Faculty Profile: Michael Paradiso, Ph.D., Brown University

Michael Paradiso
Michael Paradiso, Ph.D., Brown University
Sidney A. and Dorothea Doctors Fox Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Professor of Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Work: +1 401-863-1159
Humans are highly visual animals and the processing of visual information appears to involve a significant fraction of the brain. Vision involves interactions between neurons spread widely across the brain and it dynamically adapts to the needs of ongoing behavior. The aims of Dr. Paradiso's research are to elucidate the encoding of visual information in cerebral cortex, the computations performed by interacting neurons, and the adaptive use of neural circuitry, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms underlying human visual perception.

Biography

After earning a PhD in physics at Brown, Prof. Paradiso was a Miller Research Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley and an associate scientist at the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute in San Francisco. He joined the Brown faculty in 1990 and is Director of Brown's Center for Vision Research. His research investigates brain mechanisms underlying vision. He is the Chairman of the National Eye Institute's Central Visual Processing Study Section which reviews federal grant submissions for vision research. He is Principal Investigator of a Training Grant from the National Eye Institute that supports graduate training in vision research. He serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Vision and Vision Research and for many years sat on the executive committee of the Vision Sciences Society. He is coauthor, with Drs. Mark Bear and Barry Connors of a leading introductory neuroscience textbook, which has been translated into 6 languages. He is presently course director of NEUR 0010 (Introduction to the Brain), which is one of the most popular courses at Brown. He has won the Elizabeth H. LeDuc Award for Teaching Excellence in the Life Sciences and the Brown University Undergraduate Council of Students Award for Excellence in Teaching.

Institutions

Bu

Research Description

Despite its seeming simplicity, visual perception involves neural computations in numerous cortical areas throughout the brain. Through the combined use of brain recordings and perception experiments, we investigate the computations performed by areas of cerebral cortex involved in vision. Of particular interest are the encoding of information ultimately leading to visual recognition and the dynamic use of visual areas of the brain to serve ongoing behavior.

Grants and Awards

1984-1986 Miller Research Fellowship, University of California, Berkeley
1987-1989 Rachel C. Atkinson Fellowship for Eye Research
2002 Chair of the National Academy of Sciences Fifth Annual Japanese-American Frontiers of Science Symposium
2006-2008 Elizabeth H. LeDuc Award for Teaching Excellence in the Life Sciences
2006- Sidney A. and Dorothea Doctors Fox Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual
Sciences
2007 Undergraduate Council of Students Award for Excellence in Teaching

Affiliations

Society for Neuroscience
Vision Sciences Society
2002 – 2007 Vision Sciences Society Executive Committee
2004 - Vision Resarch, Editorial Board
2006 - Journal of Vision, Editorial Board
2007 - 2009 NIH/NEI Central Visual Processing study section, regular member
2009 - NIH/NEI Central Visual Processing study Chairman

Funded Research

Active Grants

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Visual Perception. National Institutes of Health–National Eye Institute (NEI). PI: Michael A. Paradiso. 12/1/06 – 11/31/10, $1,500,000.

Vision Research Training Grant, PI: Michael A. Paradiso

Interdisciplinary Predoctoral Neuroscience Training Grant.. PI: D. Lipscombe.

Representation and Computation in Natural Vision. National Science Foundation. PI: Stuart Geman. 9/04 - 8/08, $1,500,000.


Completed Grants

Cortical mechanisms underlying brightness perception. Whitehall Foundation. PI: Michael A. Paradiso. 10/1/91 – 9/31/94, $360,000.

Physiological Mechanisms of Brightness Perception and Filling-In. National Institutes of Health (NEI). PI: Michael A. Paradiso. 4/1/93 – 3/31/1996.

Physiological Mechanisms of Brightness Perception and Filling-In. National Institutes of Health (NEI). PI: Michael A. Paradiso. 4/1/96 – 3/31/2002.

Physiological Mechanisms of Brightness Perception and Filling-In. National Institutes of Health (NEI). PI: Michael A. Paradiso. 4/1/2002 – 3/31/2006.

Computational Cluster. NIH Biomedical Research Support Shared Instrument Grant. PI: J. Sanes. 1997, $399,153.

Adaptive cortical computation in the visual domain: Integrated approach using multi-unit recording, network theory, and experiments in object recognition. National Science Foundation (Learning and Intelligent Systems Program). Co-PIs: James A. Anderson, Gerald S. Guralnik, Michael A. Paradiso, and Michael Tarr. 9/1/97 - 8/31/2001, $864,941.

The Brain Science Program. W.M. Keck Foundation. PI: J. Donoghue. 1/1/00 - 12/2003, Annual Funding $1,000,000.

Interdisciplinary Predoctoral Neuroscience Training Grant (Pre-doctoral Funding). PI: J. Fallon. 07/01/1999 - 06/30/2000, Annual Funding $188,006.

Teaching Experience

Course Director
NEUR 0010 Introduction to the Brain
NEUR 1930 From Neurons to Perception

Lecturer
BIOL 3650 Integrated Medical Curriculum
NEUR 2050 Systems Neuroscience

Courses Taught

  • From Neurons to Perception (NEUR 0193)
  • The Brain: An Introduction to Neuroscience (NEUR 0010)
  • The Brain: An Introduction to Neuroscience (BN0001)

Selected Publications

  • Huang X, Paradiso MA (2008) V1 response timing and surface filling-in. Journal of Neurophysiology 100: 539-547. (2008)
  • Macevoy SP, Hanks TD, Paradiso MA (2008) Macaque V1 activity during natural vision: effects of natural scenes and saccades. Journal of Neurophysiology 99: 460–472. (2008)
  • Huang X, Levine S, Paradiso MA (2008) Rebounding V1 activity and a new visual aftereffect. Journal of Vision 8: 1-10. (2008)
  • Bear MF, Connors B, Paradiso MA (2006) Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain (Third Edition). Williams and Wilkins, New York, NY. Foreign editions: Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Spanish (2006)
  • Paradiso MA, Blau S, Huang X, MacEvoy SP, Rossi AF, Shalev G (2006) Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception. Progress in Brain Research 155: 109-123. (2006)
  • Rittenhouse CD, Siegler BA, Voelker CA, Shouval HZ, Paradiso MA, Bear MF (2006) Stimulus for rapid ccular dominance plasticity in visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 95: 2947-2950. (2006)
  • Huang X, Blau S, Paradiso MA (2005) Background changes delay the perceptual availability of form information. Journal of Neurophysiology 94: 4331 - 4343. (2005)
  • Huang X, Paradiso MA (2005) Background changes delay information represented in macaque V1 neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 94: 4314 - 4330. (2005)
  • Paradiso MA, MacEvoy SP, Huang X, Blau S (2005) The importance of modulatory input for V1 activity and perception. Progress in Brain Research 149: 257-266. (2005)
  • Rossi AF, Paradiso MA (2003) Surface completion: Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of brightness interpolation In: "Filling-in: from perceptual completion to skill learning", eds: Pessoa L. and De Weerd P., Oxford University Press. (2003)
  • Paradiso MA (2002) Neuronal and perceptual correspondence in primary visual cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12: 155-161. (2002)
  • Huang X, Macevoy SP, Paradiso MA (2002) Brightness perception and brightness illusions in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience 22: 9618-9625. (2002)
  • Bear MF, Connors B, Paradiso MA (2001) Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain (Second Edition). Williams and Wilkins, New York, NY. (2001)
  • Macevoy SP, Paradiso MA (2001) Lightness constancy in primary visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 98: 8827-8831. (2001)
  • Shimojo S, Paradiso MA, Fujita I (2001) What visual perception tells us about mind and brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98: 12340-12341. (2001)
  • Paradiso MA (2000) Visual Neuroscience: Illuminating the dark corners. Current Biology 10: R15-18. (2000)
  • Paradiso MA (1999) Monkey business builds a bridge to the human brain. Nature Neuroscience 2: 491-492. [Invited commentary] (1999)
  • Rittenhouse CD. Shouval HZ, Paradiso MA, and Bear MF (1999) Monocular deprivation induces homosynaptic long-term depression in visual cortex. Nature 397: 347-350. (1999)
  • Rossi AF and Paradiso MA (1999) Neural correlates of brightness in the responses of neurons in the retina, LGN, and primary visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 19: 6145-6156. (1999)
  • Macevoy S, Kim W, and Paradiso MA (1998) Integration of surface information in primary visual cortex. Nature Neuroscience 1: 616-620. (1998)
  • Rossi AF, Rittenhouse CD, and Paradiso MA (1996). The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex. Science 273: 1104-1107. (1996)
  • Paradiso MA and Hahn S (1996). Filling-in percepts produced by luminance modulation. Vision Research 36: 2657-2663. (1996)
  • Rossi AF and Paradiso MA (1996). Temporal limits of brightness induction and mechanisms of brightness perception. Vision Research 36: 1391-1398. (1996)
  • Bear MF, Connors B, Paradiso MA (1996) Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Williams and Wilkins, New York, NY. (1996)
  • Rossi AF, Paradiso MA (1995) Feature-specific effects of selective visual attention. Vision Research 35: 621-634. (1995)
  • Intrator N, Bear MF, Cooper LN, Paradiso MA (1994) Theory of synaptic plasticity in visual cortex. In: Synaptic Plasticity: Molecular, cellular and functional aspects (R Thompson, M Baudry, J Davis eds.). MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. (1994)
  • Paradiso MA, Nakayama K (1991) Brightness perception and filling-in. Vision Research 31:1221-1236. (1991)
  • Anstis S, Paradiso M (1989) Programs for visual psychophysics on the Amiga: A tutorial. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers 21: 548-563. (1989)
  • Paradiso MA, Shimojo S, Nakayama K (1989) Subjective contours, tilt after effects, and visual cortical organization. Vision Research 29: 1205-1213. (1989)
  • Paradiso MA, Carney T, Freeman RD (1989) Cortical processing of hyperacuity tasks. Vision Research 29: 247-254. (1989)
  • Carney T, Paradiso MA, Freeman RD (1989) A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat. Vision Research 29: 155-165. (1989)
  • Paradiso MA (1988) A theory for the use of visual orientation information which exploits the columnar structure of striate cortex. Biological Cybernetics 58: 35-49. (1988)
  • Ramoa AS, Paradiso MA, Freeman RD (1988) Blockade of intracortical inhibition in kitten striate cortex: effects on receptive field properties and associated loss of ocular dominance plasticity. Experimental Brain Research 73: 285-296. (1988)
  • Paradiso MA, Carney T (1988) Orientation discrimination as a function of stimulus eccentricity and size: nasal/temporal retinal asymmetry. Vision Research 28: 867-874. (1988)
  • Paradiso MA, Bear MF, Daniels JD (1983) Effects of intracortical infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine on the response of kitten visual cortex to monocular deprivation. Experimental Brain Research 51: 413-422. (1983)
  • Bear MF, Paradiso MA, Schwartz M, Nelson SB, Carnes KM, Daniels JD (1983) Two methods of catecholamine depletion in kitten visual cortex yield different effects on plasticity. Nature 302: 245-247. (1983)