenhouse, J., Barry, T., Venzon, D., & Fauci, A. S. (G. S., Dept of Biochem. & Biomed. Technology, Med. School, Univ. ‘Federico II’, Naples, Italy [e-mail: scala@]). Nature Medicine, 2001, 7, 1225-1231.
. . . “The antigenic polymorphism of HIV-1 is a major obstacle in developing an effective vaccine. Accordingly, we screened random peptide libraries (RPLs) displayed on phage with antibodies from HIV-infected individuals and identified an array of HIV-specific epitopes that behave as antigenic mimics of conformational epitopes of gp120 and gp41 proteins. The selected epitopes are shared by a collection of HIV-1 isolates of clades A-F. The phage-borne epitopes are immunogenic in rhesus macaques, where they elicit envelope-specific antibody responses. Upon intravenous challenge with 60 MID50 of pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD, all monkeys became infected; however, in contrast to the naive and mock-immunized monkeys, four of five mimotope-immunized monkeys experienced lower levels of peak viremia, followed by viral set points of undetectable or transient levels of viremia and a mild decline of CD4+ T cells, and were protected from progression to AIDS-like illness. These results provide a new approach to the design of broadly protective HIV-1 vaccines.”

* Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates. Wessberg, J., Stambaugh, C. R., Kralik, J. D., Beck, P. D., Laubach, M., Chapin, J. K., Kim, J., Biggs, S. J., & Nicolelis, M. A. L. (M. A. L. N., Dept of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710 [e-mail:]). Nature, 2000, 408, 361-365.
. . . Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here the simultaneous activity of large populations of neurons, distributed in the premotor, primary motor, and posterior parietal cortical areas, were recorded as nonhuman primates performed two distinct motor tasks. Accurate real-time predictions of one- and three-dimensional arm movement trajectories were obtained by applying both linear and nonlinear algorithms to cortical neuronal ensemble activity recorded from each animal. In addition, cortically derived signals were successfully used for real-time control of robotic devices, both locally and through the Internet. These results suggest that long-term control of complex prosthetic robot arm movements can be achieved by simple real-time transformations of neuronal population signals derived from multiple cortical areas in primates.

* Mucosal AIDS vaccine reduces disease and viral load in gut reservoir and blood after mucosal infection of macaques. Belyakov, I. M., Hel, Z., Kelsall, B., Kuznetsov, V. A., Ahlers, J. D., Nacsa, J., Watkins, D. I., Allen, T. M., Sette, A., Altman, J., Woodward, R., Markham, P. D., Clements, J. D., Franchini, G., Strober, W., & Berzofsky, J. A. (Molecular Immunogenetics and Vaccine Research Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 [e-mail:]). Nature, 2001, 7, 1320-1326.
. . . “Given the mucosal transmission of HIV-1, we compared whether a mucosal vaccine could induce mucosal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and protect rhesus macaques against mucosal infection with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) more effectively than the same vaccine given subcutaneously. Here we show that mucosal CTLs specific for SIV can be induced by intrarectal immunization of macaques with a synthetic-peptide vaccine incorporating the LT(R192G) adjuvant. This response correlated with the level of T-helper response. After intrarectal challenge with pathogenic SHIV-Ku2, viral titers were eliminated more completely (to undetectable levels) both in blood and intestine, a major reservoir for virus replication, in intrarectally immunized animals than in subcutaneously immunized or control macaques. Moreover, CD4+ T cells were better preserved. Thus, induction of CTLs in the intestinal mucosa, a key site of virus replication, with a mucosal AIDS vaccine ameliorates infection by SHIV in nonhuman primates.”


* Discriminating the relation between relations: The role of entropy in abstract conceptualization by baboons (Papio papio) and humans (Homo sapiens). Fagot, J., Wasserman, E. A., & Young, M. E. (Center for Research in Cognitive Neurosciences, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, Marseille, Cedex 20, France, 13402 [e-mail:]). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2001, 27, 316-328.
. . . Two baboons successfully learned relational matching-to-sample: they picked the choice display that involved the same relation among 16 pictures (same or different) as the sample display, although the sample display shared no pictures with the choice displays. The baboons generalized relational matching behavior to sample displays created from novel pictures. Two humans were similarly trained and tested; their behavior was both similar to and different from the baboons’ behavior. The results suggest that animals other than humans and chimpanzees can discriminate the relation between relations. They further suggest that entropy detection may underlie same-different conceptualization, but that additional processes may participate in human conceptualization.

* Spontaneous representation of number in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Uller, C., Hauser, M., & Carey, S. (Inst. of Cognitive Science, U. of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA 70504-3772 [e-mail:]). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2001, 115, 248-257.
. . . The “violation of expectancy” looking-time methodology has proven a powerful tool for exploring prelinguistic mental representations in human infants as well as in nonhuman primates. Four studies applying this methodology to the question of spontaneous number representations in cotton-top tamarins are reported here. Monkeys were shown 1 + 1 events in which objects were placed behind a screen, one by one. The screen was removed, revealing consistent (two objects) and inconsistent (one, three, or one large object twice the mass of original object) outcomes. In all studies, monkeys looked longer at the inconsistent than at the consistent outcome. When the monkeys view a 1 + 1 operation, they expect exactly two objects. It is likely that these numerical representations are spontaneously available to a variety of primate species and could provide a foundation on which humans’ number sense was constructed over evolution and development.

* The production and perception of long calls by cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus): Acoustic analyses and playback experiments. Weiss, D. J., Garibaldi, B. T., & Hauser, M. D. (Meliora Hall, Office 494, U. of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 [e-mail:]). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2001, 115, 258-271.
. . . The authors’ goal was to provide a better understanding of the relationship between vocal production and perception in nonhuman primate communication. To this end, they examined the cotton-top tamarin’s combination long call (CLC). Part 1 of this study was a series of acoustic analyses designed to determine the kind of information potentially encoded in the tamarin’s CLC. Using factorial analyses of variance and multiple discriminant analyses, the authors explored whether the CLC encodes three types of identity information: individual, sex, and social group. Results revealed that exemplars could be reliably assigned to these three functional classes on the basis of a suite of spectrotemporal features. Part 2 used a series of habituation-dishabituation playback experiments to test whether tamarins attend to the encoded information about individual identity. The authors first tested for individual discrimination when tamarins were habituated to a series of calls from one tamarin and then played back a test call from a novel tamarin; both opposite- and same-sex pairings were tested. Results showed that tamarins dishabituated when caller identity changed but transferred habituation when caller identity was held constant and a new exemplar was played (control condition). Follow-up playback experiments revealed an asymmetry between acoustic analyses of individual identity and the tamarins’ capacity to discriminate among vocal signatures; whereas all colony members have distinctive vocal signatures, not all tamarins were equally discriminable based on the habituation-dishabituation paradigm.

* Imitative learning by captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in a simulated food-processing task. Stoinski, T. S., Wrate, J. L., Ure, N., & Whiten, A. (Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Ave, Atlanta, GA 30315 [e-mail:]). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2001, 115, 272-281.
. . . Although field studies have suggested cultural transmission of foraging techniques in primates, identification of transmission mechanisms has remained elusive. To test experimentally for evidence of imitation in the current study, gorillas were exposed to an artificial fruit foraging task designed by A. Whiten and D. M. Custance. Gorillas watched a human remove a series of three defenses around a fruit. Each of the defenses was removed using one of two techniques. Subsequent video analysis of gorillas’ behavior showed a significant tendency to copy the observed technique on one of the individual defenses and the direction of removal on another defense. This is the first statistically reliable evidence of imitation in gorillas. Sequence of defense removal was not replicated. The gorillas’ responses were most similar to those of chimpanzees.

* Training squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) to deceive: Acquisition and analysis of behavior toward cooperative and competitive trainers. Anderson, J. R., Kuroshima, H., Kuwahata, H., Fujita, K., & Vick, S.-J. (Dept of Psychology, U. of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA Scotland [e-mail:]). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2001, 115, 282-293.
. . . Three squirrel monkeys learned to reach toward a container that covered food if a cooperative trainer rewarded such reaches by giving the food. A competitive trainer kept any food found, but wrong selections were also rewarded by this trainer. The monkeys initially reached toward the baited container indiscriminately, but gradually and with the aid of color-cued containers, all three reliably reached “honestly” and “deceptively” in the presence of the cooperative and competitive trainers, respectively. The monkeys did not appear to take the trainers’ knowledge about the location of the food into account, and deception did not occur if food was placed under the normally unbaited container. With additional containers present, monkeys misled the competitive trainer into selecting the unbaited container farthest from the baited one. Although not indicative of mental attribution, the monkeys’ behavior suggests awareness of the acquired communicative function of the reaching response.

* The use of bouts and frequencies in the evaluation of hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): An empirical study comparing two different indices of laterality. Hopkins, W. D., Fernandez-Carriba, S., Wesley, M. J., Hostetter, A., Pilcher, D., & Poss, S. (Yerkes RPRC, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322 [e-mail:]). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2001, 115, 294-299.
. . . Hand preferences for a coordinated bimanual task were assessed in 109 chimpanzees. Hand preference was evaluated for four test sessions using bouts and frequencies of hand use to compare the sensitivity of each level of analysis in evaluating individual variation in handedness. Overall, significant population-level right-handedness was found using several different measures of hand use. Handedness indices based on bouts and frequencies were highly and significantly correlated. Moreover, hand preferences were consistent across tests despite efforts to situationally bias preference during each test. These data do not support the view that bouts are a better level of analysis for evaluating hand preference. The results further suggest that hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions are not influenced by situational factors and may reflect an inherent specialization of the left hemisphere for motor skill.

* The effect of response contingencies on scale model task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Kuhlmeier, V. A., & Boysen, S. T. (Dept. of Psych., 2 Hillhouse Ave, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT 06520 [e-mail:]). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2001, 115, 300-306.
. . . The effects of modified procedures on chimpanzees’ performance in a scale model comprehension task were examined. Seven chimpanzees that previously participated in a task in which they searched an enclosure for a hidden item after watching an experimenter hide a miniature item in the analogous location in a scale model were retested under procedures incorporating response costs. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees were trained under procedures that rewarded only item retrievals on the first search attempt. During test trials, six chimpanzees performed above chance, including four that were previously unsuccessful under the original procedures (V. A. Kuhlmeier, S. T. Boysen, & K. L. Mukobi, 1999). Experiment 2 compared performance under the new and original procedures. Results indicated that for some chimpanzees, success depended on procedures that decreased the use of competing search strategies and encouraged strategies based on information from the scale model.

* Post-conflict behaviour of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Arnold, K., & Whiten, A. (Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland). Behaviour, 2001, 138, 649-690.
. . . Since de Waal & van Roosmalen (1979) first documented the occurrence of reconciliation between former opponents in captive chimpanzees, the study of the post-conflict behavior of primates has provided valuable information about some of the details of primate social organization. The vast majority of these studies have been carried out on captive subjects and it has been assumed that these findings are representative of wild primates. This assumption was tested on the Sonso community of wild chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest, Uganda, using controlled procedures comparable with those used in captive studies. These chimpanzees were much less likely to reconcile than their captive counterparts. Only one dimension of relationship quality had an effect on the likelihood of reconciliation. Individuals which were highly compatible, in terms of time spent affiliating, reconciled conflicts more often than those with weak relationships. Captive chimpanzees have also been shown to “console” one another (de Waal & van Roosmalen, 1979; de Waal & Aureli, 1996), as uninvolved bystanders initiate affiliative contacts with victims of aggression. This study did not confirm that consolatory behavior was characteristic of wild chimpanzee post-conflict behavior. Nor did these chimpanzees use explicit gestures during post-conflict interactions as they have been shown to do in two of three captive studies. The post-conflict behavior of chimpanzees is more variable than has previously been thought and is likely to be dependent on the prevailing social environment.


* Manipulating the affiliative interactions of group-housed rhesus macaques using positive reinforcement training techniques. Schapiro, S. J., Perlman, J. E., & Boudreau, B. A. (Dept of Vet. Sciences, Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 650 Cool Water Dr., Bastrop, TX 78602 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 55, 137-149.
. . . Social housing, whether continuous, intermittent, or partial contact, typically provides captive primates with opportunities to express affiliative behaviors, important components of the species-typical behavioral repertoire. Positive reinforcement training techniques have been successfully employed to shape many behaviors important for achieving primate husbandry goals. The present study was conducted to determine whether positive reinforcement training techniques could also be employed to alter levels of affiliative interactions among group-housed rhesus macaques. Twenty-eight female rhesus were divided into high (n = 14) and low (n = 14) affiliators based on a median split of the amount of time they spent affiliating during the baseline phase of the study. During the subsequent training phase, half of the low affiliators were trained to increase their time spent affiliating, and half of the high affiliators were trained to decrease their time spent affiliating. Trained subjects were observed both during and outside of training sessions. Low affiliators significantly increased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during nontraining sessions. High affiliators significantly decreased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during training sessions. These data suggest that positive reinforcement techniques can be used to alter the affiliative behavior patterns of group-housed, female rhesus monkeys, although the two subgroups of subjects responded differently to the training process. Low affiliators changed their overall behavioral repertoire, while high affiliators responded to the reinforcement contingencies of training, altering their proximity patterns but not their overall behavior patterns. Thus, positive reinforcement training can be used not only as a means to promote species-typical or beneficial behavior patterns, but also as an important experimental manipulation to facilitate systematic analyses of the effects of psychosocial factors on behavior, and potentially even immunology.

* What time is feeding? How delays and anticipation of feeding schedules affect stump-tailed macaque behavior. Waitt, C., & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (H. M. B.-S., Dept of Psychology, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA, U.K. [e-mail:]). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2001, 75, 75-85.
. . . Everyday animal care routines are essential to an animal’s physical wellbeing, but the effects of husbandry routines on the animals’ psychological wellbeing are not often considered. The scheduling of animal care routines may have an important impact on how they are perceived by the animals involved. This study attempted to assess how anticipation and delays of feeding routines affects captive primates, in this case stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). To determine how anticipation of food delivery affected behavior, this study compared behavior when feeding routines were carried out earlier to when feeding took place on schedule. Secondly, the impact of delays of feeding routines was investigated by comparing behavior when feeding routines occurred later than usual to when they took place on time. Results indicate that anticipation of feeding routines had a considerable negative impact on behavior. In the times when animals were waiting to be fed, rates of self-directed behavior, inactivity, vocalization, and abnormal behaviors all increased significantly. When feeding was delayed past the mean routine time, these behavioral patterns were prolonged. It was concluded that feeding animals at a regular time each day does not truly make routines predictable. Delays in the timing of these events make these events even more unpredictable, and thus all the more stressful. The implications of these results in relation to animal management are discussed.

Development and Aging

* Growth and ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx). Setchell, J. M., Lee, P. C., Wickings, E. J., & Dixson, A. F. (P. C. L., Dept of Biological Anthropology, Univ. of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, U.K. [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2001, 115,349-360.
. . . Body mass (N = 419) and crown-rump length (CRL, N = 210) measurements from 38 male and 49 female mandrills born into a semifree-ranging colony were compared in order to describe growth from birth to adulthood, and to investigate maternal influences upon growth. Adult male mandrills are 3.4 times the body mass, and 1.3 times the CRL, of adult females. Body mass dimorphism arises from a combination of sex differences in length of the growth period (females attain adult body mass at 7 years, males at 10 years) and growth rate. Both sexes undergo a subadult growth spurt in body mass, which is much more dramatic in males (peak velocity 551 g/month ± 89 SEM at 84-96 months). CRL dimorphism arises from bimaturism (females attain adult CRL at 6 years, males after 10 years), and neither sex shows a particular subadult growth spurt in CRL. Sexual size dimorphism thus represents important time and metabolic costs to males, who mature physically approximately 3-4 years after females. Considerable interindividual variation occurs in the size-for-age of both sexes, which is related to maternal variables. Older mothers have heavier offspring than do younger mothers, and higher ranking mothers have heavier offspring than do lower ranking mothers. Mass advantages conferred upon offspring during lactation by older and higher ranking mothers tend to persist postweaning in both sexes. Thus maternal factors affect reproductive success in both sexes, influencing the age at which offspring mature and begin their reproductive career.

* Vertebral age changes in Japanese macaques. Nakai, M. (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2001, 116, 59-65. This study deals with maturation and aging of the vertebrae in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) of known chronological age. The samples used were 103 skeletons of captive-raised Japanese macaques varying in age from 6-23 years. Epiphyseal union between the vertebral body and the epiphyseal disk (epiphyseal ring, annular epiphysis) and degenerative changes of the vertebrae were macroscopically examined. Considerable variation in developmental states of union was observed among individuals of the same age. Few vertebral degenerative changes were observed among the present samples. Compared with the other primates with regard to the timing of vertebral maturation, humans matured more quickly. Human vertebrae may have become an early-maturing organ in order to sustain the increased loading that is accompanied by the adoption of habitual erect posture and bipedal locomotion.

Evolution, Genetics, and Taxonomy

* Earliest presence of humans in northeast Asia. Zhu, R. X., Hoffman, K. A., Potts, R., Deng, C. L., Pan, Y. X., Guo, B., Shi, C. D., Guo, Z. T., Yuan, B. Y., Hou, Y. M., & Huang, W. W. (Inst. of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China [e-mail:]). Nature, 2001, 413, 413 - 417.
. . . The timing of the earliest habitation and oldest stone technologies in different regions of the world is a contentious topic in the study of human evolution. Here detailed magnetostratigraphic results on two exposed parallel sections of lacustrine sediments at Xiaochangliang in the Nihewan Basin, north China are presented, placing stringent controls on the age of Paleolithic stone artifacts that were originally reported over two decades ago. These paleomagnetic findings indicate that the artifact layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone bounded by the Olduvai and Jaramillo subchrons. Coupled with an estimated rate of sedimentation, they constrain the layer’s age to roughly 1.36 million years ago. This represents the age of the oldest known stone assemblage comprising recognizable types of Paleolithic tool in east Asia, and the earliest definite occupation in this region as far north as 40° N.

* Positive selection of a gene family during the emergence of humans and African apes. Johnson, M. E., Viggiano, L., Bailey, J. A., Abdul-Rauf, M., Goodwin, G., Rocchi, M., & Eichler, E. E. (E. E. E., Dept of Genetics and Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106 [e-mail:]). Nature, 2001, 413, 514-519.
. . . “Gene duplication followed by adaptive evolution is one of the primary forces for the emergence of new gene function. Here we describe the recent proliferation, transposition and selection of a 20-kilobase (kb) duplicated segment throughout 15 Mb of the short arm of human chromosome 16. The dispersal of this segment was accompanied by considerable variation in chromosomal-map location and copy number among hominoid species. In humans, we identified a gene family (morpheus) within the duplicated segment. Comparison of putative protein-encoding exons revealed the most extreme case of positive selection among hominoids. The major episode of enhanced amino-acid replacement occurred after the separation of human and great-ape lineages from the orangutan. Positive selection continued to alter amino-acid composition after the divergence of human and chimpanzee lineages. The rapidity and bias for amino-acid-altering nucleotide changes suggest adaptive evolution of the morpheus gene family during the emergence of humans and African apes. Moreover, some genes emerge and evolve very rapidly, generating copies that bear little similarity to their ancestral precursors. Consequently, a small fraction of human genes may not possess discernible orthologues within the genomes of model organisms.”

* Middle Eocene primate tarsals from China: Implications for haplorhine evolution. Gebo, D. L., Dagosto, M., Beard, C., & Oi, T. (Department of Anthropology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2001, 116, 83-107
. . . Tarsal remains of primates recovered from the Middle Eocene (45 mya) Shanghuang fissures in southern Jiangsu Province, China, are described. These tarsals document the existence of four higher-level taxa of haplorhine primates and at least two adapid species. The meager and poorly preserved adapid material exhibits some similarities to European adapines like Adapis. The haplorhine primates are divided into two major groups: a prosimian group consisting of Tarsiidae and an unnamed group that is anatomically similar to Omomyidae; and an anthropoid group consisting of Eosimiidae and an unnamed group of rotoanthropoids. The anthropoid tarsals are morphologically transitional between omomyids (or primitive haplorhines) and extant telanthropoids, providing the first postcranial evidence for primates which bridge the prosimian-anthropoid gap. All of the haplorhines are extremely small (most are between 50-100 g), and the deposits contain the smallest euprimates ever documented. The uniqueness of this fauna is further highlighted by the fact that no modern primate community contains as many tiny primates as does the fauna from Shanghuang.

* A fossil lemur from the Oligocene of Pakistan. Marivaux, L., Welcomme, J.-L., Antoine, P.-O., Métais, G., Baloch, I. M., Benammi, M., Chaimanee, Y., Ducrocq, S., & Jaeger, J.-J. (Lab. de Paléontologie, Inst des Sciences de l’Évolution, UMR 5554 CNRS, cc064, Univ. Montpellier II, place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France [e-mail:]). Science, 2001, 294, 587-591.
. . . In the absence of a comprehensive fossil record, the origin and early evolution of Malagasy lemurs have been subject to much uncertainty. Discovery of a strepsirrhine fossil with strong cheirogaleid lemur affinities, Bugtilemur mathesoni gen. et sp. nov., from early Oligocene deposits of the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan) is reported here. Bugtilemur represents the earliest record of Lemuriformes, which hence appear to have already diversified outside of Madagascar at least 30 million years ago. This fossil clearly enhances the critical role of the Indian subcontinent in the early diversification of lemurs and constrains paleobiogeographic models of strepsirrhine lemur evolution. * Genome of the apes. Hacia, J. G. (Inst. for Genetic Medicine, USC, 2250 Alcazar St, IGM 240, Los Angeles, CA 90089 [e-mail:]). Trends in Genetics, 2001, 17, 637-645.
. . . The Human Genome Project has generated both the information and technological infrastructure needed to accelerate genetic comparisons between humans and the African great apes. Sequence and chromosomal organization differences between these highly related genomes will provide clues to the genetic basis for recently evolved, specifically human traits such as bipedal gait and advanced cognitive function. Recent studies comparing the primate genomes may affect many aspects of human biomedical research and could benefit primate conservation efforts.

* Asymmetric Broca’s area in great apes. Cantalupo, C., & Hopkins, W. D. (Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 [e-mail:]). Nature, 2001, 414, 505.
. . . Brodmann’s area 44 delineates part of Broca’s area within the inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain and is a critical region for speech production, being larger in the left hemisphere than in the right - an asymmetry that has been correlated with language dominance. A similar asymmetry in this area, also with left-hemisphere dominance, is shown in three great ape species (Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus and Gorilla gorilla). These findings suggest that neuroanatomical substrates for left-hemisphere dominance in speech production were evident at least five million years ago and are not unique to hominid evolution.

* Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Dean, C., Leakey, M. G., Reid, D., Schrenk, F., Schwartz, G. T., Stringer, C., & Walker, A. (Evolutionary Anatomy Unit, Dept of Anatomy & Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, U.K. [e-mail:]). Nature, 2001, 414, 628-631.
. . . A modern human-like sequence of dental development is regarded as one of the diagnostic hallmarks of our own genus Homo. Brain size, age at first reproduction, lifespan, and other life-history traits correlate tightly with dental development. Differences in enamel growth are reported here that show the earliest fossils attributed to Homo do not resemble modern humans in their development. Daily incremental markings in enamel were used to calculate rates of enamel formation in 13 fossil hominins and identified differences in this key determinant of tooth formation time. Neither australopiths nor fossils currently attributed to early Homo shared the slow trajectory of enamel growth typical of modern humans; rather, both resembled modern and fossil African apes. Tooth formation times in australopiths, in the 1.5-Myr-old Homo erectus skeleton from Nariokotome, Kenya, and in another Homo erectus specimen, Sangiran S7-37, from Java, were then reconstructed. These times were shorter than those in modern humans. It therefore seems likely that truly modern dental development emerged relatively late in human evolution.

Instruments and Techniques

* Three-dimensional analysis of nonhuman primate trabecular architecture using micro-computed tomography. Fajardo, R. J., & Müller, R. (Department of Anatomical Sciences, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4364 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2001, 115, 327-336.
. . . Until recently, detailed analyses of the architecture of nonhuman primate cancellous bone have not been possible due to a combination of methodological constraints, including poor resolution imaging or destructive protocols. The development of micro-computed tomography (CT) and morphometric methods associated with this imaging modality offers anthropologists a new means to study the comparative architecture of cancellous bone. Specifically, CT will allow anthropologists to investigate the relationship between locomotor behavior and trabecular structure. A preliminary study on the trabecular patterns in the proximal humerus and femur of Hylobates lar, Ateles paniscus, Macaca mulatta, and Papio anubis investigates the quantitative differences in their trabecular architecture and evaluates the potential of CT in anthropological inquiry. CT allows the researcher to evaluate variables beyond simple two-dimensional orientations and radiographic densities. Results suggest that density-related parameters do not reliably differentiate suspensory-climbing species from quadrupedal species. However, preliminary results indicate that measurements of the degree of anisotropy, a measure of trabecular orientation uniformity, do distinguish suspensory-climbing taxa from more quadrupedal species. The CT method is an advance over conventional radiography and medical CT because it can accurately resolve micron-sized struts that make up cancellous bone, and from these images a wide array of parameters that have been demonstrated to be related to cancellous bone mechanical properties can be measured. Methodological problems pertinent to any comparative CT study of primate trabecular architecture are discussed.

* Lake pigments facilitate analysis of fecal cortisol and behavior in group-housed macaques. Stavisky, R. C., Whitten, P. L., Hammett, D. H., & Kaplan, J. R. (Section of Neurobiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2001, 116, 51-58.
. . . Fecal steroid analyses are becoming more popular among both field and laboratory scientists. The benefits associated with sampling procedures that do not require restraint, anesthesia, and blood collection include less risk to both subject and investigator, as well as the potential to obtain endocrine profiles that do not reflect the influence of stress. However, the utility of the fecal steroid method has been limited in field conditions because of problems associated with sample identification. Here, evidence is presented that Lake pigments are a valuable tool for the identification of individual fecal samples from group-housed female cynomolgus macaques. Further, data suggest that excreted cortisol can be assayed from such samples, leading to the finding that time of day of sample collection influences cortisol concentrations, with morning samples producing higher values (t = 2.769, P = 0.024). Finally, the collection of physiological data from group-housed animals permits the evaluation of the relationship between endocrine status and behavior. This study demonstrated that morning fecal cortisol was significantly correlated with competitive and proximity behaviors, although not with rank in two stable social groups.

* Testing the reliability of noninvasive genetic sampling by comparing analyses of blood and fecal samples in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Lathuillière, M., Ménard, N., Gautier-Hion A., &. Crouau-Roy, B. (N. M., Dépt de l’Éthologie-Évolution-Écologie, CNRS UMR 6552, Univ. de Rennes I, Station Biologique, 35380 Paimpont, France [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 55, 151-158.
. . . Genetic studies of wild animal populations are often hindered by difficulties in obtaining blood samples. Recent advances in molecular biology have allowed the use of noninvasive samples as sources of DNA (e.g., hair or feces), but such samples may provide low-quality DNA and prevent the determination of true genotypes in subsequent DNA analysis. A preliminary study aimed at assessing the reliability of using fecal samples for genotyping in Barbary macaques is presented here. The test was performed on samples of blood and feces from 11 captive animals, using three dinucleotide microsatellites. The CTAB DNA extraction method was found to be the most relevant for Barbary macaque feces, yielding successful amplification at all loci for 70% of PCRs. All the fecal samples tested gave correct genotypes at least once for each locus when referenced against blood-derived genotypes. An average of 18.3% of PCRs displayed spurious genotypes (false homozygous or false allele). The minimum theoretical probability required to obtain a 100% accurate genotype is 0.74, based on the criterion that a correct genotype is assessed only if it was observed at least twice. The observed probability of obtaining a correct genotype from three PCRs, based on our genotyping results, was greater (0.81 on average) than the minimum threshold. In conclusion, this comparison of blood and fecal samples showed that fecal sampling is a reliable tool for the further study of wild Barbary macaque populations.

* Noninstrumented enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for detection of early pregnancy in macaques. Shimizu, K., Lohstroh, P. N., Laughlin, L. S., Gee, N. A., Todd, H., Shideler, S. E., & Lasley, B. L. (Primate Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, Aichi, 484-8506 Japan [e-mail:]). American Journal of Primatology, 2001, 54, 57-62.
. . . A practical, noninstrumented enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (NELISA) for the measurement of urinary monkey chorionic gonadotropin (mCG) has been developed for the detection of early pregnancy in macaque monkeys for use in both the laboratory and the field. Five Macaca mulatta and six M. fascicularis were tested for the presence of mCG in urine on gestational days (GDs) 12 to 35. The mCG NELISA detected pregnancy as early as GD 14, with an average earliest detection at GD 16.5 ± 1.4 (n = 11). Of 90 tests, 27 false-negative and zero false-positive tests were obtained, for an accuracy of 70.0%. Without the aid of a spectrophotometer, the presence of mCG in pregnant monkey samples was indicated by a dark green color change. Nonpregnant monkey urine samples, on the other hand, exhibited no color change. These findings suggest that the simple, economical, and reliable urinary mCG NELISA may be useful for diagnosing early pregnancy in these and related species. Because capture and restraint are unnecessary for collecting urine samples, the mCG NELISA has widespread potential for confined and free-ranging animals.

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Workshop and Symposium on Lab Animal Diseases

The Midwest Division of the Charles Louis Davis, D.V.M., Foundation, in co-sponsorship with the Biologic Resources Laboratory (BRL) of the University of Illinois at Chicago, will present a Workshop and Symposium on Laboratory Animal Diseases, April 24-27, 2002, in Chicago. Dr. Stephen Barthold, the principal speaker, will review the diseases of rats and mice.

The BRL’s 2 x 2 slide collection will be available for review, at 1840 West Taylor St, on April 24-26. The slide collection includes 14,000 Kodachromes on laboratory animal diseases and management. In addition, 3,000 glass micropathology slides with histories and 66 T60 video tutorials (from the Foundation’s Independent Study Center at the BRL) will be available for individual and/or group study. Microscopes, projectors, and VCRs will be available at the Biologic Resources Laboratory.

Members of the senior staff of the BRL will give Simulated Practical Examinations on April 26. For more information, contact Jim Artwohl [312-996-1217; e-mail:] or the C.L. Davis Foundation [e-mail:].

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All correspondence concerning the Newsletter should be addressed to:
Judith E. Schrier, Psychology Department, Box 1853, Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island 02912. [401-863-2511; FAX: 401-863-1300]
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The Newsletter is supported by U. S. Public Health Service Grant RR-00419 from the Comparative Medicine Program, National Center for Research Resources, N.I.H.

Cover illustration of a gibbon (Hylobates lar) by Anne M. Richardson

Copyright (c) 2002 by Brown University

Assistant Editor: Elva Mathiesen

Last updated: December 19, 2001