Origins and uses of wrinkles, creases, folds

Three ruga states and how they form

A phase diagram shows the amount of compressive strain needed to create wrinkles, creases and folds in rubbery materials. The purple area denotes the wrinkle state and the aqua areas are two crease states. The spot marked “R” denotes folding. Credit: Kim lab/Brown University

New research into the origins of — and structural differences between — wrinkles, creases, and folds could have applications in many fields, from flexible electronic devices to dermatology to flexible sheets that become sticky when stretched. Findings from a Brown University research group appear in Proceedings of the Royal Society A.