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We have improved the apparatus so that we can increase the number of sound and light pulses per second. In these more recent experiments the transducer has been moved to the bottom of the cell so the electrons move upwards under the influence of the heat flow.

In this frame an electric field has been applied to deflect the electrons from the path that they would be carried on by the heat flow alone.

The electron follows a curved path

We have performed experiments with a radioactive beta-source in the cell giving a high density of electrons. In the next image a single sound pulse with synchronized light was used to take a snap shot of the distribution of electrons. Each little bubble marks the location of a single electron. The electrons are presumably uniformly distributed throughout the cell, but only the electrons in the region of the cell directly above the sound transducer are exploded and made visible.

A uniform cloud of electron bubbles in the middle of the experimental cell