Mr. LIMAN: Now, if you look at it, it says on one of the points, "As I said in Brussels, we will fight Russians in Iran in case of invasion with or without the Government of Iran's assistance." Who is the "I;" is that Secord?

Mr. HAKIM: It says United States.

Mr. LIMAN: That is United States

Mr. HAKIM: United States will.

Mr. LIMAN: The United States will fight the Russians, not

Mr. HAKIM: That is my understanding, yes.

Mr. LIMAN: And the "I" who is saying this to the Iranians is General Secord?

Mr. HAKIM: Yes, sir.

Mr. LIMAN: And were you present when he was committing to the Iranians that we would go to war with the Russians if they invaded Iran?

Mr. HAKIM: The way I recall this, Mr. Liman, it was a bargaining method that General Secord used to get the attention of the Iranians.

Mr. LIMAN: But you told us earlier that one of the problems with the first channel was that Mr. Ghorbanifar was always promising more than he could deliver; is that correct?

Mr. HAKIM: That is correct.

Mr. LIMAN: And you had warned General Secord and Colonel North that it was important to deal straight with the Iranians: is that so?

Mr. HAKIM: That was when I got to know the people of the second channel, yes.

Mr. LIMAN: And you were there when General Secord was making these kinds of statements and giving these kinds of assurances to representatives of the Iranian Government?

Mr. HAKIM: I was there. This was the first meeting.

Mr. LIMAN: Now is the "we"—we will cooperate—is that the enterprise or is that again the United States of America?

Mr. HAKIM: My understanding is the United States.

Mr. LIMAN: Did you find it surprising that General Secord, a private citizen, and a lieutenant colonel, and a retiree or an annuitant, as they call them, of the CIA, could, without any congressional approval, or anything more that you knew of, make these kinds of representations to the leader of the Iranian delegation?

Mr. HAKIM: My impression, Mr. Liman, was from the very beginning that the President of the United States was supporting this mission. It was cleared with him. And in my mind I can't go further than the President's authorities, and I didn't judge the policy of the President.

Mr. LIMAN: But in fairness, you got that impression because Colonel North dropped the name of the President and because he had the kind of access in the White House that he had, and because he could deliver the TOWs and the HAWKs and the other things that were promised, right?

Mr. HAKIM: Yes.

Mr. LIMAN: It wasn't because General Secord told you that he met with the President, because he has made it clear that he didn't.

Mr. HAKIM: That is correct, sir.