Brown University


Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century

by Francisco Bethencourt
Princeton University Press, January 2014   ISBN: 978-069115525-5
Price: $39.50

"Groundbeaking in its global and historical scope, Racisms is the first comprehensive history of racism, from the Crusades to the twentieth century…Bethencourt focuses on the Western world, but opens comparative views on ethnic discrimination and segregation in Asia and Africa. He looks at different forms of racism…Exploring instances of enslavement, forced migration, and ethnic cleansing, Bethencourt reflects on genocide and the persecution of ethnicities in twentieth-century Europe and Anatolia…Bethencourt analyzes how practices of discrimination and segregation from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries were defended, and he systematically integrates visual culture into his investigation...Moving away from ideas of linear or innate racism, this is a major interdisciplinary work that recasts our understanding of interethnic relations."

— publisher description